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Journal Article 2: (2012),"E-learning and Web 2.

0: transforming higher education in Africa:

Recommendations for successful implementation", Development and Learning in Organizations,
Vol. 26 Iss: 5 pp. 28 31
The government has recognized the importance of and paid special attention to the use of
information and communications technologies (ICTs) in special educational needs but it is
different for implementation in Africa. This article is a review on the article Making learning
and Web 2.0 technologies work for higher learning institutions in Africa, written by Dr Edda
Lwoga. This review is comprised of several subtopics each addressing related aspects of the

2.1 Thesis Statement
Given the fact that there are a few subtopics in this article review, each subtopic has their
respective thesis statement. One of them appears in the first subtopic of the review which is
Integration of Web 2.0 in African higher education. In the first paragraph of the subtopic, the
thesis statement becomes the opening sentence: the use of Web 2.0 technologies to support
learning and teaching activities is very low in Africa. This thesis statement is the main idea of
the subtopic. This subtopic further expounds on the existence of web learning and mobile
learning in African learning institutions.
The second thesis statement can be found in the following subtopic: Challenges for
public universities in Tanzania. This subtopic summarises the findings of the study conducted
within the article by Dr. Edda Lwoga in interviewing the ICT personnel from six universities.
The thesis statement is therefore, Making learning and Web 2.0 technologies work for higher
learning institutions in Africa details a study where ICT personnel from six public universities
in Tanzania were interviewed in early 2011.
2.2 Topic Sentence
While thesis statement states the main idea of a text, topic sentence states the main idea of a
paragraph within the text. One of the topic sentence in this article review is A new landscape for
education is emerging as a result of developments in ICTs and Internet technologies, referred to
as Web 2.0. This is found in the third paragraph of the introductory section of the article. The
paragraph goes on to explain the new concepts of education and learning that appear as a result
of ICT and Internet development.
The second topic sentence can be found in last paragraph of the first subtopic of the
article where the author wrote It is important to note that the adoption rate of mobile
technologies in African countries is among the highest rates globally. This sentence is then
followed by detailed illustrations of statistics and study findings on the adoption rate of mobile
technologies in general use as well as learning.
The third topic sentence can be found in the first paragraph of the second subtopic
whereby the author wrote The findings showed that all the universities surveyed had basic ICT
infrastructure to support teaching and learning activities. Following this sentence are statements
of the condition of the ICT and Internet facilities in the universities.
In the third subtopic, For the successful implementation of e-learning and Web 2.0
technologies in Africa and beyond, Dr. Edda Lwoga recommends the following:.. becomes the
fourth topic sentence in the article review. This paragraph offers a list of suggestions to
successfully implement this concept of learning in Africa and beyond.

2.3 Supporting Statements
Supporting details are statements that support the article topic sentence. It will be a fact and
details explain, describe, example or otherwise to help for understanding the topic sentence in
this article. For the first topic sentence in this article, the author explains that the emergence of
Web 2.0 has led to a new concept known as Education 2.0 or E-learning 2.0. He further
explains this new concept as referring to the use of the technologies and social engagement
of Web 2.0 in a relatively unchanged institutional framework that characterizes Education 2.0.
The second topic sentence is supported with a recent statistic of mobile versus internet
subscription by the end 2010. Furthermore, a study finding is also used to illustrate the nature of
the usage of technologies in learning. Statistics show that there were 360 million mobile
subscribers as compared to the 86 million Internet users in Africa by the end of 2010. A study of
290 first-year students in two South African universities also showed that three of the top five
uses of technology, particularly for their studies, relies on their mobile phones.
The third topic sentence is supported with a summary description of the conditions of the ICT
amenities in the six universities studied. These conditions included the fiber optic network,
wireless connection coverage, bandwidth, as well as facilities such as computers, CD and DVD.
Most building in these universities were connected to a powerful fiber optic network and there
was a wide coverage of wireless connection, at least in most of the strategic learning areas in
these universities. The Internet bandwidth was also good in some universities. All universities
possessed other basic ICT facilities such as computers, CD and DVD facilities, which form the
basis for the establishment of an e-learning platform.
The fourth topic sentence is followed by a list of eleven suggestions that can be implemented in
learning institutions. These suggestions included the physical infrastructures, curricula
development, staff skill development as well inter-institution networks for idea exchanges and so
on. Some of these suggestions are develop institutional policies and guidelines on ICT and e-
learning; improve the availability of hardware and software to ensure access to appropriate
technology for all students and faculty and continue to provide for development of technical
skills; improve internet connectivity/bandwidth it should be reliable and fast 24/7 access
2.4 Different strategies of introduction
Introductions act as a funnel, in other words, they move from relevant, general information
regarding the authors subject to the specific, often culminating in a thesis statement, which
usually occurs in the last sentence of the introduction. In this article, the author use the strategy
of contradiction and statistics to started the introduction as we can see in the first paragraph of
this article, access to education in developing countries is limited, with less than 5 percent of
students in higher learning education compared to the world average of 16 percent. The demand
for tertiary education in Africa has not been matched by an expansion of existing facilities and
resources; meaning that tertiary education is not offered to significant portions of the
Other than that, the author also begins with a controversial statement as a strategy of
introduction. This strategy we can find under the subtopic Integration of Web 2.0 in African
higher education, The use of Web 2.0 technologies to support learning and teaching activities is
very low in Africa. A study of 25 African countries revealed that the dominant e-learning
practices seemed to be user management, glossaries, document delivery, e-mails, quizzes and
tests, presentation delivery, and digital libraries. The use of Web 2.0 features such as wikis,
blogs, and RSS feeds were ranked quite low.
2.6 Different Strategies of Conclusion
Conclusion also have a key textual function which are they escort the reader out of the paper just
as the introduction has brought them in. The article by each subtopic, the author uses a few
strategy of conclusion and one of it is pursue implications, nevertheless, e-learning and Web 2.0
have promise in addressing the need for learner satisfaction within higher education while also
ensuring that strategic imperatives of the institution are being fulfilled.
By the end of this article, the author using a final judgment of the issue papers thesis has
focused on as a strategy of conclusion. The article highlights the extent to which learning and
Web 2.0 technologies are utilized to support learning and teaching in Africas higher learning
institutions, with a specific focus on Tanzanias public universities. The article is clear and
concise, and employs an interesting and readable style. The article is of interest to librarians,
faculty or students with an interest in applying Web 2.0 technologies for e-learning within an
educational setting.