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Advanced Electrical Machines :

Introduction to electrical
machine technology and
application areas
Dr. Chris Gerada
PEMC research group
University of Nottingham
chris.gerada@nottingham.ac.uk
Course outline
1. Introduction to electrical machine technology and application areas.
2. Electrical Machines Basics
Electric and Magnetic Circuit theory, Torque production and DC machines
3. Machine windings and d-q representation
4. Basic Machine Types and Characteristics
Induction Machines (IM), Wound Field (WF) and (PM)Synchronous Machines(SM), Brushless DC (BLDC)
machines, Switched Reluctance machines (SRM), and Flux Switching (FS) machines
5. Electrical Machine design and sizing
6. Materials for electrical machines
7. Thermal management
8. High performance drives
9. Design case studies

Course details

Requirements : Basic understanding of Electrical Machines
Enabling Technology, Drivers and Application Areas
Enabling Technology
Power Electronics
Microprocessors
New Materials (Permanent Magnets)

The technological improvements are leading to:
Higher Speed Machines
Higher Torque Density
New machine topologies which only operate
through power electronics
Higher operating temperatures
High performance and Energy efficient control

Drivers
Energy Efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions
Energy Utilisation
More Electric Transport
Renewable Energy
Application Areas :

Traditional Applications
Industrial Drives
Pumps
Generators

Expanding application areas
Embedded generation
Electrical and Hybrid Vehicles
The all Electric ship
The more Electric Aircraft
Automation and manufacture
Distributed Generation
At present CHP is the most significant type of embedded generation and simultaneously produces
electrical power and useful heat.
Generally the electrical power is consumed inside the CHP premises, although power may be
exported or imported from the distribution system.
The heat which is generated is used in industrial processes, space heating and/or district heating.
Various technologies may be used in CHP plants reciprocating IC engines, steam-turbines, gas-
turbines etc.

Source: Jenkins, N., Allen, R., Crossly, P., Kirschen, D. and Strbac, G. Embedded Generation. IEE Power and Energy Series 31
Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Improved Vehicle Efficiency

Different types of machines can be used for traction :
Induction Motors
PM Brushless DC
PM Brushless AC
Switched Reluctance

Highly cost-competitive environment

Demanding torque speed characteristics and
operating environment

Electrical Machines are also increasingly being used
for :
Electrically Assisted Turbocharging (very high speed
machines)
Electrical Power Steering (low torque ripple
requirement)
Waste energy recovery
In-wheel motors by Porsche - 1900
Marine Propulsion
More Electric Propulsion
Fewer installed/running prime
movers
Electrical interconnectivity provides
greater operational flexibility
Reduced manning and life-cycle costs
Ship layout flexibility
Reduced vulnerability

Conventional Mechanical
Propulsion
Numerous gas-turbine (GT) and diesel
generator (DG) units
Prime-movers remote from propellers
due to ship layout constraints
Limited operational flexibility
Rolls-Royce - Podded propulsor- The unit acts as a propulsor and rudder, with
an integrated electric motor located within the hydrodynamically optimised
housing driving the shaft
Power Sources Conventional Aircraft
Jet Fuel
Propulsion
Thrust ( 40MW)
Gearbox driven
hydraulic pump
Electrical
Gearbox driven
generators
Hydraulic
High pressure
air bled from
engine
Pneumatic
Fuel pumps
and oil pumps
on engine
Mechanical
200kW 1.2MW 240kW 100kW
Total non-thrust power 1.7MW
Figures for a typical A320/B737 size aircraft
More Electric Aircraft Concept
More-Electric Aircraft Machines
Note the relative power transmission capabilities of hydraulic and electrical systems.
Area: 64.52 mm
2
Pressure: 13.79 Mpa
Velocity: 0.3m/s
Area: 64.52 mm
2
Current density: 9.3 A/mm
2

Voltage: 270 V
Power = 267 W
Challenges for electro-mechanical actuators EMAs.
High power density motors and converters
High speed motors have high inertial energy storage
Gear jamming potential
Cooling Methods
Reliability of power electronics
Drive Integration
Fault tolerance
Sensors
Diagnostics

Power = 162, 000 W Hydraulic Line Electric Cable
Fundamental matters
1. What constitutes an electrical machine?
2. Why are there different forms?
3. How do they work?
4. How can I analyse the method of working of a particular machine
type?
5. How big will a machine have to be to deliver a particular power?
6. How do I deal with the losses?
7. What do I need to know to use a particular machine type?
8. How do I control a machine to achieve the required performance?
9. How do I design an electrical machine?

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