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WEEK 1: T1

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

PART 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS AN ORGANISATION?

Organisation happens when people work together to achieve a desired goal. It has a distinct purpose, includes people and has deliberate structure.

Example: schools, businesses, and government departments Characteristics of organisations:

Size (small, medium, large)

Industry (consumer goods, finance, service, telecommunication…)

Ownership type (sole trader, company (private/public), membership, Not For Profit)

Owner domicile (local, national, international)

Location

Physical environment (open plan, personal office)

Remuneration and benefits (yearly bonus, share options, employee discount, other benefits)

An organisation…

Has:

Is:

Exists:

Purpose, objectives, goals

Future

Independently of the

Structure, rules and boundaries

oriented

people within them they

Part of an

„go on‟ while members

People

open system

change

Action designed to achieve the goals

 

The context of organisations and management today Technological change new products, new ways of doing things, outsourcing and off shoring

International division of labour

Changing conception of time and space

Changing demographics

Societal, economic, global and technological changes have created an environment in which successful organisations must embrace new ways of getting their work done.

Examples: more sustainable organisational practices, global economic, social and environmental challenges, and the changing employee expectations.

Common characteristics of organisations

  • 1. Distinct purpose this refers to the set of goals the organisation hopes to accomplish

  • 2. People working together helps achieve business goals

  • 3. Deliberate structure the simple network that allows members to do their work. The structure may be open and flexible

The nature of an organisation is changing; it is no longer a structure with clear identifiable division,

departments and work units. Today‟s organisations have a flatter, networked structure that relies on

flexible arrangements, employee work teams, open communication systems (2-ways) and supplier alliances.

The changing organisations

Traditional organisation

New contemporary organisation

Stable

Dynamic

Inflexible

Flexible

Job focused

Skills focused

Work is defined by job positions

Work is defined in terms of tasks to be done

Individual oriented

Team oriented

Permanent jobs

Temporary jobs

Command oriented

Involvement oriented

Managers always make decisions

Employees participate in decision making

Rule oriented

Customer oriented

Relatively homogenous workplace

Diverse workforce

Hierarchical relationships

Flexible working hours

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WEEK 2: T2

WHY ARE MANAGERS IMPORTANT?

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

  • 1. Organisations need their managerial skills and abilities more than ever in uncertain, complex and chaotic times. As organisations deal with today‟s challenges – the worldwide economic climate, the risks of global warming, changing technology, and ever-increasing globalisation managers play an important role in identifying critical issues and crafting responses

  • 2. They are critical to getting things done. Managers are to ensure that all the employees are doing their jobs, so that the organisation can achieve its purpose

  • 3. The Gallup Organisation has found that the most important variable in employee productivity and loyalty is the quality of the relationship between employees and their direct supervisors

WHO ARE MANAGERS?

Manager someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished. A manager‟s job is about helping others do their work and achieve goals.

It is easier to classify managers in traditionally structured organisations, i.e. those with deliberate work arrangement or structures shaped like a pyramid, reflecting the fact that the number of employees is greater at the bottom than at the top.

First-line managers the lowest level of management and manage the work of non-managerial employees who are directly involved with producing

the organisation‟s products or servicing the organisation‟s customers. They

have titles like supervisors, shift managers, office manager, team leaders and forepersons.

Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organisation. They manage the work of first- line managers and may have titles like regional manager, department head, project leader, store manager, dean and division manager.

WEEK 2: T2 W HY A RE M ANAGERS I MPORTANT ? Managing Organisations and People

Top managers are responsible for making organisation-wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organisation. They typically have titles such as managing director, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Operating Officer and chairman of the board. They are involved in creating and implementing broad and comprehensive changes that affect the entire organisation.

However, not all organisations use a traditional structured pyramid. Some organisations are more flexible and loosely configured, with work being done by ever-changing teams of employees who move from one project to another.

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?

Management is the process of coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively

Managers cannot do what they want anytime, anywhere or in any way; management involves ensuring work activities are completed efficiently and effectively by the people responsible for doing them. Management is concerned with being efficient and effective when completing activities so that organisational goals are attained.

Efficiency doing things right, or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs. This is concerned with the means of getting things done

Effectiveness doing the right tings, or completing activities so that organisational goals are attained. This is concerned with the ends (result), or the attainment of organisational goals

Management must be concerned about getting activities completed and meeting organisational goals (effectiveness), and doing them as efficiently as possible.

The aim of management

WEEK 2: T2 W HY A RE M ANAGERS I MPORTANT ? Managing Organisations and People

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TIMELINE OF MANAGEMENT THEORY

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

T IMELINE O F M ANAGEMENT T HEORY Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Scientific management

Scientific management

Fredrick W. Taylor (1856-1915) is best known for defining the techniques of scientific management

The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency.

Increasing specialisation and the division of labour the production process would become more efficient

Managers should scientifically select and train, teach and develop workers (the right person for the right job)

Clear rules and responsibilities between management and employees

Is the invention of scientific management a good thing?

o

Good for consumers and CEO

o

Bad for employees

Taylor believed that if the amount of time and effort that each worker expended to produce a unit of output (a finished good or service) could be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labour, then the production process would become more efficient.

4 principles of „Scientific management‟:

o

Develop a science for each element of the job, which replaces the old „rule of thumb‟

o

method Managers should scientifically select and then train, teach and develop workers

o

Managers should actively cooperate with the workers to ensure all work is being done in accordance with the principles of the science developed

o

An almost equal division of the work and the responsibility should be between the management and the workers

The Scientific-Technical Revolution and it‟s effects on organisations and management

o

The ideas and methods of Scientific Management were what the Americans‟ manufacturing

industries needed in that era

  • To extend the transformation of craft work (human as the agent) to mechanisation and transformation

o

Rise of factory system of production

  • Growth in number of employees

  • Increasing use of technology in production

  • Rise of „corporations‟ meaning owners did not necessarily work in the organisation

o

(e.g. the typical share-holder) Key features/ developments

  • Specialisation of labour and the „production line‟

  • Systematic study of work tasks to create rules or „one best way‟ of performing each task

  • Focus on both job design and organisational structures and administration

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o

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Taylor (unknown to himself) had laid the groundwork for automation and off shoring

  • He analysed work processes into distinct, unambiguous pieces => which is exactly what computers and unskilled people would follow and execute, based on instructions designed by others.

  • Under Scientific Management, workers had very little opportunity for further thinking, experimenting or suggestion making.

  • One of the big problems with the introduction of all of these „scientific methods‟ was that it reduced work/ tasks to menial or boring work

Administrative management:

Characteristics:

o

Spealisation of labour

o

Formal rules and procedures

o

Well-defined hierarchy

Career advancement based on merit Principle:

o

o

Fayol developed a list of 14 principles that he believed were essential to increasing efficiency in the management process.

o

Fayol is also well-known for articulating the 5 (now 4) managerial functions what managers must do to create a high performing organisation.

  • Planning choosing appropriate goals for the organisation

  • Organising designing processes and systems to achieve those goals

  • Command selecting the right employees for the job, evaluating work performance, motivating individual employees etc

  • Co-ordinating putting together relationships/ work teams to ensure that production runs smoothly

  • Controlling measuring and monitoring to evaluate how the system is working

Behavioural Management:

o Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Taylor (unknown to himself) had laid the groundwork for

Developed in response to Scientific approaches to management

Focus on motivational and behaviour as a mechanism to improve organisational performance

Hawthorne Studies of the 1920s

Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs

McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y

o Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Taylor (unknown to himself) had laid the groundwork for

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WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Planning

Organising

Leading

Controlling

Leads to…

Defining goals,

Determining what

Motivating, leading

Monitoring

Achieving the

establishing

needs to be done,

and any other

activities to ensure

organisation‟s

strategy, & developing plans to coordinate activities

how it will be done, and who is to do it

actions involved in dealing with people

that they are accomplished as planned

stated purposes

MANAGEMENT ROLES

Management roles specific categories of managerial behaviour expected of and exhibited by a manager

In the 1970s-80s, „ideal‟ managerial roles were challenged by researcher who actually observed

managers in their day-to-day life, and found that managers have a very different job than these

„ideals‟

One of the most famous studies was done by Henry Mintzberg who spent many months observing managers in action, and has other managers keep a detailed record of their actions each day. He found that managers spend much more time doing, than thinking

Mintzberg‟s studies allowed him to perform 10 different but highly interrelated management roles (specific categories of managerial behaviour)

Mintzberg’s managerial roles:

INTERPERSONAL ROLES

Interpersonal roles managerial roles that involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature

o

Figurehead: symbolic head; obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature

o

Leader: responsible for the motivation of subordinates; responsible for staffing, training and associated duties

o

Liaison: maintains self-developed network of outside contracts and informers who provide favours and information

INFORMATIONAL ROLES

Informational roles managerial roles that involve receiving, collecting and disseminating information

o

Monitor: seeks and receives wide variety of internal and external information to develop thorough understanding of organisation and environment

o

Disseminator: transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organisation

o

Spokesperson: transmits information to outsiders on organisation‟s plans, policies, actions, results, etc

DECISIONAL ROLES

Managerial roles that revolve around making decisions

o

Entrepreneur: searches organisation and its environment for opportunities and initiates

„improvement projects‟

o

Disturbance handler: responsible for the allocation of organisational resources of all kinds making or approving all significant organisational decisions

o

Negotiator: responsible for representing the organisation at major negotiations

AN EVALUATION

Mintzberg concluded that their actual work activities involved interacting with other, with the organisation and with the context outside the organisation. He also proposed that as managers perform these roles, their activities include reflection (thoughtful thinking) and action (practical doing)

MANAGEMENT SKILLS

Research by Robert L. Katz found that managers need 3 essential skills or competencies: technical, human and conceptual. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager‟s level within the organisation.

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TECHNICAL SKILLS

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Technical skills knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialised field These skills tend to be more importance for lower-level managers because they typically are managing

employees who are using tools and techniques to produce the organisation‟s products or service the organisation‟s customers. Because of the importance of these skills at lower organisational levels,

employees with excellent technical skills often get promoted to first-line manager on the basis of these skills.

HUMAN SKILLS

Human skills the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group

These skills are important for managers at all levels. Managers need to be aware of their own attitudes, assumptions and beliefs, as well as sensitive to their subordinates‟ perceptions, needs and motivations. Because all managers deal directly with people, human skills are crucial. Katz said that human skills remain just as important at the top levels of management as they do at the lower levels. Managers with good human or interpersonal skills are able to get the best out of people. They know how to communicate, motivate, lead, and inspire enthusiasm and trust

CONCEPTUAL SKILLS

Conceptual skills the ability to think and to conceptualise about abstract and complex situations

Managers must have the ability to conceptualise and to think about abstract situations. They must be able to see the organisation as a whole and understand the relationships between various subunits, and to visualise how the organisation fits into its broader environment. These abilities are essential to effective decision making, and all managers are involved in making decisions. Katz proposed that these skills become more important in top management positions. The reason for this is that upper-level managers often deal with abstract ideas, whereas lower-level managers normally spend more time dealing with observable objects and processes

Other important managerial skills

Managing human capital Effective communication Inspiring commitment Managing change Structuring work and getting things done Facilitating the psychological and social contexts of work

T ECHNICAL S KILLS Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Technical skills – knowledge of and

Using purposeful networking Collaboration and team building Critical thinking and problem solving Managing decision-making processes Managing strategy, creativity and innovation Managing logistics and technology

21 ST CENTURY UNDERSTANDINGS OF MANAGEMENT

Increasing emphasis on motivation, leadership and relationships

The key skill is communication both oral and verbal but also the ability to develop and effectively communicate a vision/position to different audiences – the management of „meaning‟

Less „overt control‟ as organisations take advantage technology

DEMANDS ON MODERN MANAGERS

Managers in the 21 st century often required to work „smarter and harder‟ – increased working hours, doing more with less staff/resources, the „globalisation‟ of the business environment

Pressures of conflicting demands – delivering „shareholder value‟ while being ethically and environmentally responsible

„Empowerment‟ efforts of the 1990s has seen increased demands for flexibility, „work life balance‟ and „learning opportunities‟ by staff

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SUMMARY 1

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Describe the characteristics of an organisation

 

o

Managers work in an organisation, which is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.

o

Organisations have 3 characteristics:

 
  • They have a distinctive purpose

  • They are composed of people

  • They have a deliberate structure

 

o

Many of today‟s organisations are structured to be more open, flexible and responsive to changes, and have undergone some major changes in relation to how they operate

Explain why managers are important to organisations

 

o

Managers are important to organisations for three reasons:

 
  • Organisations need their managerial skills and abilities in uncertain, complex and chaotic times

  • Managers are critical to getting things done in organisations

  • Managers contribute to employee productivity and loyalty

 

o

The way employees are managed can affect the organisation‟s financial performance

o

Managerial ability has been shown to be important in creating organisational value

Classify managers and non-managerial employees

 

o

Managers coordinate and oversee the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished. Non-managerial employees work directly on a job or task and have no one reporting to them. In traditionally structured organisations, managers can be first-line, middle or top. In other more loosely configured organisations, the managers may not be as readily identifiable although someone must fulfil that role

Define the terms: management, efficiency and effectiveness

 

o

Management is what managers do, and management involves coordinating and overseeing the efficient and effective completion of others‟ work activities

o

Efficiency means getting the most output from the least amount of input, or doing things right

o

Effectiveness means doing those work activities that help the organisation to reach its goals, or doing the right things

Describe the functions, roles and skills of managers

o

The 4 functions of management:

  • Planning (defining goals, establishing strategies and developing plans)

  • Organising (arranging and structuring work)

  • Leading (working with and through people)

  • Controlling (monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance)

o

Mintzberg‟s managerial roles include:

  • Interpersonal roles, which involve people and other ceremonials/symbolic duties (figurehead, leader and liaison)

  • Informational roles, which involve collecting, receiving and disseminating information (monitor, disseminator and spokesperson)

  • Decisional roles, which involve making choices (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator)

  • Mintzberg‟s newest description of what managers do proposes that managing is

about influencing action, which managers do in 3 ways:

 

By managing actions directly

By managing people who take action

By managing information that impels people to take action

o

Katz managerial skills include technical (job-specific knowledge and techniques), human or interpersonal (ability to work well with people) and conceptual (ability to think and conceptualise). Technical skills are most important for lower-level managers, while conceptual skills are most important for top managers. Human skills are equally important for all managers.

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WEEK 3: T3

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

CHAPTER 9 UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR

WHY LOOK AT INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISATIONS?

Behaviour how people act Organisational behaviour (OB) a field of study concerned with the actions (behaviours) at work Organisational behaviour has a small visible dimension and a much larger hidden portion.

FOCUS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Organisational behaviour focuses on 2 main areas:

Individual behaviour

 

o

This area includes topics such as attitudes, personality, perception, learning and motivation

Group behaviour Includes norms, roles, team building, leadership and conflict

o

GOALS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

The goals of OB are to explain (why employees engage in some behaviours rather than others), predict (how employees will respond to various actions the manager might take) and influence (how employees behave) behaviour

IMPORTANT EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOURS

WEEK 3: T3 Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 CHAPTER 9 – UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR W

Employee productivity a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness

Absenteeism the failure to report to work

Turnover the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organisation

o

It can be a problem because of increased recruiting, selection, training costs and work disruptions

Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee‟s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of

the organisation Job satisfaction – an employee‟s general attitude towards his/her job

Workplace misbehaviour any form of intentional behaviour that has negative consequences for the organisation or individuals within the organisation

ATTITUDES

Attitudes evaluative statements, either favourable or unfavourable, concerning objects, people or events

Components of an attitude:

Cognition component that part of an attitude that is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge and information held by a person

Affective component that part of an attitude that is the emotional or feeling part

Behavioural component that part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something

Job-related attitudes:

JOB SATISFACTION

A person with a high level of job satisfaction has a positive attitude towards their job, while a person who is dissatisfied with their job has a negative attitude

Job satisfaction is affected by level of income earned and by the type of job a worker does.

The effects job satisfaction has on employee behaviour:

Satisfaction and productivity

Satisfied and happy employees = productivity Satisfaction and absenteeism

o

Satisfied employees tend to have lower levels of absenteeism Job satisfaction and turnover

o

o

Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover; dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover

o

Turnover is affected by the level of employee performance

  • The preferential treatment afforded superior employees makes satisfaction less important in predicting their turnover decisions

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction

o

The level of job satisfaction for frontline employees is related to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty

o

Actions to increase job satisfaction for customer service workers:

  • Hire upbeat and friendly employees

  • Reward superior customer service

  • Provide a positive work climate

  • Use attitude surveys to track employee satisfaction

o

Interaction with dissatisfied customers can increase an employee‟s job dissatisfaction

JOB INVOLVEMENT

Job involvement the degree to which an employee identifies with his/her job, actively participates in it, and considers his/her job performance to be important to self-worth

High levels of job involvement has been found to be related to fewer absences, lower resignation rates and higher employee engagement with their work

ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT

Organisational commitment – an employee‟s orientation towards the organisation in terms of his/her loyalty to, identification with and involvement in the organisation

Leads to lower levels of both absenteeism and turnover

EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT

Employee engagement employees being connected to, satisfied with and enthusiastic about their job

Benefits include:

Highly engaged employees are two-and-a-half times more likely to be top performer than their less-engaged co-workers

Companies with highly engaged employees have higher retention rates, which help keep recruiting and training costs low

ATTITUDES AND CONSISTENCY

Individuals try to reconcile differing attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent.

When there is an inconsistency, they will take steps to make it consistent either by altering their attitudes or behaviour, or by developing a rationalisation for the inconsistency.

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY

Cognitive dissonance any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes, or between behaviour and attitudes Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will try to reduce the dissonance

Intensity of the desire to reduce the dissonance is influenced by:

The importance of the factors creating the dissonance

The degree to which an individual believes that the factors causing the dissonance are controllable

The rewards that may be involved is dissonance

PERSONALITY

Personality the unique combination of emotional, thought and behavioural patterns that affects how a person reacts and interacts with others

MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI®)

  • 1. Social interaction Extrovert or Introvert (E or I)

o

An extrovert is someone who is outgoing, dominant and often aggressive, and who wants to change the world. They need a work environment that is varied and action oriented, that lets them be with others, and that gives them a variety of experiences

o

An introvert is someone with is shy and withdrawn and focuses on understanding the world. They prefer a work environment that is quiet and concentrated, that allows them to be alone, and that gives them a change to explore in depth a limited set of experiences

  • 2. Preference for gathering data Sensing or iNtuitive (S or N)

o

Sensing types dislike new problems unless there are standard ways to solve them; they like an established routine, have a high need for closure, shoe patience with routine details and tend to be good at precise work

o

Intuitive types are individuals who like solving new problems, dislike doing the same thing over and over again, jump to conclusions, are impatient with routine details and dislike taking time for precision

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

  • 3. Preference for decision making Feeling or Thinking (F or T)

o

Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions. They are aware of other people and their feelings, need occasional praise, dislike telling people unpleasant things, tend to be sympathetic and relate well to most people

o

Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. They are unemotional and

uninterested in people‟s feeling, are able to reprimand people and fire them when

necessary, may seem hard-hearted, and tend to relate well only to other thinking types

  • 4. Style of making decisions Perceptive or Judgemental (P or J)

Perceptive types are curious, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable and tolerant. They focus on starting a task, postpone decisions, and want to find out all about the task before starting it Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. They are good planners, decisive, purposeful and exacting. They focus on completing a task, make decisions quickly, and want only the information necessary to get a task done The MBTI® has been used to help managers select employees who are well matched to certain types of

o

o

jobs. It is also likely that you will be asked to take a Myers-Briggs test as part of a selection process. The

MBTI® can be a useful tool for understanding personality and predicting people‟s behaviour.

THE BIG 5 MODEL

Big Five Model five-factor model of personality that includes extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience

Extroversion the degree to which someone is sociable, talkative, assertive and comfortable in relationships with others

Agreeableness the degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative and trusting

Conscientiousness the degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement oriented

Emotional stability the degree to which someone is calm, enthusiastic and secure (positive) or tense, nervous, depressed and insecure (negative)

Openness to experience the degree to which some is has a wide range of interests and is imaginative, fascinated with novelty, artistically sensitive and intellectual

The Big 5 Model provides more than just a personality framework. Research has shown that important relationships exist between these personality dimensions and job performance

ADDITIONAL PERSONALITY INSIGHTS LOCUS OF CONTROL

Locus of control a personality attribute that reflects the degree to which people believe they control their own fate

External locus: persons who believe that what happens to them are due to luck or chance (the uncontrollable effects of outside forces)

Internal locus: persons who believe that they control their own destiny

MACHIAVELLIANISM

Machiavellianism (Mach) a measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance and believe that ends can justify means

SELF-ESTEEM (SE)

Self-esteem – an individual‟s degree of like or dislike for himself or herself

SELF-MONITORING

Self-monitoring a personality trait that measures an individual‟s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external, situational factors

High self-monitors:

Are sensitive to external cues and behave differently in different situations

Can present contradictory public persona and private selves Low self-monitors

Do not adjust their behaviour to the situation

Are behaviourally consistent in public and private

RISK TAKING

Risk taking the willingness to take risks

OTHER PERSONALITY TRAITS

Proactive personality people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs Resilience – an individual‟s ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities

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EMOTIONS AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Emotions intense feelings that are directed at someone or something Emotional intelligence the ability to notice and manage emotional cues and information EI composed of 5 dimensions:

Self awareness being aware of what you are feeling Self-management being able to manage your emotions and impulses Self-motivation being able to persist in the face of setbacks and failures Empathy being aware of how others are feeling Social skills being able to handle the emotions of others

IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS

The main value in understanding personality differences lies in employee selection, which is demonstrated by the numbers of organisations today that use personality tests when recruiting. Managers are likely to have higher-performing and more satisfied employees if consideration is given to matching personalities with job.

John Holland‟s theory state that an employee‟s satisfaction with his or her job, as well as his/her likelihood of leaving that job, depend on the degree to which the individual‟s personality matches the occupational environment. Holland‟s theory proposed that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are compatible.

The key points of this theory:

There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality between individuals

There are different types of jobs

People in job environments compatible with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than should people in incongruent jobs

PERCEPTION

Perception the process of organising and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment

Factors that influence perception

Perceiver‟s personal characteristics (interests, biases and

expectations)

Target‟s characteristics (distinctiveness, contrast and similarity)

Situation (context) factors such as place, time, location draw attention or distract from the target

ATTRIBUTION THEORY

E MOTIONS A ND E MOTIONAL I NTELLIGENCE Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Emotions –

Attribution theory a theory that explains how we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behaviour

Internally caused behaviour: under the individual‟s control Externally caused behaviour: due to outside factors Determining the source of behaviours:

Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviours in different situations

Consensus: behaviours similar to others in same situation

Consistency: regularity of the same behaviour

Fundamental attribution error the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviours of others

E MOTIONS A ND E MOTIONAL I NTELLIGENCE Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Emotions –

Self-serving bias the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

SHORTCUTS FREQUENTLY USED IN JUDGING OTHERS

Assumed similarity the belief that others are like oneself Stereotyping – judging a person on the basis of one‟s perception of a group to which he or she belongs Halo effect a general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic

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SUMMARY 9

Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Identify the focus of individual behaviour

 

o

Just like an iceberg, it is the hidden organisational elements (attitudes, perceptions, norms) that make understanding individual behaviour so challenging. OB focuses on 3 areas: individual behaviour, group behaviour and organisational aspects. The goals of OB are to explain, predict and influence behaviour

Define the 6 important employee behaviours that managers want to explain, predict and influence

 

o

Employee productivity is a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness

o

Absenteeism is the failure to report to work

o

Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organisation

o

Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee‟s formal job requirements but which promotes the effective functioning of an organisation

o

Job satisfaction is an individual‟s general attitude towards his/her job

o

Workplace misbehaviour is any intentional employee behaviour that is potentially harmful to the organisation or individuals within the organisations

Explain the role that attitudes play in job performance

 

o

Cognitive component refers to the beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information held by a person

o

Affective component refers to the emotional or feeling part of an attitude

o

Behavioural component refers to an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something

o

Job satisfaction refer to a person‟s general attitude towards his/her job performance

o

Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his/her job, actively participates in it and considers his/her job performance to be important to his/her self- worth

o

Organisational commitment is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organisation and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organisation

o

Employee engagement is when employees are connected to, satisfied with an enthused about their job

o

Job satisfaction positively influences productivity, lowers absenteeism levels, lowers turnover rates, promotes positive customer satisfaction, moderately promotes OCB, and helps minimise workplace behaviour, or rationalising the inconsistency

Describe the various personality theories

 

o

The MBTI measures 4 dimensions: social interaction, preference for gathering data, preference for decision making, and style of making decisions

o

The Big Five Model consists of 5 personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience

o

The five personality traits that help explain individual behaviour in organisations are locus of control, Machiavellianism, self-esteem, self-monitoring and risk taking.

o

Other personality traits include proactive personality and resilience. How a person responds emotionally and how they deal with their emotions is a function of personality. A person who is emotionally intelligent has the ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information

Describe perception and factors that influence it

o

Perception is how we give meaning to our environment by organising and interpreting sensory impressions. Since people behave according to their perceptions, managers need to understand it.

o

Attribution theory depends of 3 factors:

  • Distinctiveness is whether an individual displays different behaviours in different situations (i.e. is the behaviour unusual?)

  • Consensus is whether other facing a similar situation respond in the same way

  • Consistency is when a person engages in behaviours regularly and consistently.

o

Whether these 3 factors are high or low in frequency helps managers determine whether

employee behaviour is attributed to external or internal causes

o

The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors.

o

The self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute our own successes to internal factors and to put the blame for personal failure on external factors

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CHAPTER 6 MANAGERS AND COMMUNICATION

UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?

Communication the transfer and understanding of meaning. Communication is a two-way transaction dialogue and is about overcoming barriers

Interpersonal communication communication between two or more people

Organisational communication all the patterns, networks and systems of communication within an organisation

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION

Communication is being used to control

It encourages motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve their performance if it is not up to par

Communication provides a release for emotional expression of feelings and for fulfilment of social needs

Individuals and groups need information in order to get things done in organisations

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Verbal:

Written:

 

Non-verbal:

Pronunciation

Sentence

Kinesics

Accents

construction

Occulesics

Clarity

Flow/logic between

Haptics

 

paragraphs The use of

5 categories based on degrees of intimacy

appropriate

o

Functional/professional

language Clarity

o Social/polite Friendship/warmth

o

o

o

Presentation

Love/intimacy

 

Sexual

Proxemics: 4 zones:

o

Intimate zone (15-45 cm)

o

o

o

Personal zone (45-120cm)

Social (1.2-3.5m)

Public zone (3.5+m)

Paralanguage

o

Tempo

o

Pitch

o

Intonation

Before communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed, must exist. It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver. The message is converted to symbolic form

(encoding) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver, who retranslates the sender‟s

message (decoding). Message a purpose to be conveyed Encoding converting a message into symbols Channel the medium a message travels along Decoding – retranslating a sender‟s message

Communication process the seven elements involved in transferring meaning from one person to another

Noise any disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receipt or feedback of a message A sender initiates a message be encoding a thought.

WEEK 4: T4 Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 CHAPTER 6 – MANAGERS AND COMMUNICATION U

4 conditions influence the effectiveness of that encoded message:

The skills

Attitudes

Knowledge of the sender

Socio-cultural system

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Noise can distort the communication process through the process of conveying a message from a sender to a receiver.

METHODS OF COMMUNICATING INTERPERSONALLY

Communication methods:

 

Face-to-face

Bulletin boards

Telephone

Audio- and videotapes

Group meetings

Employee publications

Formal presentations

Hotlines

Memos

Email

Traditional mail

Computer conferencing

Fax machines

Voice mail

Employee publication

Teleconferences

Company publications

Videoconferences

Managers can use 12 questions to help them evaluate the various communication methods:

Feedback: how quickly can the receiver respond to the message

Complexity capacity: can the method effectively process complex messages?

Breadth potential: how many different messages can be transmitted using this method?

Confidentiality: can communicators be reasonably sure their messages are received only by those intended?

Encoding ease: can the sender easily and quickly use this channel?

Decoding case: can the receiver easily and quickly decode messages?

Time-space constraint: do senders and receivers need to communicate at the same time and in the same space?

Cost: how much does it cost to use this method?

Interpersonal warmth: how well does this method convey interpersonal warmth?

Formality: does this method have the needed amount of formality

Scanability: does this method allow the message to be easily browsed or scanned for relevant information?

Time of consumption: does the sender or the receiver exercise the greater control over when to deal with the message?

Which method a manager ultimately chooses should reflect the needs of the sender, the attributes of the message, the attributes of the channel and the needs of the receiver.

Non-verbal communication communication transmitted without words

An important part of interpersonal communication is non-verbal communication. Some of the most meaningful communications are neither spoken nor written.

Best-known types of non-verbal communication:

Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions and other movements of the body that convey meaning

o

Knowing the meaning behind someone‟s body moves and learning how to put forth your

best body language can help you personally and professionally Verbal intonation am emphasis given to words or phrases that conveys meaning

BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION FILTERING

Filtering the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favourable to the receiver. As information is communicated up through organisational levels, it is condensed and synthesised by senders so that those on top do not become overloaded with information.

The more hierarchical levels there are in an organisation, the more opportunities there are for filtering. As organisations become less dependent on strict hierarchical arrangements and instead use more collaborative, cooperative work arrangements, information filtering may become less of a problem. The use of email to communicate in organisations reduces filtering because communication is more direct

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The organisational culture encourages or discourages filtering by the type of behaviour it rewards. The more that organisational rewards emphasise style and appearance, the more managers will be motivated to filter communications in their favour.

EMOTIONS

A person will often interpret the same message differently, depending on his/her emotion (happy or sad). People often disregard their rational and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgements.

INFORMATION OVERLOAD

Information overload when the information a person as to work with exceeds his/her processing capacity

When this happen, managers tend to select out, ignore, pass over, forget information, or they may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. This results in lost information and less effective communication.

DEFENSIVENESS

When people feel they are being threatened, they tend to react in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding. I.e. they become defensive, engaging in behaviours such as verbally attacking

others, making sarcastic remarks, being overly judgmental and questioning others‟ motives.

LANGUAGE

Words mean different things to different people. Age, education and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions they give to words.

In an organisation, employees typically come from diverse backgrounds and have different patterns of speech. Even employees from the same organisation but in different departments often have different jargon

Jargon specialised terminology or technical language that members of a group use to communicate among themselves

NATIONAL CULTURE

Communication differences can also arise from one‟s national culture, as well as from the different languages that individuals use. Interpersonal communication is not conducted in the same way around the world. In individualistic countries, communication patterns tend to be oriented to the individual and are clearly spelled out. Managers rely heavily on reports, memos, announcements, and other formal forms of communication In collectivist or socially oriented cultures, there is a strong desire for harmony, hierarchy and saving face.

OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS USE FEEDBACK

Many communication problems can be directly attributed to misunderstandings and inaccuracies. These problems are less likely to occur if the manager uses the feedback loop in the communication process, either verbally or non-verbally

The manager can ask as set of questions about a message to determine whether or not the message was received and understood as intended. The manager can also ask the receiver to restate the message in his/her own words. If the manager then hears what was intended, understanding and accuracy should be enhanced.

Feedback also includes subtler methods than directly asking questions or having the receiver summarise

the message. General comments can give a manager a sense of the receiver‟s reaction to a message.

Feedback does not have to be conveyed in words, actions of individuals can show whether a message is understood

SIMPLIFY LANGUAGE

Effective communication is achieved when a message is received and understood. Understanding is improved by simplifying the language used in relation to the audience intended.

LISTEN ACTIVELY

Listening is an active search for meaning, whereas hearing is passive. In listening, two people are engaged in thinking: the sender and the receiver

Active listening listening for full meaning without making premature judgments or interpretations

Active listening is enhanced by developing empathy with the sender, because senders differ in attitudes, interests, needs and expectations, empathy makes it easier to understand the actual content of a message. An empathetic listener reserves judgement on the message‟s content and carefully listens to what is being said. The goal is to improve your ability to receive the full meaning of a communication without having it distorted by premature judgments or interpretations

Active listening behaviours

 

Avoid interrupting speaker

Show empathy

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Paraphrase what has been said

Show interest by making eye contact

Avoid distracting actions or gestures

Exhibit affirmative head nods and

Do not over-talk

appropriate facial expressions

CONSTRAIN EMOTIONS

Emotions can severely cloud and distort the transference of meaning. It is important to refrain from communicating until he/her has regained composure.

WATCH NON-VERBAL CUES

Non-verbal messages carry a great deal of weight. When non-verbal cues are inconsistent with the oral message, the receiver becomes confused and the clarity of the message suffers.

ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION FORMAL VERSUS INFORMAL COMMUNICATION

Formal communication communication that follows the official chain of command or which is required to do one‟s job

Informal communication – communication that is not defined by the organisation‟s structural hierarchy Informal communication system fulfils 2 purposes in organisations:

It permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction

It can improve an organisation‟s performance by creating alternative, and frequently faster and

more efficient, channels of communication

DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW DOWNWARD

Downward communication communication that flows downward from a manager to employees

It is used to inform, direct, coordinate and evaluate employees. When managers assign goals to their employees, they are using downward communication. Managers are also using downward communication be providing employees with job descriptions, informing them of organisational policies and procedures, pointing out problems that need attention, or evaluating their performance.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION

Upward communication communication that flows upward from employees to managers

It keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their co-workers and the organisation in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved.

The level of upward communication used depends on the organisational culture.

LATERAL COMMUNICATION

Lateral communication communication that takes place between any employees on the same organisational level

Horizontal communications are frequently needed to save time and facilitate coordination. However, must keep their managers informed

DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION

Diagonal communication communication that cuts across both work areas and organisational levels (across different department and different organisational level)

In the interest of efficiency and speed, diagonal communication can be beneficial. And the increased use of email facilitates diagonal communication. However, must keep their managers informed

ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Communication network the variety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organisational communication

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Chain

o

Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both downward and upward.

Wheel

o

Communication flowing between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team

o

The leader serves as the hub through whom all communication passes

All-channel

o

Communication flows freely among all members of a work team

The type of network used depends on the goals

Criteria

Chain

Wheel

All-channel

Speed

Moderate

Fast

Fast

Accuracy

High

High

Moderate

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Emergence of leader

Moderate

High

None

Member satisfaction

Moderate

Low

High

THE GRAPEVINE

Grapevine the informal organisational communication network

The grapevine is active in almost every organisation. The grapevine is an important part of any group or organisation communication network and is well worth understanding. It identifies for managers those bewildering issues that employees consider important and anxiety producing. It acts as a filter and a feedback mechanism, picking up on the issues employees consider relevant.

It is possible to analyse what is happening on the grapevine, what information is being passed, how information seems to flow along the grapevine, and which individuals seen to be key conduits of information on the grapevine

Bt being aware of the grapevine‟s flow and patterns, managers can stay on top of issues that concern

employees and can use the grapevine to disseminate important information.

Rumours that flow along the grapevine also can never be eliminated entirely. However, managers can minimise the negative consequences of rumours by limiting their range and impact, by communicating openly, fully and honestly with employees, particularly in situations in which employees may not like proposed or actual managerial decisions or actions.

SUMMARY 6

Define the nature and function of communication

 

o

Communication is transfer and understanding of meaning. Interpersonal communication is communication between 2 or more people. Organisational communication is all the patterns, networks and systems of communication within an organisation. The functions of communication include controlling employee behaviour, motivating employees, providing a release for emotional expression of feelings and fulfilment of social needs, and providing information

Identify the 7 components of the communication process

 

o

There is a sender who has a message

o

A message is a purpose to be conveyed

o

Encoding in converting a message into symbols

o

Channel is the medium a message travels along

o

Decoding is when the receiver retranslates a sender‟s message

o

Feedback

o

It should also be noticed that the entire communication process is susceptible to noise disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receipt or feedback of a message

Compare and contrast methods of interpersonal communication

 

o

Managers can evaluate the various communication methods according to their feedback, complexity capacity, breadth potential, confidentially, encoding ease, decoding ease, time- space constraint, cost, interpersonal warmth, formality, scanability, and time of consumption

Identify barriers to effective interpersonal communication, and describe how to overcome them

 

o

The barriers to effective communication include filtering, emotions, information overload, defensiveness, language and national culture. Managers can overcome these barriers by using feedback, simplifying language, listening actively, constraining emotions and watching for non-verbal cues

Explain how communication can flow most effectively in organisations

o

Formal communication is communication that takes place within prescribed organisational

work arrangements. Informal communication is not defined by the organisation‟s structural

o

hierarchy. Communication in an organisation can flow downward, upward, laterally and diagonally. The 3 communication networks include the chain, the wheel, and the all-channel

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Managers should manage the grapevine as an important information network. They can minimise the negative consequences of rumours by communicating openly, fully and honestly with employees

CHAPTER 10 UNDERSTANDING GROUPS AND TEAMS

UNDERSTANDING GROUPS

Individuals act differently in groups compared with when they are alone. Therefore, if managers want to become effective in designing and managing groups they need to develop better understanding of group behaviour and the characteristics of effective teams

The terms groups and teams are used interchangeably when discussing organisational settings

WHAT IS A GROUP?

Group 2 or more people with a common goal, but there is no psychological contract between them the outcomes are less dependent on all the members working together and there is usually no shared responsibility and accountability for outcomes.

Groups can be either formal (formed by organisations) or informal (social). For work groups in organisations are also called teams.

Examples of formal goals

Command groups: these are the basic, traditional work groups determined by formal authority relationships and depicted on the organisational chart. They typically include a manager and those subordinates who report directly to the manager

Cross-functional teams: these bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various

work areas in order to come up with solutions to operational problems. Cross-functional teams also

include groups whose members have been trained to do each other‟s jobs

Self-managed teams: these are essentially independent groups that, in additional to doing their operating jobs, take on traditional management responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations

Task forces: these are temporary groups created to accomplish a specific task. Once that task is complete, the group is disbanded

Why do we need teams?

Complex projects needs more than one person Multiple areas of expertise one person does not have all the skills

o

Sequential tasks Time (one person would take too long to complete the project) Teams offer a diversity of knowledge, ideas and opinions

o

o

STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT

Forming the 1 st stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group‟s purpose, structure and leadership

It has 2 phases:

o

o

People join the group

The task of defining the group‟s purpose, structure and

leadership. This phase is characterised by a great deal of

WEEK 5: T5 o Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 Managers should manage the grapevine as

uncertainty as members „test the waters‟ to determine what types of behaviour are

unacceptable

Storming the 2 nd stage of group development, which is characterised by intragroup conflict

Members accept the existence of the group but resist the control that the group imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group.

When this stage is complete, there should be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group and agreement on the group‟s direction

Norming the 3 rd stage of group development, which is characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness

There is a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie

When complete, the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations/norms regarding member behaviour

Performing the 4 th stage of group development, when the group is fully functional

The group structure is in place and accepted by group members. Group members‟ energies have

moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing that task at hand.

Last stage for permanent groups

Adjourning the final stage of group development for temporary groups during which the group members are concerned with wrapping-up activities rather them task performance

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The group prepares to disband.

High levels of task performance are no longer the group‟s top priority. Attention is directed towards

wrapping-up activities It is not always following this developmental process:

A stage can outperform others

Several stages may be going on simultaneously

Regress to previous stages

GROUP STRUCTURE

Work groups have an internal structure that shapes members‟ behaviour and makes it possible to explain,

predict and influence a large portion of individual behaviour within the group as well as the performance of the group.

Internal structure:

  • 1. ROLES

o

Role behaviour patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit

o

In a group, individuals are expected to do certain things because of their position (role) in the group.

o

Formal roles include titles and other status symbols. Informal roles are not as clearly

o

defined These roles tend to be oriented towards either task accomplishment or maintaining group

o

member satisfaction Task-related role roles (behaviours) that help the group to focus on the task at hand

o

Maintenance-related role roles that help maintain good interpersonal relationships

o

within the group Formal and informal leaders are expected to help the group achieve its goals and to maintain internal processes

o

Self-oriented roles roles (dysfunctional behaviours) that may hinder or even undermine the team‟s progress (little concern for the group or its goals and are often harmful for the group‟s functioning)

Task-related roles:

 

Maintenance-related roles:

Self-oriented roles:

Clarifying

Encouraging

Attacking

Diagnosing

Gate keeping (even

Blocking

Initiating

participation from everyone)

Dominating

Evaluating

Expressing feelings

Withdrawing

Opinion seeking

Following

Special pleading

Information

Compromising

Clowning

gather

Harmonising

 

Summarising

Setting standards

o

A problem arises is that individuals play multiple roles, adjusting their role to the group to which they belong at the time

o

When individuals are confronted by different role expectations, he/she experiences role conflict

  • 2. NORMS

o

Norms – standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group‟s members

o

How do norms develop?

  • We bring our norms with us from old groups to new groups

 
  • New norms develop based on what happens early in a group‟s existence

o

Although each group will have its own unique set of norms, there are common types of norms in most organisations that focus on effort and performance, dress and loyalty

o

Factors that can determine the speed of norm formation:

 
  • Individual characteristics

  • Clarity of the norm

  • The number of people who have already conformed to the norm

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

  • The quality of the interpersonal relationships within the group

  • The sense of group identification

  • 3. CONFORMITY

o

As group members, we often want to be considered one of the group and to avoid being visibly different. We find it more pleasant to be in agreement and harmony, to be a positive part of the group, than to be disruptive, even if disruptive may be necessary to improve

the effectiveness of the group‟s decisions

o

Groupthink a form of conformity in which group members feel extensive pressure to align their opinions with other opinions

o

The pressure to make a decision that maintains the group‟s cohesiveness can result in

o

groupthink Groupthink does not appear in all groups.

o

Certain group characteristics encourage group think:

  • Strong group identity

  • Norm that discourages debate and open discussion

  • Critical thinking is not encouraged or rewarded

  • Members think their group can do no wrong

  • Members apply pressure to those who do not support the group

  • Members often believe they have reached a true consensus

  • Members want to reinforce the leader‟s beliefs

o

Solutions:

  • Encourage critical, independent thinking

  • Leader should encourage disagreement and discussion

  • Be aware that status differences can influence decision making

  • Bring in outsiders with differing opinions and to evaluate the decision making

  • To assign someone to perform the role of devils advocate

  • If the group is large enough, split the group into smaller groups to work on problem solutions

  • 4. GROUP SIZE

o

Research has found that small groups are faster at completing tasks than larger ones. However, large groups consistently get better results than smaller ones.

o

Social loafing the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually

  • Tempted to become free-rider

  • 5. GROUP COHESIVENESS

o

Group cohesiveness the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group‟s goals

o

High cohesiveness and high alignment of group and organisational goals = strong increase in productivity

o

High cohesiveness and low alignment of group and organisational goals = decrease in productivity

o

Low cohesiveness and high alignment of group and organisational goals = moderate increase in productivity

o

Low cohesiveness and low alignment of group and organisational goals = no significant effect on productivity

  • 6. LEADERSHIP

GROUP PROCESS GROUP DECISION MAKING

Many organisational decisions are made by groups. Studies show that managers may spend up to 30 hours a week in group meetings. A large portion of that time is spent formulating problems, developing solutions and determining how to implement to solutions

Advantages:

Groups provide more complete information and knowledge

o

A group brings a diversity of experience and perspectives to the decision process that an individual cannot

Groups generate more diverse alternatives

20

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Because groups have a greater amount and diversity of information, they can identify more alternatives than an individual can. This advantage is particularly evident when group members represent different areas of expertise

Groups increase acceptance of a solution

o

Many decisions fail after the final choice has been made, because people do not accept the solution. Group members are reluctant to fight or undermine a decision they have helped develop

Group increase legitimacy

 

o

The group decision-making process is consistent with democratic ideals, and decisions made by groups may be perceived as more legitimate than decisions made unilaterally by one person

Disadvantages:

Groups are time-consuming

o

Putting a group together takes time, as does any decision making within the group. The result is that groups almost take more time to reach a solution than it would take an individual

Groups risk minority domination

o

Members of a group are never perfectly equal. They may differ in organisational rank, experience, knowledge about the problem, influence with other members, verbal skills, and assertiveness. This inequality creates the opportunity for one or more to dominate others, which have some influence on the final decision

There are pressure to conform

o

There are pressures to conform in groups. This groupthink undermines critical thinking in the group and eventually harms the quality of the final decisions

There is ambiguous responsibility Group members share responsibility, however, responsibilities are weaken in groups

o

The effectiveness of group decisions making is also influenced by the size of the group, although a larger group provides greater opportunities for diverse representation, it also requires more coordination and more time for members to contribute their ideas

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Conflict perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition

Different views of conflict:

Traditional view of conflict the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided

Human relations view of conflict the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group

Interactionist view of conflict the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively

o

Functional conflicts – conflicts that support a group‟s goals and improve its performance

o

Dysfunctional conflicts conflicts that prevent a group form achieving its goals

o

3 types of conflicts:

  • Task conflict conflict over content and goals of the work

  • Relationship conflict conflict based on interpersonal relationships

  • Process conflict conflict over how work gets done

o

Studies demostrate that relationship conflict are almost always dysfunctional because the interpersonal hostilities increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding

o

However, low levels of process conflict and low to moderate levels of task conflict are functional

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

Managing Organisations and People – MGMT1001 T URNING G ROUPS I NTO E FFECTIVE T EAMS

TURNING GROUPS INTO EFFECTIVE TEAMS

Why use teams?

Creates esprit de crops

Increases performance

Increases flexibility

Takes advantage of workforce diversity

Allows managers to do more strategic management

WHAT IS A TEAM?

Team is 2 or more people psychologically contracted together to achieve a common goal in which all individuals involved share at least some level of responsibility and accountability for the outcome

In a work team, the combined individual efforts of team members result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs

Team work + task work = Team effectiveness

Team work planning:

Team contracts are good because they:

Prompt team members to consider the team mission and objectives Help identify important stakeholders for successful team functioning Identify team member strengths, weakness and working styles Team contract:

Outline roles and responsibilities for each member

Specify how the team will function, and how the task will be accomplished

Determine her performance will be evaluated

Can facilitate later team processes, as there are guidelines in place

Can help minimise dysfunctional interpersonal processes

Task work:

To improve task work, the team can develop a performance strategy

A performance strategy is a deliberate set of plans for what it is the team intends to do, and should include goals and tactics, as well as alternative courses of action

A high quality performance strategy is proactive strategy planning for future events

A low quality performance strategy is a reactive strategy responding to events, not planning for them

The strength of forward planning the strategy is that the team has a template to refer to, rather than creating on ad-hoc

Groups vs. teams

Groups

Teams

  • 1. One leader clearly in charge

  • 1. Leadership role is shared

  • 2. Accountable only to self

  • 2. Accountable to self and team

  • 3. Purpose is same as broader organisational

  • 3. Team creates specific purpose

purpose

  • 4. Work is done collectively

  • 4. Work is done individually

  • 5. Meetings characterised by open-ended

  • 5. Meetings characterised be efficiency; not

discussion and collaborative problem solving

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Managing Organisations and People MGMT1001

collaboration or open-ended discussion

  • 6. Performance is measured directly by

  • 7. Work is decided upon and done together

  • 6. Performance is measured indirectly according to its influence on others

evaluating collective work output

  • 7. Work is decided upon by group leader and delegated to individual group members

  • 8. Can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused and disbanded

TYPES OF TEAM PROBLEM-SOLVING TEAMS

o

Problem-solving team a team from the same department or functional area that is involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems

o

Members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved. However, these teams are rarely given the authority to implement any of their suggested actions

SELF-MANAGED WORK TEAMS

o

Self-managed work teams a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment

o

The self-managed team is responsible for getting the work done and for managing themselves. This usually includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, collective control over the pace of work, making operating decisions and taking action on problems

CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS

o

Cross-functional team a work team composed of individuals from various specialities

VIRTUAL TEAMS

o

Virtual teams a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal

 

Advantages:

 

Disadvantages:

Saves time (working can continue 24/7)

De-personalised

Saves on travel expenses

relationships

Poor communication

May reduce interpersonal difficulties

 

o

Successful virtual teams:

  • Engage in „social‟ interaction

  • Have clearly defined roles

  • Have positive attitudes and commitment to team goals

CREATING EFFECTIVE