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1

CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)


AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
FELICIANO VS. PASICOLAN
2 SCRA 888 (1961)
This is a petition o! "!it o mandamus to #o$pe% the !espon&ent '(&)e to
&e#i&e on the $e!its o a $otion i%e& *+ the petitione! in "hi#h he as,s
that the Co(!t i- at P1./....... the a$o(nt o the *ai% o! his %i*e!t+
pen&in) t!ia%.
0e!e1s "hat happene&2
Petitione! "as #ha!)e& "ith the #!i$e o ,i&nappin). 3hen he o(n& o(t
that an Ino!$ation ha& *een i%e& an& that a "a!!ant o a!!est ha& *een
iss(e& a)ainst hi$/ he "ent into hi&in). 0is %a"+e!/ at the instan#e o his
"ie/ ine& a $otion as,in) that the
Co(!t i- the a$o(nt o the *on& at P1.4 o! the petitione!1s !e%ease
pen&in) t!ia%/ *(t the P!o5in#ia% Fis#a% o Pa$pan)a oppose& the $otion
on the )!o(n& that the i%in) "as p!e$at(!e *e#a(se the petitione! ha&
*een a!!este&. The !espon&ent '(&)e &is$isse& the $otion on the )!o(n&
that the petitioner does not have the right to ask for the court to admit
him to bail pending his arrest or surrender.
The petitione! #onten&s that as/ (n&e! the Constit(tion/ 6a%% pe!sons sha%%
*eo!e #on5i#tion *e *ai%a*%e *+ s(i#ient s(!eties/ e-#ept those #ha!)e&
"ith #apita% oenses "hen e5i&en#e o )(i%t is st!on)/6 A!ti#%e III/ Se#tion
1/ pa!a)!aph (16)/ Constit(tion o the Phi%ippines/ an& that the "o!&s 6a%%
pe!sons6 (se& in sai& #onstit(tiona% p!o5ision ha5e *een inte!p!ete& to
$ean 6a%% pe!sons/ "itho(t &istin#tion/ "hethe! o!$a%%+ #ha!)e& o! not
+et so #ha!)e& "ith an+ #!i$ina% oense6.
ISS7E2 3ON the 8(&)e e!!e& in not )!antin) the petition o! a&$ission to
*ai%.
0EL9:RATIO2 No.
The!e is no ;(estion as to the so(n&ness o the !(%e in5o,e& *+ petitione!.
S(#h is the %a" in this 8(!is&i#tion. <(t/ the !(%e is s(*8e#t to the %i$itation
that the pe!son app%+in) o! a&$ission to *ai% sho(%& *e in the #(sto&+ o
the %a"/ o! othe!"ise &ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+.
In the #ase o Herras Teehankee vs. Rovira/ => Phi%. 6?@/ this Co(!t he%&2
--- A##o!&in) to this
p!o5ision/ the )ene!a%
!(%e is that an+
pe!son/ *eo!e *ein)
#on5i#te& o an+
#!i$ina% oense/ sha%%
*e *ai%a*%e/ e-#ept
"hen he is #ha!)e&
"ith a #apita% oense
an& the e5i&en#e o
his )(i%t is st!on). Of
course, onl those
persons !ho have
been either arrested,
detained or
other!ise deprived
of their libert !ill
ever have occasion
to seek the benefits
of said provision. <(t
in o!&e! that a pe!son
#an in5o,e the
#onstit(tiona% p!e#ept/
it is not necessar
that he should !ait
until a formal
complaint or
information is filed
against him. "rom
the moment he is
placed under arrest,
detention or
restraint b the
officers of the la!,
he can claim this
guarantee of the Bill
of #ights, and this
right he
retains unless and
until he is charged
!ith a capital
offense and evidence
of his guilt is strong.
An& in the #ase o Manigbas vs.
Luna/ >2 O.A. 1@.>/ it "as
he%&2
--- the !i)ht to *ai%
on%+ a##!(es "hen a
pe!son is a!!este& o!
&ep!i5e& o his
%i*e!t+. $he purpose
of bail is to secure
one%s release and it
!ould be
incongruous to grant
bail to one !ho is
free. Th(s/ B*ai% is the
se#(!it+ !e;(i!e& an&
)i5en o! the !e%ease
o a pe!son "ho is in
the #(sto&+ o the
%a".C
3itho(t s(!!en&e!in) hi$se%/
he i%e& the $otion in "hi#h he
as,s that the #o(!t i- the
a$o(nt o the *ai% *on& o! his
!e%ease pen&in) t!ia%. It is/
the!eo!e/ #%ea! that the
petitione! is a !ee $an an& is
(n&e! the 8(!isp!(&en#e not
entit%e& to a&$ission to *ai%.
2
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
DIRAN9A VS.
T7LIAO @86 SCRA ?==
(2..6)
(I am allowing you to hate me for this digest. Sobrang gulong-gulo ako.
Ill just attach the original. The issue raised by the petitioners kasi is not
about bail, but the court discussed it in such a way that bail got
included. They contrasted. asically, it just says the court ac!uires
jurisdiction o"er the person of the accused when he#she submits
motions, etc e"en if hes not detained. ut the e$ception is the petition
for admission to bail
% the accused has to be held in detention in such case. Since were in a
hurry, I think thats the only thing we need, or so I make myself belie"e.&
Fa#ts2
t"o *(!nt #a&a5e!s "e!e &is#o5e!e& in P(!o, Ni*(%an/ Ra$on/ Isa*e%a/
"hi#h "e!e %ate! i&entiie& as the &ea& *o&ies o Vi#ente <a(Eon an&
E%iEe! T(%iao/ son o p!i5ate !espon&ent Vi!)i%io T(%iao "ho is no" (n&e!
the "itness p!ote#tion p!o)!a$.
T"o ino!$ations o! $(!&e! "e!e i%e& a)ainst SPO1 3i%!e&o LeaFo/
SPO1 Fe!&inan& Da!Ean/ SPO1 R(*en <. A)(stin/ SPO2 A%e-an&e! Di#(/
SPO2 Ro&e% Da&e!a%/ an& SPO@ E$i%io Ra$i!eE in the Re)iona% T!ia%
Co(!t (RTC) o Santia)o Cit+/ *(t the 5en(e "as %ate! t!anse!!e& to the
RTC o Dani%a "hi#h #on5i#te& a%% o the a##(se& an& senten#e& the$ to
t"o #o(nts o !e#%(sion pe!pet(a e-#ept SPO2 Da&e!a% "ho "as +et to *e
a!!ai)ne& at that ti$e/ *ein) at %a!)e. The #ase "as appea%e& to the
S(p!e$e Co(!t on a(to$ati# !e5ie" "he!e "e a##(se& the!ein "as
a#;(itte& on the )!o(n& o !easona*%e &o(*t.
So$eti$e in Septe$*e! 1999/ SPO2 Da&e!a% "as a!!este&. On 2= Ap!i%
2..1/ he e-e#(te& a s"o!n #onession an& i&entiie& petitione!s 'ose C.
Di!an&a/ PO? Ro$eo <. O#on/ an& SPO? A%*e!to P. 9a%$a#io/ a #e!tain
<o+et &e%a C!(E an& A$a&o 9oe/ as the pe!sons !esponsi*%e o! the &eaths
o Vi#ente <a(Eon an& E%iEe! T(%iao.
Respon&ent T(%iao i%e& a #!i$ina% #o$p%aint o! $(!&e! a)ainst
petitione!s/ <o+et &e%a C!(E/ an& A$a&o 9oe/ an& s(*$itte& the s"o!n
#onession o SPO2 Da&e!a%. A#tin) P!esi&in) '(&)e 3i%!e&o T($a%i(an
iss(e& "a!!ants o a!!est a)ainst petitione!s an& SPO2 Da&e!a%.
Petitione!s i%e& an (!)ent $otion to #o$p%ete p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation/ to
!ein5esti)ate/ an& to !e#a%% an&:o! ;(ash the "a!!ants o a!!est.
'(&)e T($a%i(an note& the a*sen#e o petitione!s an& iss(e& a 'oint O!&e!
&en+in) sai& (!)ent $otion on the )!o(n& that/ sin#e the #o(!t &i& not
a#;(i!e 8(!is&i#tion o5e! thei! pe!sons/ the $otion #annot *e p!ope!%+
hea!& *+ the #o(!t. In the $eanti$e/ petitione!s appea%e& the !eso%(tion o
State P!ose#(to! Leo T. Re+es to the 9epa!t$ent o '(sti#e.
the ne" P!esi&in) '(&)e Anasta#io 9. An)ha& too, o5e! the #ase
an& iss(e& a 'oint O!&e!
!e5e!sin) the 'oint O!&e! o
'(&)e T($a%i(an.
Conse;(ent%+/ he o!&e!e& the
#an#e%%ation o the "a!!ant o
a!!est iss(e& a)ainst petitione!
Di!an&a. 0e %i,e"ise app%ie&
this O!&e! to petitione!s O#on
an& 9a%$a#io.
On 12 No5e$*e! 2..1/ this
Co(!t iss(e& a Reso%(tion
!eso%5in) to )!ant the p!a+e! o!
a te$po!a!+ !est!ainin) o!&e!
a)ainst '(&)e An)ha& !o$
(!the! p!o#ee&in) "ith the
#!i$ina% #ases. Sho!t%+ ate! the
ao!esai& !eso%(tion/ '(&)e
An)ha& iss(e& a 'oint O!&e!
&ate& 1@ No5e$*e! 2..1
&is$issin) the t"o Ino!$ations
o! $(!&e! a)ainst petitione!s.
On 19 No5e$*e! 2..1/ this
Co(!t too, note o
respondent&s cash bond
e5i&en#e& *+ O.R. No.
1>92@>?2 &ate& 1> No5e$*e!
2..1/ an& iss(e& the te$po!a!+
!est!ainin) o!&e! "hi%e !ee!!in)
the petition to the Co(!t o
Appea%s o! a&8(&i#ation on the
$e!its.
FIRST ASSIANDENT OF
ERROR
3ith a%% &(e !espe#t/ the
0ono!a*%e Co(!t o Appea%s
)!a5e%+ e!!e& in !e5e!sin) an&
settin) asi&e the 'oint O!&e! o
'(&)e Anasta#io 9. An)ha&
&ate& A()(st 1=/ 2..1/
Septe$*e! 21/ 2..1/ O#to*e!
16/ 2..1 an& No5e$*e! 1@/
2..1 iss(e& in #!i$ina% #ases
n($*e!e& ?6G?>2? an& ?6G
?>2@H an&/ e!!e& in (pho%&in)/
ai!$in) an& !einstatin) the
O!&e! &ate& '(%+ 6/ 2..1 iss(e&
*+ then A#tin) P!esi&in) '(&)e
3i%!e&o T($a%i(an/ on the
a%%e)e& !(%e that an a##(se&
#annot see, an+ 8(&i#ia% !e%ie i
he &oes not s(*$it his pe!son to
the 8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t.
Co(!t2 AIn a##(se& #annot see,
an+ 8(&i#ia% !e%ie i he &oes not
s(*$it his pe!son to the
8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t.
'(!is&i#tion o5e! the pe!son o
the a##(se& $a+ *e a#;(i!e&
eithe! th!o()h #o$p(%so!+
p!o#ess/ s(#h as "a!!ant o
a!!est/ o! th!o()h his 5o%(nta!+
appea!an#e/ s(#h as "hen he
s(!!en&e!s to the po%i#e o! to the
#o(!t. It is on%+ "hen the #o(!t
has a%!ea&+ a#;(i!e&
8(!is&i#tion o5e! his pe!son that
an a##(se& $a+ in5o,e the
p!o#esses o the #o(!t (Pete D.
Pi#o 5s. A%onso V. Co$*in)/
'!./ A.D. No. RT'G91G=6@/
No5e$*e! 6/ 1992). Th(s/ an
a##(se& $(st i!st *e p%a#e& in
the #(sto&+ o the %a" *eo!e
the #o(!t $a+ 5a%i&%+ a#t on his
petition o! 8(&i#ia% !e%ies.
?

P!o#ee&in) !o$ this p!e$ise/
the Co(!t o Appea%s !(%e& that
petitione!s Di!an&a/ O#on an&
9a%$a#io #annot see, an+
8(&i#ia% !e%ie sin#e the+ "e!e
not +et a!!este& o! othe!"ise
&ep!i5e& o thei! %i*e!t+ at the
ti$e the+ i%e& thei! 67!)ent
Dotion to #o$p%ete p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ationH to !ein5esti)ateH
to !e#a%% an&:o! ;(ash "a!!ants
o a!!est.6
@

Petitioners counter the
finding of the Court of
'ppeals b arguing that
(urisdiction over the person of
the accused is re)uired onl in
applications for bail.
F(!the!$o!e/ petitione!s a!)(e/
ass($in) that s(#h 8(!is&i#tion
o5e! thei! pe!son is !e;(i!e&
*eo!e the #o(!t #an a#t on thei!
$otion to ;(ash the "a!!ant o!
thei! a!!est/ s(#h 8(!is&i#tion
o5e! thei! pe!son "as a%!ea&+
a#;(i!e& *+ the #o(!t *+ thei!
i%in) o the a*o5e 7!)ent
Dotion.
?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
The 5o%(nta!+ appea!an#e o the a##(se&/ "he!e*+ the #o(!t a#;(i!es
8(!is&i#tion o5e! his pe!son/ is a##o$p%ishe& eithe! *+ his p%ea&in) to
the $e!its (s(#h as *+ i%in) a $otion to ;(ash o! othe! p%ea&in)s
!e;(i!in) the e-e!#ise o the #o(!t1s 8(!is&i#tion the!eo5e!/ appea!in)
o! a!!ai)n$ent/ ente!in) t!ia%) o! *+ i%in) *ai%. On the $atte! o *ai%/
sin#e the sa$e is inten&e& to o*tain the p!o5isiona% %i*e!t+ o the
a##(se&/ as a !(%e the sa$e #annot *e poste& *eo!e #(sto&+ o the
a##(se& has *een a#;(i!e& *+ the 8(&i#ia% a(tho!ities eithe! *+ his
a!!est o! 5o%(nta!+ s(!!en&e!.
Our pronouncement in *antiago sho!s a distinction bet!een
custod of the la! and (urisdiction over the person. Custod of
the la! is re)uired before the court can act upon the application
for bail, but is not re)uired for the ad(udication of other reliefs
sought b the defendant !here the mere application therefor
constitutes a !aiver of the defense of lack of (urisdiction over the
person of the accused.
+
Custod of the la! is accomplished either
b arrest or voluntar surrender,
,
!hile (urisdiction over the
person of the accused is ac)uired upon his arrest or voluntar
appearance.
-.
One can be under the custod of the la! but not
et sub(ect to the (urisdiction of the court over his person, such as
!hen a person arrested b virtue of a !arrant files a motion
before arraignment to )uash the !arrant. On the other hand, one
can be sub(ect to the (urisdiction of the court over his person, and
et not be in the custod of the la!, such as !hen an accused
escapes custod after his trial has commenced.
--
Being in the
custod of the la! signifies restraint on the person, !ho is
thereb deprived of his o!n !ill and libert, binding him to
become obedient to the !ill of the la!.
-/
Custod of the la! is
literall custod over the bod of the accused. 0t includes, but is
not limited to, detention.
The!eo!e/ in na!!o" #ases in5o%5in) spe#ia% appea!an#es/ an a##(se&
#an in5o,e the p!o#esses o the #o(!t e5en tho()h the!e is neithe!
8(!is&i#tion o5e! the pe!son no! #(sto&+ o the %a". 0o"e5e!/ i a
pe!son in5o,in) the spe#ia% 8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t app%ies o! *ai%/
he $(st i!st s(*$it hi$se% to the #(sto&+ o the %a".
. I "e a%%o" the )!antin) o *ai% to pe!sons not in the #(sto&+ o the
%a"/ it is o!eseea*%e that $an+ pe!sons "ho #an ao!& the *ai% "i%%
!e$ain at %a!)e/ an& #o(%& e%(&e *ein) he%& to ans"e! o! the
#o$$ission o the oense i e5e! he is p!o5en )(i%t+. On the othe!
han&/ i "e a%%o" the ;(asha% o "a!!ants o a!!est to pe!sons not in
the #(sto&+ o the %a"/ it "o(%& *e 5e!+ !a!e that a pe!son not
)en(ine%+ entit%e& to %i*e!t+ "o(%& !e$ain s#otG!ee. This is *e#a(se it
is the sa$e 8(&)e "ho iss(e& the "a!!ant o a!!est "ho "i%% &e#i&e
"hethe! o! not he o%%o"e& the Constit(tion in his &ete!$ination o
p!o*a*%e #a(se/ an& he #an easi%+ &en+ the $otion to ;(ash i he
!ea%%+ &i& in& p!o*a*%e #a(se ate! pe!sona%%+ e-a$inin) the !e#o!&s
o the #ase.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
CORTES VS
CATRAL 2=9 SCRA
1 (199=)
FACTS2 Co!tes i%e& a #o$p%aint a)ainst '(&)e Cat!a% o! )!antin) *ai%
"itho(t hea!in).
1. Cat!a% a%%e)e&%+ )!ante& *ai% in t"o $(!&e! #ases/ a #!i$e that is
s(ppose&%+ not *ai%a*%e) "itho(t hea!in). Cat!a% sa+s2In one o
the$/ the #ase "as !(st!ate& ho$i#i&e/ an& the p!ose#(to!
!e#o$$en&e& *ai% o 2..4/ p%(s the #i!#($stantia% e5i&en#e
"e!e "ea,.
In the #ase o Peop%e 5. Ro&!i)o <($an)%a)/ C!i$ina% Case .8G
866 o! $(!&e!/ the in;(est 8(&)e iss(e& a "a!!ant o a!!est o!
the a##(se& "ith no *ai% !e#o$$en&e&. 3hen the #ase "as
e%e5ate& to the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t (pon ino!$ation i%e& *+
the p!o5in#ia% p!ose#(to!/ the ino!$ation $a&e no $ention o a
*ai%*on&. In the hea!in) o the petition to &ete!$ine "hethe! o!
not the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is st!on)/ the is#a% opte& not to
int!o&(#e e5i&en#e an& !e#o$$en&e& *ai% in the s($ o
P2../...... instea&.
Respon&ent 8(&)e Ja#tin) on the sai& !e#o$$en&ation an& a)ain
)(i&e& *+ the p!o5ision o Se#tion 9/ A&$inist!ati5e Ci!#(%a!
12G9@ in #on8(n#tion "ith the e5i&en#e e-tant on the !e#o!&
app!o5e& the !e#o$$en&ation o P!ose#(to! Apo%ina! Ca!!ao.K
A &(p%i#ate #op+ o t!ia% p!ose#(to! Apo%ina! Ca!!ao1s %ette!
&ate& Septe$*e! ?/ 1996 a&&!esse& to the p!o5in#ia% p!ose#(to!
Ro$eo Sa#;(in) "as p!esente& *+ the !espon&ent to &isp!o5e
the a##(sation that he )!ante& *ai% to the a##(se& "itho(t
#on&(#tin) an+ hea!in).
2. Cat!a% a%%e)e&%+ !e&(#e& *ai%*on& o! an i%%e)a% possession o
i!ea!$s #ase !o$ 18.4 (!e#o$$en&e& *+ p!ose#(to!) to ?.4
"itho(t hea!in).
Cat!a% sa+s2 *ai%*on& !e#o$$en&e& "as 18.4. a##(se& i%e& o!
!e&(#tion an& the!e "as no opposition !o$ p!ose#(to!.
3. <a!an)a+ Captain Ni%o &e Ri5e!a "ith a ho$i#i&e #ase "as
)!ante& "ith a *ai%*on& o P1@/8..... *+ '(&)e Se)(n&o Cat!a%.
The a$o(nt is too %o". It is *e#a(se this Ni%o &e Ri5e!a is
anothe! )oon o '(%io <on) 9e#ie!to.
Cat!a% sa+s2 he "as a#tin) on the !e#o$$en&ation o the OIC
p!o5in#ia% p!ose#(to! an& $in&(% o the )(i&e%ines in i-in) a
!easona*%e a$o(nt o *ai%*on& #o(p%e& *+ the a#t that the e5i&en#e
on !e#o!& is $e!e%+
#i!#($stantia% an& the!e "as no e+e"itness to the #o$$ission o
#!i$e )!ante& *ai%*on& in the s($ o P1@/8......
@. . 'i$$+ Si!i*an the !i)ht han& $an o '(%io L<on)1
9i#ie!to "as s(e& o! #on#(*ina)e an& #on5i#te& *+ '(&)e
0e!$inio &e% Casti%%o in DTC. 'i$$+ Si!i*an appea%e& an& it
"as e%e5ate& to the RTC <!an#h .8/ the sa%a o '(&)e Se)(n&o
Cat!a%. '(&)e Se)(n&o Cat!a% a#;(itte& 'i$$+ Si!i*an/ !($o!s
in Apa!!i sp!ea& that the "ie o '(&)e Se)(n&o Cat!a% "ent to
'i$$+
Si!i*an1s ho(se to )et the en5e%op
ISS7E2 3ON the
a%%e)ations o the
#o$p%ainant "o(%& "a!!ant
the i$position o
a&$inist!ati5e san#tion
a)ainst !espon&ent 8(&)e.
0EL9:RATIO2 MES.
<ai% sho(%& *e i-e& a##o!&in)
to the #i!#($stan#es o ea#h
#ase. The a$o(nt i-e& sho(%&
*e s(i#ient to ens(!e the
p!esen#e o the a##(se& at the
t!ia% +et !easona*%e eno()h to
#o$p%+ "ith the #onstit(tiona%
p!o5ision that *ai% sho(%& not *e
e-#essi5e. The!eo!e/ "hethe!
*ai% is a $atte! o !i)ht o! o
&is#!etion/ !easona*%e noti#e o
hea!in) is !e;(i!e& to *e )i5en
to the p!ose#(to! o! is#a% o! at
%east he $(st *e as,e& o! his
!e#o$$en&ation *e#a(se in
i-in) the a$o(nt o *ai%/ the
8(&)e is !e;(i!e& to ta,e into
a##o(nt a n($*e! o a#to!s
s(#h as the app%i#ant1s #ha!a#te!
an& !ep(tation/ o!eit(!e o
othe! *on&s o! "hethe! he is a
()iti5e !o$ 8(sti#e.
3hen the a##(se& is
#ha!)e& "ith an oense
p(nisha*%e *+ &eath/
reclusion perpetua o! %ie
i$p!ison$ent/ the 8(&)e is
$an&ate& to #on&(#t a
hea!in)/ "hethe! s($$a!+
o! othe!"ise in the
&is#!etion o the #o(!t/ not
on%+ to ta,e into a##o(nt
the )(i&e%ines set o!th in
Se#tion 9/ R(%e 11@ o the
R(%es o Co(!t/ *(t
p!i$a!i%+ to &ete!$ine the
e-isten#e o st!on)
e5i&en#e o )(i%t o! %a#, o
it/ a)ainst the a##(se&.
Respon&ent 8(&)e/ in t"o
instan#es/ )!ante& *ai% to
an a##(se& #ha!)e& "ith
$(!&e!/ "itho(t ha5in)
#on&(#te& an+ hea!in) as
to "hethe! the e5i&en#e o
)(i%t a)ainst the a##(se& is
st!on).
In a #!i$e o $(!&e!. The
p!o5in#ia% p!ose#(to!
!e#o$$en&e& the s($ o
P2../...... as *ai%*on& o!
ea#h a##(se&. The !e#o!&s &o
not !e5ea% "hethe! a hea!in)
"as a#t(a%%+ #on&(#te& on the
app%i#ation o! *ai% a%tho()h
!espon&ent 8(&)e i$p%ies that
the!e "as one/ statin) that
Ja#tin) on this !e#o$$en&ation
o the p!o5in#ia% p!ose#(to! an&
ta,in) into a##o(nt the
)(i&e%ines p!es#!i*e& in Se#tion
9 o A&$inist!ati5e Ci!#(%a! 12G
9@/ the #o(!t iss(e& a "a!!ant o
a!!est an& i-e& the a$o(nt o
P2../...... o! the p!o5isiona%
%i*e!t+ o ea#h o the a##(se&.K
S(*se;(ent%+/ #o(nse% o!
a##(se& Ah$e& 9(e!$e i%e& a
$otion o! !e&(#tion o *ai%.
The Jhea!in)K o the $otion
"as #on&(#te& on A()(st 21/
199> "ith the p!ose#(tion/ not
ha5in) inte!pose& an+
opposition/ an& s(*$ittin) the
!eso%(tion o the $otion to the
so(n& &is#!etion o the #o(!t
instea&. Respon&ent 8(&)e then
iss(e& an o!&e! )!antin) a
!e&(#e& *ai%*on& o P>./......
o! a##(se& Ah$e& 9(e!$e
inas$(#h as Jthe e5i&en#e "as
not so st!on) to "a!!ant the
i-ation o sai& a$o(nt.K The
o!&e! )!antin) the !e&(#e&
*ai%*on&/ ho"e5e!/ &i& not
#ontain a s($$a!+ o the
e5i&en#e o! the p!ose#(tion.
In anothe! $(!&e! #ase/ ate!
#on&(#tin) a p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation/ the in;(est 8(&)e
iss(e& a "a!!ant o the a!!est o!
the a##(se& "ith no *ai%
!e#o$$en&e&. 3hen the #ase
"as e%e5ate& to the Re)iona%
T!ia% Co(!t/ the ino!$ation
$a&e no $ention o a *ai%*on&.
Conse;(ent%+/ a##(se& th!o()h
#o(nse%
>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
i%e& a petition o! *ai%. In the hea!in) o the petition to &ete!$ine
"hethe! o! not the e5i&en#e o )(i%t a)ainst the a##(se& "as st!on)/
the is#a% opte& not to int!o&(#e e5i&en#e an& !e#o$$en&e& the s($
o P2../...... instea&. Respon&ent 8(&)e/ Ja#tin) on sai&
!e#o$$en&ation an& a)ain )(i&e& *+ the p!o5ision o Se#tion 9/
A&$inist!ati5e Ci!#(%a! 12G9@ in #on8(n#tion "ith the e5i&en#e
e-tant on !e#o!&/K iss(e& an o!&e! )!antin) *ai% to the a##(se& in the
s($ o P2../....... 7na*%e to post the sai& *on&/ a##(se& th!o()h
#o(nse% i%e& a $otion to !e&(#e *ai%. In the #o(!se o the hea!in) o
the petition/ the p(*%i# p!ose#(to! $anieste& that he ha& no o*8e#tion
to the s($ o P>./...... as *ai% o! the a##(se&. Respon&ent 8(&)e/
then
J)(i&e& *+ the a#t(a% settin) an& the s(ppo!tin) e5i&en#e e-tant on
!e#o!&K !e&(#e& the *ai% *on& !o$ P2../...... to P>./...... as
!e#o$$en&e& *+ the p!ose#(to!. On#e a)ain/ the o!&e! )!antin) the
*ai% o P2../....../ as "e%% as the !e&(#e& *ai% *on& o P>./....../
&i& not #ontain a s($$a!+ o the e5i&en#e p!esente& *+ the
p!ose#(tion.
the 8(&)e is $an&ate& to #on&(#t a hea!in) e5en in #ases "he!e the
p!ose#(tion #hooses to 8(st i%e a #o$$ent o! %ea5e the app%i#ation o
*ai% to the so(n& &is#!etion o the #o(!t. A hea!in) is %i,e"ise
!e;(i!e& i the p!ose#(tion !e(ses to a&&(#e e5i&en#e in opposition
to the app%i#ation to )!ant an& i- *ai%. The i$po!tan#e o a hea!in)
has *een e$phasiEe& in not a e" #ases "he!ein the #o(!t !(%e& that/
e5en i the p!ose#(tion !e(ses to a&&(#e e5i&en#e o! ai%s to
inte!pose an o*8e#tion to the $otion o! *ai%/ it is sti%% $an&ato!+ o!
the #o(!t to #on&(#t a hea!in) o!
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
as, sea!#hin) ;(estions !o$ "hi#h it $a+ ine! the st!en)th o the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t/ o! the %a#, o it a)ainst the a##(se&.K
The !eason o! this is p%ain. Inas$(#h as the &ete!$ination o "hethe!
o! not the e5i&en#e o )(i%t a)ainst the a##(se& is st!on) is a $atte! o
8(&i#ia% &is#!etion/ It $a+ !i)ht%+ *e e-e!#ise& on%+ ate! the e5i&en#e
is s(*$itte& to the #o(!t at the hea!in). Sin#e the &is#!etion is
&i!e#te& to the "ei)ht o e5i&en#e an& sin#e e5i&en#e #annot p!ope!%+
*e "ei)he& i not &(%+ e-hi*ite& o! p!o&(#e& *eo!e the #o(!t/ it is
o*5io(s that a p!ope! e-e!#ise o 8(&i#ia% &is#!etion !e;(i!es that the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t *e s(*$itte& to the #o(!t/ the petitione! ha5in) the
!i)ht o #!oss e-a$ination an& to int!o&(#e e5i&en#e in his o"n
!e*(tta%.
The p!o#e&(!a% %apse o !espon&ent 8(&)e is a))!a5ate& *+ the a#t
that e5en tho()h the a##(se& in C!i$ina% Case No. .=G8=@/ Peop%e 5.
Ah$e& 9(e!$e/ ha5e +et to *e a!!este&/ !espon&ent a%!ea&+ i-e&
*ai% in the s($ o P2../....... Respon&ent e5i&ent%+ ,ne" that the
a##(se& "e!e sti%% at %a!)e as he e5en ha& to &i!e#t thei! a!!est in the
sa$e o!&e! "he!e he si$(%taneo(s%+ )!ante& the$ *ai%. At this
8(n#t(!e/ the!e is a nee& to !eite!ate the *asi# p!in#ip%e that the !i)ht
to *ai% #an on%+ *e a5ai%e& o *+ a pe!son "ho is in #(sto&+ o the %a"
o! othe!"ise &ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+ an& it "o(%& *e p!e$at(!e/ not to
sa+ in#on)!(o(s/ to i%e a petition o! *ai% o! so$e "hose !ee&o$
has +et to *e #(!tai%e&.
6
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE VS.
DANALLO @.. SCRA
129 (2..?)
FACTS2 Spo(ses Ro$eo Na*o! an& Li%iosa Napa+ an& thei! nineG+ea! o%&
&a()hte! Rosa%&iEa Na*o! tenante& an& %i5e& in a #o#on(t p%antation
%o#ate& in <a!an)a+ Sa%()an/ Ca$i%i)/ A%*a+.
Rosa%&iEa he%pe& in the ho(seho%& #ho!es *+ "ashin) the a$i%+1s &i!t+
%a(n&!+ e5e!+ Sat(!&a+ at the *a!an)a+ !ese!5oi!. The !o(te to the
!ese!5oi! "as (ninha*ite&. Aoin) the!e "as ;(ite a %on) t!e,. It (s(a%%+
too, Rosa%&iEa iteen $in(tes to ne)otiate the )!ass+ path !o$ the
!ese!5oi! to thei! ho(se.
In 1989/ Ro$eo en)a)e& the se!5i#es o A%e- Dana%%o/ as #o#on(t
)athe!e!. A%e- he%pe& the Na*o! #o(p%e )athe! #o#on(t p!o&(#e on#e a
"ee,.
One &a+/ in 1992/ Rosa%&iEa "ent to the !ese!5oi! to "ash he! #%othes an&
to ta,e a *ath. On he! "a+ *a#, ho$e/ Dana%%o s(&&en%+ appea!e& !o$
the *(shes/ )!a**e& he! an& !ape& he!. A%e- &!esse& (p an& "a!ne& he! not
to te%% he! pa!ents/ *!othe!s an& siste!s o the in#i&ent/ othe!"ise/ he "o(%&
,i%% the$ a%%. Rosa%&iEa p(t on he! #%othes an& !an ho$e. Rosa%&iEa !e%ate&
to he! $othe! "hat ha& happene& to he!.
De&i#oGLe)a%. Then Rosa%&iEa an& Li%iosa "ent *a#, to the po%i#e station
an& e-e#(te& thei! !espe#ti5e s"o!n state$ents. An ino!$ation "as i%e&
"ith the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t o Le)aspi Cit+/ #ha!)in) A%e- "ith !ape.
1o bail !as recommended o! the p!o5isiona% %i*e!t+ o A%e-. 0e i%e&/
on Da+ 8/ 1992/ a $otion o! *ai% "ith no spe#ii# &ate an& ti$e o! the
hea!in) the!eo. 7pon the filing of said motion, the 23ecutive 4udge
issued an order granting the motion an& i-in) his *ai% *on& at
P>./....... On the same da, 'le3 posted a propert bond !hich !as
immediatel approved b the court. A%e- "as o!th"ith !e%ease& !o$
&etention.
At his a!!ai)n$ent on '(ne 1=/ 1992/ A%e-/ &(%+ assiste& *+ #o(nse% de
oficio/ p%ea&e& not )(i%t+. T!ia% "as set on '(ne 18/ 1992. The p!ose#(tion
p!a+e& the t!ia% #o(!t to #an#e% the *on& o A%e- #onsi&e!in) that his
petition o! *ai% "as )!ante& "itho(t &(e hea!in). 0o"e5e!/ the t!ia% #o(!t
he%& in a*e+an#e !eso%(tion o the $otion (nti% ate! the p!ose#(to! sha%%
ha5e p!esente& its "itnesses on '(ne 18/ 1992. The t!ia% #o(!t state& that
the e5i&en#e to *e a&&(#e& *+ the p!ose#(tion "o(%& *e its e5i&en#e in
A%e-1s petition o! *ai% an& t!ia% on the $e!its. On '(ne 18/ 1992/ the t!ia%
#o(!t iss(e& an o!&e! that A%e- "o(%& !e$ain !ee on his *on& (nti% '(ne
22/ 1992/ the &ate set o! the hea!in) on his petition o! *ai%. 0o"e5e!/
A%e- ai%e& to atten& the t!ia% on sai& &ate. The t!ia% #o(!t iss(e& an& o!&e!
o! his a!!est. 0o"e5e!/ A%e- #o(%& no %on)e! *e o(n& at his a&&!ess. It
"as on%+ si- +ea!s the!eate!/ o! on 'an(a!+ 22/ 1998/ that he "as a!!este&.
0e &enie& !apin) Rosa%&iEa an& #%ai$e& that the+ "e!e %o5e!s. 0e "as
o(n& )(i%t+. (sho!t sto!+ 5e!sion.)
ISS7E (in the #ase)2 3ON the t!ia% #o(!t )!a5e%+ e!!e& in #on5i#tin)
a##(se&Gappe%%ant not on the *asis o the st!en)th o
the p!ose#(tion1s e5i&en#e *(t
!athe! on the "ea,ness o the
e5i&en#e o! the &eense
0EL9:RATIO2 NO. E5en a
#(!so!+ !ea&in) o the &e#ision
o the t!ia% #o(!t "i%% !ea&i%+
sho" that it #on5i#te& appe%%ant
o the #!i$e #ha!)e& in %i)ht o
the testi$on+ o Rosa%&iEa an&
9!. Lo!iaGF%o!e#e an& the
ph+si#a% e5i&en#e a&&(#e& *+
the p!ose#(tion.
The t!ia% #o(!t #onsi&e!e&
appe%%ant1s %i)ht !o$ the s#ene
o the #!i$e/ his ha5in) 8($pe&
*ai% an& o! e%(&in) a!!est o!
si- %on) +ea!s as e5i&en#e o his
)(i%t o! the #!i$e #ha!)e&
<AILGRELATE9 (#op+Gpaste)2
The Co(!t #annot "!ite finis to
this #ase "itho(t $a,in) o
!e#o!& its #on#e!n an&
&isp%eas(!e at the e)!e)io(s
p!o#e&(!a% %apse o the t!ia%
#o(!t in )!antin) *ai% to
appe%%ant. It *ea!s st!essin) that
he "as #ha!)e& "ith !ape
p(nisha*%e *+ reclusion
perpetua to &eath. Se#tion >/
R(%e 11@ o the 198> R(%es o
C!i$ina% P!o#e&(!e !ea&s2
SEC. >. Burden of proof in Bail
application. N At the hea!in) o
an app%i#ation o! a&$ission to
*ai% i%e& *+ an+ pe!son "ho is
in #(sto&+ o! the #o$$ission
o an oense p(nisha*%e *+
reclusion perpetua to &eath/ the
p!ose#(tion has the *(!&en o
sho"in) that e5i&en#e o )(i%t
is st!on). The e5i&en#e
p!esente& &(!in) the *ai%
hea!in)s sha%% *e #onsi&e!e&
a(to$ati#a%%+ !ep!o&(#e& at the
t!ia%/ *(t (pon $otion o eithe!
pa!t+/ the #o(!t $a+ !e#a%% an+
"itness o! a&&itiona%
e-a$ination (n%ess the "itness
is &ea&/ o(tsi&e o the
Phi%ippines o! othe!"ise (na*%e
to testi+.
(p%ease see p!e5io(s #ase o! the
&(ties o the t!ia% #o(!t in
!eso%5in) a $otion o! petition
o! *ai%)
In this #ase/ the appe%%ant i%e&
his $otion o! *ai% on Da+ 8/
1992. The!e "as no spe#ii#
&ate an& ti$e o! the hea!in) o
sai& $otion. An& +et/ on the
same da that the motion !as
filed, the trial court granted
the said motion and fi3ed the
bail bond for the provisional
libert of the appellant in the
amount of P5.,...... !ithout
an factual basis therefore
stated in the order. E5en "hen
the p(*%i# p!ose#(to! p!a+e& the
#o(!t on '(ne 1=/ 1992/ o! the
#an#e%%ation o the p!ope!t+
*on& o the appe%%ant on the
)!o(n& that the trial court
granted his motion for bail
!ithout even affording the
prosecution a chance to be
heard thereon and adduce its
evidence in opposition thereto/
the t!ia% #o(!t he%& in a*e+an#e
!eso%(tion the!eo an& e5en
a%%o"e& the appe%%ant to !e$ain
!ee on his *on& in the a$o(nt
o on%+ P>./....... Patent%+/
the p!ose#(tion "as &ep!i5e& o
its !i)ht to &(e p!o#ess.
A *ai% app%i#ation &oes not on%+
in5o%5e the !i)ht o the a##(se&
to te$po!a!+ %i*e!t+/ *(t
%i,e"ise the !i)ht o the State to
p!ote#t the peop%e an& the pea#e
o the #o$$(nit+ !o$
&an)e!o(s e%e$ents. These t"o
!i)hts $(st *e *a%an#e& *+ a
$a)ist!ate in the s#a%e o
8(sti#e/ hen#e/ the ne#essit+ o!
hea!in) to )(i&e his e-e!#ise o
8(!is&i#tion.
=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
LAVI9ES VS CA
A.R. 1296=.
Fe*!(a!+ 1/ 2...
FACTS2 Dano%et La5i&es "as a!!este& on Ap!i% ?/ 199= o! #hi%& a*(se
(n&e! R.A. No. =61. (an a#t p!o5i&in) o! st!on)e! &ete!!en#e an& spe#ia%
p!ote#tion a)ainst #hi%& a*(se/ e-p%oitation an& &is#!i$ination/ p!o5i&in)
pena%ties o! its 5io%ation/ an& othe! p(!poses). 0is a!!est "as $a&e
"itho(t a "a!!ant as a !es(%t o an ent!ap$ent #on&(#te& *+ the po%i#e. It
appea!s that on Ap!i% ?/ 199=/ the pa!ents o #o$p%ainant Lo!e%ie San
Di)(e% !epo!te& to the po%i#e that thei! &a()hte!/ then 16 +ea!s o%&/ ha&
*een #onta#te& *+ petitione! o! an assi)nation that ni)ht at petitione!1s
!oo$ at the Det!opo%itan 0ote% in
9i%i$an/ O(eEon Cit+. Appa!ent%+/ this "as not the i!st ti$e the po%i#e
!e#ei5e& !epo!ts o petitione!1s a#ti5ities.
3hen petitione! opene& the &oo!/ the po%i#e sa" hi$ "ith Lo!e%ie/ "ho
"as "ea!in) on%+ a tGshi!t an& an (n&e!"ea!/ "he!e(pon the+ a!!este&
hi$. <ase& on the s"o!n state$ent o #o$p%ainant an& the ai&a5its o the
a!!estin) oi#e!s/ "hi#h "e!e s(*$itte& at the in;(est/ an ino!$ation o!
5io%ation o A!t. III/ P>(*) o R.A. No. =61. "as i%e& a)ainst petitione!.
petitione! i%e& an 6O$ni*(s Dotion (1) Fo! '(&i#ia% 9ete!$ination o
P!o*a*%e Ca(seH (2) Fo! the I$$e&iate Re%ease o the A##(se& 7n%a"(%%+
9etaine& on an 7n%a"(% 3a!!ant%ess A!!estH an& (?) 0n the 2vent of
'dverse #esolution of the
'bove 0ncident, 6erein 'ccused be 'llo!ed to Bail as a Matter of
#ight under the 7a! on 8hich 6e is Charged.
nine $o!e ino!$ations o! #hi%& a*(se "e!e i%e& a)ainst petitione! *+ the
sa$e #o$p%ainant/ Lo!e%ie San Di)(e%/ an& *+ th!ee othe! $ino! #hi%&!en
No *ai% "as !e#o$$en&e&. Nonethe%ess/ petitione! i%e& sepa!ate
app%i#ations o! *ai% in the nine #ases.
TRIAL CO7RT2 2. The a##(se& is entit%e& to *ai% in a%% the a*o5eGentit%e&
#ase. 0e is he!e*+ )!ante& the !i)ht to post *ai% in the a$o(nt o
P8./...... o! ea#h #ase o! a tota% o P8../...... o! a%% the #ases (n&e!
the o%%o"in) #on&itions2
1) The a##(se& sha%% not *e entit%e& to a "ai5e!
o appea!an#e &(!in) the t!ia% o these #ases. 0e sha%%
an& $(st a%"a+s *e p!esent at the hea!in)s o these
#asesH
2) 0n the event that he shall not be able to do so, his
bail bonds shall be automaticall cancelled and
forfeited, !arrants for his arrest shall be
immediatel issued and the cases shall proceed to
trial in absentiaH
3) The ho%&G&epa!t(!e O!&e! o this Co(!t &ate& Ap!i%
1./ 199= stan&sH an&
&)
'pproval
of the bail
bonds shall
be made
onl after
the
arraignme
nt to
enable this
Court to
immediatel
ac)uire
(urisdiction
over the
accused9
Petitione! i%e& a $otion to
;(ash the ino!$ations a)ainst
hi$. Pen&in) !eso%(tion o his
$otion/ he as,e& the t!ia% #o(!t
to s(spen& the a!!ai)n$ent
s#he&(%e& on Da+ 2?/ 199=. 0e
i%e& a $otion in "hi#h he
p!a+e& that the a$o(nts o *ai%
*on&s *e !e&(#e& to P@./......
o! ea#h #ase an& that the sa$e
*e &one p!io! to his
a!!ai)n$ent.
the t!ia% #o(!t/ in sepa!ate
o!&e!s/ &enie& petitione!1s
$otions to !e&(#e *ai% *on&s/ to
;(ash the ino!$ations/ an& to
s(spen& a!!ai)n$ent.
A##o!&in)%+/ petitione! "as
a!!ai)ne& &(!in) "hi#h he
p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ to the
#ha!)es a)ainst hi$ an& then
o!&e!e& hi$ !e%ease& (pon
postin) *ai% *on&s in the tota%
a$o(nt o P8../....../ s(*8e#t
to the #on&itions in the Da+ 16/
199= o!&e! an& the 6ho%&G
&epa!t(!e6 o!&e! o Ap!i% 1./
199=. The p!eGt!ia% #one!en#e
"as set on '(ne =/ 199=.
The Co(!t o Appea%s &e#%a!e&
#on&itions (a) an& (*) in5a%i&
*(t &e#%ine& to pass (pon the
5a%i&it+ o #on&ition (&) on the
)!o(n& that the iss(e ha&
*e#o$e $oot an& a#a&e$i#.
Petitione! ta,es iss(e "ith the
Co(!t o Appea%s "ith !espe#t to
its t!eat$ent o #on&ition (&) o
the Da+ 16/ 199= o!&e! o the
t!ia% #o(!t "hi#h $a,es
petitione!1s a!!ai)n$ent a
p!e!e;(isite to the app!o5a% o
his *ai% *on&s. 0is #ontention is
that this #on&ition is 5oi& an&
that his a!!ai)n$ent "as a%so
in5a%i& *e#a(se it "as he%&
p(!s(ant to s(#h in5a%i&
#on&ition.
ISS7E2 3ON the #on&ition is
5oi& an& the a!!ai)n$ent
in5a%i&.
0EL92 CON9ITION IS VOI9.
*ai% sho(%& *e )!ante& *eo!e
a!!ai)n$ent/ othe!"ise the
a##(se& $a+ *e p!e#%(&e& !o$
i%in) a $otion to ;(ash. Fo! i
the ino!$ation is ;(ashe& an&
the #ase is &is$isse&/ the!e
"o(%& then *e no nee& o! the
a!!ai)n$ent o the a##(se&. In
the se#on& p%a#e/ the t!ia% #o(!t
#o(%& ens(!e the p!esen#e o
petitione! at the a!!ai)n$ent
p!e#ise%+ *+ )!antin) *ai% an&
o!&e!in) his p!esen#e at an+
sta)e o the p!o#ee&in)s/ s(#h
as a!!ai)n$ent. 7n&e! R(%e
11@/ P2(*) o the R(%es on
C!i$ina% P!o#e&(!e/ one o the
#on&itions o *ai% is that 6the
a##(se& sha%% appea! *eo!e the
p!ope! #o(!t "hene5e! so
!e;(i!e& *+ the #o(!t o! these
R(%es/6 "hi%e (n&e! R(%e 116/
P1(*) the p!esen#e o the
a##(se& at the a!!ai)n$ent is
!e;(i!e&
to #on&ition the )!ant o *ai% to
an a##(se& on his a!!ai)n$ent
"o(%& *e to p%a#e hi$ in a
position "he!e he has to #hoose
*et"een (1) i%in) a $otion to
;(ash an& th(s &e%a+ his !e%ease
on *ai% *e#a(se (nti% his $otion
to ;(ash #an *e !eso%5e&/ his
a!!ai)n$ent #annot *e he%&/ an&
(2) o!e)oin) the i%in) o a
$otion to ;(ash so that he #an
*e a!!ai)ne& at on#e an&
the!eate! *e !e%ease& on *ai%.
These s#ena!ios #e!tain%+
8
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
(n&e!$ine the a##(se&1s #onstit(tiona% !i)ht not to *e p(t on t!ia%
e-#ept (pon 5a%i& #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation s(i#ient to #ha!)e hi$
"ith a #!i$e an& his !i)ht to *ai%.
The #on&ition i$pose& in the t!ia% #o(!t1s o!&e! o Da+ 16/ 199= that
the a##(se& #annot "ai5e his appea!an#e at the t!ia% *(t that he $(st
*e p!esent at the hea!in)s o the #ase is 5a%i& an& is in a##o!&an#e
"ith R(%e 11@. Fo! anothe! #on&ition o *ai% (n&e! R(%e 11@/ P2(#) is
that 6The ai%(!e o the a##(se& to appea! at the t!ia% "itho(t
8(stii#ation &espite &(e noti#e to hi$ o! his *on&s$an sha%% *e
&ee$e& an e-p!ess "ai5e! o his !i)ht to *e p!esent on the &ate
spe#iie& in the noti#e. In s(#h #ase/ t!ia% sha%% p!o#ee& in absentia.6
'8s#
A!t. III/ P1@(2) o the Constit(tion a(tho!iEin) t!ia%s in absentia
a%%o"s the a##(se& to *e a*sent at the t!ia% *(t not at #e!tain sta)es o
the p!o#ee&in)s/ to "it2 (a) at a!!ai)n$ent an& p%ea/ "hethe! o
inno#en#e o! o )(i%t/ (*) &(!in) t!ia% "hene5e! ne#essa!+ o!
i&entii#ation p(!poses/ an& (#) at the p!o$(%)ation o senten#e/
(n%ess it is o! a %i)ht oense/ in "hi#h #ase the a##(se& $a+ appea!
*+ #o(nse% o! !ep!esentati5e. At s(#h sta)es o the p!o#ee&in)s/ his
p!esen#e is !e;(i!e& an& #annot *e "ai5e&.
IT 9OES NOT FOLLO3 T0AT T0E ARRAIANDENT OF
PETITIONER ON DAM 2?/ 199= 3AS ALSO INVALI9. Cont!a!+
to petitione!1s #ontention/ the a!!ai)n$ent &i& not e$anate !o$ the
in5a%i& #on&ition that 6app!o5a% o the *ai% *on&s sha%% *e $a&e on%+
ate! the a!!ai)n$ent.6 E5en "itho(t s(#h a #on&ition/ the
a!!ai)n$ent o petitione! #o(%& not *e o$itte&. In s($/ a%tho()h the
#on&ition o! the )!ant o *ai% to petitione! is in5a%i&/ his a!!ai)n$ent
an& the s(*se;(ent p!o#ee&in)s a)ainst hi$ a!e 5a%i&.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
9
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
SERAPIO VS. SAN9IAAN<AMAN
?96 SCRA @@? (2..?)
(:O; M': 6'$2 M2 "O# $60*, $OO.)
<eo!e the Co(!t a!e t"o petitions o! #e!tio!a!i i%e& *+ petitione! E&"a!&
Se!apio/ assai%in) the !eso%(tions o the Thi!& 9i5ision o the
San&i)an*a+an dening his petition for bail/ $otion o! a !ein5esti)ation
an& $otion to ;(ash/ an& a petition o! habeas corpus/ a%% in !e%ation to
C!i$ina% Case No. 26>>8 o! p%(n&e! "he!ein petitione! is one o the
a##(se& to)ethe! "ith o!$e! P!esi&ent 'oseph E. Est!a&a/ 'ose J'in))o+K
P. Est!a&a an& se5e!a% othe!s.
Petitione! "as a $e$*e! o the <oa!& o T!(stees an& the Le)a% Co(nse%
o the E!ap D(s%i$ Mo(th Fo(n&ation/ a nonGsto#,/ nonGp!oit o(n&ation
esta*%ishe& in Fe*!(a!+ 2... ostensi*%+ o! the p(!pose o p!o5i&in)
e&(#ationa% oppo!t(nities o! the poo! an& (n&e!p!i5i%e)e& *(t &ese!5in)
D(s%i$ +o(th an& st(&ents/ an& s(ppo!t to !esea!#h an& a&5an#e st(&ies o
+o(n) D(s%i$ e&(#ato!s an& s#ientists.
Petitione!/ as t!(stee o the Fo(n&ation/ !e#ei5e& on its *eha% a &onation
in the a$o(nt o T"o 0(n&!e& Di%%ion Pesos (P2..
Di%%ion) !o$ I%o#os S(! Ao5e!no! L(is JCha5itK Sin)son.
A##(se& *+ Sin)son. Ino!$ations i%e&.
The San&i)an*a+an set the a!!ai)n$ent o the a##(se&/ in#%(&in)
petitione!. In the $eanti$e/ on Ap!i% 2=/ 2..1/ petitione! i%e& "ith the
San&i)an*a+an an ;rgent Petition for Bail !hich !as set for hearing
on Ma <, /..-. Fo! his pa!t/ petitione!1s #oGa##(se& 'ose J'in))o+K
Est!a&a i%e& on Ap!i% 2./ 2..1 a Ve!+
7!)ent O$ni*(s Dotion a%%e)in) that he "as entit%e& to *ai% as a $atte! o
!i)ht.
9(!in) the hea!in) on Da+ @/ 2..1 on petitione!1s 7!)ent
Petition o! <ai%/ the prosecution moved for the resetting of the
arraignment of the accused earlier than the 4une /=, /..- schedule.
0o"e5e!/ the *andiganbaan denied the motion of the prosecution
and issued an order declaring that the petition for bail can and should
be heard before petitioner&s arraignment on 4une /=, /..- and even
before the other accused filed their respective petitions for bail.
A##o!&in)%+/ the San&i)an*a+an set the hea!in) o! the !e#eption o
e5i&en#e on petitione!1s petition o! *ai% on Da+ 21 to 2>/
2..1.
The San&i)an*a+an iss(e& a !eso%(tion !e;(i!in) the atten&an#e o
petitione! as "e%% as a%% the othe! a##(se& &(!in) the hea!in)s on the
petitions o! *ai% (n&e! pain o "ai5e! o #!ossGe-a$ination. The
San&i)an*a+an/ #itin) its inhe!ent po"e!s to p!o#ee& "ith the t!ia% o the
#ase in the $anne! it &ete!$ines *est #on&(#i5e to o!&e!%+ p!o#ee&in)s
an& spee&+ te!$ination o the #ase/ &i!e#te& the othe! a##(se& to
pa!ti#ipate in the sai& *ai% hea!in) #onsi&e!in) that (n&e! Se#tion 8/ R(%e
11@ o the Re5ise& R(%es o Co(!t/ "hate5e! e5i&en#e is a&&(#e& &(!in)
the *ai%
hea!in) sha%% *e #onsi&e!e&
a(to$ati#a%%+ !ep!o&(#e& at the
t!ia%.
The *ai% hea!in) &i& not
p!o#ee& *e#a(se petitione! i%e&
"ith the San&i)an*a+an a
$otion to ;(ash the a$en&e&
Ino!$ation on the )!o(n&s that
as a)ainst hi$/ the a$en&e&
Ino!$ation &oes not a%%e)e a
#o$*ination o! se!ies o o5e!t
o! #!i$ina% a#ts #onstit(ti5e o
p%(n&e!H as a)ainst hi$/ the
a$en&e& Ino!$ation &oes not
a%%e)e a patte!n o #!i$ina% a#ts
in&i#ati5e o an o5e!a%%
(n%a"(% s#he$e o! #onspi!a#+.
<+ "a+ o !iposte/ the
p!ose#(tion o*8e#te& to the
ho%&in) o *ai% hea!in) (nti%
petitione! a)!ee& to "ith&!a"
his $otion to ;(ash. $he
prosecution contended that
petitioner&s motion to )uash
the amended 0nformation !as
antithetical to his petition for
bail.
0e a%so i%e& a petition o!
0a*eas Co!p(s. (An&a$in)
n+an) ini%e. An) hi!ap t(%o+
is($$a!iEe)
Dean"hi%e/ 'ose J'in))o+K
Est!a&a i%e& "ith the
San&i)an*a+an a $otion
p!a+in) that sai& #o(!t !eso%5e
his $otion to i- his *ai%.
the San&i)an*a+an iss(e& a
Reso%(tion &en+in) petitione!1s
$otion to ;(ash the a$en&e&
Ino!$ation. The $otion to i-
*ai% i%e& *+ 'ose J'in))o+K
Est!a&a "as a%so &enie& *+ the
San&i)an*a+an.
'ose J'in))o+K Est!a&a i%e& a
petition o! #e!tio!a!i o! the
n(%%ii#ation o a !eso%(tion o
the San&i)an*a+an &en+in) his
$otion to i- *ai%.
(I "i%% not in#%(&e the iss(es
!e)a!&in) the #ha!)in) o $o!e
than one oense/ et#. an+$o!e.
<ai% na %an) ta+o)
ISS7ES2
(1) 3hethe! o! not petitione!
sho(%& i!st *e a!!ai)ne& *eo!e
hea!in)s o his petition o! *ai%
$a+ *e #on&(#te&H
(2)3hethe! petitione! $a+ i%e
a $otion to ;(ash the a$en&e&
Ino!$ation &(!in) the
pen&en#+ o his petition o!
*ai%H
(3)3hethe! a 8oint hea!in) o
the petition o! *ai% o petitione!
an& those o the othe! a##(se& is
$an&ato!+H
(@) 3hethe! the Peop%e "ai5e&
thei! !i)ht to a&&(#e e5i&en#e in
opposition to the petition o!
*ai% o petitione! an& ai%e& to
a&&(#e st!on) e5i&en#e o )(i%t
o petitione! o! the #!i$e
#ha!)e&
0EL9:RATIO2
1. NO. The a!!ai)n$ent
o an a##(se& is not a
p!e!e;(isite to the
#on&(#t o hea!in)s
on his petition o!
*ai%. A pe!son is
a%%o"e& to petition o!
*ai% as soon as he is
&ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+
*+ 5i!t(e o his a!!est
o!
1.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
5o%(nta!+ s(!!en&e!. An a##(se& nee& not "ait o! his
a!!ai)n$ent *eo!e i%in) a petition o! *ai%.
in #ases "he!e it is a(tho!iEe&/ *ai% sho(%& *e )!ante&
*eo!e a!!ai)n$ent/ othe!"ise the a##(se& $a+ *e
p!e#%(&e& !o$ i%in) a $otion to ;(ash.
0o"e5e!/ the o!e)oin) p!ono(n#e$ent sho(%& not *e
ta,en to $ean that the hea!in) on a petition o! *ai% sho(%&
at a%% ti$es p!e#e&e a!!ai)n$ent/ *e#a(se the !(%e is that a
pe!son &ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+ *+ 5i!t(e o his a!!est o!
5o%(nta!+ s(!!en&e! $a+ app%+ o! *ai% as soon as he is
&ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+/ e5en *eo!e a #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation is i%e& a)ainst hi$. The
Co(!t1s p!ono(n#e$ent in Lavides sho(%& *e (n&e!stoo& in
%i)ht o the a#t that the a##(se& in sai& #ase i%e& a petition
o! *ai% as "e%% as a $otion to ;(ash the ino!$ations i%e&
a)ainst hi$. 0en#e/ "e e-p%aine& the!ein that to #on&ition
the )!ant o *ai% to an a##(se& on his a!!ai)n$ent "o(%& *e
to p%a#e hi$ in a position "he!e he has to #hoose *et"een
(1) i%in) a $otion to ;(ash an& th(s &e%a+ his !e%ease on
*ai% *e#a(se (nti% his $otion to ;(ash #an *e !eso%5e&/ his
a!!ai)n$ent #annot *e he%&/ an& (2) o!e)oin) the i%in) o
a $otion to ;(ash so that he #an *e a!!ai)ne& at on#e an&
the!eate! *e !e%ease& on *ai%. This "o(%& (n&e!$ine his
#onstit(tiona% !i)ht not to *e p(t on t!ia% e-#ept (pon a
5a%i& #o$p%aint o! Ino!$ation s(i#ient to #ha!)e hi$
"ith a #!i$e an& his !i)ht to *ai%.
It is the!eo!e not ne#essa!+ that an a##(se& *e i!st
a!!ai)ne& *eo!e the #on&(#t o hea!in)s on his app%i#ation
o! *ai%. Fo! "hen *ai% is a $atte! o !i)ht/ an a##(se& $a+
app%+ o! an& *e )!ante& *ai% e5en p!io! to a!!ai)n$ent. The
!(%in) in Lavides a%so i$p%ies that an app%i#ation o! *ai% in
a #ase in5o%5in) an oense p(nisha*%e *+ reclusion
perpetua to &eath $a+ a%so *e hea!& e5en *eo!e an
a##(se& is a!!ai)ne&. F(!the!/ i the #o(!t in&s in s(#h #ase
that the a##(se& is entit%e& to *ai% *e#a(se the e5i&en#e
a)ainst hi$ is not st!on)/ he $a+ *e )!ante& p!o5isiona%
%i*e!t+ e5en p!io! to a!!ai)n$entH o! in s(#h a sit(ation/
*ai% "o(%& *e
Ja(tho!iEe&K (n&e! the #i!#($stan#es. In ine/ the
San&i)an*a+an #o$$itte& a )!a5e a*(se o its &is#!etion
a$o(ntin) to e-#ess o 8(!is&i#tion in o!&e!in) the
a!!ai)n$ent o petitione! *eo!e p!o#ee&in) "ith the
hea!in) o his petition o! *ai%.
2. MES. The Co(!t in&s that no s(#h in#onsisten#+ e-ists
*et"een an app%i#ation o an a##(se& o! *ai% an& his i%in)
o a $otion to ;(ash. <ai% is the se#(!it+ )i5en o! the
!e%ease o a pe!son in the #(sto&+ o the %a"/ (!nishe& *+
hi$ o! a *on&s$an/ to )(a!antee his appea!an#e *eo!e an+
#o(!t as !e;(i!e& (n&e! the #on&itions set o!th (n&e! the
R(%es o Co(!t. Its p(!pose is to o*tain the p!o5isiona%
%i*e!t+ o a pe!son #ha!)e& "ith an oense (nti% his
#on5i#tion "hi%e at the sa$e ti$e se#(!in) his appea!an#e
at the t!ia%. As state& ea!%ie!/ a pe!son $a+ app%+ o! *ai%
!o$ the $o$ent that he is &ep!i5e& o his %i*e!t+ *+ 5i!t(e
o his a!!est o! 5o%(nta!+ s(!!en&e!.
On the othe! han&/ a $otion to ;(ash an Ino!$ation is
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
the $o&e *+ "hi#h an a##(se& assai%s the 5a%i&it+ o a
#!i$ina% #o$p%aint o! Ino!$ation i%e& a)ainst hi$ o!
ins(i#ien#+ on its a#e in point o %a"/ o! o! &ee#ts
"hi#h a!e appa!ent in the a#e o the Ino!$ation. An
a##(se& $a+ i%e a $otion to ;(ash the Ino!$ation/ as a
)ene!a% !(%e/ *eo!e a!!ai)n$ent.
These t"o !e%ies ha5e o*8e#ti5es "hi#h a!e not ne#essa!i%+
antitheti#a% to ea#h othe!. Ce!tain%+/ the !i)ht o an a##(se&
!i)ht to see, p!o5isiona% %i*e!t+ "hen #ha!)e& "ith an
oense not p(nisha*%e *+ &eath/ reclusion perpetua o! %ie
i$p!ison$ent/ o! "hen #ha!)e& "ith an oense p(nisha*%e
*+ s(#h pena%ties *(t ate! &(e hea!in)/ e5i&en#e o his
)(i%t is o(n& not to *e st!on)/ &oes not p!e#%(&e his !i)ht to
assai% the 5a%i&it+ o the Ino!$ation #ha!)in) hi$ "ith
s(#h oense. It $(st *e #on#e&e&/ ho"e5e!/ that i a
$otion to ;(ash a #!i$ina% #o$p%aint o! Ino!$ation on the
)!o(n& that the sa$e &oes not #ha!)e an+ oense is )!ante&
an& the #ase is &is$isse& an& the a##(se& is o!&e!e&
!e%ease&/ the petition o! *ai% o an a##(se& $a+ *e#o$e
$oot an& a#a&e$i#.
3. No. The!e is no p!o5ision in the Re5ise& R(%es o C!i$ina%
P!o#e&(!e o! the R(%es o P!o#e&(!e o the San&i)an*a+an
)o5e!nin) the hea!in)s o t"o o! $o!e petitions o! *ai%
i%e& *+ &ie!ent a##(se& o! that a petition o! *ai% o an
a##(se& *e hea!& si$(%taneo(s%+ "ith the t!ia% o the #ase
a)ainst the othe! a##(se&. The $atte! o "hethe! o! not to
#on&(#t a 8oint hea!in) o t"o o! $o!e petitions o! *ai%
i%e& *+ t"o &ie!ent a##(se& o! to #on&(#t a hea!in) o
sai& petition 8oint%+ "ith the t!ia% a)ainst anothe! a##(se& is
a&&!esse& to the so(n& &is#!etion o the t!ia% #o(!t. 7n%ess
)!a5e a*(se o &is#!etion a$o(ntin) to e-#ess o! %a#, o
8(!is&i#tion is sho"n/ the Co(!t "i%% not inte!e!e "ith the
e-e!#ise *+ the San&i)an*a+an o its &is#!etion.
It $a+ *e (n&e!s#o!e& that in the e-e!#ise o its &is#!etion/
the San&i)an*a+an $(st ta,e into a##o(nt not on%+ the
#on5enien#e o the State/ in#%(&in) the p!ose#(tion/ *(t
a%so that o the a##(se& an& the "itnesses o *oth the
p!ose#(tion an& the a##(se& an& the !i)ht o a##(se& to a
spee&+ t!ia%. The San&i)an*a+an $(st a%so #onsi&e! the
#o$p%e-ities o the #ases an& o the a#t(a% an& %e)a% iss(es
in5o%5in) petitione! an& the othe! a##(se&. Ate! a%%/ i this
Co(!t $a+ e#ho the o*se!5ation o the 7nite& States
S(p!e$e Co(!t/ the State has a sta,e/ "ith e5e!+ #itiEen/ in
his *ein) ao!&e& o(! histo!i# in&i5i&(a% p!ote#tions/
in#%(&in) those s(!!o(n&in) #!i$ina% p!ose#(tions. A*o(t
the$/ this Co(!t &a!es not *e#o$e #a!e%ess o! #o$p%a#ent
"hen that ashion has *e#o$e !a$pant o5e! the ea!th.
4. No. Petitione!1s #%ai$ that the p!ose#(tion ha& !e(se& to
p!esent e5i&en#e to p!o5e his )(i%t o! p(!poses o his *ai%
app%i#ation an& that the San&i)an*a+an has !e(se& to )!ant
a hea!in) the!eon is not *o!ne *+ the !e#o!&s. The
p!ose#(tion &i& not "ai5e/ e-p!ess%+ o! e5en i$p%ie&%+/ its
!i)ht to a&&(#e e5i&en#e in opposition to the petition o!
*ai% o petitione!. It $(st *e note& that the San&i)an*a+an
ha& a%!ea&+ s#he&(%e& the hea!in) &ates o! petitione!1s
app%i#ation o! *ai% *(t the sa$e "e!e !eset &(e to pen&in)
in#i&ents !aise& in se5e!a%
11
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
$otions i%e& *+ the pa!ties/ "hi#h in#i&ents ha& to *e
!eso%5e& *+ the #o(!t p!io! to the *ai% hea!in)s. The *ai%
hea!in) "as e5ent(a%%+ s#he&(%e& *+ the San&i)an*a+an on
'(%+ 1./ 2..1 *(t the hea!in) &i& not p(sh th!o()h &(e to
the i%in) o this petition on '(ne 29/ 2..1.
The &e%a+ in the #on&(#t o hea!in)s on petitione!1s
app%i#ation o! *ai% is the!eo!e not i$p(ta*%e so%e%+ to the
San&i)an*a+an o! to the p!ose#(tion. Petitione! is a%so
pa!t%+ to *%a$e the!eo!/ as is e5i&ent !o$ the o%%o"in)
%ist o $otions i%e& *+ hi$ an& *+ the p!ose#(tion.
J3hen the )!ant o *ai% is &is#!etiona!+/ the p!ose#(tion has the
*(!&en o sho"in) that the e5i&en#e o )(i%t a)ainst the a##(se& is
st!on). 0o"e5e!/ the &ete!$ination o "hethe! o! not the e5i&en#e o
)(i%t is st!on)/ *ein) a $atte! o 8(&i#ia% &is#!etion/ !e$ains "ith the
8(&)e. This &is#!etion *+ the 5e!+ nat(!e o thin)s/ $a+ !i)ht%+ *e
e-e!#ise& on%+ ate! the e5i&en#e is s(*$itte& to the #o(!t at the
hea!in). Sin#e the &is#!etion is &i!e#te& to the "ei)ht o the e5i&en#e
an& sin#e e5i&en#e #annot p!ope!%+ *e "ei)he& i not &(%+ e-hi*ite&
o! p!o&(#e& *eo!e the #o(!t/ it is o*5io(s that a p!ope! e-e!#ise o
8(&i#ia% &is#!etion !e;(i!es that the e5i&en#e o )(i%t *e s(*$itte& to
the #o(!t/ the petitione! ha5in) the !i)ht o #!ossGe-a$ination an& to
int!o&(#e his o"n e5i&en#e in !e*(tta%.K
A##o!&in)%+/ petitione! #annot *e !e%ease& !o$ &etention (nti% the
San&i)an*a+an #on&(#ts a hea!in) o his app%i#ation o! *ai% an&
!eso%5e the sa$e in his a5o!. E5en then/ the!e $(st i!st *e a in&in)
that the e5i&en#e a)ainst petitione! is not st!on) *eo!e he $a+ *e
)!ante& *ai%.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
12
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE V SAN 9IEAO
CAPISTRANO/ J.:
1In #!i$ina% #ase No. OG8=11/ Co(!t o Fi!st Instan#e o RiEa%/
O(eEon Cit+ <!an#h/ the ino!$ation #ha!)e& the &een&ants/
Da!io 0enson/ Raae% AonEa%es/ An)e% Den&oEa/ Ro)e%io
LaEa!o an& <ien5eni&o 3i8an)#o/ as p!in#ipa%s o the $(!&e! o
'es(s Lapi& "ith the ;(a%i+in) #i!#($stan#es o t!ea#he!+/
e5i&ent p!e$e&itation/ an& a*(se o s(pe!io! st!en)th an& "ith
the a))!a5atin) #i!#($stan#es o no#t(!nit+/ ai& o a!$e& $en
an& #!at o! !a(&.
2The p!ose#(tion an& the &eense a)!ee& that the $otions o! *ai%
o the &een&ants "o(%& *e #onsi&e!e& in the #o(!se o the
!e)(%a! t!ia% instea& o in a s($$a!+ p!o#ee&in).
3In the #o(!se o the !e)(%a! t!ia%/ ate! the p!ose#(tion ha&
p!esente& ei)ht "itnesses/ the t!ia% #o(!t !eso%5e& the $otions
o! *ai% )!antin) the sa$e &espite the o*8e#tion o the
p!ose#(tion on the )!o(n& that it sti%% ha& $ate!ia% "itnesses to
p!esent.
4The o!&e!s )!antin) *ai% in the a$o(nt o P>./... o! ea#h
&een&ant on the )!o(n& that the e5i&en#e o )(i%t "as not
st!on) $(st ha5e $a&e Fis#a% Os#a! Ino#entes 5e!+ an)!+
*e#a(se in his $otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation o the o!&e!s )!antin)
*ai% he (se& #ont($a#io(s %an)(a)e o! "hi#h he "as o!th"ith
#ite& o! #onte$pt. Fo!t(nate%+/ ate! the is#a% ha& s(*$itte& his
ans"e! an& e-p%anation/ the t!ia% 8(&)e/ in a o!)i5in) $oo&/ &i&
not p(nish hi$ o! #onte$pt on #on&ition that the #ont($a#io(s
"o!&s *e &e%ete& !o$ his $otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation.
ISS'() *+, the prosecution was depri"ed of procedural due
process- -(S, .(,/( T.( 0'(STI+,(1 +21(2S 32(
,'44 3,1 5+I1
53e a!e o the #onsi&e!e& opinion that "hethe! the $otion o!
*ai% o a &een&ant "ho is in #(sto&+ o! a #apita% oense *e
!eso%5e& in a s($$a!+ p!o#ee&in) o! in the #o(!se o a !e)(%a!
t!ia%/ the p!ose#(tion $(st *e )i5en an oppo!t(nit+ to p!esent/
"ithin a !easona*%e ti$e/ a%% the e5i&en#e that it $a+ &esi!e to
int!o&(#e *eo!e the #o(!t sho(%& !eso%5e the $otion o! *ai%.
6I/ as in the #!i$ina% #ase in5o%5e& in the instant spe#ia% #i5i%
a#tion/ the
p!ose#(tion sho(%& *e
&enie& s(#h an
oppo!t(nit+/ the!e
"o(%& *e a 5io%ation
o p!o#e&(!a% &(e
p!o#ess/ an& the o!&e!
o the #o(!t )!antin)
*ai% sho(%& *e
#onsi&e!e& 5oi& on
that )!o(n&.
7The #o(!tCs &is#!etion
to )!ant *ai% in #apita%
oenses $(st *e
e-e!#ise& in the %i)ht
o a s($$a!+ o the
e5i&en#e p!esente& *+
the p!ose#(tionH
othe!"ise/ it "o(%& *e
(n#ont!o%%e& an&
$i)ht *e #ap!i#io(s o!
"hi$si#a%. 0en#e/ the
#o(!tCs o!&e! )!antin)
o! !e(sin) *ai% $(st
#ontain a s($$a!+ o
the e5i&en#e o! the
p!ose#(tion o%%o"e&
*+ its #on#%(sion
"hethe! o! not the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on).
The o!&e!s o O#to*e! =/ 9 an&
12/ 1968/ )!antin) *ai% to the
i5e &een&ants a!e &ee#ti5e in
o!$ an& s(*stan#e *e#a(se
the+ &o not #ontain a s($$a!+
o the e5i&en#e p!esente& *+ the
p!ose#(tion. The+ on%+ #ontain
the #o(!tCs #on#%(sion that the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t is not st!on).
<ein) th(s &ee#ti5e in o!$
an& s(*stan#e/ the o!&e!s
#o$p%aine& o #annot/ a%so on
this )!o(n&/ *e a%%o"e& to
stan&.
1?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
OCADPO V <ERNA<E
DORAN/ C.J.2
1This is a petition o! certiorari i%e& *+ E&(a!&o O#a$po to set asi&e
an o!&e! iss(e& *+ the Fo(!th 9i5ision o the Peop%eCs #o(!t &en+in)
his app%i#ation o! *ai%.#han!o*%es5i!t(a%%a"%i*!a!+ #han!o*%es 5i!t(a%
%a" %i*!a!+
2The petitione! "as a!!este& *+ the Co(nte! Inte%%i)en#e Cop!s o the
A!$e& Fo!#es o the 7nite& States an& #onine& in D(ntin)%(pa
P!isons sin#e '(%+ ?./ 19@>/ an& p(!s(ant to E-e#(ti5e O!&e! No. 6>>>
he "as t(!ne& o5e! to the Co$$on"ea%th o the Phi%ippines an& %ate!
on i%e& "ith the Peop%es Co(!t his app%i#ation o! *ai% (n&e! A#t No.
682.
3At the hea!in) o the app%i#ation/ the spe#ia% p!ose#(to! state& that
petitione! "ith ha5in) pointe& o(t P%a#i&o T!ini&a& as a )(e!i%%a to the
'apanese an& o! that !eason P%a#i&o T!ini&a& "as shot to &eath.
4No e5i&en#e/ ho"e5e!/ "as p!esente& *+ the spe#ia% p!ose#(to! an& a%%
that he &i& at the hea!in) "as to !e#ite the #ontents o an ai&a5it
"hi#h has no !ee!!en#e to #o(nt No. @/ an& to state (!the! that he ha&
2= $o!e ai&a5its.
5Petitione! $a&e an o*8e#tion statin) that a $e!e !e#ita% is not a
e5i&en#e an& that e5i&en#e #annot *e #onsi&e!e& st!on) "hi#h has not
*een s(*8e#te& to the test o #!ossGe-a$ination.
60e testiie& in his o"n *eha% in &en+in) a%% the #ha!)es p!ee!!e&
a)ainst hi$ an& state& that sai& #ha!)es a!e $e!e int!i)(es o his
po%iti#a% ene$+ Da!#e%o T!ini&a&.
77n&e! a%% these #i!#($stan#es/ the Fo(!th &i5ision o the Peop%eCs
Co(!t #o$pose& o '(&)es 'ose <e!na*e/ E$i%io Ri%%o!aEa an& An)e%
Aa$*oa/ iss(e& an o!&e! &ate& Fe*!(a!+ 2?/ 19@6/ &en+in) the
app%i#ation o! *ai%.
80en#e/ this petition o! #e!tio!a!i.
ISS'() *+, no proof was presented by the special prosecutor to
show that the e"idence of guilt is strong, thus, the 6eople7s /ourt
committed a gra"e abuse of discretion in denying the application for
bail --(S.
93e ha5e he%& in Herras Teehankee vs. Director of Prisons
(=6 Phi%./ =>6)/ that a%% pe!sons sha%% *eo!e #on5i#tion *e *ai%a*%e
e-#ept "hen #ha!)e is a #apita% oense an& the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on). the )ene!a% !(%e/ the!eo!e/ is that a%% pe!sons/ "hethe! #ha!)e&
o! not +et #ha!)es/ a!e/ *eo!e thei! #on5i#tion/ entit%e& to p!o5isiona%
!e%ease on *ai%/ the on%+ e-#eption *ein) "he!e the #ha!)e is a #apita%
oense an& the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is o(n& to *e st!on).
10 At the hea!in) o the app%i#ation o! *ai%/ the *(!&en o sho"in)
that the #ase a%%s "ithin the e-#eption is on the p!ose#(tion/ a##o!&in)
to R(%e 11./ se#tion =.
11 The &ete!$ination o "hethe! o! not the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on) is/ as state& in 0e!!as Teehan,ee #ase/ a $atte! o 8(&i#ia%
&is#!etion. This &is#!etion/ *+ the 5e!+ nat(!e o thin)s/ $a+ !i)ht%+ *e
e-e!#ise on%+ ate! the e5i&en#e is s(*$itte& to the #o(!t at the
hea!in). Sin#e
the &is#!etion is
&i!e#te& to the "ei)ht
o e5i&en#e #annot
p!ope!%+ *e "ei)he& i
not &(%+ e-hi*ite& o!
p!o&(#e& *eo!e the
#o(!t (Ra$os vs.
Ra$os/ @> Phi%./ ?62)/
it is o*5io(s that a
p!ope! e-e!#ise o
8(&i#ia% &is#!etion
!e;(i!es that the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t *e
s(*$itte& to the #o(!t/
the petitione! ha5in) the
!i)ht o #!ossG
e-a$ination an& to
int!o&(#e his o"n
e5i&en#e in !e*(tta%.
1De!e ai&a5its o!
!e#ita% o thei! #ontents
a!e not s(i#ient sin#e
the+ a!e $e!e hea!sa+
e5i&en#e/ (n%ess the
petitione! ai%s to o*8e#t
the!eto.
2An& this is the
p!e5ai%in) &o#t!ine in
the 7nite& States. In
so$e states o the
A$e!i#an (nion/ the
*(!&en o sho"in) that
p!oo is e5i&ent o! the
p!es($ption )!eat/ %ies
on the p!ose#(tion
"hi%e in othe!s on the
petitione!/ *(t the !(%e
see$s to *e (nio!$ to
the ee#t that no $atte!
"hi#h si&e *ea!s the
*(!&en o p!oo/ the
e5i&en#e o )(i%t sho(%&
*e a&&(#e& *eo!e the
#o(!t o! a p!ope!
&ete!$ination o its
p!o*ati5e o!#e
3In #o!p(s '(!is
Se#(n&($ the !(%e is
s($$a!iEe& as o%%o"s2
o 7n%ess the
p!es($ption
!o$ an
in&i#t$ent
o! a #apita%
oense is
#on#%(si5e
a)ainst
a##(se&
"hi#h has
*een
#onsi&e!e& in
se#tion ?@
*(2) (*)the
&ete!$ination
as to "hethe!
the p!oo is
e5i&ent o! the
p!es($ption
)!eat $(st/ on
an o!i)ina%
app%i#ation/
*e &ete!$ine&
!o$ the
e5i&en#e
a&&(#e& on
the
app%i#ation no
$atte! "hi#h
si&e *ea!s the
*(!&en o
p!oo. 3he!e
a##(se& (n&e!
a #apita%
in&i#t$ent
*ea!s the
*(!&en o
p!oo he
sho(%& oe!
the "itnesses
"hose na$es
a!e en&o!se&
on the
in&i#t$ent/
a%tho()h he is
not %i$ite& to
s(#h
"itnesses.
o The #o(!t
sho(%& hea!
a%% $ate!ia%
an& !e%e5ant
e5i&en#e
oe!e& *+
eithe! pa!t+/
s(#h as the
)!an& 8(!+
$in(tes/ an&
sho(%&
#onsi&e! the
e5i&en#e as a
"ho%e. (8
C.'.S./ se#tion
@6 Q*I/ p. 9@.).
47pon the hea!in) it is
p!ope! to !e;(i!e the
p!isone! to *e)in the
e5i&en#e/ a%tho()h it
i$poses (pon hi$ the
ne#essit+ o p!o&(#in)
e5i&en#e (pon "hi#h
the state inten&e& to
!e%+ o! his #on5i#tion
on the ina% t!ia%. <(t
the a##(se& "i%% not *+
this p!o#e&(!e *e
&enie& the oppo!t(nit+
o #!ossGe-a$inin) the
peop%eCs "itnesses. (E
parte 0e!en/ 2= In&./
8=. To the sa$e ee#t/ Ri)&on 5s. State/ @1 F%a./ ?.8H 26 So./ =11H e
parte NathanQF%a.IH >. so./ ?8.6 (?9 L. R. A./ Ne" Se!ies/ pp. =>2/ ==@/
==>.).
5The e5i&en#e o! the state/ as "e%% as that o! the a##(se&/ sho(%& *e
p!esente& (1) *+ the petitione! in an app%i#ation o! *ai%. !E parte
T(%%+ QF%a.I/ 66 S./ 296H Ri)&on 5s. State/ @1 F%a./ ?.8H 26 S./ =11H E
parte 0e!en/ 2= In&./ 8=. (2) <(t the petitione!/ *+ p!ope! p!o#e&(!e/
$a+ test the p!o*ati5e
o!#e o the testi$on+
o! the state in o!&e! to
(%%+ p!esent his #ase
o! the p(!poses o the
hea!in). E parte T(%%+/
supraH E parte
0e!en/ supra. (6 C.'./
p. 98@/ n. >. QaI/
se#tion
21@.).#han!o*%es5i!t(a%%
a"%i*!a!+ #han!o*%es
5i!t(a% %a" %i*!a!+
1@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
13he!e on a $otion to a&$it to *ai% ate! the in&i#t$ent/ the
e5i&en#e o the "itnesses "ho testiie& *eo!e the )!an&
8(!+ &oes not $a,e a prima facie #ase a)ainst the a##(se&/
he is entit%e& to *ai%/ an& it is an e!!o! to !e(se *ai% (pon
the state$ent o the &ist!i#t atto!ne+ that he has othe!
e5i&en#e "hi#h he "i%% not &is#%ose o! ea! o "ea,enin)
the stateCs #ase. (In e parte Re+na%&/ ?= Te-as/ 1.)
2An& this is in #ono!$it+ "ith the o!$e! !(%in)s o this
Co(!t. (DARCOS V. CR7R AN9 0ERRAS CASE)
3T!(e that in the sa$e #ase o Herras Teehankee vs.
Director of Prisons/ supra/ "e sai& that the hea!in) o an
app%i#ation o! *ai% sho(%& *e s($$a!+ o! othe!"ise in the
&is#!etion o the #o(!t. <+ 6s($$a!+ hea!in)6 "e $eant
s(#h *!ie an& spee&+ $etho& o !e#ei5in) an& #onsi&e!in)
the e5i&en#e o )(i%t as is p!a#ti#a*%e an& #onsistent "ith
the p(!pose o the hea!in) "hi#h is $e!e%+ to &ete!$ine the
"ei)ht o the e5i&en#e o! p(!poses o *ai%. On s(#h
hea!in)/ the #o(!t 6&oes not sit to t!+ the $e!its o! to ente!
into an+ ni#e in;(i!+ as to the "ei)ht that o()ht to *e
a%%o"e& to the e5i&en#e o! o! a)ainst a##(se&/ no! "i%% it
spe#(%ate on the o(t#o$e o the t!ia% o! on "hat (!the!
e5i&en#e $a+ *e the!ein oe!e& an& a&$itte&.6 (8 C. '. S./
9?/9@.)
4The #o(!se o the in;(i!+ $a+ *e %et to the &is#!etion o
the #o(!t "hi#h $a+ #onine itse% to !e#ei5in) s(#h
e5i&en#e as has !ee!en#e to s(*stantia% $atte!s a5oi&in)
(nne#essa!+ tho!o()hness in the e-a$ination an& #!ossG
e-a$ination o "itnesses an& !e&(#in) to a !easona*%e
$ini$($ the a$o(nt o #o!!o*o!ation pa!ti#(%a!%+ on
&etai%s that a!e not essentia% to the p(!pose o the hea!in).
5O*8e#tion has *een $a&e %on) a)o to this $etho& o
hea!in) "he!ein the !e)(%a! t!ia% is anti#ipate& tho()h to a
%i$ite& e-tent at %east. *(t the o*8e#tion "as &is$isse&.
6It appea!in) in the instant #ase that on the hea!in) o the
app%i#ation o! *ai% i%e& *+ the petitione! no p!oo "as
oe!e& *+ the p!ose#(tion to sho" that the e5i&en#e o
)(i%t is st!on)/ the Fo(!th 9i5ision o the Peop%eCs Co(!t
#o$$itte& a )!a5e a*(se o &is#!etion in &en+in) the *ai%
app%ie& o!.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
1>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
SIARON V '79AE
DA4ALINTAL/ J.:
1At the o(tset it sho(%& *e $entione& that the instant petition is
o!$a%%+ &ee#ti5e in that the petitione! appea!s to *e the State
P!ose#(to! han&%in) the #ase *e%o" instea& o the Peop%e o the
Phi%ippines/ "ho sho(%& p!ope!%+ *e !ep!esente& in this p!o#ee&in) *+
the So%i#ito! Aene!a%. (<7T FOR SPEE9M 9ISPOSITION OF T0E
CASE/ T0IS INFIRDITM IS OVERLOO4E9. SC PROCEE9S).
2At the o(tset/ %et it *e state& that ate! the a!!ai)n$ent o the a##(se&
an& *eo!e the #o$$en#e$ent o the t!ia%/ the app%i#ations o! *ai%/
"e!e hea!&
3The Co(!t !(%e& an& o!&e!e& a 8oint hea!in) o the #ases on the $e!its
an& o the app%i#ations o! *ai%. On this sa$e o##asion the Co(!t a%so
#onsi&e!e& the $otion i%e& *+ the p!ose#(tion to &is#ha!)e the
&een&ant An)e%i#o Na8a!. 3itho(t an+ o*8e#tion on the pa!t o the
&eense/ sai& $otion to &is#ha!)e "as )!ante& an& a##(se& Na8a! "as
&is#ha!)e& to *e#o$e state "itness p(!s(ant to Se#. 11/ R(%e 119 o
the R(%es o Co(!t.
4As the t!ia% p!o)!esse&/ "ith the p!ose#(tion p!esentin) se5e!a%
"itnesses "hose testi$onies ha5e not esta*%ishe& e5i&en#e &i!e#t%+
%in,in) the a##(se& Es#!i*ano an& Pa&i%%a to the #onspi!a#+ a%%e)e& in
the ino!$ations in these #ases/ the &eense on A()(st 2/ 19=1 i%e&
an (!)ent $otion o! the !e#onsi&e!ation o the o!&e! )i5en in open
Co(!t o!&e!in) a 8oint hea!in) o the #ases on the $e!its an& o the
app%i#ations o! *ai%/ to "hi#h the p!ose#(tion a%so i%e& its
opposition.
5The Co(!t !e#onsi&e!e& its p!e5io(s o!&e! an& o!&e!e& that the
app%i#ations o! *ai% *e i!st hea!& to "hi#h the p!ose#(tion )a5e its
assent.
ISS'() whether or not a proceeding in an application for bail is still
summary in nature as it was under the old rule - -(S
1As a )ene!a% p!oposition/ a%% pe!sons sha%% *eo!e #on5i#tion *e
*ai%a*%e e-#ept "hen the #ha!)e is a #apita% oense an& the e5i&en#e
o )(i%t is st!on).
2At the hea!in) o the app%i#ation o! *ai% the *(!&en o sho"in) that
the #ase a%%s "ithin the e-#eption is on the p!ose#(tion/ a##o!&in) to
Se#tion =/ R(%e 11@ o the R(%es o Co(!t. T
3he &ete!$ination o "hethe! o! not the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is st!on) is a
$atte! o 8(&i#ia% &is#!etion/ "hi#h in the 5e!+ nat(!e o thin)s $a+
!i)ht%+ *e e-e!#ise& on%+ ate! the e5i&en#e is s(*$itte& to the #o(!t
at the hea!in). Neithe! (n&e! the o%& no! (n&e! the ne" R(%es is the!e
an+ spe#ii# p!o5ision &einin) "hat ,in& o hea!in) it sho(%& *e/ *(t
in the t"o #ases #ite& at the ootnote he!eo it "as state& that the
hea!in) sho(%& *e s($$a!+ o! othe!"ise in the &is#!etion o the
#o(!t.
46<+ Cs($$a!+ hea!in)/C this Co(!t a&&e&/ 6"e $ean s(#h *!ie an&
spee&+ $etho& o !e#ei5in) an& #onsi&e!in) the e5i&en#e o )(i%t as
is p!a#ti#a*%e an& #onsistent "ith the p(!pose o the hea!in) "hi#h is
$e!e%+ to &ete!$ine the "ei)ht o the e5i&en#e o! p(!poses o *ai%.
On s(#h hea!in)/ the #o(!t &oes not sit to t!+ the $e!its o! to ente!
into an+ ni#e in;(i!+ as to the "ei)ht that o()ht to *e a%%o"e& to the
e5i&en#e o! o! a)ainst a##(se&/ no! "i%% it spe#(%ate on the
o(t#o$e o the t!ia% o! on
"hat (!the! e5i&en#e $a+
*e the!ein oe!e& an&
a&$itte&.C (8 C.'.S. 9?/ 9@.)
T
1The #o(!se o the in;(i!+
$a+ *e %et to the
&is#!etion o the #o(!t
"hi#h $a+ #onine itse% to
!e#ei5in) s(#h e5i&en#e as
has !ee!en#e to s(*stantia%
$atte!s/ a5oi&in)
(nne#essa!+ tho!o()hness
in the e-a$ination an&
#!ossGe-a$ination o
"itnesses an& !e&(#in) to a
!easona*%e $ini$($ at the
a$o(nt o #o!!o*o!ation
pa!ti#(%a!%+ on &etai%s that
a!e not essentia% to the
p(!poses o the hea!in).6
23e &o not see that the
a&&ition o the p!o5ision
Se#. =/ R(%e 11@ has
$ate!ia%%+ #han)e& the
nat(!e o the hea!in) on a
petition o! *ai% to the
e-tent o &ep!i5in) the
Co(!t o its &is#!etion to
#onine the e5i&en#e to the
e-tent ne#essa!+ o! the
p!ope! &ete!$ination o the
;(estion o "hethe! o! not
the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on). The on%+ #han)e
that has *een int!o&(#e& is
that s(#h e5i&en#e sha%% *e
#onsi&e!e& a(to$ati#a%%+
!ep!o&(#e& at the t!ia% in
o!&e! to a5oi& (nne#essa!+
!epetition.
3The p!ose#(tion ha& ha&
th!ee $onths sin#e the
hea!in) sta!te& (nti% the
;(estione& o!&e! "as
iss(e& an& ha& #a%%e& 2=
"itnesses 8(st to %a+ a
s(i#ient #o!!o*o!ati5e
*asis o! the testi$on+ o
its p!in#ipa% "itness/
An)e%i#o Na8a!. The p%ea
that this "itness "i%% !e5ea%
the na$es o pe!sons "ho
ha5e so$e ,no"%e&)e o
#i!#($stan#es "hi#h ten&
to #onne#t the t"o a##(se&
"ith the#!i$es an& "ho
p!es($a*%+ "i%% a%so *e
#a%%e& to testi+/ an& "hose
"i%%in)ness to &o so $a+
the!e*+ *e a&5e!se%+
in%(en#e& *+ s(#h
!e5e%ation/ &oes not appea!
to *e #on5in#in)/ sin#e the
!e#o!& o the #ases a%!ea&+
#ontains the testi$on+
"hi#h Na8a! )a5e at the
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation/
asi&e !o$ his th!ee s"o!n
state$ents #onsistin) o 16
pa)es t+pe& sin)%eGspa#e in
;(estion an& ans"e! o!$.
(TANAAAPIN NA 4ASI
NILA NA INS7FFICIENT
NAA 9A3)
4The p!o5iso that an+
"itness $a+ *e !e#a%%e& at
the t!ia% o! a&&itiona%
e-a$ination (n&e!s#o!es/
i an+thin)/ the &ie!en#e
*et"een the hea!in) o!
p(!poses o the petition o!
*ai% an& the t!ia% on the
$e!its. This is as it sho(%&
*e/ *e#a(se one has o! its
p(!pose/ !o$ the en&point
o the p!ose#(tion/ to sho"
that st!on) e5i&en#e o
)(i%t e-ists "hi%e the
#onte$p%ates p!oo *e+on&
!easona*%e &o(*t.
5The !i)ht o the
p!ose#(tion to #ont!o% the
;(ant($ o e5i&en#e an&
the o!&e! o p!esentation o
the "itness "hi%e not to *e
&is!e)a!&e&/ $(st
ne5e!the%ess *e e;(ate&
"ith the p(!pose o the
hea!in)/ "hi#h is to
&ete!$ine "hethe! the
a##(se& a%%s "ithin the
e-#eption to the )ene!a%
!(%e that he is
#onstit(tiona%%+ entit%e& to
*ai% *eo!e #on5i#tion.
6To a%%o" the p!ose#(tion to
#on&(#t the hea!in) as i it
"e!e a (%%G&!ess t!ia% on
the $e!its "ho &eeat the
p(!pose o the p!o#ee&in).
7>0*PO*0$0?2@ the
petition is &is$isse& an&
the te$po!a!+ !est!ainin)
o!&e! iss(e& *+ this Co(!t
is %ite&/ "ith inst!(#tions
to the !espon&ent Co(!t to
!es($e the hea!in)
o!th"ith o! the
p!esentation o An)e%i#o
Na8a! as "itness o! the
p!ose#(tion/ "itho(t
p!e8(&i#e to sai& Co(!tCs
a%%o"in)/ in the e-e!#ise o
its &is#!etion/ the
p!esentation o s(#h othe!
p!ose#(tion as it $a+ &ee$
a&5isa*%e/ in the inte!est o
8(sti#e.
16
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
DADOLO V NARISIDA
<ELLOSILLO/ J.:
1On 16 Da+ 199@ a #!i$ina% #o$p%aint o! $(!&e! "as i%e& a)ainst
Antonio <a%a)ot an& A!ie% A#ha o! the $(!&e! o 9anie% Da$o%o/'!./
son o #o$p%ainant
2Ate! '(&)e Ro)e%io R. Na!is$a #on&(#te& the !e;(isite p!e%i$ina!+
e-a$ination he iss(e& the #o!!espon&in) "a!!ants o a!!est a)ainst the
a##(se&. Respon&ent '(&)e !e#o$$en&e& no *ai% sin#e $(!&e! is a
#apita% oense an& the e5i&en#e o )(i%t "as st!on). A#ha "as %ate!
a!!este& "hi%e <a%a)ot s(!!en&e!e& to the PC P!o5in#ia% Co$$an& in
Cota*ato.
3S(*se;(ent%+/ <a%a)ot th!o()h #o(nse% i%e& a Petition "or #dmission
to Bail an& set the sa$e o! hea!in). At the s#he&(%e& hea!in) &eense
#o(nse% ino!$e& the #o(!t that <a%a)ot "as i%% an& as,e& the #o(!t to
&ispense "ith the s(*$ission o his petition an&/ instea&/ to a%%o"
<a%a)ot to *e t!eate& at the hospita% (SPECIAL TREATDENTSSS).
4DADOLO2#%ai$s that &espite the a#t that !espon&ent '(&)e
!e#o$$en&e& no *ai% o! *oth a##(se& he ne5e!the%ess a%%o"e&
<a%a)ot to p(t a *ai% o P1>./...... "itho(t )i5in) the p!ose#(tion the
oppo!t(nit+ to p!esent its e5i&en#e to p!o5e that the e5i&en#e o )(i%t
a)ainst the a##(se& "as st!on).
5DADOLO2 a%so a5e!s that on se5e!a% o##asions he sa" !espon&ent
'(&)e an& #o(nse% o! a##(se& <a%a)ot to)ethe! an& en)a)e& in a
se!ies o p!i5ate ta%,s at a nea!*+ !esta(!ant.
6In his Memorandum o 21 '(%+ 199>/ app!o5e& *+ Co(!t A&$inist!ato!
E!nani C!(E PaFo/ 9ep(t+ Co(!t A&$inist!ato! Re+na%&o L. S(a!eE
o(n& that !espon&ent '(&)e &is!e)a!&e& p!o#e&(!a% &(e p!o#ess in
)!antin) *ai% to the a##(se&. 0e opine& that the p!ose#(tion1s "ai5e! to
p!esent e5i&en#e o()ht to ha5e p!o$pte& !espon&ent '(&)e Jto as, the
p!ose#(tion to p!esent its "itnesses at anothe! &ate set o! the p(!pose
(o as,in)) #%a!ii#ato!+ ;(estions !o$ "hi#h he $a+ ine! the
st!en)th o the e5i&en#e o )(i%t o the a##(se&.K.
ISS'() *+, 8'19( ,32ISI:3 3/T(1 I,3662+62I3T(4-
I, 2(/+::(,1I,9 T.( 3I4 ;+2 3439+T<--(S
7The p!o#e&(!e o #on&(#tin) a hea!in) on the app%i#ation o!
a&$ission to *ai% sho(%& p!o5i&e the *asis o! 8(&)es to &ete!$ine
"hethe! the p!ose#(tion1s e5i&en#e is "ea, o! st!on). In the #ase at
*en#h/ "hi%e !espon&ent #on&(#te& a hea!in) on <a%a)ot1s petition o!
*ai% s(#h p!o#ee&in) &i& not e%i#it e5i&en#e !o$ the p!ose#(tion to
)(i&e !espon&ent in the p!ope! &ete!$ination o the petition.
8The &ee!entia% attit(&e o the p!ose#(tion #annot e-#(se !espon&ent1s
&is!e)a!& o his pe!e$pto!+ &(t+.
It is "o!th+ to note that in the !es($ption o the hea!in) in the
ate!noon o 2> Da+ 199@ the p!ose#(tion p!ea#e& its s(*$ission
"ith a state$ent o its Jse!io(s 5ehe$ent o*8e#tion to the petition o!
*ai%.K
S(#h $aniestation o()ht to ha5e a%e!te& !espon&ent o the ne-t
app!op!iate steps in !eso%5in) the petition. In Borinaga v. Tamin "e
&e%ineate& a #%ea! )(i&e%ine on the e-e!#ise o 8(&i#ia% &is#!etion in
hea!in) petitions
o! *ai% GJ- - - (")hi%e
the &ete!$ination o
"hethe! o! not e5i&en#e
o )(i%t is st!on) is a
$atte! o 8(&i#ia%
&is#!etion/ this
&is#!etion *+ the nat(!e
o thin)s $a+ !i)ht%+ *e
e-e!#ise& on%+ ate! the
e5i&en#e is s(*$itte& to
the #o(!t at s(#h
hea!in). 3hethe! the
$otion o! *ai% o an
a##(se& "ho is in
#(sto&+ in a s($$a!+
p!o#ee&in) o! in the
#o(!se o a !e)(%a! t!ia%
the p!ose#(tion $(st *e
)i5en an oppo!t(nit+ to
p!esent/ "ithin a
!easona*%e ti$e/ a%% the
e5i&en#e that it $a+
&esi!e to int!o&(#e
*eo!e the #o(!t $a+
!eso%5e the $otion o!
*ai%. I the p!ose#(tion
sho(%& *e &enie& o
s(#h an oppo!t(nit+/
the!e "o(%& *e a
5io%ation o p!o#e&(!a%
&(e p!o#ess/ an& the
o!&e! o the #o(!t
)!antin) *ai% sho(%& *e
#onsi&e!e& 5oi& on that
)!o(n& - - - (E)5en
"he!e the p!ose#(to!
!e(ses to a&&(#e
e5i&en#e in opposition
to the app%i#ation to
)!ant an& i- *ai%/ the
#o(!t $a+ as, the
p!ose#(tion s(#h
;(estions as "o(%&
as#e!tain the st!en)th o
the state1s e5i&en#e o!
8(&)e the a&e;(a#+ o
the a$o(nt o *ai% - -
J
1The ai%(!e o
!espon&ent '(&)e to
a&he!e to a *asi#/
(n&a$enta% p!o#e&(!e
#annot *e %i)ht%+
o5e!%oo,e&. As
#o!!e#t%+ pe!#ei5e& *+
OCA/ this o$ission *+
!espon&ent #onstit(tes
)!oss i)no!an#e o the
%a" sin#e it !es(%te& in
&ep!i5in) the
p!ose#(tion the ti$eG
teste& an& en&(!in)
p!o#e&(!a% &(e p!o#ess.
2It is an otG!epeate&
&i#t($ that a 8(&)e
sho(%& e-hi*it $o!e
than 8(st a #(!so!+
a#;(aintan#e "ith the
stat(tes an& p!o#e&(!a%
!(%es. Fo! the !o%e o
8(&)es in the
a&$inist!ation o 8(sti#e
!e;(i!es a #ontin(o(s
st(&+ o the %a" an&
8(!isp!(&en#e.
In&(*ita*%+/ the
in&(st!+ o a 8(&)e in
,eepin) a*!east "ith the
%a" an& #o(!t !(%in)s
"i%% enhan#e the aith o
o(! peop%e in the
a&$inist!ation o 8(sti#e
sin#e %iti)ants "i%% *e
#oni&ent%+ an&
in5a!ia*%+ ass(!e& that
the o##(pants o the
*en#h #annot 8(st%+ *e
a##(se& o a &ei#ien#+
in thei! )!asp o %e)a%
p!in#ip%es.
1=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE V. T7PPAL
O7IS7D<INA, J.:
1On appea% is the 8oint &e#ision o the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t (RTC) o
I%a)an/ Isa*e%a/ in&in) appe%%ant Sat(!nino T(ppa% )(i%t+ o !o**e!+
"ith ho$i#i&e an& senten#in) hi$ to reclusion perpetua.
2Appe%%ant1s #on5i#tion ste$$e& !o$ o(! #ha!)es i%e& on A()(st 21/
1992/ *+ the P!o5in#ia% P!ose#(to! o Isa*e%a
3Appe%%ant !e$aine& at %a!)e o! a%$ost nine (9) +ea!s ate! the i%in) o
the ao!esai& #ases. It "as on%+ on Da!#h >/ 1998 that appe%%ant "as
a!!este& in Cainta/ RiEa% an& in #onne#tion "ith anothe! #ase o!
!o**e!+.
4Appe%%ant "as a!!ai)ne&. Assiste& *+ #o(nse%/ he p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ to
the #ha!)es. The #ases "e!e then #onso%i&ate& an& t!ia% ens(e&.
5The p!ose#(tion1s e5i&en#e esta*%ishe& that2
6On the e5enin) o 9e#e$*e! 22/ 1989/ the spo(ses <onia#io an&
F%o!ina So%ito an& thei! o(!G+ea!Go%& #hi%&/ E!en/ atten&e& the
"e&&in) o F%o!ina1s +o(n)e! siste!/ Loi&a At(an/ at <a!an)a+
<an)(!o/ Reina De!#e&es/ Isa*e%a. At a*o(t 112?. P.D./ the So%itos
a##o$panie& *+ <a!to%o At(an/ '!./ F%o!ina1s 26G+ea!Go%& *!othe!/ %et
the "e&&in) !e#eption. The+ ha& *a!e%+ t!a5e%e& so$e ?.. $ete!s
a"a+ an& "e!e in !ont o the ho(se o Fe%i- Sa#an)/ "hen the+ "e!e
"a+%ai& *+ appe%%ant an& his o(! #o$panions/ no" the #oG
a##(se&.Ate! <en T(ppa% anno(n#e& a heist/ 9ani%o
T(ppa% i$$e&iate%+ !an o "ith F%o!ina1s han&*a) #ontainin)
P2/>..... in #ash. Appe%%ant then shot F%o!ina "ith a sho!t i!ea!$/
hittin) he! in the a*&o$en. <a!to%o At(an/ '!./ t!ie& to shie%& F%o!ina
!o$ (!the! ha!$ *(t Da!#e%o T(ppa% then shot <a!to%o/ ,i%%in) hi$
on the spot.
7F%o!ina too, a&5anta)e o the sit(ation an& s#(!!ie& to"a!&s a nea!*+
*anana p%antation. The $a%ea#to!s )a5e p(!s(it an& #ontin(e& to i!e
at he! hittin) he! (!the! at the *(tto#,s an& in the a!$. She p!eten&e&
to *e &ea& an& e%% to the )!o(n&. The p%o+ "o!,e& *e#a(se she hea!&
a##(se& Pe&!o T(ppa% sa+/ JLet (s )o/ she is a%!ea&+ &ea&.K
8In the $eanti$e/ (pon hea!in) the )(nshots/ <onia#io So%ito an& his
son E!en s#a$pe!e& to"a!&s the ho(se o Fe%i- Sa#an). CoGa##(se&
<en T(ppa% !an ate! *oth athe! an& son. 0e ai$e& the )(n at the$/
*(t the )(n 8a$$e& an& &i& not i!e.
9In the p!esent #ases/ appe%%ant !aise& the &eense o &enia% an& a%i*i.
/2I:62+ ISS'()
*+, the fact that the trial court had held during the bail hearing
that the prosecution e"idence was weak, it is estopped from
rendering a contrary ruling after the trial.- ,+
10 Sai& in&in)s sho(%& not *e #onst!(e& as an i$$(ta*%e e5a%(ation
o the p!ose#(tion1s e5i&en#e.
11 It is sett%e& that the assess$ent o the p!ose#(tion e5i&en#e
p!esente& &(!in) *ai% hea!in)s in #apita% oenses is p!e%i$ina!+ an&
inten&e& on%+ o! the p(!pose o )!antin) o! &en+in) app%i#ations o!
the p!o5isiona% !e%ease o the a##(se&.
O$62# 0**;2*
*+, the e"idence now
on record is sufficient
to hold appellant
Saturnino Tuppal
guilty beyond
reasonable doubt of
the crime of robbery
with homicide- -(S
1The #o(!t a $uo o(n&
the p!ose#(tion1s
e5i&en#e #!e&i*%e. It
&is*e%ie5e& appe%%ant1s
*a!e &enia%s.
E+e"itness F%o!ina
So%ito1s testi$on+ on
the ho%&G(p in#i&ent
"as !ep%ete "ith
$ate!ia% &etai%s. She
testiie& that ate! *ein)
shot in the a*&o$en/
she )!app%e& "ith
appe%%ant o! possession
o the )(n. Dean"hi%e/
#oGa##(se& 9ani%o
T(ppa% &ashe& o "ith
he! *a) an& its #ontents/
a##o!&in) to he!. She
a%so &es#!i*e& the
i!ea!$ (se& in shootin)
he! an& ,i%%in) he!
*!othe!. These &etai%s
#o(%& not ha5e sp!(n)
!o$ he! i$a)ination/
*(t on%+ !o$ he! 5i5i&
!e#o%%e#tion o the ata%
in#i&ent i$p%i#atin) the
appe%%ant an& his
*!othe!s as the
$a%ea#to!s.
2Appe%%ant1s &eense o
a%i*i is (ntena*%e.
*+, the conspiracy
among the accused
was established- -(S
3Ate! a##(se& <en
T(ppa% anno(n#e& the
ho%&G(p/ #oGa##(se&
9ani%o T(ppa% too,
F%o!ina1s han&*a)
#ontainin) P2/>......
Appe%%ant Sat(!nino
T(ppa% then shot
F%o!ina "ith a
han&)(n/ hittin) he! on
the %et si&e o he!
a*&o$en.
4Thei! #on#e!te& a#tion
sho"s thei! (nit+ o
p(!pose N to !o* the
5i#ti$/ at a%% #ost. These
#on#e!te& a#ts o
appe%%ant an& his #oG
a##(se& $aniest%+
&is#%ose #on#(!!en#e o
"i%%s/ (nit+ o a#tion/
8oint p(!pose an&
#o$$on &esi)n. 0en#e/
a%tho()h appe%%ant &i&
not hi$se% shoot
<a!to%o At(an/ '!./ he is
sti%% %ia*%e o!
<a!to%o1s &eath as
p!in#ipa% *e#a(se the
e-isten#e o #onspi!a#+
$a,es the a#t o one the
a#t o a%%.
5The #ha!)es a)ainst
appe%%ant an& his #oG
a##(se&/ #onstit(te on%+
one spe#ia% in&i5isi*%e
o! #o$posite #!i$e as
&eine& in A!ti#%e 29@
(1) o the Re5ise& Pena%
Co&e.
6the p!ose#(tion a$p%+
esta*%ishe& the
o%%o"in) e%e$ents o
!o**e!+ "ith ho$i#i&e2
(a) the ta,in) o
pe!sona% p!ope!t+ is
pe!pet!ate& *+ $eans o
5io%en#e o! inti$i&ation
a)ainst a pe!son/ (*) the
p!ope!t+ ta,en *e%on)s
to anothe!/ (#) the
ta,in) is #ha!a#te!iEe&
*+ intent to )ain o!
animus lucrandi/ an&
(&) on the o##asion o
the !o**e!+ o! *+
!eason the!eo/ the
#!i$e o ho$i#i&e/ in
its )ene!i# sense/ is
#o$$itte&.
18
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
9E LA CADARA V ENAAE
FERNAN9O/ J.:
1An o!&e! o !espon&ent '(&)e Dan(e% LopeE Ena)e/ i-in) the *ai% o
petitione!/ Ri#a!&o &e %a Ca$a!a/ in the s($ o P1/19>/2..... is
assai%e& in this petition o! certiorari as !ep()nant to the #onstit(tiona%
$an&ate p!ohi*itin) e-#essi5e *ai%.
2The $e!it o the petition on its a#e is th(s appa!ent. Nonethe%ess/
!e%ie so()ht settin) asi&e the a*o5e o!&e! *+ !e&(#in) the a$o(nt o
*ai% to P@./...... #annot *e )!ante&/ as in the $ean"hi%e/ petitione!
ha& es#ape& !o$ the p!o5in#ia% 8ai%/ th(s !en&e!in) this #ase $oot an&
a#a&e$i#.
3It is &ee$e& a&5isa*%e/ ho"e5e!/ o! the )(i&an#e o %o"e! #o(!t
8(&)es/ to set o!th ane" the #ont!o%%in) an& a(tho!itati5e &o#t!ines
that sho(%& *e o*se!5e& in i-in) the a$o(nt o the *ai% so()ht in o!&e!
that (%% !espe#t *e a##o!&e& to s(#h a #onstit(tiona% !i)ht. (I.E./
DASMA9ONA DAAAN9A ANA PONENCIA 4O PARA LANA
DASAMANAT 9I 4O NADAN 4ASALANAN NA NA4ATA4AS
SILA E0TG FERNAN9O/ 0A0A0A)
4Ri#a!&o/ &e %a Ca$a!a/ D(ni#ipa% Da+o! o Da)sa+sa+/ Disa$is
O!ienta%/ "as a!!este& on No5e$*e! =/ 1968 an& &etaine& at the
P!o5in#ia% 'ai% o A)(san/ o! his a%%e)e& pa!ti#ipation in the ,i%%in) o
o(!teen an& the "o(n&in) o t"e%5e othe! %a*o!e!s o the Ti!a&o!
Lo))in) Co
5The!eate!/ the P!o5in#ia% Fis#a% o A)(san i%e& "ith the Co(!t o Fi!st
Instan#e a #ase o! $(%tip%e !(st!ate& $(!&e! an& anothe! o! $(%tip%e
$(!&e! a)ainst petitione!/ his #oGa##(se& Na$*ina%ot Ta)(nan an&
Fo!t(nato Aa%)o/ !es(%tin) !o$ the ao!esai& o##(!!en#e.
6Then on 'an(a!+ 1@/ 1969/ #a$e an app%i#ation o! *ai% i%e& *+
petitione! "ith the %o"e! #o(!t/ p!e$ise& on the asse!tion that the!e
"as no e5i&en#e to %in, hi$ "ith s(#h ata% in#i&ent o A()(st 21/
1968. 0e %i,e"ise $antaine& his inno#en#e. Respon&ent '(&)e sta!te&
the t!ia% o petitione! on Fe*!(a!+ 2@/ 1969/ the p!ose#(tion !estin) its
#ase on '(%+ 1./ 1969. As o the ti$e o the i%in) othe petition/ the
&eense ha& not p!esente& its e5i&en#e.
7Respon&ent '(&)e iss(e& an o!&e! )!antin) petitione!Cs app%i#ation o!
*ai%/ a&$ittin) that the!e "as a ai%(!e on the pa!t o the p!ose#(tion to
p!o5e that petitione! "o(%& %ee e5en i he ha& the oppo!t(nit+/ *(t
i-e& the a$o(nt o the bail bond at the e3cessive amount of
P-,-,5,/.....,the sum of P+<.,...... for the information charging
multiple murder and PA55,/..... for the offense of multiple
frustrated murder.
8Then #a$e the a%%e)ation that on A()(st 12/ 19=./ the Se#!eta!+ o
'(sti#e/ Vi#ente A*a& Santos/ (pon *ein) ino!$e& o s(#h o!&e!/ sent
a te%e)!a$ to !espon&ent '(&)estatin) that the *on& !e;(i!e& 6is
e-#essi5e6 an& s())estin) that a P@./......*on&/ eithe! in #ash o!
p!ope!t+/ "o(%& *e !easona*%e. The!e "as %i,e"ise a $otion o!
!e#onsi&e!ation to !e&(#e the a$o(nt. Respon&ent '(&)e ho"e5e!
!e$aine& a&a$ant. 0en#e this petition.
1The ans"e! i%e& *+
!espon&ent '(&)e on
Da!#h >/ 19=1 set o!th
the #i!#($stan#es
#on#e!nin) the iss(an#e
o the a*o5e o!&e! an&
the othe! in#i&ents o
the #ase/ "hi#h/ to his
$in& "o(%& &isp!o5e
an+ #ha!)e that he "as
)(i%t+ o )!a5e a*(se o
&is#!etion. It st!esse&/
$o!eo5e!/ that the
#ha%%en)e& o!&e! "o(%&
find support in
circulars of the
>epartment of 4ustice
given sanction b this
Court. 0e so()ht the
&is$issa% o the petition
o! %a#, o $e!it.
2Respon&ent '(&)e
s(*$itte& a
s(pp%e$enta% ans"e!
"he!ein he a%%e)e& that
petitione! es#ape& !o$
the p!o5in#ia% 8ai% on
Ap!i% 28/ 19=1 an& ha&
sin#e then !e$aine& at
%a!)e. The!e "as a
!eite!ation then o the
&is$issa% o this
petition o! %a#, o
$e!it/ to "hi#h
petitione! #o(nte!e& in a
p%ea&in)/ an& i%e& "ith
this Co(!t the ne-t &a+
"ith this p%ea2 6The
(n&e!si)ne& #o(nse%/
the!eo!e/ 5ehe$ent%+
inte!pose opposition/ on
*eha% o petitione!/ to
!espon&entCs p!a+e! o!
&is$issa% o the p!esent
petition o! %a#, o
$e!it. Fo!/ the iss(e in
this #ase is not a%one the
ate o petitione!
Ri#a!&o &e %a Ca$a!a.
The iss(e in the p!esent
petition that #a%%s o!
the !eso%(tion o this
0ono!a*%e T!i*(na% is
the fate of countless
other Ricardo de la
%amaras &ho ma'be
a&aiting the clear(cut
definition and
declaration of the
po&er of trial courts in
regard to the fiing of
bail.6 (0O3
TO7C0INA. <LE0)
ISS'() *+, T.(
3I4
2(/+::(,1(1
*3S (=/(SSI5(
3,1 5I+43TI5( +;
T.(
/+,STIT'TI+,--(S
3<eo!e #on5i#tion/
e5e!+ pe!son is *ai%a*%e
e-#ept i #ha!)e& "ith
#apita% oenses "hen
the e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on). S(#h a !i)ht
%o"s !o$ the
p!es($ption o
inno#en#e in a5o! o
e5e!+ a##(se& "ho
sho(%& not *e s(*8e#te&
to the %oss o !ee&o$
as the!eate! he "o(%&
*e entit%e& to a#;(itta%/
(n%ess his )(i%t *e
p!o5e& *e+on&
!easona*%e &o(*t.
The!e*+ a !e)i$e o
%i*e!t+ is hono!e& in the
o*se!5an#e an& not in
the *!ea#h. It is not
*e+on&the !ea%$ o
p!o*a*i%it+/ ho"e5e!/
that a pe!son #ha!)e&
"ith a #!i$e/ espe#ia%%+
so "he!e his &eense is
"ea,/ "o(%& 8(st
si$p%+ $a,e hi$se%
s#a!#e an& th(s !(st!ate
the hea!in) o his #ase.
A *ai% is inten&e& as a
)(a!antee that s(#h an
intent "o(%& *e
th"a!te&
4No! is the!e/ an+thin)
(n!easona*%e in
&en+in) this !i)ht to
one #ha!)e& "ith a
#apita% oense "hen
e5i&en#e o )(i%t is
st!on)/ as the %i,e%ihoo&
is/ !athe! than a"ait the
o(t#o$e o the
p!o#ee&in) a)ainst hi$
"ith a &eath senten#e/
an e5e!Gp!esent th!eat/
te$ptation to %ee the
8(!is&i#tion "o(%& *e
too )!eat to *e !esiste&.
53he!e/ ho"e5e!/ the
!i)ht to *ai% e-ists/ it
sho(%& not *e !en&e!e&
n()ato!+ *+ !e;(i!in) a
s($ that is e-#essi5e.
So the Constit(tion
#o$$an&s. It is (n&e!stan&a*%e "h+. I the!e "e!e no s(#h p!ohi*ition/
the !i)ht to *ai% *e#o$es $eanin)%ess. It "o(%& ha5e *een $o!e
o!th!i)ht i no $ention
o s(#h a )(a!antee
"e!e o(n& in the
(n&a$enta% %a".
19
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
1It is not to *e %ost si)ht o that the 7nite& States
Constit(tion %i$its itse% to a p!ohi*ition a)ainst e-#essi5e
*ai%.
2Nothin) #an *e #%ea!e!/ the!eo!e/ than that the #ha%%en)e&
o!&e! o A()(st 1./ 19=. i-in) the a$o(nt o
P1/19>/2..... as the *ai% that sho(%& *e poste& *+
petitione!/ the s($ o P8@./...... o! the ino!$ation
#ha!)in) $(%tip%e $(!&e!/ the!e *ein) o(!teen 5i#ti$s/ an&
the s($ o P?>>/2.. o! the othe! oense o $(%tip%e
!(st!ate& $(!&e!/ the!e *ein) t"e%5e 5i#ti$s/ is #%ea!%+
5io%ati5e o #onstit(tiona% p!o5ision
3.7n&e! the #i!#($stan#es/ the!e *ein) on%+ t"o oenses
#ha!)e&/ the a$o(nt !e;(i!e& as *ai% #o(%& not possi*%+
e-#ee& P>./...... o! the ino!$ation o! $(!&e! an&
P2>/...... o! the othe! ino!$ation o! !(st!ate& $(!&e!.
No! sho(%& it *e i)no!e& in this #ase that the 9epa!t$ent o
'(sti#e &i& !e#o$$en& the tota% s($ o P@./...... o! the
t"o oenses.
45illase>or ". 3bano@ The )(i&e%ines in the i-in) o *ai%
"as the!e s($$a!iEe&/ in the opinion o '(sti#e San#heE/ as
o%%o"s2 6(1) a*i%it+ o the a##(se& to )i5e *ai%H (2) nat(!e
o the oenseH (?) pena%t+ o! the oense #ha!)e&H (@)
#ha!a#te! an& !ep(tation o the a##(se&H (>) hea%th o the
a##(se&H (6) #ha!a#te! an& st!en)th o the e5i&en#eH (=)
p!o*a*i%it+ o the a##(se& appea!in) in t!ia%H (8) o!eit(!e
o othe! *on&sH (9) "hethe! the a##(se& "asa ()iti5e !o$
8(sti#e "hen a!!este&H an& (1.) i the a##(se& is (n&e! *on&
o! appea!an#e at t!ia% in othe! #ases.6 Respon&ent '(&)e/
ho"e5e!/ &i& i)no!e this &e#isi5e #onsi&e!ation appea!in)
at the en& o the a*o5e opinion2 69is#!etion/ in&ee&/ is "ith
the #o(!t #a%%e& (pon to !(%e on the ;(estion o *ai%. 3e
$(st st!ess/ ho"e5e!/ that "he!e #on&itions i$pose& (pon
a &een&ant see,in) *ai% "o(%& a$o(nt to a !e(sa% the!eo
an& !en&e! n()ato!+ the #onstit(tiona% !i)ht to *ai%/ "e "i%%
not hesitate to e-e!#ise o(! s(pe!5iso!+ po"e!s to p!o5i&e
the !e;(i!e& !e$e&+.6
5No atte$pt at !ationa%iEation #an the!eo!e )i5e a #o%o! o
5a%i&it+ to the #ha%%en)e& o!&e!. The!e is )!i$ i!on+ in an
a##(se& *ein) to%& that he has a !i)ht to *ai% *(t at the sa$e
ti$e *ein) !e;(i!e& to post s(#h an e-o!*itant s($.
6It is no "on&e! that the !es(%tin) !(st!ation %et !esent$ent
an& *itte!ness in its "a,e. Petitione!Cs s(*se;(ent es#ape
#annot *e #on&one&. That is "h+ he is not entit%e& to the
!e%ie p!a+e& o!. 3hat !espon&ent '(&)e &i&/ ho"e5e!/
&oes #a%% o! !ep(&iation !o$ this Co(!t.
7No! is the!e an+ 8(stii#ation then o! i$p(tin) his ina*i%it+
to i- a %esse! a$o(nt *+ 5i!t(e o an a%%e)e& !e%ian#e on a
&e#ision o this T!i*(na%. E5en i one "e!e #ha!ita*%+
in#%ine&/ the $i%&est #ha!a#te!iEation o s(#h a !es(%t is that
the!e "as a #%ea! !ea&in) o the A*ano opinion "hen s(#h a
$eanin) "as as#!i*e& to it. No &o#t!ine !eine$ent $a+
e%i#it app!o5a% i to &o so "o(%& *e to !e&(#e the !i)ht to
*ai% to a *a!!en o!$ o "o!&s. Not on%+ is the o!&e!
#o$p%aine& o a*so%(te%+ *e!et o s(ppo!t in %a"/ *(t it
%ies in the a#e o #o$$on sense. It is not too $(#h to sa+
that it is at "a! "ith the #o$$an& o !eason.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
2.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
VILLASENOR 5. A<ANO
21 SCRA 321 (1967
San!hez, J" Se#t. 29, 1967
"'C$*
1Re+na%&o Vi%%aseno! "as #ha!)e& "ith $(!&e! o Po%i#e Se!)eant
Da&%a *eo!e the CFI o Da!in&(;(e. 0e "as a&$itte& to a P6./...G
*ai% "hi#h "as !e&(#e& to P@./.... 0e poste& a p!ope!t+ *on& an&
"as set at p!o5isiona% %i*e!t+.
2<eo!e a!!ai)n$ent/ P!o5. Fis#a% a$en&e& the ino!$ation/ #ha!)in) the
a##(se& "ith 9i!e#t Assa(%t 7pon an A)ent o a Pe!son in A(tho!it+ "ith
D(!&e!.
3A(). = G '(&)e A*ano sua ponte #an#e%%e& Vi%%aseno!1s *on& an& o!&e!e& his
i$$e&iate a!!est.
4Sept. 9 G Ate! hea!in) on Vi%%aseno!1s $otion to !e#onsi&e!/
'(&)e A*ano !eso%5e& to a&$it hi$ to *ai% p!o5i&e& he p(ts (ps a
#ash *on& o P6./....
5Sept. 1> G Vi%%aseno! as,e& the #o(!t that the o!i)ina% *on& p!e5io(s%+
)i5en *e !einstate&. '(&)e A*ano !eso%5e& to i- 6the *on& ane" in
!ea% p!ope!t+ in the a$o(nt o P6./....../ *(t to *e poste& on%+ *+
!esi&ents o the p!o5in#e o Da!in&(;(e a#t(a%%+ sta+in) the!ein6
"ith p!ope!ties "hi#h 6$(st *e in the possession an& o"ne!ship o
sai& !esi&ents o! i5e +ea!s.6
6Vi%%aseno! i%e& a petition o! #e!tio!a!i "ith a p!a+e! o! p!e%i$ina!+
in8(n#tion see,in) to set asi&e '(&)e A*ano1s o!&e!s o A(). =/ Sept.
9 an& Sept. 1> an& to !einstate the *ai% p!e5io(s%+ app!o5e& *+ '(&*e
A*ano. 0e #ha!)es '(&)e A*ano ha5in) a#te& "itho(t an+ o! in
e-#ess o 8(!is&i#tion an& "ith )!a5e a*(se o &is#!etion in iss(in)
the &isp(te& o!&e!s.
0**;2*@
1. 3ON the P6.,G*on& i-e& *+ '(&)e A*ano t!ans)!ess the
#onstit(tiona% in8(n#tion that e-#essi5e *ai% sha%% not *e !e;(i!e&.
2. 3ON the !e;(i!e$ent that the p!ope!t+ *on& *e poste& on%+ *+
!esi&ents o the p!o5in#e o Da!in&(;(e a#t(a%%+ sta+in) the!ein
#o%%i&es "ith Se#. 9/ R(%e 11@
1
.
3. 3ON it is *e+on& the po"e! o '(&)e A*ano to !e;(i!e that
p!ope!ties *e oe!e& as *on& $(st *e in possession an& o"ne!ship o
the s(!eties o! at %east i5e +ea!s.
)ote*
+,ince the t&o orders of #ug. - and ,ept. . &as replaced &ith the order of
,ept. /01 the' became functus officio !retains no legal authorit' because
his or its duties and functions have been completed)
++This is a /.2- case hence the reference to a different R3%.
627>B#'$0O
1. 1O. $he court has the po!er to grant bail in bailable cases and
the discretion to fi3 the amount thereof. 0n the instant case, there
is no abuse of discretion.
1
Se#. 9. 4ualification of sureties. U The ne#essa!+ ;(a%ii#ations o
s(!eties to a *ai% *on& sha%% *e as o%%o"s2
(a) Ea#h o the$ $(st *e a !esi&ent ho(seho%&e! o! !eeho%&e!
"ithin the Phi%ippines.
15illasenor G he is a $e!e )o5.
e$p%o+ee/ ea!nin) a sa%a!+ o
P21. a $onth an& the so%e
*!ea&"inne! o a a$i%+ o
i5e.
2Se#. 12/ R(%e 11@ p!o5i&es
that 6the #o(!t $a+/ (pon
)oo& #a(se sho"n/ eithe!
in#!ease o! !e&(#e the
a$o(nt6 o the *ai%/ an&
that 6&een&ant $a+ *e
#o$$itte& to #(sto&+
(n%ess he )i5es *ai% in the
in#!ease& a$o(nt he is
#a%%e& (pon to (!nish.6
33e a!e not to #onsi&e! so%e%+
the ina*i%it+ o a &een&ant
to se#(!e *ai% in a #e!tain
a$o(nt. This #i!#($stan#e
*+ itse% &oes not $a,e the
a$o(nt e-#essi5e.
4A(i&e%ines (se& *+ the
#o(!ts in &ete!$inin) the
a$o(nt o *ai%
1The p(!pose o *ai% as
p!o5i&e& in the
&einition (n&e! Se#.
1/ R(%e 11@ G the
se#(!it+ !e;(i!e& an&
)i5en o! the !e%ease
o a pe!son "ho is in
the #(sto&+ o the
%a"/ that he &ill
appear before an'
court in &hich his
appearance ma' be
re$uired as stipulated
in the bail bond or
recogni6ance.
2The #on&ition o *ai%
as p!o5i&e& (n&e!
Se#. 2/ R(%e 11@ G
&een&ant sha%%
ans"e! the #o$p%aint
o! ino!$ation in the
#o(!t in "hi#h it is
i%e& o! to "hi#h it
$a+ *e t!anse!!e& o!
t!ia%/ an& ate!
#on5i#tion/ i the #ase
is appea%e& to the
Co(!t o Fi!st
Instan#e (pon
app%i#ation s(ppo!te&
*+ an (n&e!ta,in) o!
*ai%/ that he "i%%/
s(!!en&e! hi$se% in
e-e#(tion o s(#h
8(&)$ent as the
appe%%ate #o(!t $a+
!en&e!/ o! that/ in #ase
#a(se/ is to *e t!ie&
ane" o! !e$an&e& o!
a ne" t!ia%/ he "i%%
appea! in the #o(!t to
"hi#h it $a+ *e
!e$an&e& an& s(*$it
hi$se% to the o!&e!s
an& p!o#esses the!eo.
3The o%%o"in)
p!in#ip%es sho(%& *e
#onsi&e!e& in i-in)
the a$o(nt o *ai%2
4the a$o(nt sho(%& *e
hi)h eno()h to ass(!e
the p!esen#e o
&een&ant "hen
!e;(i!e& *(t no hi)he!
than is !easona*%+
#a%#(%ate& to (%i%%
this p(!pose
5the )oo& o the p(*%i#
as "e%% as the !i)hts o
the a##(se&
6the nee& o! a tie to
the 8(!is&i#tion an&
the !i)ht to !ee&o$
!o$ (nne#essa!+
!est!aint *eo!e
#on5i#tion (n&e! the
#i!#($stan#es
s(!!o(n&in) ea#h
pa!ti#(%a! a##(se&
7Ce!tain )(i&e%ines in
*ai% i-in)/ "hi#h
$a+ *e s($$a!iEe&
as o%%o"s2 (1) a*i%it+
o the a##(se& to )i5e
*ai%H (2) nat(!e o the
oenseH (?) Pena%t+
o! the oense
#ha!)e&H (@) #ha!a#te!
an& !ep(tation o the
a##(se&H (>) hea%th o
the a##(se&H (6)
#ha!a#te! an& st!en)th
o the e5i&en#eH (=)
p!o*a*i%it+ o the
a##(se& appea!in) in
t!ia%H (8) o!eit(!e o
othe! *on&sH (9)
"hethe! the a##(se&
"as a ()iti5e !o$
8(sti#e "hen a!!este&H
an& (1.) i the
a##(se& is (n&e! *on&
o! appea!an#e at t!ia%
in othe! #ases
8The principal factor
#onsi&e!e&/ to the
determination of
&hich most other
factors are directed/ is
the p!o*a*i%it+ o the
appea!an#e o the
a##(se&/ o! o his
%i)ht to a5oi&
p(nish$ent.6 O
i$po!tan#e then is the
possi*%e pena%t+ that
$a+ *e $ete&
5Vi%%aseno! is #ha!)e& "ith a #apita% oense/ direct assault upon an
agent of a person in authorit !ith murder. A #o$p%e- #!i$e/ it $a+
#a%% o! the i$position o the
#apita%
21
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
p(nish$ent. Then/ Ci!#(%a! @= &ate& '(%+ >/ 19@6 o the
9epa!t$ent o '(sti#e/ !eite!ate& in Ci!#(%a! @8 o '(%+ 18/ 196?/
&i!e#te& p!ose#(tin) atto!ne+Cs to !e#o$$en& *ai% at the !ate o
P2/...... pe! +ea! o i$p!ison$ent/ #o!!espon&in) to the
$e&i($ pe!io& o the pena%t+ p!es#!i*e& o! the oense #ha!)e&/
(n%ess #i!#($stan#es "a!!ant a hi)he! pena%t+
2. 1O. $he posture taken b respondent (udge does not offend
the good sense of (ustice.
17udge #bano G it has *een his e-pe!ien#e that 6it is ha!& to sen&
noti#es to peop%e o(tsi&e the p!o5in#e.6 0e e-p%ains that the
(s(a% p!o#e&(!e o his #%e!, o #o(!t is to sen& noti#es *+
!e)iste!e& $ai% a##o$panie& *+ !et(!n #a!&sH that "hen t!ia%
#o$es/ the !et(!n #a!&s in $an+ instan#es ha5e not +et *een
!e#ei5e& in #o(!tH that "hen the pa!ties ai% to appea!H the!e is no
"a+ o ,no"in) "hethe! the noti#es ha5e *een &(%+ !e#ei5e&H
that he #annot o!&e! the #onis#ation o the *on& an& the a!!est
o the a##(se&/ *e#a(se he is not s(!e "hethe! the *on&s$en
ha5e *een &(%+ notiie&H that sen&in) te%e)!a$s to peop%e
o(tsi&e the p!o5in#e is #ost%+/ an& the #o(!t #annot ao!& to
in#(! $(#h e-penses.
23e !ea& Se#. 9/ R(%e 11@ to $ean that the &i!e#ti5e that
*on&s$en *e !esi&ent ho(seho%&e!s o! !eeho%&e!s in the
Phi%ippines is *(t a $ini$($ !e;(i!e$ent. Reason o! this is
that *on&s$en in #!i$ina% #ases/ !esi&in) o(tsi&e o the
Phi%ippines/ a!e not "ithin the !ea#h o the p!o#esses o its
#o(!ts.
3It is not inten&e& to tie (p the han&s o a 8(&)e to app!o5e *ai% so
%on) as it is oe!e& *+ a !esi&ent ho(seho%&e! o! !eeho%&e!
"ithin the Phi%ippines. Fo! a #o(!t has *!oa& po"e!s essentia% to
its 8(&i#ia% (n#tion.
4'(&)e A*ano on%+ "ante& to $a,e s(!e that "hen the p!ope!
ti$e #o$es o! the #o(!t to o!&e! the s(!eties to p!o&(#e the
pe!son o &een&ant/ no (n&(e &e%a+ "i%% *e in#(!!e&. I
*on&s$en !esi&e in a! a"a+ p%a#es/ e5en i "ithin the
Phi%ippines/ the p(!pose o *ai% $a+ *e !(st!ate&. The!e is the
ins(i#ien#+ o the $ai%s as an ee#ti5e $eans o
#o$$(ni#ation. An& then/ the!e is the p!o*%e$ o #o$p%+in)
"ith the #onstit(tiona% $an&ate o spee&+ t!ia%. I noti#e to
s(!eties is not se!5e&/ no t!ia% #an *e ha&.
5F(!the!$o!e/ !ea&in) o his petition ai%s o an a5e!$ent that the
!e;(isite e-a#te& that *on&s$en *e !esi&ents o an& a#t(a%%+ sta+in)
in Da!in&(;(e "o(%& #a(se hi$ p!e8(&i#e.
3. 1O
7udge #bano ( he !e%ie& on Ci!#(%a! 2/ &ate& 'an(a!+ 2?/ 196@/ o the
0ono!a*%e/ the Se#!eta!+ o '(sti#e/ a&&!esse&/ a$on) othe!s/ to
'(&)es o Fi!st Instan#e. That #i!#(%a! !e#ites that it ha& *een *!o()ht
to the attention o the 9epa!t$ent o '(sti#e that in #e!tain p!o5in#es/
(ns#!(p(%o(s pe!sons "ho a!e sp(!io(s %an&o"ne!s/ ha5e *een
a##epte& as s(!eties. The Se#!eta!+ then s())este& that it $a+ *e a
)oo& po%i#+ not to a##ept as *ai% *on&s !ea% p!ope!ties not #o5e!e& *+
#e!tii#ate o tit%e (n%ess the+ ha5e *een &e#%a!e& o! ta-ation
p(!poses in a5o! o the pe!son oe!in) the$ as *on& o! at %east i5e
(>) +ea!s.
Its p(!pose is to p!e5ent the #o$$ission o !a(&s in #onne#tion "ith
the postin) o pe!sona% *ai% *on&s an& to p!ote#t the inte!ests o the
Ao5e!n$ent. I the *on&s$an is not the o"ne!/ *ai% ai%s o its
p(!pose/ p!e8(&i#e to the )o5e!n$ent sets in.
3e note that the o!&e! o Septe$*e! 1>/ 196@ spo,e o p!ope!ties in
)ene!a%. Fai%(!e o spe#ii#ness on the pa!t o '(&)e A*ana then #o(%&
ha5e *een a #ase o o5e!si)ht. To o*5iate
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin |
Vien
$is(n&e!stan&in)/ "e ta,e it (pon o(!se%5es to #%a!i+ that o!&e!. 3e
&o sa+ no" that the o!&e! o Septe$*e! 1>/ 196@ is to *e (n&e!stoo&
as e-#%(&in) p!ope!ties #o5e!e& *+ To!!ens tit%es !o$ the
!e;(i!e$ent that p!ope!ties to *e oe!e& as *on& $(st *e 6in the
possession an& o"ne!ship o the s(!eties o! at %east i5e +ea!s.6
>0*PO*0$0O1 "e 5ote to &is$iss the petition o! #e!tio!a!i/ an& to
&isso%5e the "!it o p!e%i$ina!+ in8(n#tion iss(e& he!ein.
22
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE 5. AS7NCION
161 SCRA $9%
&a'illa, J" Ma( 2$, 19))
"'C$*
1Ro%an&o A*a&ina (o!$e! #o%one% o AFP) "as #ha!)e& *eo!e the
RTC "ith the oense o Vio%ation o P9 1866 QI%%e)a% Possession o
Fi!ea!$s an& A$$(nitionsI The ino!$ation !ea& that he "i%(%%+/
(n%a"(%%+ an& e%onio(s%+ ha& in possession an& (n&e! his #(sto&+
i!ea!$s
2
/ a$$(nitions an& $a)aEines "itho(t i!st se#(!in) the
ne#essa!+ %i#ense an&:o! pe!$it !o$ the %a"(% a(tho!it+.
27pon A*ania1s $otion/ '(&)e As(n#ion &is$isse& the Ino!$ation on
the )!o(n& that it &i& not a%%e)e s(i#ient a#ts to #onstit(te an
oense/ sin#e the possession o %oose i!ea!$s an& e-p%osi5es is not
i%%e)a% per se1 in 5ie" o E-e#(ti5e O!&e! No. 1.= "hi#h )i5es
ho%&e!s o! possesso!s o (n%i#ense& i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition a pe!io&
o si- (6) $onths !o$ its ee#ti5it+/ e-ten&e& to ?1 9e#e$*e! 198=
*+ E-e#(ti5e O!&e! No. 222/ "ithin "hi#h to s(!!en&e! the sa$e to
the p!ope! a(tho!ities/ "itho(t in#(!!in) an+ #!i$ina% %ia*i%it+
the!eo!/ e-#ept i the (n%i#ense& i!ea!$ o! a$$(nition is #a!!ie&
o(tsi&e o oneCs !esi&en#e/ not o! the p(!pose o s(!!en&e!in) the
sa$e/ o! (se& in the #o$$ission o an+ othe! oense/ an& the!e is no
a%%e)ation in sai& ino!$ation that the i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition
en($e!ate& the!ein "e!e #a!!ie& o(tsi&e the a##(se&Cs !esi&en#e o!
(se& in the #o$$ission o so$e othe! #!i$e.
0**;2*
1. 3ON 8(&)e e!!e& in hoo&in) that the possession o %oose i!ea!$s
an& e-p%osi5es is not i%%e)a% per se &(!in) the pe!io& #o5e!e& *+
E-e#(ti5e O!&e!s Nos. 1.= an& 222.
2. 3ON it "as not ne#essa!+ o! the p!ose#(tion to a%%e)e in the
ino!$ation that the i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition/ s(*8e#t $atte! o this
#ase/ "e!e *!o()ht o(t o the !esi&en#e o the a##(se& o! "e!e (se&
*+ hi$ in the #o$$ission o! anothe! oense
3. 3ON (n&e! the a%%e)ation in the ino!$ation/ p!ose#(tion $a+ p!o5e
that the a##(se& ea!ne& the i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition o(tsi&e o his
!esi&en#e
627>B#'$0O@
1. 1O. 2O 1o. -.=, as amended b 2O 1o. ///, is similar to #'
1os. < and <+/. 8e !ill not give it a different meaning because
there is no basis for such a difference.
1P!ose#(tion G nothin) is #ontaine& in sai& e-e#(ti5e o!&e!s "hi#h
%e)a%iEes the possession o i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition "itho(t a
pe!$itH that sai& e-e#(ti5e o!&e!s $e!e%+ a(tho!iEe& ho%&e!s o!
possesso!s o (n%i#ense& i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition to s(!!en&e! the
sa$e "ithin a spe#iie& i%in) pe!io& "itho(t in#(!!in) #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+H an& that i%%e)a% possession o i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition is
sti%% pena%iEe& (n&e! P!es. 9e#!ee No. 1866 "hi#h "as not !epea%e&
*+ sai& E-e#(ti5e O!&e! Nos. 1.= an& 222.
2It $a+ *e t!(e that the!e is nothin) in E-e#(ti5e O!&e!s Nos. 1.= an& 222
that e-p!ess%+ %e)a%iEes the (n%i#ense& possession o i!ea!$s an&
a$$(nition/ *(t this Co(!t ha&
2
Ste!%in) Assa(%t Ri%e/ A!$a%ite Ri%e/ Ca!*ine/ Ca% ?>= Re5o%5e! an&
Ca% @>/ Pisto%
!(%e& that a #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+ "as te$po!a!i%+
LIFTE9 o! $e!e
possessionC o (n%i#ense&
i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition
&(!in) the pe!io& #o5e!e&/
a%tho()h s(#h pe!son is not
e-e$pt !o$ #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+ i%in) "ithin the
pe!io& p!o5i&e&/ he #a!!ies
the i!ea!$ an&
a$$(nition ((n%ess it is
o! the p(!pose o
s(!!en&e!in) the sa$e) o!
he #o$$its an+ othe!
oense "ith the (se o
s(#h (n%i#ense& i!ea!$
an& a$$(nition.
1People vs. Lope6 G It
"i%% *e seen that se# 2
(o RA NO @)
e-#%(&e& !o$ the
ope!ation o se# 1 (p
to A()(st ?1/ 19@6/
possession o i!ea!$s
an& a$$(nition so
%on) as the+ "e!e not
(se& o! an+ p(!pose
othe! than se%G
&eense o! #a!!ie& o!
an+ p(!pose othe!
than o s(!!en&e!in)
the$ to the p!ope!
a(tho!ities. The
Ao5e!n$ent &oes not
&isp(te this
inte!p!etation.
A%tho()h the %a"
&oes not #ate)o!i#a%%+
state that #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+ "as
te$po!a!i%+ %ite& o!
$e!e possession o
i%in) i!e)e$s an&
a$$(nition/ that is
the on%+ #onst!(#tion
#o$pati*%e "ith the
spi!it an& p(!poses o
the ena#t$ent as
!e5ea%e& *+ its
#onte-t.
2People vs. "eliciano G
SC !(%e& that RA No.
@82 %e)a%iEe& $e!e
(n%i#ense& possession
o i!ea!$s an&
a$$(nition o! the
%i$ite& pe!io&
spe#iie& in sai& %a"/
an& p(nishe& on%+ (1)
the (se o (n%i#ense&
i!ea!$ o!
a$$(nition/ o! (2)
the #a!!+in) o s(#h
i!ea!$ o!
a$$(nition on the
pe!son/ e-#ept to
s(!!en&e! the$. The
Co(!t sai&2
3Fe%i#iano !(%in) "as
!eite!ate& in People
vs. Tabunares* RA
No. @82/ in ee#t
%e)a%iEe& $e!e
(n%i#ense& on "ithin
one +ea! !o$ sai&
&ate/ an& p(nishe&
on%+ (1) the (se o a
o! a$$(nition o! (2)
the #a!!ia)e the!eo
on the pe!son e-#ept
o! p(!pose o
s(!!en&e!. Appe%%antCs
#on5i#tion #annot
stan&/ sin#e it is
!este& so%e%+ on
(n%i#ense& possession
on o! a*o(t
No5e$*e! 6/ 19>..
2. 1O. 0t is necessar for
the prosecution to allege
in the information that
the firearms and
ammunition, sub(ect
matter of this case, !ere
brought out of the
residence of the accused
or !ere used b him in
the commission or
another offense
1Prosecution G these
#i!#($stan#es a!e not
essentia% in)!e&ients o the
#!i$e o i%%e)a% possession
o i!ea!$s an& a$$(nition.
2People v. Lope6 N 7n&e!
RA No. @/ the (se o! the
#a!!+in) o i!ea!$s an&:o!
a$$(nition "as an
in)!e&ient/ i not the so%e
in)!e&ient/ o the oenseH
i.e. the 5e!+ a#ts "hi#h
"e!e p(nishe&/ s(*8e#t to
#e!tain #on&itions/ an&
hen#e/ sho(%& *e a%%e)e&
an& p!o5e&.
3People v. #ustria G in o!&e!
that an ino!$ation
#ha!)in) i%%e)a% possession
o i!ea!$ an&
a$$(nition/ (n&e!
Rep(*%i# A#t No. @82/ $a+
*e &ee$e& s(i#ient/ it
$(st a%%e)e that the
a##(se& "as (sin) the
(n%i#ense& i!ea!$ o!
#a!!+in) it in his pe!son at
the ti$e he "as
app!ehen&e& *+ the
a(tho!ities "ith sai& i!ea!$.
3. 1O. $he information is
fatall defective.
2?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
1Peop%e 5. A(st!ia G the p!esentation o e5i&en#e #annot ha5e the
ee#t o 5a%i&atin) a 5oi& ino!$ation/ o! p!o5in) an oense
"hi#h &oes not %e)a%%+ e-ist. The ino!$ation "as not $e!e%+
&ee#ti5e *(t it &oes not #ha!)e an+ oense at a%%. Te#hni#a%%+
spea,in)/ that ino!$ation &oes not e-ist in #onte$p%ation o
%a".
2The Co(!t is not (na"a!e that a##(seG A*a&i%%a/ !i)ht%+ o!
"!on)%+/ is i&entiie& "ith the 5io%ent a!$ o the past !e)i$e. To
$an+/ he is !e)a!&e& "ith (n(s(a% ease an& a#i%it+ as the 6hit
$an6 o that !e)i$e. The Co(!t/ ho"e5e!/ is not s"a+e& *+
appe%%ations o! app!o*!i($s.
>0*PO*0$0O1 the petition is 9ENIE9. The o!&e!s appea%e& !o$
a!e he!e*+ AFFIRDE9.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
2@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
AARCIA 5. CA
266 SCRA 67)
*a+i'e, Jr., J" Januar( 27, 1997
"'C$*
1'ose Aa!#ia i%e& "ith the OC P!os.1 Oi#e an JAi&a5it o Co$p%aintK
#ha!)in) his "ie/ A&e%a Santos a%ias 9e%ia
Sanots "ith <i)a$+/ 5io%ation o CA No. 1@2/ as a$en&e& *+ R.A.
No. 6.8>/ an& Fa%sii#ation o P(*%i# 9o#($ents. Late!/ Santos
ino!$e& Ass. Cit+ P!os. Ca*ani%%a that he "o(%& %i$it his a#tion to
*i)a$+.
2Ass. P!os. Ca*ani%%a i%e& "ith the RTC o OC an ino!$ation
#ha!)in) A&e%a Santos "ith <i)a$+ a%%e)e&%+ #o$$itte& as o%%o"s 2
the a*o5eGna$e& a##(se&/ *ein) p!e5io(s%+ (nite& in %a"(% $a!!ia)e
"ith REMNAL9O O7IROCA/ an& "itho(t the sai& $a!!ia)e ha5in)
*een &isso%5e&/ (o! *eo!e the a*sent spo(se has *een &e#%a!e&
p!es($pti5e%+ &ea& *+ a 8(&)$ent !en&e!e& in the p!ope!
p!o#ee&in)s)/ &i& then an& the!e "i%(%%+/ (n%a"(%%+ an& e%onio(s%+
#ont!a#t a se#on& $a!!ia)e "ith 'OSE A. AARCIA/ "hi#h $a!!ia)e
has QsicI &is#o5e!e& in 1989/ to the &a$a)e an& p!e8(&i#e o the sai&
oen&e& pa!t+ in s(#h a$o(nt as $a+ *e a"a!&e& (n&e! the
p!o5isions o the Ci5i% Co&e.
3A&e%a Santos i%e& a Dotion to O(ash a%%e)in) p!es#!iption o the
oense as )!o(n&. She #onten&e& that *+ Aa!#ia1s a&$ission in his
testi$on+ in #i5i% #ase an& in his #o$p%aint i%e& "ith the Ci5i%
Se!5i#e #o$$ission/ Aa!#ia &is#o5e!e& the #o$$ission o the
oense as ea!%+ as 19=@. Sin#e the pena%t+ p!es#!i*e& (n&e! A!t. ?29
o the RPC o! the oense o *i)a$+ is p!ision $a+o!/ "hi#h is
#%assiie& as an a%i#ti5e pena%t+ (n&e! A!t. 2> o the sa$e Co&e/
then sai& oense sho(%& p!es#!i*e in 1> +ea!s as p!o5i&e& in A!t. 92
o the Co&e.
4TC )!ante& the $otion to ;(ash an& &is$isse& the #!i$ina% #ase. The
#o$p%ainant ha5in) &is#o5e!e& the i!st $a!!ia)e o the a##(se& to
one Re+na%&o O(i!o#a in 19=@ "hen he "as ino!$e& o it *+ one
E()enia <a%in)it/ the oense #ha!)e& has a%!ea&+ p!es#!i*e& "hen
the ino!$ation "as i%e& in this #ase on No5e$*e! 1>/ 1991
5Aa!#ia $o5e& o! !e#onsi&e!ation a!)(in) that A&e%a1s $an+ t!ips
a*!oa& s(spen&e& the !(nnin) o the p!es#!ipti5e pe!io&. These t!ips
"e!e en($e!ate& in the #e!tii#ation iss(e& *+ Ass. Co$$issione!
Do!a%s o <I9.
6TC &isa%%o"e& !e#onsi&e!ation o its o!&e!/ in&in) no (!)ent o!
8(stiia*%e !eason to set it asi&e. The t!ia% #o(!t he%& that t!ips o a!e
not the ,in& o a*sen#e !o$ the Phi%ippines "hi#h "i%% inte!!(pt the
pe!io& o p!es#!iption o the oense #ha!)e&.
7Aa!#ia appea%e& to CA. 0e #onten&e& that2
(1) TC e!!e& in ;(ashin) the ino!$ation on the )!o(n& o
p!es#!iption
1- <i)a$+ "as a p(*%i# oenseH Jthe oen&e& pa!t+ is not the
i!st o! se#on& (inno#ent) spo(se *(t the State "hose %a"
"as t!ans)!esse&. Th(s/ the p!es#!ipti5e pe!io& o <i)a$+
sho(%& #o$$en#e !o$ the &a+ the State/ *ein) the
oen&e& pa!t+/ &is#o5e!e& the oense/ "hi#h in this #ase
"as on A(). 28/ 1991 "hen he i%e& his #o$p%ain *eo!e
the P!os.1 Oi#e. 0e a&&e& that the inte!#han)in) (se in
A!t. 91 o the RPC o the te!$s 6oen&e& pa!t+/6
6a(tho!ities/6 an& 6thei! a)ents6 s(ppo!ts
his 5ie" that the
State is the
oen&e& pa!t+ in
p(*%i# oenses.
1- People v. #lagao
( that in
!eso%5in) the
$otion to ;(ash
a #!i$ina%
#o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation/ the
a#ts a%%e)e& in
the #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation
sho(%& *e ta,en
as the+ a!e. The
ino!$ation in
this #ase
$entione& that
the *i)a$+ "as
&is#o5e!e& in
1989.
2- The a#t(a% *ases
o the $otion to
;(ash/ vi6./ the
Aa!#ia1s
testi$on+ in
Ci5i% Case an&
his #o$p%aint
i%e& "ith the
CSC a!e not
#on#%(si5e
*e#a(se the
testi$on+ is
hea!sa+
e5i&en#e/ hen#e
ina&$issi*%e/
"hi%e the
#o$p%aint is
5a)(e.
3- The p!es#!ipti5e
pe!io& "as
inte!!(pte&
se5e!a% ti$es *+
the A&e%aCs
n($e!o(s t!ips
a*!oa&.
(2) Co(nse% o! A&e%a is
*a!!e& !o$ i%in) the
$otion to ;(ash the
ino!$ation
1- Co(nse% o!
A&e%a has
a%!ea&+ state&
that he !ep!esent
on%+ 9e%ia
Aa!#ia an& not
A&e%a Santos.
Conse;(ent%+/
he! #o(nse%
#o(%& not as, o!
the ;(ash o the
ino!$ation in
a5o(! o A&e%a
Santos a%ias
9e%ia Santos.
The #o(nse%
sho(%& ha5e
so()ht a
&is$issa% o the
#ase in a5o(! o
9e%ia Aa!#ia
a%one.
2CA #on#%(&e& that Aa!#ia
&is#o5e!e& A&e%a1s i!st
$a!!ia)e in 19=@. Sin#e
the ino!$ation "as i%e&
in #o(!t on%+ on 'an. 8/
1992 o! 18 +ea!s ate! the
&is#o5e!+ o the oen#e/
then the 1>G+ea!
p!es#!ipti5e pe!io& ha&
#e!tain%+ %apse&. It (!the!
he%& that the ;(ash o an
ino!$ation *ase& on
p!es#!iption o the oense
#o(%& *e in5o,e& *eo!e o!
ate! a!!ai)n$ent an& e5en
on appea%/ o! (n&e! A!t.
89(>) o RPC/ the #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+ o a pe!son is
Jtota%%+ e-tin)(ishe& *+
the p!es#!iption o the
#!i$e/ "hi#h is a $o&e o
e-tin)(ishin) #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+.K Th(s/
p!es#!iption is not &ee$e&
"ai5e& e5en i not p%ea&e&
as a &eese.
0**;2
1. 3ON the p!es#!iption o!
<i)a$+ sho(%& ha5e *een
#o(nte& !o$ the ti$e the
State &is#o5e!e& its
#o$$ission.
2. 3ON a Dotion to O(ash
#annot )o *e+on& "hat is
state& in the ino!$ation
3. 3ON the a#t(a% *ases o
the Dotion to O(ash a!e
not #on#%(si5e.
4. 3ON/ ass($in) the
p!es#!ipti5e pe!io& sta!te&
in 19=@/ sai& pe!io& "as
inte!!(pte& se5e!a% ti$es.
627>B#'$0O
1. NO. The p!es#!iption
sho(%& ha5e *een #o(nte&
!o$ the ti$e the
Joen&e& pa!t+K (i!st o!
se#on& inno#ent spo(se)
&is#o5e!e& its #o$$ission.
1It is t!(e that <i)a$+ is a
p(*%i# oense. 0o"e5e!/
A!t. 91 o RPC $a,es no
&istin#tion *et"een a
p(*%i# #!i$e an& a p!i5ate
#!i$e. In *oth #ases then/
the &is#o5e!+ $a+ *e *+ the Joen&e& pa!t+/ the a(tho!ities/ o! thei!
a)ents.K
2A!t. 91 &oes not &eine the
te!$ Joen&e& pa!t+.K 3e
in& its &einition in Se#. 12/
R(%e 11. as 6the pe!son
a)ainst "ho$ o! a)ainst
"hose p!ope!t+/ the oense
"as #o$$itte&.6
2>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
1It is !easona*%e to ass($e that the oen&e& pa!t+ in the
#o$$ission o a #!i$e/ p(*%i# o! p!i5ate/ is the pa!t+ to "ho$
the oen&e! is #i5i%%+ %ia*%e/ in %i)ht o A!t. 1.. o the RPC/
"hi#h e-p!ess%+ p!o5i&es that 6e5e!+ pe!son #!i$ina%%+ %ia*%e o!
a e%on+ is a%so #i5i%%+ %ia*%e.6 The p!i5ate in&i5i&(a% to "ho$
the oen&e! is #i5i%%+ %ia*%e is the oen&e& pa!t+.
2Aa!#ia e5en a&$its that he is the oen&e& pa!t+ in the #!i$ina% #ase
*e#a(se the ino!$ation the!ein &es#!i*es hi$ as the oen&e& pa!t+
"ho s(e!e& &a$a)e an& p!e8(&i#e.
2. NO
1E5en Peop%e v. A%a)ao/ "hi#h he #ites/ $entions the e-#eptions
to the !(%e as p!o5i&e& in pa!. () an& (h) o Se#. 2/ an& Se#. @
an& > o the o%& R(%e 11= vi6./ (a) e-tin#tion o #!i$ina% %ia*i%it+/
an& (*) &o(*%e 8eopa!&+. 0is #%ai$ that the e-#eption o
e-tin#tion #an no %on)e! *e !aise& &(e to the i$p%ie& !epea% o
the o!$e! Se#tion @/ R(%e 11= o the R(%es o Co(!t o##asione&
*+ its nonG!ep!o&(#tion ate! its !e5ision/ is e;(a%%+ "itho(t
$e!it. No !epea%/ e-p!ess o! i$p%ie&/ o the sai& Se#tion @ e5e!
too, p%a#e. 3hi%e the!e is no p!o5ision in the ne" R(%e 11= that
p!es#!i*es the #ontents o a $otion to ;(ash *ase& on e-tin#tion
o #!i$ina% %ia*i%it+/ Se#tion 2 the!eo en#aps(%iEes the o!$e!
Se#tions ?/@/ an& > o the o%& R(%e 11=.
2Se#. 2/ R(%e 11= G "orm and contents. G The $otion to ;(ash
sha%% *e in "!itin) si)ne& *+ the a##(se& o! his #o(nse%. It sha%%
spe#i+ &istin#t%+ the a#t(a% an& %e)a% )!o(n&s the!eo! an& the
#o(!t sha%% #onsi&e! no )!o(n&s othe! than those state& the!ein/
e-#ept %a#, o 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the oense #ha!)e&.
3It is #%ea! !o$ this Se#tion that a $otion to ;(ash $a+ *e *ase&
on a#t(a% an& %e)a% )!o(n&s/ an& sin#e e-tin#tion o #!i$ina%
%ia*i%it+ an& &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ a!e !etaine& as a$on) the )!o(n&s
o! a $otion to ;(ash in Se#tion ? o the ne" R(%e 11=/ it
ne#essa!i%+ o%%o"s that a#ts o(tsi&e the ino!$ation itse% $a+
*e int!o&(#e& to p!o5e s(#h )!o(n&s. As a $atte! o a#t/ in;(i!+
into s(#h a#ts $a+ *e a%%o"e& "he!e the )!o(n& in5o,e& is that
the a%%e)ations in the ino!$ation &o not #onstit(te the oense
#ha!)e&.
4As a )ene!a% p!oposition the #o(!t he%& in Peop%e 5. 9e %a Rosa
that a $otion to ;(ash on the )!o(n& that the a%%e)ations o the
ino!$ation &o not #onstit(te the oense #ha!)e&/ o! an+ oense
o! that $atte!/ sho(%& *e !eso%5e& on the *asis a%one o sai&
a%%e)ations "hose t!(th an& 5e!a#it+ a!e h+potheti#a%%+ a&$itte&.
0o"e5e!/ as he%& in Peop%e 5. Na5a!!o/ a&&itiona% a#ts not
a%%e)e& in the ino!$ation/ *(t a&$itte& o! not &enie& *+ the
p!ose#(tion $a+ *e in5o,e& in s(ppo!t o the $otion to ;(ash.
3. NO
1Aa!#ia #annot *e a%%o"e& to &iso"n state$ents he $a&e (n&e!
oath an& in open #o(!t "hen it se!5es his p(!pose. <esi&es/ he
ne5e! &enie& ha5in) )i5en the pe!tinent testi$on+. 0e &i&/
ho"e5e!/ te!$ it 5a)(e in that it "as not #%ea! "hethe! the p!io!
$a!!ia)e "hi#h E()enia <a%in)it &is#%ose& to hi$ "as that
ente!e& into *+ the p!i5ate !espon&ent "ith Re+na%&o O(i!o#a. It
is i$$ate!ia% to "ho$ the p!i5ate !espon&ent "as i!st $a!!ie&H
"hat is !e%e5ant in this #ase is that the petitione! "as ino!$e&
o a p!io! $a!!ia)e #ont!a#te& *+ the p!i5ate !espon&ent.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
1Neithe! $a+ the petitione! *e hea!& to #ast &o(*t on the $eanin)
o his state$ents in his s"o!n #o$p%aint
?
i%e& *eo!e the CSC.
3e in& no hint o 5a)(eness in the$. In an+ e5ent/ he has not
&enie& that he in a#t &is#o5e!e& in 19=@ that the p!i5ate
!espon&ent ha& *een p!e5io(s%+ $a!!ie&.
4. NO
13e a)!ee "ith the Co(!t o Appea%s that these t!ips a*!oa& &i&
not #onstit(te the 6a*sen#e6 #onte$p%ate& in A!ti#%e 91. These
t!ips "e!e *!ie/ an& in e5e!+ #ase A&e%a !et(!ne& to the
Phi%ippines. <esi&es/ these "e!e $a&e %on) ate! the Aa!#ia
&is#o5e!e& the oense an& e5en i the a))!e)ate n($*e! o &a+s
o these t!ips a!e #onsi&e!e&/ sti%% the ino!$ation "as i%e& "e%%
*e+on& the p!es#!ipti5e pe!io&.
>0*PO*$0O1 the instant petition is 9ENIE9 o! %a#, o $e!it an&
the #ha%%en)e& &e#ision o 1? Fe*!(a!+ 199> o the Co(!t o Appea%s
in CAGA.R. CR No.1@?2@ is AFFIRDE9.
?
These a#ts "e!e &is#o5e!e& on%+ *+ the he!ein #o$p%ainant in the
+ea! 19=@ "he!e the+ sepa!ate& !o$ ea#h othe! *e#a(se o he! i%%i#it
!e%ations "ith se5e!a% $en #ontin(e& (se o he! a%ias na$e 69ELIA6/
"itho(t p!ope! a(tho!it+ !o$ the Co(!tsH an& #o$$ittin) a se!ies o
!a(&(%ent a#tsH he! p!e5io(s $a!!ia)e to a #e!tain 6Re+na%&o
O(i!o#a6 is e5i&en#e& *+ a #e!tii#ation iss(e& *+ the Lo#a% Ci5i%
Re)ist!a! o Dani%a
26
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
LOPER 5. CITM '79AE
1) SCRA 616
*izon, J" ,!t. 29, 1966
FACTS
1Petitione!s N An)e%ina LopeE/ A(!o!a Vi%%aso! (hei!s o Sps. Dan(e%
De8ia an& A%o!ia LaEatin) an& Ro+ Vi%%aso! (a&$inist!ato! o the intestate
estate o the sai& Sps.)
2Petitione!s/ to)ethe! "ith the othe! hei!s o Sps. De8ia/ ente!e& into a
#ont!a#t "ith T!ini&a& LaEatin o! the &e5e%op$ent an& s(*&i5ision
o ? pa!#e%s o %an& *e%on) to sai& intestate estate. LaEatin t!anse!!e&
his !i)hts (n&e! the #ont!a#t to the Te!!a 9e5e%op$ent Co!po!ation.
3Donths %ate!/ petitione!s an& othe! #oGhei!s i%e& an a#tion in CFI OC o!
the !e#ission o sai& #ont!a#t o! a%%e)e& )!oss an& "i%(% 5io%ation o its
te!$s.
4LaEatin an& T9C i%e& "ith the Fis#a%1s Oi#e o the Cit+ o
An)e%es a #o$p%aint a)ainst petitione!s o! an a%%e)e& 5io%ation A!t.
1=2 in !e%ation to those o A!t. 1=1/ pa!. @/ o the RPC.
5Ate! #on&(#tin) a p!e%i$ina!+ e-a$ination/ Cit+ Fis#a% i%e& an
ino!$ation #ha!)in) petitione!s "ith the #!i$e o a%sii#ation o a
p!i5ate &o#($ent (pon the a%%e)ation that the+ $a&e it appea! in the
#ont!a#t $entione& that A(!o!a
Vi%%aso! "as the J)(a!&ianK o the $ino! Aeo!)e De8ia an& that
An)e%ina LopeE "as si$i%a!%+ the J)(a!&ianK o the $ino! A%e-an&e!
De8ia/ "hen in t!(th an& in a#t the+ ,ne" that the+ "e!e not the
)(a!&ians o sai& $ino!s on the &ate o the e-e#(tion o the
&o#($ent.
67pon petition o the pa!ties th(s #ha!)e&/ the Cit+ Fis#a% o An)e%es
!ein5esti)ate& the #ase to )i5e the$ an oppo!t(nit+ to p!esent
e-#(%pato!+ e5i&en#e/ an& ate! the #on#%(sion o the !ein5esti)ation
the petitioners moved for the dismissal of the case mainl on the
ground that the Cit Court of 'ngeles had no (urisdiction over
the offense because the private document that contained the
alleged false statement of fact !as signed b them outside the
territorial limits of said cit. (Da,ati an& OC)
7Reso%(tion o this $otion to "as &e%a+e&. The Cit+ Co(!t ha& set the
#!i$ina% #ase o! a!!ai)n$entH petitione!s se#(!e& !o$ sai& #o(!t
se5e!a% postpone$ents o the a!!ai)n$ent. In 5ie" o the Cit+ Fis#a%Cs
#ontin(e& ai%(!e to a#t on the $otion to &is$iss the #ase/ petitione!s
"ith the Cit+ Co(!t a $otion to ;(ash (pon the )!o(n& that sai& #o(!t
ha& no 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the oense #ha!)e&.
8The #o$p%ainantsU "ith the #ono!$it+ o the Cit+ Fis#a% U i%e&
an opposition the!eto. Cit+ '(&)e &enie& sai& $otion to ;(ash an&
!eset the a!!ai)n$ent o a%% the &een&ants on Da!#h > o the sa$e
+ea!.
9Petitione!s i%e& the p!esent a#tion o! certiorari an& p!ohi*ition.
ISS7E
1. 3ON Cit+ Co(!t o An)e%es Cit+ ha& 8(!is&i#tion to t!+ an& &e#i&e
the #!i$ina% #ase o! a%%e)e& a%sii#ation o a p!i5ate &o#($ent
a%%e)e&%+ &one *+ the pa!ties na$e& in the ino e5en i the a#ts o
a%sii#ation "as a%%e)e&%+ &one in Da,ati an& OC/ an& th(s o(tsi&e
the 8(!is&i#tion o sai& #o(!t
2. 3ON the $otion to ;(ash "as i$p!ope!/ an& sho(%& not *e a%%o"e&
sin#e *+ i%in) the sai& $otion/ the petitione!s ne#essa!i%+ ass($es
the t!(th o the a%%e)ation o the
ino!$ation to the ee#t
that the oense "as
#o$$itte& "ithin the
te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion o
An)e%es Cit+
3. 3ON the p!a+e! o! "!its
o #e!tio!a!i an&
p!ohi*ition is p!ope!
0EL9:RATIO
1. 1O. 0t is settled la! in
criminal actions that the
place !here the criminal
offense !as committed
not onl determines the
venue of the action but is
an essential element of
(urisdiction. $he Cit
Court of 'ngeles has no
(urisdiction over the
offense charged.
17n&e! the p!o5isions o
Se#tion 86 o the '(&i#ia!+
A#t o 19@8/ $(ni#ipa%
#o(!ts ha5e o!i)ina%
8(!is&i#tion on%+ o5e!
#!i$ina% oenses
#o$$itte& "ithin thei!
!espe#ti5e te!!ito!ia%
8(!is&i#tion.
2Petitione!s a!e not #ha!)e&
"ith ha5in) (se& a
a%siie& &o#($ent/ in
5io%ation o the %ast
pa!a)!aph o A!t. 1=2 o
the RPC. $he charge
against them is that of
having falsified a private.
38, v. 9nfante G that the
#!i$e o a%sii#ation o a
p!i5ate &o#($ent &eine&
an& pena%iEe& *+ A!t. ?.@
o the Pena% Co&e (no" pa!
2/ A!ti#%e 1=2 o the RPC)
is #ons($$ate& "hen s(#h
&o#($ent is a#t(a%%+
a%siie& "ith the intent to
p!e8(&i#e a thi!& pe!son/
"hethe! s(#h a%siie&
&o#($ent is o! is not
the!eate! p(t to the i%%e)a%
(se o! "hi#h it "as
inten&e&.
4The a#t o a%sii#ation U
the si)nin) o the
&o#($ent an& the
#oetaneo(s intent to #a(se
&a$a)e U "as #o$$itte&
an& #ons($$ate& o(tsi&e
the te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion
o the Cit+ o An)e%es/ an&
that "hethe! the a%siie&
p!i5ate &o#($ent "as
the!eate! p(t o! not p(t to
the i%%e)a% (se o! "hi#h it
"as inten&e&/ o! "as
si)ne& *+ the othe!
#ont!a#tin) pa!t+ "ithin
the te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion
o the Cit+ o An)e%es is
not essentia% e%e$ent o the
#!i$e o a%sii#ation o the
p!i5ate &o#($ent/ no!
#o(%& it in an+ "a+ #han)e
the a#t that the a#t o
a%sii#ation #ha!)e& "as
#o$$itte& o(tsi&e the
te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion o
An)e%es Cit+.
2. 1O. $he argument of the
respondents refers to the
no! obsolete demurrer to
an information.
1The $otion to ;(ash no"
p!o5i&e& o! in R(%e 11= o
the R(%es o Co(!t is
$aniest%+ *!oa&e! in
s#ope than the &e$(!!e!/ as
it is not %i$ite& to &ee#ts
appa!ent (pon the a#e o
the #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation *(t e-ten&s to
iss(es a!isin) o(t o
e-t!aneo(s a#ts/ as sho"n
*+ the #i!#($stan#e that/
a$on) the )!o(n&s o! a
$otion to ;(ash/ Se#tion 2
o sai& R(%e p!o5i&es o!
o!$e! 8eopa!&+ o!
a#;(itta%/ e-tin#tion o
#!i$ina% a#tion o! %ia*i%it+/
insanit+ o the a##(se&
et#./ "hi#h ne#essa!i%+
in5o%5e ;(estions o a#t in
the &ete!$ination o "hi#h
a p!e%i$ina!+ t!ia% is
!e;(i!e&.
2In the p!esent #ase/ the
po!tion o the !e#o!& o the
!ein5esti)ation "hi#h "as
s(*$itte& to the
!espon&ent 8(&)e o!
#onsi&e!ation in
#onne#tion "ith the
!eso%(tion o the $otion to
;(ash sho"s *e+on&
;(estion that the oense
#ha!)e& "as #o$$itte& a!
*e+on& the te!!ito!ia%
8(!is&i#tion o An)e%es
Cit+.
3. :2*
2=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
1As a )ene!a% !(%e/ a #o(!t o e;(it+ "i%% not iss(e a "!it o
#e!tio!a!i to ann(% an o!&e! o a %o"e! #o(!t &en+in) a $otion to
;(ash/ no! iss(e a "!it o p!ohi*ition to p!e5ent sai& #o(!t !o$
p!o#ee&in) "ith the #ase ate! s(#h &enia%/ it *ein) the !(%e that
(pon s(#h &enia% the &een&ant sho(%& ente! his p%ea o not
)(i%t+ an& )o to t!ia% an&/ i #on5i#te&/ !aise on appea% the sa$e
%e)a% ;(estions #o5e!e& *+ his $otion to ;(ash. In this as "e%% as
in othe! 8(!is&i#tions ho"e5e!/ this is no %on)e! the ha!& an& ast
!(%e.
2The "!its o certiorari an& p!ohi*ition/ as e-t!aGo!&ina!+ %e)a%
!e$e&ies/ a!e/ in the (%ti$ate ana%+sis/ inten&e& to ann(% 5oi&
p!o#ee&in)sH to p!e5ent the (n%a"(% an& opp!essi5e e-e!#ise o
%e)a% a(tho!it+ an& to p!o5i&e o! a ai! an& o!&e!%+
a&$inist!ation o 8(sti#e.
>0*PO*0$0O1 8(&)$ent is he!e*+ !en&e!e& &e#%a!in) that the
oense #ha!)e& in the ino!$ation i%e& in C!i$ina% Case No. CG2268
o the Cit+ Co(!t o An)e%es Cit+ is not "ithin the 8(!is&i#tion o sai&
#o(!t an& that/ the!eo!e/ sai& #o(!t is he!e*+ !est!aine& an&
p!ohi*ite& !o$ (!the! p!o#ee&in)s the!ein.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
28
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
7M 5. CA
276 SCRA 371
-ello.illo, J" Jan. 2), 1997
"'C$*
1Rosa 7+ "as e$p%o+e& as an a##o(ntant in 9on Ti$ Shippin) Co$pan+
o"ne& *+ the h(s*an& o Conso%a#ion
Leon). 9(!in) Rosa1s e$p%o+$ent/ she "as !e)a!&e& *+ the
Leon)s as an ei#ient an& ha!&"o!,in) e$p%o+ee. A e" $onths
*eo!e she "as to )i5e *i!th/ Rosa !esi)ne&. She he%pe& he! h(s*an&
$ana)e thei! %($*e! *(siness. The !ien&%+ !e%ations *et"een Rosa
an& Conso%a#ion #ontin(e&. The t"o %ate! a)!ee& to o!$ a
pa!tne!ship "ith Conso%a#ion to #ont!i*(te a&&itiona% #apita% o! the
e-pansion o Rosa1s %($*e! *(siness an& the %atte! as in&(st!ia%
pa!tne!. Va!io(s s($s o $one+ a$o(ntin) to P>.., "e!e #%ai$e& to
ha5e )i5en *+ Conso%a#ion o! the *(sinessH ho"e5e! *e#a(se o the
t!(st the+ ha& o! ea#h othe!/ no !e#eipt "as e5e! iss(e&.The!eate! a
%($*e! sto!e "ith "a!eho(se "as #onst!(#te& in <(%a#an/ <(%a#an/
"ith the (n&s #ont!i*(te& *+ Conso%a#ion e5i&en#e& *+ 5a!io(s
!e#eipts. <(t/ (no!t(nate%+/ the !ien&ship *et"een Conso%a#ion an&
Rosa t(!ne& so(! "hen the pa!tne!ship &o#($ents "e!e ne5e!
p!o#esse&. As a !es(%t/ Conso%a#ion as,e& o! the !et(!n o he!
in5est$ent *(t the #he#,s iss(e& *+ Rosa o! the p(!pose "e!e
&ishono!e& o! ins(i#ien#+ o (n&s.
2Conso%a#ion i%e& a #o$p%aint o! estaa an& o! 5io%ation o the <o(n#in)
Che#,s La" *eo!e the RTC o Dani%a.
39e#. 1. N an Ino!$ation o! an& se5e!a% othe! ino!$ations o! 5io%ation
o <P *%). 22 "e!e i%e& a)ainst Rosa. The oenses "e!e s(*se;(ent%+
#onso%i&ate& an& t!ie& 8oint%+.
4RTC a#;(itte& Rosa o estaa *(t #on5i#te& he! o the #ha!)es (n&e! <P <%).
22.
5CA N ai!$e& the &e#ision
6Rosa G t!ia% #o(!t ne5e! a#;(i!e& 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the oenses (n&e!
<.P. <%). 22. None o the essentia% e%e$ents #onstit(ti5e o 5io%ation
o <.P. <%). 22 "as sho"n to ha5e *een #o$$itte& in the Cit+ o
Dani%a. The e5i&en#e p!esente& esta*%ishe& that (a) #o$p%ainant "as
a !esi&ent o Da,atiH (*) petitione! "as a !esi&ent o Ca%oo#an Cit+H
(#) the p%a#e o *(siness o the a%%e)e& pa!tne!ship "as %o#ate& in
Da%a*onH (&) the &!a"ee *an, "as %o#ate& in Da%a*onH an&/
(5)the #he#,s "e!e a%% &eposite& o! #o%%e#tion in Da,ati.
Ta,en a%to)ethe!/ petitione! #on#%(&es that the sai& e5i&en#e "o(%&
on%+ sho" that none o the essentia% e%e$ents o <.P. <%). 22
o##(!!e& in Dani%a
1Peop%e N (1) E5en i the!e is no sho"in) o an+ e5i&en#e that the
essentia% in)!e&ients too, p%a#e o! the oense "as #o$$itte& in
Dani%a/ "hat is #!iti#a% is the a#t that the #o(!t a#;(i!e& 8(!is&i#tion
o5e! the estafa #ase *e#a(se the sa$e is the p!in#ipa% o! $ain #ase
an& that the #ases o! 5io%ations o the <o(n#in) Che#,s La" a!e
$e!e%+ in#i&enta% to the estafa #ase. (2)4no"%e&)e on the pa!t o the
$a,e! o! &!a"e! o the #he#, o the ins(i#ien#+ o his (n&s is *+
itse% a #ontin(in) e5ent(a%it+ "hethe! the a##(se& *e "ithin one
te!!ito!+ o! anothe! (?) !espon&ent !e%ies on the &o#t!ine o
8(!is&i#tion *+ estoppel( it too, so$e > +ea!s o t!ia% *eo!e petitione!
!aise& the iss(e o 8(!is&i#tion.
0**;2*
3hethe! the RTC o Dani%a
a#;(i!e& 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the
5io%ations o the <o(n#in)
Che#,s La"
627>B#'$0O@ 1O
1It is a (n&a$enta% !(%e
that o! 8(!is&i#tion to *e
a#;(i!e& *+ #o(!ts in
#!i$ina% #ases the oense
sho(%& ha5e *een
#o$$itte& o! an+ one o
its essentia% in)!e&ients
too, p%a#e "ithin the
te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion o
the #o(!t. Te!!ito!ia%
8(!is&i#tion in #!i$ina%
#ases is the te!!ito!+ "he!e
the #o(!t has 8(!is&i#tion to
ta,e #o)niEan#e o! to t!+
the oense a%%e)e&%+
#o$$itte& the!ein *+ the
a##(se&. F(!the!$o!e/ the
8(!is&i#tion o a #o(!t o5e!
the #!i$ina% #ase is
&ete!$ine& *+ the
a%%e)ations in the
#o$p%aint o! ino!$ation.
An& on#e it is so sho"n/
the #o(!t $a+ 5a%i&%+ ta,e
#o)niEan#e o the #ase.
0o"e5e!/ i the e5i&en#e
a&&(#e& &(!in) the t!ia%
sho" that the oense "as
#o$$itte& so$e"he!e
e%se/ the #o(!t sho(%&
&is$iss the a#tion o! "ant
o 8(!is&i#tion.
The crime of estafa and the
violation of B.P. Blg. :: have to
be treated as separate offenses
1The #!i$es o estafa an&
5io%ation o the <o(n#in)
Che#,s La" a!e 2 &ie!ent
oenses ha5in) &ie!ent
e%e$ents an&/ ne#essa!i%+/
o! a #o(!t to a#;(i!e
8(!is&i#tion ea#h o the
essentia% in)!e&ients o
ea#h #!i$e has to *e
satisie&.
2In the #!i$e o estafa/
&e#eit an& &a$a)e a!e
essentia% e%e$ents o the
oense an& ha5e to *e
esta*%ishe& "ith
satisa#to!+ p!oo to
"a!!ant #on5i#tion. Fo!
violation of the Bouncing
Checks 7a!/ the e%e$ents
o &e#eit an& &a$a)e a!e
neithe! essentia% no!
!e;(i!e&. Rathe!/ the
e%e$ents o <.P. <%). 22
a!e (a) the $a,in)/
&!a"in) an& iss(an#e o
an+ #he#, to app%+ to
a##o(nt o! o! 5a%(eH (*)
the $a,e!/ &!a"e! o! iss(e!
,no"s at the ti$e o
iss(an#e that he &oes not
ha5e s(i#ient (n&s in o!
#!e&it "ith the &!a"ee
*an, o! the pa+$ent o
s(#h #he#, in (%% (pon its
p!esent$entH an&/ (#) the
#he#, is s(*se;(ent%+
&ishono!e& *+ the &!a"ee
*an, o! ins(i#ien#+ o
(n&s o! #!e&it o! "o(%&
ha5e *een &ishono!e& o!
the sa$e !eason ha& not
the &!a"e!/ "itho(t 5a%i&
!eason/ o!&e!e& the *an, to
stop pa+$ent.
3The !e#o!&s #%ea!%+
in&i#ate that *(siness
&ea%in)s "e!e #on&(#te& in
a !esta(!ant in Dani%a
"he!e s($s o $one+ "e!e
)i5en to Rosa!H hen#e/ the
a#;(isition o 8(!is&i#tion
*+ the %o"e! #o(!t o5e! the
estafa #ase. The 5a!io(s
#ha!)es o! 5io%ation o
<.P. <%). 22 ho"e5e! a!e
on a &ie!ent p%ain.
$here is no scintilla of
evidence to sho! that
(urisdiction over the
violation of B.P. Bldg. //
had been ac)uired. No
p!oo has *een oe!e& that
the #he#,s "e!e iss(e&/
&e%i5e!e&/ &ishono!e& o!
,no"%e&)e o ins(i#ien#+
o (n&s o##(!!e& in
Dani%a/ "hi#h a!e essentia%
e%e$ents ne#essa!+ o! the
Dani%a Co(!t to a#;(i!e
8(!is&i#tion o5e! the
oense.
5iolation of B.P. Blg. :: is a
continuing offense ho&ever
1It $a+ *e t!(e that <.P.
<%). 22 is a t!ansito!+ o!
#ontin(in) oense an&
s(#h *ein) the #ase the
theo!+ is that a pe!son
in&i#te& "ith a t!ansito!+
oense $a+ *e 5a%i&%+
t!ie& in an+ 8(!is&i#tion
"he!e the oense "as in
pa!t #o$$itte&. 0o"e5e!
that ,no"%e&)e *+ the
$a,e! o! &!a"e! o the a#t
29
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
that he has no s(i#ient (n&s to #o5e! the #he#, o! o ha5in)
s(i#ient (n&s is si$(%taneo(s to the iss(an#e o the
inst!($ent. 3e a)ain in& no iota o p!oo on the !e#o!&s that at
the ti$e o iss(e/ petitione! o! #o$p%ainant "as in Dani%a.
Doctrine of Estoppel not applicable
1Se#. ?/ R(%e 11=p!o5i&es that the a##(se& $a+ $o5e to ;(ash
the #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation on an+ o the o%%o"in) )!o(n&s2
(*) that the #o(!t t!+in) the #ase has no 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the
oense #ha!)e& or over the person of the accused. Do!eo5e!/
(n&e! Se#. 8/ R(%e 11? it is p!o5i&e& that the ai%(!e o the
a##(se& to asse!t an+ )!o(n& o a $otion to ;(ash *eo!e he
p%ea&s to the #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation/ eithe! *e#a(se he &i& not
i%e a $otion to ;(ash o! ai%e& to a%%e)e the sa$e in sai& $otion/
sha%% *e &ee$e& a "ai5e! o the )!o(n&s o a $otion to ;(ash/
e-#ept the )!o(n&s o %a#, o 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the oense
#ha!)e& as p!o5i&e& o! in pa!. * Se#. ?/ R(%e 11=.
2Rosa ti$e%+ ;(estione& the 8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t in a
$e$o!an&($ *eo!e the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t an& the!eate! in
s(##ee&in) p%ea&in)s. E5en i a pa!t+ ai%s to i%e a $otion to
;(ash/ he $a+ sti%% ;(estion the 8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t %ate! on.
Do!eo5e!/ these o*8e#tions $a+ *e !aise& o! #onsi&e!e& motu
propio *+ the #o(!t at an+ sta)e o the p!o#ee&in)s o! on appea%.
%alimlim v. Ramire6 ; Ti<am v. ,ibonghano'
=
is an eception to the
general rule
1In Ca%i$%i$ 5. Ra$i!eE/ the Co(!t he%& that the !(%in) in the
Si*on)hano+ #ase is an e-#eption to the )ene!a% !(%e that the
%a#, o 8(!is&i#tion o a #o(!t $a+ *e !aise& at an+ sta)e o the
p!o#ee&in)s/ e5en on appea%. The Co(!t state& (!the! that Ti8a$
5. Si*on)hano+ is an e-#eptiona% #ase *e#a(se o the p!esen#e o
%a#hes. The Co(!t sai&2 JA !(%e that ha& *een sett%e& *+
(n;(estione& a##eptan#e an& (phe%& in &e#isions so n($e!o(s to
#ite is that the 8(!is&i#tion o a #o(!t o5e! the s(*8e#t $atte! o
the a#tion is a $atte! o %a" an& $a+ not *e #one!!e& *+
#onsent o! a)!ee$ent o the pa!ties. The %a#, o 8(!is&i#tion o a
#o(!t $a+ *e !aise& at an+ sta)e o the p!o#ee&in)s/ e5en on
appea%. This &o#t!ine has *een ;(a%iie& *+ !e#ent
p!ono(n#e$ents "hi#h ste$$e& p!in#ipa%%+ !o$ the !(%in) in
the #ite& #ase o Si*on)hano+. It is to *e !e)!ette&/ ho"e5e!/ that
the ho%&in) in sai& #ase ha& *een app%ie& to sit(ations "hi#h
"e!e o*5io(s%+ not #onte$p%ate& the!ein. The e-#eptiona%
#i!#($stan#e in5o%5e& in Si*on)hano+ "hi#h 8(stiie& the
&epa!t(!e !o$ the a##epte& #on#ept o nonG"ai5a*i%it+ o
o*8e#tion to 8(!is&i#tion has *een i)no!e& an&/ instea& a *%an,et
&o#t!ine ha& *een !epeate&%+ (phe%& that !en&e!e& the s(ppose&
!(%in) in Si*on)hano+ not as the e-#eption/ *(t !athe! the
)ene!a% !(%e/ 5i!t(a%%+ o5e!th!o"in) a%to)ethe! the ti$eGhono!e&
p!in#ip%e that the iss(e o 8(!is&i#tion is not %ost *+ "ai5e! o! *+
estoppe%.K
9nstant case different from Ti<am v. ,ibonghano'
4
It was ruled that the lack of jurisdiction having been raised
for the first time in a motion to dismiss filed almost 15 years
after the questioned ruling had been rendered, such a plea
may no longer be raised for being barred by laches.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
1No 8(&)$ent has +et *een !en&e!e& *+ the t!ia% #o(!t in the
p!esent #ase. As soon as the a##(se& &is#o5e!e& the
8(!is&i#tiona% &ee#t/ she &i& not ai% o! ne)%e#t to i%e the
app!op!iate $otion to &is$iss. The+ ;(estione& the 8(!is&i#tion
o the t!ia% #o(!t in a $e$o!an&($ *eo!e the %o"e! #o(!t.
>0*PO*0$0O1 REVERSE9 an& SET ASI9E/ "itho(t p!e8(&i#e to
the i%%in) o app!op!iate #ha!)es a)ainst petitione! "ith the #o(!t o
#o$petent 8(!is&i#tion "hen "a!!ante&.
?.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE 5. NAVARRO
279 SCRA 393
&an/ani0an, J
"'C$*
1T:S)t. San#heE/ PC In5esti)ato! i%e& a #o$p%aint o! ;(a%iie& thet
&i!e#t%+ "ith the RTC o Na)a Cit+ a)ainst $ino! Ca!%os <a!*osa.
2PAO/ as #o(nse% o! <a!*osa/ i%e& a Dotion to O(ash the Co$p%aint on
the )!o(n& that S)t. San#heE is not a(tho!iEe& to i%e a #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation in Co(!t.
3'(&)e Danio/ '!./ as p!esi&in) 8(&)e o RTC an& the pai!in) 8(&)e o
'(&)e Na5a!!o/ iss(e& an o!&e! !e$an&in) the #ase o! p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation an& assi)ne& the a&8(&i#ation to P!ose#(to! Ca8ot.
4<eo!e P!os. Ca8ot #o(%& #on&(#t the !e;(i!e& p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation/
S)t. San#heE i%e& a $otion to "ith&!a" the #o$p%aint "ith the
P!ose#(tion Oi#e.
5P!os. Ca8ot iss(e& an o!&e! an& app!o5e& *+ the P!o5. P!os./ )!antin)
the $otion to "ith&!a" the #o$p%aint an& o!&e!in) the !e%ease o the
a##(se& !o$ &etention. A #op+ o sai& o!&e! "as (!nishe& the RTC.
6'(&)e Na5a!!o o!&e!e& the P!o5. P!os. an& P!os. Ca8ot to e-p%ain "h+
the+ en#!oa#he& on the 8(!is&i#tion o the #o(!t o5e! the #ase.
7P!os. Ca8ot e-p%aine& asse!tin) the 8(!is&i#tion o the p!ose#(to!s
oi#e in the #on&(#t o p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation an& that "hen the
#o(!t o!&e!e& the !e#o!&s o #ase *e !e$an&e& to the Oi#e o the
P!ose#(to! to #on&(#t the p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation/ the #o(!t
&i5este& itse% o its #ont!o% an& 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the #ase.
8'(&)e Na5a!!o iss(e& an o!&e! settin) asi&e the o!&e! o P!os. Ca8ot
an& o!&e!e& Ass. P!os. L%a)(no/ "ho "as appea!in) in he! sa%a/ to
#on&(#t the !e;(i!e& p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation.
9P!os. L%a)(no i%e a $otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation ta,in) e-#eption to
the o!&e! on the )!o(n& that an+ !eso%(tion she $a+ iss(e $i)ht !(n
#o(nte! "ith the p!e5io(s o!&e! o he! s(pe!io!s an& th(s !en&e!
oi#e po%i#ies &iso!)aniEe&/ p!o#e&(!es &iso!&e!%+ an& #haoti#/
!es(%tin) to the e$*a!!ass$ent o the a&$inist!ation o '(sti#e.
10 P!os. Ca8ot i%e& a $otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation a%%e)in)2 (a) that
he &i& not iss(e an o!&e! o &is$issa% *(t an o!&e! )!antin) the
$otion to "ith&!a". The!eo!e/ the!e is no $o!e #o$p%aint to spea,
o *eo!e the #o(!tH (*) the p!ose#(to!/ in #on&(#tin) the p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation/ has the e-#%(si5e po"e! an& a(tho!it+ to &is$iss the
#o$p%aint i$$e&iate%+ i he in&s no )!o(n&s to #ontin(e "ith the
in;(i!+/ othe!"ise he i%es the Ino!$ation i he in&s #a(se to ho%&
the !espon&ent o! t!ia%H (#) the in&in):!e#o$$en&ation o the
in5esti)atin) p!ose#(to! is s(*8e#t to !e5ie" on%+ *+ the P!o5. P!os
an& the a#tion o the %atte!/ *+ the Se#!eta!+ o '(sti#eH (&) "hen the
Co(!t !e$an&e& the #ase to the P!os. Oi#e o! the !e;(i!e&
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ationH the Co(!t &i5este& itse% o its #ont!o% an&
8(!is&i#tion o5e! the #aseH an& (e) the i%in) o ino!$ation is "ithin
the &is#!etiona!+ a(tho!it+ o the is#a%.
11 '(&)e Na5a!!o &enie& *oth $otions o! !e#onsi&e!ation an&
!eite!ate& its p!e5io(s o!&e! to P!os. L%a)(no to #o$p%+ "ith the o!&e! o
the #o(!t/ )!antin) he! 1> &a+s to #on&(#t the
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation
!o$ !e#eipt o the #op+ o
the O!&e!.
1P!o5. P!os. i%e& a $otion
to set asi&e the o!&e!s
iss(e& *+ '(&)e Na5a!!o
statin) (1) that she has no
a(tho!it+ to &esi)nate a
pa!ti#(%a! p!ose#(to! to
han&%e the #aseH (2) that
the #o(!t "i%% *e a#tin)
"itho(t o! "ith )!a5e
a*(se o &is#!etion sho(%&
it insists on P!os. L%a)(no
to #on&(#t the p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ationH an& (?) that
the !e#o!& o sai& #ase *e
o!"a!&e& to the P!o5.
P!os.1 Oi#e o! it #on&(#t
the p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation. A
S(pp%e$enta% Dotion to
"ith&!a" the #ase "as a%so
i%e& so that the sa$e $a+
not !e$ain pen&in) "ith
the #o(!t "hi%e the #ase is
(n&e! p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation.
2'(&)e Na5a!!o &enie& *oth
$otions on the )!o(n&s
that2 (1) the #ase o
A*()ota% 5. Ti!o "hi#h
p!ohi*its the #o(!ts !o$
appointin) a pa!ti#(%a!
is#a% to #on&(#t the
!e;(i!e& p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation/ is not in
point as the sai& #ase !ee!s
to !ein5esti)ation "hi%e the
instant #ase !ee!s to
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ationH
an& (2) the #o(!t is
app!ehensi5e that i the
Dotion to A$en& O!&e!s
a!e )!ante&/ the!e is
nothin) that "i%% p!e5ent
the P!o5. P!os. !o$
i$p%e$entin) the o!&e!s
iss(e& *+ P!os. Ca8ot an&
the %atte! "i%% 8(st a#t in
#ono!$it+ "ith his
p!e5io(s a#tion.
3P!o5. P!os.1 $otion !e#onsi&e!ation
"as &enie&.
4Petitione! i%e& the petition
see,in) the ann(%$ent o the
assai%e& o!&e! o '(&)e
Na5a!!o.
0**;2 Da+ a !e)iona% t!ia%
#o(!t 8(&)e na$e o! &esi)nate a
particular assistant p!ose#(to!
to #on&(#t the p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation o the #aseS
627>B#'$0O@ 1O
1In settin) asi&e the o!&e! o
P!os. Ca8ot "hi#h )!ante&
the "ith&!a"a% o the
#o$p%aint/ an&
s(*se;(ent%+ o!&e!in)
P!os. L%a)(no to #on&(#t
the !e;(i!e& p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation/ 4udge
1avarro clearl
encroached on an
e3ecutive function.
2P!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation
is an e-e#(ti5e/ not a
8(&i#ia%/ (n#tion. As the
oi#e! a(tho!iEe& to &i!e#t
an& #ont!o% the p!ose#(tion
o a%% #!i$ina% a#tions/ a
p!ose#(to! is p!i$a!i%+
!esponsi*%e o!
as#e!tainin) "hethe! the!e
is s(i#ient )!o(n& to
en)en&e! a "e%%Go(n&e&
*e%ie that an oense has
*een #o$$itte& an& that
the a##(se& is p!o*a*%+
)(i%t+ the!eo.
3An RTC 8(&)e has no
a(tho!it+ to #on&(#t a
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation.
This $eans that he #annot
&i!e#t%+ o!&e! an assistant
p!ose#(to!/ pa!ti#(%a!%+
o5e! the o*8e#tions o the
%atte!1s s(pe!io!s/ to
#on&(#t a p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation. To a%%o" hi$
to &o so is to a(tho!iEe hi$
to $e&&%e in the e-e#(ti5e
an& a&$inist!ati5e
(n#tions o the p!o5in#ia%
o! #it+ p!ose#(to!. The!e is
a hie!a!#h+ o oi#ia%s in
the p!ose#(to!+ a!$ o the
e-e#(ti5e *!an#h hea&e&
*+ the Se#!eta!+ o '(sti#e
an& his tea$ o
p!ose#(to!s. De!e
s(spi#ion o! *e%ie that the
sai& oi#ia%s "i%% not
a&e;(ate%+ pe!o!$ thei!
oi#ia% &(ties is no !eason
o! the 8(&)e1s inte!e!en#e
in o! &is!e)a!& o s(#h
hie!a!#h+.
4#bugotal v. Tiro G 7n&e!
P!esi&entia% 9e#!ee No. ==/
the a(tho!it+ to #on&(#t the
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation o
the
?1
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
$(!&e! #ha!)e i%e& a)ainst p!i5ate !espon&ents is 5este& in the
petitione! o! his assistants. As #hie o the oi#e/ petitione! has
the !i)ht to &esi)nate as in a#t he &i& the assistant is#a% "ho
#on&(#te& the in5esti)ation. 3hi%e it is t!(e that an assistant
is#a% o! state p!ose#(to! $a+ i%e an ino!$ation on%+ in a #ase
in "hi#h he hi$se% #on&(#te& the p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation/ he
$a+ (!the!$o!e &o so on%+ "ith the p!io! a(tho!it+ o! app!o5a%
o the #it+ o p!o5in#ia% is#a% o! #hie state p!ose#(to!. These
p!o5isions o %a" sho" in *o%& !e%ie the &e)!ee o #ont!o% o5e!
his assistants that petitione! e-e!#ises as #hie o the oi#e.
3he!e/ ho"e5e!/ the inte!est o 8(sti#e so !e;(i!es an& the #o(!t
o!&e!s a !ein5esti)ation o a #!i$ina% #ase pen&in) *eo!e it/ the
#o(!t #annot at the sa$e ti$e #hoose the is#a% "ho "i%% #on&(#t
the !ein5esti)ation. This is a p!e!o)ati5e 5este& in the #it+ is#a%
as hea& o oi#e/ an& #e!tain%+ *e+on& the po"e!s o the #o(!t
to &o
1P!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation sho(%& *e &istin)(ishe& as to "hethe!
it is an in5esti)ation o! the &ete!$ination o a s(i#ient )!o(n&
o! the i%in) o the ino!$ation o! it is an in5esti)ation o! the
&ete!$ination o a p!o*a*%e #a(se o! the iss(an#e o a "a!!ant
o a!!est. The i!st ,in& o p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation is e-e#(ti5e
in nat(!e. It is a pa!t o the p!ose#(tion1s 8o*. The se#on& ,in& o
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation "hi#h is $o!e p!ope!%+ #a%%e&
p!e%i$ina!+ e-a$ination is 8(&i#ia% in nat(!e an& is %o&)e& "ith
the 8(&)e.
2It is t!(e that ate! a #ase has a%!ea&+ *een i%e& in #o(!t an& the
#o(!t the!e*+ a#;(i!es 8(!is&i#tion o5e! it/ is#a%s as a !(%e a!e
&i5este& o the po"e! to &is$iss a #!i$ina% a#tion "itho(t the
#onsent o the #o(!t. 0n the case at bench, ho!ever, the #$C
had not et ac)uired (urisdiction over the complaint filed
directl before it b *gt. *ancheC !ho !as not a prosecutor.
1either !as he authoriCed b the Provincial Prosecutor to
file such case directl !ith the respondent court.
33e a!e not pe!s(a&e& *+ '(&)e Na5a!!o1s #ontention that
#bugotal app%ies on%+ to !ein5esti)ations/ an& not to p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ations. This &istin#tion is ins(*stantia% an& e5en ten(o(s.
<oth the p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation an& !ein5esti)ation a!e
#on&(#te& in the sa$e $anne! an& o! the sa$e o*8e#ti5e/ that
is/ to &ete!$ine "hethe! the!e e-ists
Js(i#ient )!o(n& to en)en&e! a "e%% o(n&e& *e%ie that a #!i$e
#o)niEa*%e *+ the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t has *een #o$$itte& an&
that the !espon&ent is p!o*a*%+ )(i%t+ the!eo/ an& sho(%& *e
he%& o! t!ia%.
>0*PO*0$0O1 the petition is he!e*+ >R#)TED. The assai%e&
O!&e!s o Respon&ent '(&)e A%o!iosa S. Na5a!!o a!e ,ET #,9DE an&
#))8LLED.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
?2
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Do!an
'an(a!+ 2=/ 192?
A!a(%%o/ C.'.
"acts@
1Da!#h ?1/ 1922

SC ai!$e& 8(&)$ent o CFI o Pan)asinan


#on5i#tin) the a##(se& he!ein o! 5io%ation o the E%e#tion La"
2Da+ 2/ 1922

a##(se& i%e& a spe#ia% $otion/ alleging that the crime


has prescribed under the provision of *ection =-
5
of 'ct A.A.
(enacted March ,, -,//)/ th(s p!a+in) o! a*so%(tion
0ssue D -@ 3hethe! o! not the p!es#!iption p!o5i&e& in se#tion =1 o A#t
?.?. !ee!s on%+ to that a#t an& not to an+ othe!.
6eldB#atio@ NO.
1Sai& a#t "as a$en&ato!+ to se5e!a% p!o5isions o the E%e#tion
%a"/ as s(#h A#t ?.?. !athe! than *ein) an inte)!a% pa!t o the
o!$e! e%e#tion %a" is in #on8(n#tion "ith the %atte! the on%+
E%e#tion La" in o!#e
23hi%e it is t!(e that Se#.=2 p!o5i&e& that the a#t sha%% ta,e ee#t
on the &ate o its app!o5a% (Da!#h 9/ 1922)/ the $eanin) o s(#h
e-p!ession (ee#ti5it+) in #onne#tion "ith p!es#!iption is that
prescription can be invoked from that date, as !as done b
the accused, and not that such provision ma have a
retroactive effect from that same date.
0ssue D/ (more crimpro relevant)@ 8hether or not such provisions
ma be applied retroactivel in favor of the accused.
6eldB#atio@ :2*.
13hi%e it is a !(%e o )ene!a% app%i#ation that (n%ess the &eense o
p!es#!iption is p%ea&e& in the t!ia% #o(!t/ it "i%% *e &ee$e& to ha5e
*een "ai5e& an& #annot %ate! *e !aise&/ +et this !(%e is not o a*so%(te
app%i#ation in #!i$ina% #ases/ o! i the p!es#!iption o the #!i$e/ as
"e%% as o the pena%t+ "he!e*+ #!i$ina% !esponsi*i%it+ is
e-tin)(ishe&/ $a+/ as is the #ase he!e "ith !e)a!& to the o!$e!/ *e
p!o5i&e& *+ stat(te ate! the te!$ination o a%% the p!o#ee&in)s in the
t!ia% #o(!t/ as "e%% as in the appe%%ate #o(!t/ an& "hen the #ase has
a%!ea&+ *een s(*$itte& o! &is#(ssion an& is a"aitin) on%+ the ina%
8(&)$entH an& i the p!es#!iption o the #!i$e is *(t the
e-tin)(ish$ent o the !i)ht o the State to p!ose#(te an& p(nish the
#(%p!it/ it is *e+on& ;(estion that/ on#e the State has %ost o! "ai5e&
s(#h !i)ht/ the a##(se& $a+/ at an+ sta)e o the p!o#ee&in)/ as, an&
$o5e that the sa$e *e &is$isse& an& that he *e a*so%5e& !o$ the
#o$p%aint. An& not on%+ that/ U the !i)ht to p!ose#(te an& p(nish the
#!i$ina% ha5in) *een %ost *+ the p!es#!iption o
the #!i$e e-p!ess%+ p!o5i&e& *+ the stat(te/ the *tate itself, the
Eovernment through the proper court, is in dut bound to make
a pronouncement to that effect.
F

5JOenses !es(%tin) !o$ 5io%ations o this A#t sha%% p!es#!i*e one +ea!
ate! thei! #o$$ission.K
6 Deanin)/ the!e is no nee& o! an a%%e)ation *+ the a##(se& as to
the p!es#!iption o the #!i$e/ the Co(!t $a+ *+ itse% !en&e! a
The!eo!e/ as on Da!#h 9th
o this +ea!/ 1922/ "hen
A#t No. ?.?. "ent into
ee#t/ p!o5i&in) in its
se#tion =1 that oense
!es(%tin) !o$ the
5io%ations the!eo sha%%
p!es#!i*e one +ea! ate!
thei! #o$$ission/ the
a##(se& an& the Atto!ne+G
Aene!a% ha& a%!ea&+ i%e&
thei! !espe#ti5e *!ies in
this #o(!t o! the
p!ose#(tion o the appea%
ta,en !o$ the 8(&)$ent o
the #o(!t *e%o"/ an& the
hea!in) o the #ase ha&
a%!ea&+ *een he%&/ this
#o(!t itse%/ "itho(t the
ne#essit+ o an+ $otion o
the a##(se&/ o! o the
Atto!ne+GAene!a%/ sho(%&
ha5e &e#%a!e& the #!i$e in
;(estion to ha5e
p!es#!i*e&/ in 5ie" o the
p!o5ision o sai& se#tion.
Conse;(ent%+/ as this #o(!t
ha& not (p to that ti$e
$a&e s(#h p!ono(n#e$ent/
the a##(se& a!e pe!e#t%+
8(stiie& in as,in)/ as the+
ha5e &one in thei! $otion
o Da+ 2& o this +ea!/ that
the oense ha5in)
p!es#!i*e&/ the+ *e
a*so%5e& !o$ the
#o$p%aint. This &(t+ is
i$pe!ati5e (pon the #o(!ts
o 8(sti#e at an+ $o$ent
that the oense appea!s to
ha5e p!es#!i*e& (n&e! the
p!o5ision o the %a". 3ith
pa!ti#(%a! !ee!en#e to the
p!esent #ase/ this
#on#%(sion is ne#essa!i%+
!ea#he& !o$ the %ette! as
"e%% as the spi!it o the
p!o5isions o the Pena%
Co&e !e%ati5e to
p!es#!iption/ an& !o$ that
o se#tion =1 o the
ao!esai& A#t No. ?.?./ o!
on#e the oense o! the
pena%t+ has p!es#!i*e&/ the
State has no !i)ht to
p!ose#(te the oen&e!/ o!
to p(nish hi$/ an& i he
has a%!ea&+ *een p(nishe&/
it has no !i)ht to #ontin(e
ho%&in) hi$ s(*8e#t to its
a#tion *+ the i$position o
the pena%t+. The p%ain
p!e#ept #ontaine& in a!ti#%e
22 o the Pena% Co&e/
&e#%a!in) the !et!oa#ti5it+
o pena% %a"s in so a! as
the+ a!e a5o!a*%e to
pe!sons a##(se& o a
e%on+ o! $is&e$eano!/
e5en i the+ $a+ *e
se!5in) senten#e/ "o(%& *e
(se%ess an& n()ato!+ i the
#o(!ts o 8(sti#e "e!e not
(n&e! o*%i)ation to (%i%%
s(#h &(t+/ i!!espe#ti5e o
"hethe! o! not the a##(se&
has app%ie& o! it/ 8(st as
"o(%& a%so a%% p!o5isions
!e%atin) to the p!es#!iption
o the #!i$e an& the
pena%t+.
1A!ti#%e 22 o the Pena% Co&e

#an on%+ *e in5o,e&


"hen the p!o5isions o so$e
othe! pena% %a" than the
p!o5isions o the Pena% Co&e
a!e (n&e! #onsi&e!ation. In
othe! "o!&s/ the p!o5isions
o a!ti#%e 22 #an on%+ *e
in5o,e& "ith !ee!en#e to
so$e othe! pena% %a". It has
no app%i#ation to the
p!o5isions o the Pena%
Co&e e-#ept in !e%ation
"ith so$e othe! %a". It is
not *e%ie5e&/ the!eo!e/
that the Le)is%at(!e in
ena#tin) a!ti#%e = o the
Pena% Co&e inten&e& to
p!o5i&e that a!ti#%e 22
sho(%& not *e app%i#a*%e to
spe#ia% %a"s.
15 0t cannot be
maintained that said
article // of the
Penal Code refers
onl to penalties and
is not applicable to
appeals and
proceedings, because
the prescription of
the crime is
intimatel connected
!ith that of the
penalt, for the
length of time fi3ed
b the la! for the
prescription depends
upon the gravit of
the offense/ as $a+
*e seen !o$ Tit%e VI
o <oo, I o the Pena%
Co&e/ #ontainin)/ as
its hea&in) in&i#ates/
6Aene!a% P!o5isions
Re)a!&in) Fe%onies
an& Dis&e$eano!s/
the Pe!sons Lia*%e an& the Pena%ties/6 "itho(t &istin)(ishin)
*et"een the pena%ties an& the
&e#ision a*so%5in) a &een&ant
*e#a(se o p!es#!iption. (7S 5.
Ra$a)
??
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
e-tin)(ishin) o the #!i$ina% !esponsi*i%it+ &ea%t "ith in
sai& Tit%e VI o sai& <oo,/ "hi#h tit%e #o$es ne-t to Tit%e
V/ t!eatin) o the pena%ties in#(!!e& *+ those "ho e5a&e
se!5i#e o senten#e an& those "ho/ "hi%e se!5in) senten#e/
o! ate! ha5in) *een #on5i#te& *+ a ina% 8(&)$ent not +et
se!5e&/ #o$$it so$e othe! #!i$e.
15 An& asi&e !o$ this inti$ate #onne#tion *et"een the
p!es#!iption o the #!i$e an& that o the pena%t+/ a statute
declaring the prescription of the crime has no other
ob(ect and purpose than to prevent or annul the
prosecution of the offender and, in the last analsis, the
imposition of the penalt.
Do!eo5e!/ i the p!o5isions !e%ati5e to the p!es#!iption o
o"ne!ship an& to the p!es#!iption o a#tions in #i5i% $atte!s
a!e pa!t o the #i5i% %a"/ it #annot *e &enie& that the
p!o5isions !e%ati5e to the p!es#!iption o #!i$es an& o
pena%ties a!e pena% %a"s o! o!$ pa!t the!eo.
*O, 0* P#2*C#0P$0O1 *;B*$'1$0?2 O# P#OC2>;#'7G
?ith regard to the $uestion &hether prescription must be
considered as a matter of procedural or formal la&1 or as a
substantive la& for the purpose of the retroactivit' of la&s1
&e must state1 &ith reference to the present case1 that the
prescription provided in section -/ of #ct )o. @A@A is of
the nature both of a substantive la&1 in so far as it gives a
person accused of an' of the crimes therein referred to1 the
right not to be prosecuted nor punished after the lapse of
the period of one 'ear from the commission of said crimes1
&ithin &hich the criminal action must be commenced1 and
of a procedural or ad<ective la& in so far as it fies the
time &ithin &hich such action must necessaril' be
commenced in order that the prosecution ma' be legal and
the proper penalt' ma' la&full' be imposed. but ho&ever
said provision ma' be considered1 the same must have a
retroactive effect1 as &ill be seen later on.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
?@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Sa%i#o
O#to*e! 1?/ 19@9
Fe!ia/ '.
Fa#ts2
1CFI o O##i&enta% Ne)!os &is$isse& the #o$p%aint o! ho$i#i&e
a)ainst &een&ant on the )!o(n& that it "as not a*%e to p!o5e that the
oense "as #o$$itte& "ithin its te!!ito!ia% 8(!is&i#tion
=

Iss(e2 3hethe! this appea% "o(%& p%a#e the &een&ant in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
0e%&:Ratio2 NO.
1. <+ the &is$issa% o the #ase *+ the #o(!t *e%o" (pon $otion o the
&een&ant/ the %atte! has not *een in 8eopa!&+
1Se#tion 9/ R(%e 11?
8
*asi#a%%+ states that "hen a &een&ant "hen
a &een&ant has *een #on5i#te& o! a#;(itte& o! the #ase a)ainst
hi$ is &is$isse& o! othe!"ise te!$inate& "itho(t his epress
consent/ (pon a 5a%i& #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation *+ a #o(!t o
#o$petent 8(!is&i#tion an& ate! he has p%ea&e& to the #ha!)e/ the
#on5i#tion o! a#;(itta% o the &een&ant o! the &is$issa% o the
#ase sha%% *e a *a! to anothe! p!ose#(tion o! the sa$e oense.
2<(t "hen the #ase i& &is$isse& &ith the epress consent o the
&een&ant/ the &is$issa% "i%% not *e a *a! to anothe! p!ose#(tion
o! the sa$e oenseH *e#a(se/ his a#tion in ha5in) the #ase
&is$isse& #onstit(tes a "ai5e! o his #onstit(tiona% !i)hts o!
p!i5i%e)e/ o! the !eason that he the!e*+ p!e5ents the #o(!t !o$
p!o#ee&in) to the t!ia% on the $e!its an& !en&e!in) a 8(&)$ent o
#on5i#tion a)ainst hi$.
3Co(!t #ite&2 R(%in) Case La" an& A$e!i#an '(!isp!(&en#eH
Ca!!o% 5. StateH C!ai) 5. 7S
2. The appea% *+ the p!ose#(tion in the p!esent #ase "o(%& not p%a#e the
&een&ant in &o(*%e <eopard'.
1As a ne#essa!+ #o!o%%a!+ o the a*o5e #on#%(sion that the
&een&ant not *een in 8eopa!&+ in the #o(!t *e%o"/ *e#a(se the
#ase "as &is$isse& (pon the &een&antCs o"n $otion/ this
appea% *+ the p!ose#(tion "o(%& not p%a#e the &een&ant in
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+/ sin#e a pe!son "ho has not *een on#e/ #annot
*e p(t t"i#e in 8eopa!&+.
7As in/ %ite!a%%+/ the+ &i&n1t ,no" "hethe! the $(ni#ipa%it+ o
Vi#to!ias is "ithin Ne)!os O##. N st(pi&/ $(#hS
8"ormer conviction or ac$uittal or former <eopard'. G 3hen a &een&ant
sha%% ha5e *een #on5i#te& o! a#;(itte&/ o! the #ase a)ainst hi$ &is$isse&
o! othe!"ise te!$inate& "itho(t the e-p!ess #onsent o a &een&ant/ *+ a
#o(!t o #o$petent 8(!is&i#tion/ (pon a 5a%i& #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation o!
othe! o!$a% #ha!)e s(i#ient in o!$ an& s(*stan#e to s(stain a
#on5i#tion/ an& ate! the &een&ant ha& p%ea&e& to the #ha!)e/ the
#on5i#tion o! a#;(itta% o the &een&ant o! the &is$issa% o the #ase sha%%
*e a *a! to anothe! p!ose#(tion o! the oense #ha!)e&/ o! o! an+ atte$pt
to #o$$it the sa$e o! !(st!ation the!eo/ o! o! an+ oense "hi#h
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&es o! is ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& in the oense #ha!)e& in the
#o$p%aint o! ino!$ation.
1<esi&es/ (n&e! se#tion
2/ R(%e 118 o the
R(%es o Co(!t the
p!ose#(tion $a+
appea% *e#a(se the
&een&ant "o(%& not
*e p%a#e& in &o(*%e
8eopa!&+/ not on%+
"hen the &een&ant
has not +et *een
p%a#e& in 8eopa!&+ in
the #o(!t *e%o"/ *(t
a%so "hen/ a%tho()h a
&een&ant ha& a%!ea&+
*een in o!$e!
8eopa!&+/ the appea%
*+ the p!ose#(tion
"o(%& no p%a#e hi$ in
&an)e! a)ain o *ein)
#on5i#te& *+ the
appe%%ate #o(!t *+ the
sa$e oense/ *e#a(se
the ;(estion o! the
appe%%ate #o(!t to
&e#i&e is not the )(i%t
o! inno#en#e o the
&een&ant.
o Fo! e-a$p%e/ "hen
ate! a 8(&)$ent
o #on5i#tion
!en&e!e& *+ the
%o"e! #o(!t ha&
*e#o$e ina% the
#o(!t !e#onsi&e!s
its &e#ision an&
!en&e!s anothe!
a#;(ittin) the
&een&ant/ in
"hi#h the
;(estion !aise&
in the appea% is
not the )(i%t o!
inno#en#e o the
appe%%ee/ *(t the
8(!is&i#tion o
the #o(!t to
!en&e! the
se#on&
8(&)$ent. Or, as
in the present
case, !hen the
)uestion
involved in the
appeal is
!hether or not
the lo!er court
erred in
dismissing the
case on the
ground that the
evidence for the
prosecution
does not sho!
that the place
!here the
offense !as
committed !as
!ithin the
territorial
(urisdiction of
the court. $his
court b
reversing the
appealed
decision in such
cases cannot
convict the
appellee, but
onl remand the
case to the
lo!er court for
further
proceeding. The
a#t that the
%o"e! #o(!t has
to p!o#ee& to the
t!ia% o the #ase
a)ainst the
&een&ant on the
$e!its an& $a+
ate! the t!ia%
eithe! a#;(it o!
#on5i#t hi$/
"o(%& not p%a#e
the &een&ant in
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+/
*e#a(se the
(!the!
p!o#ee&in) *+
the #o(!t *e%o"
is not a ne" t!ia%
o a #ase a)ainst
the &een&ant/
*(t a $e!e
#ontin(ation o
the o!$e! t!ia%
in o!&e! that the
%o"e! #o(!t $a+
&e#i&e the #ase
on the $e!its o!
the )(i%t o!
inno#en#e o the
&een&ant.
3. Ass($in) arguendo that
the &een&ant ha& *een
a%!ea&+ in 8eopa!&+ in the
#o(!t *e%o" an& "o(%& *e
p%a#e& in the &o(*%e
8eopa!&+ *+ the appea%/ the
&een&ant has "ai5e& his
#onstit(tiona% !i)ht not to
*e p(t in &an)e! o *ein)
#on5i#te& t"i#e o! the
sa$e oense.
1Ass($in)/ arguendo/ that the &een&ant ha& *een a%!ea&+ in
8eopa!&+ in the #o(!t *e%o" an& that appea% "o(%& p(t hi$ in
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+/ it is "e%% sett%e& in this 8(!is&i#tion that the
!i)ht o the &een&ant not to *e p(t t"i#e in 8eopa!&+ is &ee$e&
"ai5e& i not set (p in ti$e as a &eense o! )!o(n& o! a $otion
to &is$iss. As the &een&ant has not set (p sai& !i)ht o! o*8e#te&
on that )!o(n& to the appea% *+ the p!ose#(tion/ this #o(!t #an
not motu proprio &is$iss the appea%/ in the sa$e "a+ that i the
&een&ant appea%s
!o$ a 8(&)$ent o
#on5i#tion/ "ai5in)
his !i)ht not to *e p(t
t"i#e in 8eopa!&+/ the
appe%%ate #o(!t #an
not motu proprio
&is$iss the appea%.
The p!o5ision o
se#tion 2/ R(%e 118/
#an not *e #onst!(e&
to $ean that this
Co(!t #an not
ente!tain an appea% *+
the p!ose#(tion e5en
i the
?>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
&een&ant has "ai5e& his !i)ht to o*8e#t to the appea% on
the )!o(n& that it "o(%& p%a#e hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+H
*e#a(se the Con)!ess has no po"e! to $a,e the 8(&)$ent
o the Co(!t o Fi!st Instan#e (nappea%a*%e *+ the $e!e a#t
that the &een&ant ha& a%!ea&+ *een in 8eopa!&+/ inas$(#h
as se#tion 2/ A!ti#%e VIII/ o the Constit(tion p!o5i&es that
the Con)!ess $a+ not &ep!i5e the S(p!e$e Co(!t o its
appe%%ate 8(!is&i#tion to !e5ie" on appea% a%% ina% &e#isions
an& o!&e!s o the ine!io! #o(!ts in a%% #ases in "hi#h an
e!!o! o! ;(estion o %a" is in5o%5e&/ as in the p!esent #ase.
<esi&es/ se#tion 9/ R(%e 11?/ o the R(%es o Co(!t p!o5i&es
that 6"hen a &een&ant sha%% *een #on5i#te& o! a#;(itte&/ o!
the #ase a)ainst hi$ &is$isse& o! othe!"ise te!$inate&
"itho(t the e-p!ess #onsent o the &een&ant *+ a #o(!t o
#o$petent 8(!is&i#tion (pon a 5a%i& #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation . . . an& ate! the &een&ant has p%ea&e& to the
#ha!)e/ the #on5i#tion o! a#;(itta% o the &een&ant o! the
&is$issa% o the #ase shall be a bar to another prosecution
for the same offense/ et#.6 It &oes not sa+ that it sha%% *e a
*a! i the &een&ant sets (p the &eense o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+
in the sa$e "a+ that se#tion 2 o R(%e 118 &oes not p!o5i&e
that the p!ose#(tion #annot appea% i the &een&ant set (p
the &eense o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+H an& +et the &een&ant sha%%
ha5e to set (p that &eense i p!ose#(te& a)ain o! the
oense/ o! othe!"ise it is &ee$e& "ai5e& an& the
&een&ant $a+ *e p!ose#(te& an& #on5i#te& o! the sa$e
oense.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
?6
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Cit+ Co(!t o Dani%a <!. VI
Septe$*e! 2@. 198=
Pa&i%%a/ '.
Fa#ts2
12 ino!$ations "e!e i%e& a)ainst A)apito AonEa%es an& Ro*e!to
Pan)i%inan2 the i!st o! 5io%ation o Se#tion =
9
/ in !e%ation to Se#tion
11
1.
/ o RA ?.6./ the 2
n&
o! 5io%ation o A!t 2.1(?) o RPC
11

2'(&)e/ (pon $otion o a##(se& to ;(ash ino!$ation/ &is$isse& the
2
n&
ino!$ation on the )!o(n& o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
Iss(e2 3hethe! o! not the 2 ino!$ation #a(ses &o(*%e 8eopa!&+. 6eoples
contention2 The a##(se& #o(%& not in5o,e the #onstit(tiona%
)(a!antee a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+/ "hen the!e ha& *een no
#on5i#tion/ a#;(itta%/ &is$issa% o! te!$ination o #!i$ina%
p!o#ee&in)s in anothe! #ase o! the
same offense.
-
The !espon&ent/ on the othe! han&/
a!)(es that #on5i#tion o! a#;(itta% in/ o! &is$issa% o!
te!$ination o a i!st #ase is not ne#essa!+/ so %on) as he
ha& *een p(t in 8eopa!&+ o *ein) #on5i#te& o! a#;(itte&
in the i!st #ase o the sa$e oense.
0e%&:Ratio2 NO.
1It is a sett%e& !(%e that to !aise the &eense o &o(*%e
8eopa!&+/ th!ee !e;(isites $(st *e p!esent2 (1) a i!st
9 It sha%% *e (n%a"(% o! an+ pe!son o! entit+ to e-hi*it o! #a(se
to *e e-hi*ite& in an+ $otion pi#t(!e theate! o! p(*%i# p%a#e/ o! *+
te%e5ision "ithin the Phi%ippines an+ $otion pi#t(!e/ in#%(&in) t!ai%e!s/
sti%%s/ an& othe! pi#to!ia% a&5e!tise$ents in #onne#tion "ith $otion
pi#t(!es/ not &(%+ passe& *+ the <oa!&H o! to p!int o! #a(se to *e p!inte& on
an+ $otion pi#t(!e to *e e-hi*ite& in an+ theate!/ o! p(*%i# p%a#e o! *+
te%e5ision/ a %a*e% o! noti#e sho"in) the sa$e to ha5e *een p!e5io(s%+
passe& *+ the sai& <oa!& "hen the sa$e has not *een p!e5io(s%+
a(tho!iEe&/ e-#ept $otion pi#t(!es i$p!inte& o! e-hi*ite& *+ the
Phi%ippine Ao5e!n$ent an&:o! its &epa!t$ents an& a)en#ies/ an&
ne"s!ee%s.
10 An+ 5io%ation o Se#tion se5en o this A#t sha%% *e p(nishe& *+
i$p!ison$ent o not %ess than si- $onths *(t not $o!e than t"o +ea!s/ o!
*+ a ine o not %ess than si- h(n&!e& no! $o!e than t"o tho(san& pesos/
o! *oth at the &is#!etion o the #o(!t. I the oen&e! is an a%ien he sha%% *e
&epo!te& i$$e&iate%+. The %i#ense to ope!ate the $o5ie theate! o!
te%e5ision sha%% a%so *e !e5o,e&. An+ othe! ,in& o 5io%ation sha%% *e
p(nishe& *+ i$p!ison$ent o not %ess than one $onth no! $o!e than th!ee
$onths o! a ine o not %ess than one h(n&!e& pesos no! $o!e than th!ee
h(n&!e& pesos/ o! *oth at the &is#!etion o the #o(!t. In #ase the 5io%ation
is #o$$itte& *+ a #o!po!ation/ pa!tne!ship o! asso#iation/ the %ia*i%it+ sha%%
&e5o%5e (pon the p!esi&ent/ $ana)e!/ a&$inist!ato!/ o! an+ oi#e the!eo
!esponsi*%e o! the 5io%ation.
11 Those "ho in theate!s/ ai!s/ #ine$ato)!aphs/ o! an+ othe! p%a#e
open to p(*%i# 5ie"/ sha%% e-hi*it in&e#ent o! i$$o!a% p%a+s/ s#enes/ a#ts/
o! sho"sH
8eopa!&+ $(st ha5e
atta#he& p!io! to the
se#on&H (2) the i!st
8eopa!&+ $(st ha5e *een
5a%i&%+ te!$inate&H an& (?)
the se#on& 8eopa!&+ $(st
*e o! the sa$e oense/ o!
the se#on& oense
in#%(&es o! is ne#essa!i%+
in#%(&e& in the oense
#ha!)e& in the i!st
ino!$ation/ o! is an
atte$pt to #o$$it the
sa$e o! a !(st!ation
the!eo
1A%% these !e;(isites &o not
e-ist in this #ase.
2The t"o (2) ino!$ations
"ith "hi#h the a##(se&
"as #ha!)e&/ &o not $a,e
o(t on%+ one oense/
#ont!a!+ to p!i5ate
!espon&entCs a%%e)ations. In
othe! "o!&s/ the oense
&eine& in se#tion = o
Rep. A#t No. ?.6.
p(nishin) the e-hi*ition o
$otion pi#t(!es not &(%+
passe& *+ the <oa!& o
Censo!s o! Dotion
Pi#t(!es &oes not in#%(&e
o! is not in#%(&e& in the
oense &eine& in A!ti#%e
2.1 (?) o the Re5ise&
Pena% Co&e p(nishin) the
e-hi*ition o in&e#ent an&
i$$o!a% $otion pi#t(!es.
$he t!o (/) offenses do
not constitute a (eopard
to each other.
o the e%e$ents o the t"o
(2) oenses a!e
&ie!ent. The
)!a5a$en o the
oense &eine& in
Rep. A#t No. ?.6. is
the p(*%i# e-hi*ition
o an+ $otion pi#t(!e
&hich has not been
previousl' passed b'
the Board of %ensors
for Motion Pictures.
The $otion pi#t(!e
$a+ not *e in&e#ent
o! i$$o!a% *(t i it
has not *een
p!e5io(s%+ app!o5e&
*+ the <oa!&/ its
p(*%i# sho"in)
#onstit(tes a #!i$ina%
oense.
A
On the
othe! han&/ the
oense p(nishe& in
A!ti#%e 2.1 (?) o the
Re5ise& Pena% Co&e is
the public sho&ing of
indecent or immoral
pla's1 scenes1 acts1 or
sho&s/ not 8(st
$otion pi#t(!es.
o The nat(!e o *oth
oenses a%so sho"s
thei! essentia%
&ie!en#e. The #!i$e
p(nishe& in Rep. A#t
No. ?.6. is a malum
prohibitum in "hi#h
#!i$ina% intent nee&
not *e p!o5e& *e#a(se
it is p!es($e&/ "hi%e
the oense p(nishe&
in A!ti#%e 2.1 (?) o
the Re5ise& Pena%
Co&e is malum in se1
in "hi#h #!i$ina%
intent is an
in&ispensa*%e
in)!e&ient.
30t is a cardinal rule that
the protection against
double (eopard ma be
invoked onl for the same
offense or 0dentical
offense. ' single act ma
offend against t!o (or
more) entirel distinct
and unrelated provisions
of la!, and if one
pro"ision re!uires proof
of an additional fact or
element which the other
does not, an ac)uittal or
conviction or a dismissal
of the information under
one does not bar
prosecution under the
other. (People v. Bacolod,
+, Phil. F/-9 People v.
'lvareC, <5 Phil. /<).
Phrased else!here, !here
t!o different la!s (or
articles of the same code)
define t!o crimes, prior
(eopard as to one of
them is no obstacle to a
prosecution of the other,
although both offenses
arise from the same facts,
if each crime involves
some important act
!hich is not an essential
element of the other.
(People v. 'lvareC, <5
Phil. <=/).
?=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Pine&a
Fe*!(a!+ 16/ 199?
De%o/ '.
Fa#ts2
1<asi#a%%+2 Conso%a#ion Na5a% so%& the s(*8e#t !ea%t+ on A()(st 12/
1969 to E&i%*e!to I%ano "ho $a&e a pa!tia% pa+$ent o P1?./8>.....
A*o(t t"o +ea!s %ate!/ o! on A()(st 1=/ 19=1/ an app%i#ation o!
!e)ist!ation (n&e! the Lan& Re)ist!ation A#t "as s(*$itte& *+
Conso%a#ion "he!ein she state& that she o"ne& the sa$e %ot an& that
it "as (nen#($*e!e&. Fo! those !easons/ the #o!!espon&in) tit%e "as
iss(e& in he! na$e *(t she a%%e)e&%+ &ispose& o the ha% po!tion o
the p!ope!t+ to nine othe! pe!sons.
20en#e she "as #ha!)e& "ith estaa an& a%sii#ation o p(*%i#
&o#($ents on 2 sepa!ate ino!$ations
3She $o5e& to ;(ash the ino!$ation o! a%sii#ation on the )!o(n&
that s(#h "as a ne#essa!+ $eans to #o$$it estaa/ an& a sepa!ate
#on5i#tion "o(%& #onstit(te &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
4'(&)e Pine&a )!ante& sai& petition.
Iss(e2 3hethe! o! not ;(ashin) the ino!$ation "as #o!!e#t ("hethe! o!
not the!e "o(%& *e &o(*%e 8eopa!&+)
0e%&:Ratio2 NO.
1. Ass($in) in gratia argumenti that a%sii#ation "as in&ee& ne#essa!+
to #o$$it estaa/ "hi#h o!&ina!i%+ #onstit(tes a #o$p%e- #!i$e (n&e!
A!ti#%e @8 o the Re5ise& Pena% Co&e an& th(s s(s#epti*%e to
#ha%%en)e via a $otion to ;(ash (n&e! Se#tion 2 (e)/ R(%e 11= vis(a(
vis Se#tion 12/ R(%e 11. (Moran1 R(%es o Co(!t/ Vo%. @/ 198. E&./ p.
@2H 2?.)/ sti%%/ it "as se!io(s e!!o! on the pa!t o the $a)ist!ate *e%o"
to ha5e app!e#iate& this &is#o(!se in a5o! o p!i5ate !espon&ent sin#e
this $atte! "as not spe#ii#a%%+ !aise& in the $otion to ;(ash i%e& on
O#to*e! 28/ 19=> (p. 16/ Re#o!&). It "as on%+ in the $otion o!
!e#onsi&e!ation "he!e p!i5ate !espon&ent p%ea&e& this a&&itiona%
)!o(n& ate! he! $otion to ;(ash "as &enie&
1At an+ !ate/ it is 5i!t(a%%+ (na##epta*%e to s(ppose that p!i5ate
!espon&ent #on#o#te& the siniste! s#he$e o a%sii#ation in 19=1
p!e#ise%+ to a#i%itate the #o$$ission o estaa in 19=? s(#h that
*oth #!i$es e$anate& !o$ a sin)%e #!i$ina% i$p(%se.
Othe!"ise/ an (no(n&e& 5e!isi$i%it(&e o this nat(!e "i%% !(n
ao(% "ith "hat this Co(!t a%!ea&+ o*se!5e& in People vs. Penas
(68 Phi%. >?? Q19?9IH 1 #$uino1 Re5ise& Pena% Co&e/ 19=6 E&./
p. >=@) to the ee#t that the e%e5en estaas th!o()h a%sii#ation
"hi#h the sa$e a##(se& the!ein #o$$itte& *et"een No5e$*e!
2@/ 19?6 an& 'an(a!+ ?/ 19?= in#%(&in) the a%sii#ation "hi#h
he #o$$itte& on 'an(a!+ 8/ 19?= "e!e #onsi&e!e& &istin#t
oenses/ not one #o$p%e- #!i$e/ *e#a(se the+ "e!e #o$$itte&
on &ie!ent &ates/ not to $ention the &is#!epan#+ in p%a#es
"he!e the+ "e!e a##o$p%ishe&.
2It "as si$i%a!%+ a%%a#io(s o! the %o"e! #o(!t to ha5e sha!e& the
notion that p!i5ate !espon&ent is in &an)e! o *ein) #on5i#te&
t"i#e o! the sa$e #!i$ina% a#t/ a #i!#($stan#e !e#o)niEe& (n&e!
Se#tion 2(h) R(%e 11= o the O%& R(%es as s())este& in the
$otion to ;(ash/ because this plea is understood to
presuppose that the other case against private respondent
has been
dismissed or
other!ise
terminated !ithout
her e3press consent,
b a court of
competent
(urisdiction, upon a
valid complaint or
information, and
after the defendant
had pleaded to the
charge
(Peop%e o the
Phi%ippines 5e!s(s
0on. Da-i$iano C.
As(n#ion/ et a%./ A.R.
Nos. 8?8?=G@2/ Ap!i%
22/ 1992H ,ection -1
Rule //-1 198> R(%es
on C!i$ina%
P!o#e&(!e/ as
a$en&e&). In the
#suncion #ase/ '(sti#e
No#on sai& that2
. . .
a##o!&in) to
a %on) %ine
o #ases/ in
o!&e! that a
&een&ant
$a+
s(##ess(%%+
a%%e)e
o!$e!
8eopa!&+/ it
is ne#essa!+
that he ha&
p!e5io(s%+
*een (1)
#on5i#te& o!
(2)
a#;(itte&/ o!
(?) in
8eopa!&+ o
*ein)
#on5i#te& o
the oense
#ha!)e&/
that is/ that
the o!$e!
#ase a)ainst
hi$ o! the
sa$e
oense has
*een
&is$isse&
o! othe!"ise
te!$inate&
"itho(t his
e-p!ess
#onsent/ *+
a #o(!t o
#o$petent
8(!is&i#tion/
(pon a 5a%i&
#o$p%aint
o!
ino!$ation/
an& ate! the
&een&ant
ha& p%ea&e&
to the
#ha!)e.
8ithal, the mere filing of t!o
informations charging the
same offense is not an
appropriate basis for the
invocation of double (eopard
since the first (eopard has
not et set in b a previous
conviction, ac)uittal or
termination of the case
!ithout the consent of the
accused (Peop%e 5s. Di!a%o!es/
11> SCRA >86 Q1982IH Nie!!as
5s. 9a#(+#(+/ 181 SCRA 8
Q199.I)
'(sti#e Os#a! 0e!!e!a/ in his
*oo, 6Re$e&ia% La"6
en($e!ates the e%e$ents
#onstit(ti5e o i!st 8eopa!&+/ to
&it2
1. Co(!t o #o$petent
8(!is&i#tionH
2. Va%i& #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ationH
3. A!!ai)n$ent
4. @. Va%i& p%ea (Peop%e
5s. M%a)an/ >8 Phi%.
8>1H 8>?)
5. The &een&ant "as
a#;(itte& o! #on5i#te&
o! the #ase "as
&is$isse& o!
othe!"ise te!$inate&
"itho(t the e-p!ess
#onsent o the
a##(se& (Peop%e 5s.
9e#%a!o/ A.R. No.
6@?62/ Fe*!(a!+ 9/
1989/ 1=. SCRA 1@2H
See a%so Peop%e 5s.
Santia)o/ 1=@ SCRA
1@?H Peop%e 5s. Aines/
A.R. No. 8?@6?/ Da+
2=/ 1991/ 19= SCRA
@81H O(e 5s. Cosi#o/
1== SCRA @1.
Q1989IH Caes 5s.
Inte!$e&iate
Appe%%ate Co(!t/ 1=9
SCRA >@H La$e!a 5s. Co(!t o Appea%s/ 198 SCRA 186 Q1991I).
(Herrera1 Re$e&ia% La"/ 1992 E&./ Vo%($e @/ p. @1=).
Citin) #ases/ *oth o%& an& o !e#ent 5inta)e/ '(sti#e 0e!!e!a #ontin(es to
s(*$it the i&ea that2
The i!st 8eopa!&+ is sai& to
ha5e 5a%i&%+ te!$inate&
(pon #on5i#tion/ a#;(itta%
o! &is$issa% o the #ase o!
othe!"ise te!$inate&
"itho(t the e-p!ess
#onsent o &een&ant
(Peop%e 5s. Aa!#ia/ ?.
SCRA 1>.H Peop%e 5s.
Le&es$a/ =? SCRA ==H
Peop%e 5s. Pi%pa/ =9 SCRA
81H <(s#a+no 5s. Di%ita!+
?8
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
Co$$ission/ 1.9 SCRA 2=?H Peop%e 5s. C(e5o/ 1.@ SCRA ?19H
Aa%$an/ et a%. 5s. San&i)an*a+an/ A.R. No. =26=./ Septe$*e!
12/ 198=.) (5ide/ at pa)e @2?).
2. 't an rate, and inasmuch as this Court has spoken )uite
recentl in 6eople "s. 3suncion, (E.#. 1os. +A+A=H</, 'pril
//, -,,/), the ambiguit stirred b the imprecise observation
in 6eople "s. /ity /ourt of :anila, a -,+A case, can no! be
considered modified in that a prior con"iction, or ac!uittal, or
termination of the case without the e$press ac!uiescence of
the accused is still re!uired before the first jeopardy can be
pleaded to abate a second prosecution.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
?9
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Do)o%
A)((st 2@/ 198@
A(e!!e!o/ '.
Fa#ts2
1An ino!$ation o! se!io(s ph+si#a% in8(!ies "as i%e& a)ainst a##(se&
E&)a!&o Ca*a%%as
2Ate! a!!ai)n$ent (on "hi#h Ca*a%%as p%e& not )(i%t+)/ p!ose#(tion
$otione& to a$en& the ino!$ation N !o$ se!io(s PI to !(st!ate& $(!&e!

Nat(!a%%+/ #o(!t &enie&


30o"e5e!/ ate! the s(*$ission o e5i&en#e *+ *oth p!ose#(tion an&
&eense/ no &e#ision on the $e!its "as !en&e!e&/ *asi#a%%+ *e#a(se
the #o(!t tho()ht no" that the #!i$e "as in&ee& !(st!ate& $(!&e!
an& not se!io(s PI/ to "it2
?hile considering the evidence of this case the court reali6ed
that the evidence on the in<uries sustained b' the accused and
the circumstances surrounding the infliction thereof
over&helmingl' point to the conclusion that the intention of the
assailant &as to inflict more than <ust in<uries. Hence1 the court
is restricted b' &hat it considers a legal obstacle to the validit'
of &hatever <udgement it renders1 because &hether it be one of
ac$uittal or conviction ( it shall have so ordered on a case
outside its <urisdiction.
The evidence is positive and uncontradicted that the person &ho
inflicted the stab &ounds on Ernesto ,andoval had evidentl' not
b' accident but b' design1 &alked &ith the victim from a certain
point on Real ,treet up to some =AA meters therefrom &hich is
another spot on a $uite unfre$uented side streetB that it &as in
that spot &here the victim &as stabbed four times1 t&o of &hich
hit the victim ( one1 on the abdominal region and another
Cpenetrating and perforating the posterior abdominal &all
cutting the terminal portion of the /Ath ribCB that this &as at
about -*AA oDclock in the evening of December /.-/1 at &hich
time it must have been dark alread'B that the victim &as alone1
and that the attack &as sudden and treacherous.
9t has also been sho&n that the knife used b' the assonant
measures about 2 inches in lengthB that the victim &as not able
to &alk b' himself after having been stabbed but that he had to
be carried to the hospital and that &hile there1 the victim almost
lost consciousness. B' the medical certificate issued b' a
ph'sician of the hospital !Magsa'sa' Memorial Hospital1
Lope61 4ue6onE the duration of treatment has been placed at @A
da's.
The %ourt believes that the foregoing evidence &ould support
prima facie a complaint for the crime of frustrated murder and1
as stated1 prevents it from rendering <udgment in this case. 9t
cannot even rule that the parties have &aived the $uestion of
<urisdiction having proceeded &ith the trial of the case up to its
termination as this &ould be legall' erroneous.
The proceedings in
the case1 ho&ever1
ma' not be
considered to have
been rendered useless
because b' it more
than b' a mere
preliminar'
investigation1 the
court has arrived at a
better supported
finding that the
proper complaint
should have been for
frustrated murderB
that the crime of
frustrated murder has
been committed and
that there is reason to
believe that the
accused Edgardo
%aballas might have
been the one &ho had
committed the same.
I, 5I(* +; 344
T.( ;+2(9+I,9,
this case is hereby
dismissed to gi"e way
to the filing of a
complaint for
frustrated murder.
,ince the proceedings
from the preliminar'
eamination up to the
conclusion of the trial
hereof has amounted
to a compliance &ith
the re$uirements of a
preliminar'
investigation first and
second stage1 let the
records hereof be
for&arded to the
%ourt of "irst
9nstance at %alauag1
4ue6on1 under the
<urisdiction of &hich
court the case for
frustrated murder
pertains1 through the
office of the
Provincial "iscal so
that the latter ma' act
on this case and file
the corresponding
complaint as above(
recommended.
So/ a ne" ino:#o$p%aint
o! !(st!ate& $(!&e! "as
i%e& Iss(e2 3:N the ne"
ino #onstit(tes &o(*%e
8eopa!&+
0e%&:Ratio2 NO.
1In the #ase o 7aca vs.
Blanco/ 86 Phi%. @>2
(19>.)/ this Co(!t he%&
that2
... the &is$issa%
#onte$p%ate& in the
a*o5eG;(ote& se#tion
o the !(%e (!ee!!in)
to Se#tion 9. R(%e 11?
o the o%& R(%es o
Co(!t/ no" Se#tion 9/
R(%e 11= o the
Re5ise& R(%es o
Co(!t) is a &einite o!
(n#on&itiona%
&is$issa% "hi#h
te!$inates the #ase/
an& not a &is$issa%
"itho(t p!e8(&i#e as
in the p!esent #ase. In
the a*sen#e o an+
stat(to!+ p!o5ision to
the #ont!a!+/ "e in&
no !eason "h+ the
#o(!t $a+ not/ in the
inte!est o 8(sti#e/
&is$iss a #!i$ina%
#ase p!o5isiona%%+/
i.e./ "itho(t p!e8(&i#e
to !einstatin) it *eo!e
the o!&e! *e#o$e
ina% o! to the
s(*se;(ent i%in) o a
ne" ino!$ation o!
the sa$e oense.
(Pa)e @>@.)
2The 7aca !(%in) "as
!eite!ate& in People
vs. Manlapas et al.1
LG1=99?/ A()(st 2@/
1962/ > SCRA 88?/
88=H Republic vs.
#goncillo1 et al./ LG
2=2>=/ A()(st ?1/
19=1/ @. SCRA >=9/
>8=H an& People vs.
Hon. ,urtida1 et al.1
LG2@@2./ 'an(a!+ 26/
19=2/ @? SCRA 29/
?=. Do!eo5e!/ as
state& in the
ao!e$entione& #ase
o Republic vs.
#goncillo1 et al.
(supra1 p. >88)2
... the a(tho!itati5e p!ono(n#e$ent in the ... #ase o Peop%e 5s.
O*sania (LG2@@@=/ '(ne 29/ 1968/ 2? SCRA 12@9)/ "ith '(sti#e
Cast!o as ponente/
ha& $a&e #%ea!
*e+on& &o(*t that
@.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
o! &is$issa% to *e a *a! (n&e! the 8eopa!&+ #%a(se o the
Constit(tion/ it $(st ha5e the ee#t o an a#;(itta% Th(s2
6The appea%e& o!&e! o &is$issa% in this #ase no" (n&e!
#onsi&e!ation &i& not te!$inate the a#tion on the $e!its/
"he!eas in C%o!i*e% an& in the othe! !e%ate& #ases the
&is$issa% a$o(nte& to an a#;(itta% *e#a(se the ai%(!e to
p!ose#(te p!es(ppose& that the Ao5e!n$ent &i& not ha5e a
#ase a)ainst the a##(se&/ "ho in the i!st p%a#e/ is p!es($e&
inno#ent.6
1$here can be no )uestion, as indeed it is )uite clear, that in
the case at bar, the Order of dismissal issued b the
Municipal Court did not actuall terminate or put an end to
the prosecution against herein private respondent for the
felonious act he !as alleged to have committed. On the
contrar, the dispositive portion of said Order e3pressl
directed that the records of the case be for!arded to the
Court of "irst 0nstance so that the Office of the Provincial
"iscal could file a complaint for frustrated murder.
20n an case, the dismissal Order !as 1O$ legal and valid. o
3e ho%& an& !(%e that !espon&ent '(&)e e!!e& in &is$issin) the
#ase o! se!io(s ph+si#a% in8(!ies 6to )i5e "a+ to the i%in) o a
#o$p%aint o! !(st!ate& $(!&e!.6 Fo! it is the &(t+ o the
!espon&ent '(&)e to !en&e! the &e#ision as the e5i&en#e
p!esente& "a!!ant (n&e! the ino!$ation as i%e& o! se!io(s
ph+si#a% in8(!ies/ an& not &is$iss the #ase on his I&ea o! *e%ie
that the!e "as e5i&en#e o intent to ,i%% the inten&e& 5i#ti$. The
'(&)e #o$$itte& )!a5e a*(se o &is#!etion a$o(ntin) to e-#ess
o 8(!is&i#tion the!e*+ !en&e!in) his O!&e! o
No5e$*e! 29/ 19=2 n(%% an& 5oi&.
o Since the order of dismissal was without authority and,
therefore, null and "oid, the proceedings before the
:unicipal /ourt ha"e not been lawfully terminated,
3ccordingly, there is no second proceeding to speak of
and no double jeopardy. 3 continuation of the
proceedings against the accused for serious physical
injuries is in order.
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
@1
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Es$eFa 5. Po)o+
Fe*!(a!+ 2./ 1981
A;(ino/ '.
Fa#ts2
1A )!a5e #oe!#ion #ase "as i%e& a)ains Es$eFa/ et. a%. o! ha5in)
a%%e)e&%+ o!#e& Re5.F!. Tho$as Ti*(&an to "ith&!a" P>/...
*e#a(se the p!iest %ost it in a )a$e o #a!&s.
2<e#a(se o $an+ &ie!ent !easons
12
/ the hea!in) "as !eset $an+
ti$es/ (nti% the !espon&ent 8(&)e (siguro napikon) iss(e& an o!&e!
settin) the t!ia% Jfor the last time on
'ugust -F, -,=AIJ
30o"e5e!/ on sai& &ate/ p!iest "as a%%e)e&%+ si#,/ an& a)ain $otione&
to !eset the &ate. Co(nse% o! a##(se& oppose& an& invoked the right
of the accused to have a speed trial
4Respon&ent 8(&)e p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse& the #ase as to the o(!
a##(se& "ho "e!e p!esent *e#a(se it 6has *een &!a))in) a%% a%on)
an& the a##(se& a!e !ea&+ o! the hea!in)6 *(t the is#a% "as not
!ea&+ "ith his "itness. The #o(!t note& that the!e "as no $e&i#a%
#e!tii#ate in&i#atin) that the #o$p%ainant "as !ea%%+ si#,.
5"ent+Gse5en &a+s %ate!/ o! on Septe$*e! 12/ 19=9/ the is#a% i%e& a
$otion o! the !e5i5a% o the #ase. 0e atta#he& to his $otion a
$e&i#a% #e!tii#ate (n&e! oath attestin) to the a#t that Fathe! Ti*(&an
"as si#, o in%(enEa on A()(st 16/ 19=9
Iss(e2 3:N the !e5i5a% o the #ase "o(%& p%a#e the a##(se& in &o(*%e
8eopa!&+
0e%&:Ratio2 MES.
1In o!&e! that %e)a% 8eopa!&+ $a+ e-ist/ the!e sho(%& *e (a) a 5a%i&
#o$p%aint o! ino!$ation (*) *eo!e a #o(!t o #o$petent 8(!is&i#tion
an& (#) the a##(se& has *een a!!ai)ne& an& has p%ea&e& to the
#o$p%aint o! ino!$ation.
23hen these th!ee #on&itions a!e p!esent/ the a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion
o the a##(se& o! the &is$issa% o! te!$ination o the #ase "itho(t his
e-p!ess #onsent #onstit(tes res <udicata an& is a *a! to anothe!
p!ose#(tion o! the oense #ha!)e&/ o! o! an+ atte$pt to #o$$it the
sa$e o! !(st!ation the!eo/ o! o! an+ oense "hi#h ne#essa!i%+
in#%(&es o! is in#%(&e& the!ein (@ Do!anCs Co$$ents on the R(%es o
Co(!t/ 198. E&./ p. 2@.).
3P!e5io(s a#;(itta% !autrefois ac$uit)/ p!e5io(s #on5i#tion !autrefois
convict) o! the &is$issa% o! te!$ination o the #ase &ithout his
consent p!e#%(&es his s(*se;(ent in&i#t$ent o! the sa$e oense as
&eine& in se#tion 9
40n the instant case, !e hold that the petitioners !ere placed in
(eopard b the provisional dismissal of the grave coercion case.
$hat provisional dismissal !ould
12
O!i)ina% &ate2 1...@.19=8
Reason V 12 p!iest !e;(este& N !eset on 12.1?.=8 Reason
V 22 a##(se& not &(%+ notiie& A!!ai)ne& on .1.2?.=9
NO TRIAL N p!iest a*sent
<EST REASON OF ALL2 "0*C'7 7O*$ #2CO#> O" C'*2
Wapp%a(seW GG hea!in) on .6.19.=9 $o5e& a)ain. X,a+a
a+(n/ napi,on na si 8(&)e.Y
not have place the
petitioners in (eopard if
respondent (udge had
taken the precaution of
making sure that the
dismissal !as !ith their
consent. 0n this case, it is
not ver clear that the
petitioners consented to
the dismissal of the case.
15 It is the p!a#ti#e o
so$e 8(&)es *eo!e
iss(in) an o!&e! o
p!o5isiona% &is$issa%
in a #ase "he!ein the
a##(se& ha& a%!ea&+
*een a!!ai)ne& to
!e;(i!e the a##(se&
an& his #o(nse% to
si)n the $in(tes o
the session o! an+
a5ai%a*%e pa!t o the
!e#o!& to sho" the
#ono!$it+ o the
a##(se& o! his %a#, o
o*8e#tion to the
p!o5isiona%
&is$issa%.
15 The 8(&)e spe#iies in
the o!&e! o
p!o5isiona% &is$issa%
that the a##(se& an&
his #o(nse% si)niie&
thei! assent the!eto.
That p!o#e&(!e %ea5es
no !oo$ o! &o(*t as
to the #onsent o the
a##(se& an& p!e#%(&es
8eopa!&+ !o$
atta#hin) to the
&is$issa%.
2The petitione!s "e!e
insistin) on a t!ia%. The+
!e%ie& on thei!
#onstit(tiona% !i)ht to ha5e
a spee&+ t!ia%. The is#a%
"as not !ea&+ *e#a(se his
"itness "as not in #o(!t.
Respon&ent 8(&)e on his
o"n 5o%ition p!o5isiona%%+
&is$isse& the #ase. The
petitione!s &i& not
e-p!ess%+ $aniest thei!
#ono!$it+ to the
p!o5isiona% &is$issa%.
0en#e/ the &is$issa%
p%a#e& the$ in 8eopa!&+.
3E5en i the petitione!s/
ate! in5o,in) thei! !i)ht to
a spee&+ t!ia%/ $o5e& o!
the &is$issa% o the #ase
an&/ the!eo!e/ #onsente&
to it/ the &is$issa% "o(%&
sti%% p%a#e the$ in
8eopa!&+. The (se o the
"o!& 6p!o5isiona%6 "o(%&
not #han)e the %e)a% ee#t
o the &is$issa% (Es)(e!!a
5s. 9e %a Costa/ 66 Phi%.
1?@H Aan&i#e%a 5s. L(te!o/
88 Phi%. 299)
4I the &een&ant "ants to
e-e!#ise his #onstit(tiona%
!i)ht to
1spee&+ t!ia%/ he sho(%&
as,/ not o! the &is$issa%/
*(t o! the t!ia% o the #ase.
Ate! the p!ose#(tionCs
$otion o! postpone$ent
o the t!ia% is &enie& an&
(pon o!&e! o the #o(!t the
is#a% &oes not o! #annot
p!o&(#e his e5i&en#e an&/
#onse;(ent%+/ ai%s to p!o5e
the &een&antCs )(i%t/ the
#o(!t (pon &een&antCs
$otion sha%% &is$iss the
#ase/ s(#h &is$issa%
a$o(ntin) to an a#;(itta%
o the &een&ant6 (@
Do!anCs Co$$ents on the
R(%es o Co(!t/ 198. E&./
p. 2.2/ #itin) Aan&i#e%a 5s.
L(te!o/ 88 Phi%. 299/ ?.=
an& Peop%e 5s. 9iaE/ 9@
Phi%. =1@G=1=).
2The &is$issa% o a #!i$ina%
#ase (pon $otion o the
a##(se& *e#a(se the
p!ose#(tion "as not
p!epa!e& o! t!ia% sin#e the
#o$p%ainant an& his
"itnesses &i& not appea! at
the t!ia% is a &is$issa%
e;(i5a%ent to an a#;(itta%
that "o(%& *a! (!the!
p!ose#(tion o the
&een&ant o! the sa$e
oense (Sa%#e&o 5s.
Den&oEa/ LG@9?=>/
Fe*!(a!+ 28/ 19=9/ 88
SCRA 811H La)(ni%ia 5s.
0on. Re+es/ et#. an&
Dotas/ 111 Phi%. 1.2.
#itin) Peop%e 5s. Ta#nen)/
1.> Phi%. 1298 an& Peop%e
5s. Ro*%es/ 1.> Phi%. 1.16.
See Ta%a&(a 5s.
O#hoto!ena/ LG2>>9>/
Fe*!(a!+ 1>/ 19=@/ >>
SCRA >28H A#e*e&o 5s.
Sa!$iento/ LG28.2>/
9e#e$*e! 16/ 19=./ ?6
SCRA 2@=H <aesa 5s.
P!o5in#ia% Fis#a% o
Ca$a!ines S(!/ LG?.?6?/
'an(a!+ ?./ 19=1/ ?= SCRA @?=H Peop%e 5s. C%o!i*e%/ 12. Phi%. ==>H
Peop%e 5s. A*aFo 9= Phi%. 28H Peop%e 5s. La*atete/ 1.= Phi%. 69=)
@2
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Vi%%a%on
9e#e$*e! 21/ 199.
Re)a%a&o/ '.
Fa#ts2
1Fe&e!i#o &e A(E$an "as #ha!)e& "ith estaa th!o()h
a%sii#ation o p(*%i# &o#($ents o! a%%e)e&%+ o!)in) the
si)nat(!e o Ca!!e!a to $a,e it appea! that the o!$e! "as $a&e
the %atte!1s atto!ne+GinGa#t/ an& s(*se;(ent%+ $o!t)a)in) the
pa!#e% o %an& "hi#h Ca!!e!a o"ns.
29e A(E$an !aise& the iss(e o p!es#!iption N he #%ai$s that the
#!i$e has p!es#!i*e& sin#e $o!e than 1. +ea!s has e%apse& !o$
the ti$e the #!i$e "as #o$$itte&.
3'(&)e Vi%%a%on &is$isse& the #o$p%aint on *asis o p!es#!iption
Iss(e2 3:N this appea% *+ the peop%e "o(%& #onstit(te &o(*%e
8eopa!&+.
0e%&:Ratio2 NO. PP v. %it' %ourt of Manila
#s a general rule1 the dismissal or termination of a
case after arraignment and plea of the defendant to a
valid information shall be a bar to another prosecution
for the offense charged1 or for an' attempt to commit
the same or frustration thereof1 or for an' offense
&hich necessaril' includes or is necessaril' included in
the complaint or information !,ec. .1 Rule //@E.
Ho&ever1 an appeal b' the prosecution from the order
of dismissal !of the criminal caseE b' the trial court
shall not constitute double <eopard' if !/E the dismissal
is made upon motion1 or &ith the epress consent1 of
the defendant1 and !:E the dismissal is not an ac$uittal
or based upon consideration of the evidence or of the
merits of the caseB and !@E the $uestion to be passed
upon b' the appellate court is purel' legal so that
should the dismissal be found incorrect1 the case &ould
have to be remanded to the court of origin for further
proceedings1 to determine the guilt or innocence of the
defendant.
I!!e%e N on iss(e o "hethe! the #ha!)e o estaa th!(
a%sii#ation o a p(*%i# &o#($ent has s(i#ient *asis to
e-ist in a#t an& in %a" N CO7RT2 MES
The a%sii#ation o a p(*%i# &o#($ent $a+ *e a
$eans o #o$$ittin) esta)a *a#(ase *eo!e the a%siie&
&o#($ent is a#t(a%%+ (ti%iEe& to &e!a(& anothe!/ the #!i$e o
a%sii#ation has a%!ea&+ *een #ons($$ate&/ &a$a)e o!
intent to #a(se &a$a)e not *ein) an e%e$ent o the #!i$e o
the a%sii#ation o p(*%i#/ oi#ia% o! #o$$e!#ia% &o#($ents.
The &a$a)e to anothe! is #a(se& *+ the #o$$ission o
estaa/ not *+ the a%sii#ation o the p(*%i#/ oi#ia% o!
#o$$e!#ia% &o#($ent/ hen#e/ the a%sii#ation o sai&
&o#($ent is on%+ a ne#essa!+ $eanse to #o$$it the estaa.
@?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5s. La)(i 1=1
SCRA ?.>
10iEon %ent $one+ to So!!iano "ho in t(!n iss(e& a post
&ate& #he#, to ans"e! o! the &e*t.
23hen the+ t!ie& to en#ash the #he#,/ the a##o(nt "as
a%!ea&+ #%ose&.
30e "as #ha!)e& "ith a 5io%ation (n&e! <P 22 an& estaa
4The RTC &is$isse& the <P 22 #ha!)e *e#a(se the
ino!$ation "as Jata%%+ &ee#ti5eK an& #on5i#te& hi$ o
the estaa #ha!)e
57pon appea% o the a##(se&/ the CA !e5e!se& the estaa
#on5i#tion
6The peop%e no" is appea%in) the othe! #ase (<P 22) sa+in)
that the ino "as not ata%%+ &ee#ti5e.
8B1 info !as fatall defectiveG 1O
? E%e$ents o <P 22
1. Iss(an#e o #he#, o! a##o(nt o! o! 5a%(e
2. At ti$e o iss(e/ $a,e! &oes not ha5e s(i#ient (n&s o!
#!e&it
3. S(*se;(ent%+ &ishono!e&.
The 8(&)e sai& that the ino!$ation ai%e& to a%%e)e that the a##(se& ,ne"
"hen he iss(e& the #he#, that the then &i& not ha5e s(i#ient (n&s in the
*an,H the ino!$ation sho(%& ha5e a%%e)e that the a##(se& ,ne" that he
"o(%& not ha5e s(i#ient (n&s in the *an, to pa+ the #he#, in (%% (pon
its p!esent$ent. GGG
3!on)
The p!esen#e o the 1
st
an& ?
!&
e%e$ents o the oense #onstit(tes
p!i$a a#ie e5i&ene that the se#on& e%e$ent e-ists. (Loo, at Se# 2 o
La".)
8B1 if it !asn&t, can he still be convictedG 1O
19e#ision #annot *e ann(%%e& o! set asi&e *e#a(se it
a$o(nte& to a 8(&)$ent o a#;(itta%. It *e#a$e ina% an&
e-e#(to!+ (pon its p!o$(%)ation. The state $a+ not appea%
that &e#ision o! it "o(%& p%a#e the a##(se& t"i#e in
8eopa!&+ o p(nish$ent o! the oense in 5io%ation o his
#onstit(tiona% !i)hts a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
2So!iano ha& *een a!!ai)ne&/ p%ea&e& not )(i%t+/ an& "as
t!ie& (pon a 5a%i& an& s(i#ient ino!$ation an& #ase "as
&is$isse& *+ t!ia% #o(!t ("itho(t his #onsent)/ he has *een
p%a#e& in 8eopa!&+ o! the oense #ha!)e& so !eGassesin)
the e5i&en#e a)ainst hi$ p(!s(ant to the appea% o the )o51t
"o(%& p(t hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
@@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Aa%5eE 5s. CA
O#t. 2@/ 199@
1Aa%5eE/ the in#($*ent $a+o! o San I%&eonso/ <(%a#an "as
#ha!)e& "ith ? inos o! ho$i#i&e an& 2 inos o! !(st!ate&
ho$i#i&e.
2The p!ose#(tion i%%e& a $otion to &ee! a!!ain)$ent to !e5ie"
the e5i&en#e to &ete!$ine the p!ope! #ha!)es as "e%% as #han)e
o 5en(e *e#a(se #o$p%ainants ea! o! thei! saet+ an& to
p!e5ent $is#a!!ia)e o 8(sti#e.
3<eo!e thei! a!!ai)n$ent/ petitione!s i%e& a $otion to "ith&!a"
ino!$ation1s/ an& s(*se;(ent%+ i%e& ino!$ation1s o! $(!&e!
an& i%%e)a% possession o i!ea!$s.
4The+ i%e& a $otion to ;(ash sa+in) the #o(!t ne5e! a#;(i!e&
8(!is&i#tion/ "hi#h "as &enie& an& 8(&)e set a!!ai)n$ent. N
Assai%e& !eso%(tion.
3hi#h set o ino!$ations sho(%& Aa%5eE *e t!ie& "ithS The 1
st
o!
2
n&
S
Co!o%%a!+ iss(es2
1. 3hethe! the e parte $otion to "ith&!a" the o!i)ina% ino!$ations is
n(%% an& 5oi& on the )!o(n& that (a) the!e "as no noti#e an& hea!in) as
!e;(i!e& *+ Se#tions @/ > an& 6/ R(%e 1> o the R(%es o Co(!tH an& (*) the
app!op!iate !e$e&+ "hi#h sho(%& ha5e *een a&opte& *+ the p!ose#(tion
"as to a$en& the ino!$ations *+ #ha!)in) the p!ope! oenses p(!s(ant to
Se#tion
14 o R(%e 11.H
2. 3hethe! the o!&e! )!antin) the "ith&!a"a% o the o!i)ina% ino!$ations
"as i$$e&iate%+ ina% an& e-e#(to!+H
3.3hethe! '(&)e Po!ni%%os "as #o!!e#t in &en+in) the $otion to ;(ash
an& the!e*+ a#;(i!e& 8(!is&i#tion o5e! the ne" ino!$ations #onsi&e!in)
that (a) the &esi)nate& p(*%i# p!ose#(to! a%%e)e&%+ ha& no a(tho!it+ to i%e
the se#on& set o ino!$ationsH an& (*) the i%in) the!eo #onstit(te& o!($
shoppin)H an&
4. 3hethe! the a!!ai)n$ent p!o#ee&in) he%& on 'an(a!+ 2@/ 199@
in C!i$ina% Cases Nos. @..@GDG9? to @..=GDG9? "as 5a%i&.
1. #onsi&e!in) that in the o!i)ina% #ases *eo!e <!an#h 1@ o the
t!ia% #o(!t petitione!s ha& not +et *een p%a#e& in 8eopa!&+/ an&
the e parte $otion to "ith&!a" "as i%e& an& )!ante& *eo!e
the+ #o(%& *e a!!ai)ne&/ the!e "o(%& *e no i$pe!ati5e nee& o!
noti#e an& hea!in) the!eo. In a#t(a%it+/ the !ea% )!ie5an#e o
he!ein a##(se& is not the &is$issa% o the o!i)ina% th!ee
ino!$ations *(t the i%in) o o(! ne" ino!$ations/ th!ee o
"hi#h #ha!)e )!a5e! oenses an& the o(!th/ an a&&itiona%
oense. 0a& these ne" ino!$ations not *een i%e&/ the!e "o(%&
o*5io(s%+ ha5e *een no #a(se o! the instant petition.
A##o!&in)%+/ thei! #o$p%aint a*o(t the s(ppose& p!o#e&(!a%
%apses in5o%5e& in the $otion to &is$iss i%e& an& )!ante& in
C!i$ina% Cases
Nos. ?6@2GDG9? to ?6@@G
DG9? &oes not i$p!ess (s
as a #an&i& p!esentation
o thei! !ea% position.
2. the a*sen#e o noti#e an&
hea!in) &oes not &i5est a
t!ia% #o(!t o a(tho!it+ to
pass on the $e!its o the
$otion. It is on%+ an
i!!e)(%a!it+.<esi&es/
"hen petitione!s "e!e
)i5en *+ '(&)e Vi%%a8(an
the oppo!t(nit+ to i%e a
$otion o!
!e#onsi&e!ation/ e5en
ass($in) the a%%e)e&
p!o#e&(!a% ini!$it+ in
his iss(an#e o the o!&e!
o &is$issa%/ the sa$e
"as the!e*+ &ee$e&
#(!e&.
3. Se# 11 !(%e 119 )o5e!ns
the t!ia% sta)e 5s se# 1.
!(%e 11@ )o5e!ns
p!o#e&(!a% )o5e!nan#e
o! p!ose#(tion o
oenses/ !o$ the i%in)
o ino to 8(st *eo!e the
t!ia%.
4. Se# 1. !(%e 11@G The i!st
pa!a)!aph p!o5i&es the
!(%e o! a$en&$ent o
the ino!$ation o!
#o$p%aint/ "hi%e the
se#on& pa!a)!aph !ee!s
to the s(*stit(tion o the
ino!$ation o! #o$p%aint.
7n&e! the se#on&
pa!a)!aph/ the #o(!t #an
o!&e! the i%in) o anothe!
ino!$ation to #ha!)e the
p!ope! oense/ p!o5i&e&
the a##(se& "o(%& not *e
p%a#e& the!e*+ in &o(*%e
8eopa!&+ an& that #o(%&
on%+ *e t!(e i the oense
p!o5e& &oes not
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e o! is
not ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e&
in the oense #ha!)e& in
the o!i)ina% ino!$ation.
Petition &is$isse&.
@>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Pi%pa =9
SCRA 82
13as #ha!)e& "ith !(st!ate& $(!&e! an& p%ea&e& not )(i%t+
2The p!ose#(tion i%e& a $otion to &is$iss *e#a(se intent to ,i%%
"as not a%%e)e& in the ino!$ation "hi#h initia%%+ "as not
o*8e#te& to *+ the a##(se&1s %a"+e! *(t s(*se;(ent%+ #han)e& his
$in&.
3A se#on& ino!$ation "as then i%e& an& a $otion to ;(ash !o$
the &eense #%ai$in) &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
4'(&)e )!ante& the $otion an& p!ose#(tion no" appea%s.
3hethe! the se#on& ino!$ation "o(%& p%a#e the a##(se& t"i#e in 8eopa!&+ o
*ein) p(nishe& o! the #!i$e o !(st!ate& $(!&e!S NO
17n&e! se#tion 9 o R(%e 11= the p!ote#tion a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ $a+
*e in5o,e& in #ases o (a) p!e5io(s a#;(itta% (autrefois ac$uit)/ (*)
#on5i#tion (autrefois convict) o the sa$e oense/ o! (#) "hen the #ase
a)ainst the a##(se& has *een &is$isse& o! othe!"ise te!$inate& "itho(t
his e-p!ess #onsent.
2In an+ o these th!ee #ases/ in o!&e! that the!e *e o!$e! ,i%% 8eopa!&+/ it
is in the i!st #ase that (a) the!e "as a 5a%i& #o$petent o! ino!$ation
(*) *eo!e a #o(!t o #o$petent 8(!is&i#tion/ (#) an& that the ha& *een
an& ha& ente!e& his p%ea. 3hen these #on&itions o! !e;(otes a!e
p!esent/ the a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion o the a##(se&/ o! the &is$issa% o!
te!$ination o the #ase "itho(t his e-p!ess #onsent #onstit(tes res
<udicata an& is a *a! to anothe! p!ose#(tion o! the oense #ha!)e&/ o!
o! an+ atte$pt to #o$$it the sa$e o! !(st!ation the!eo/o! o! #a!!+
oense "hi#h ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&es o! is in#%(&e& the!ein.
3he!e is o!$e! 8eopa!&+ "hen in the i!st #ase the!e "as a 5a%i&
CODPLAINT o ino!$ation i%e& in a #o(!t o #o$petent 8(!is&i#tion
an&/ ate! the &een&ant ha& p%ea&e& to the #ha!)e/ he "as a#;(itte& o!
#on5i#te& o! the #ase a)ainst hi$ "as te!$inate& "itho(t his e-p!ess
#onsent
48e hold that the oral manifestation at the hearing made b the
counsel of the accused
that he had no ob(ection
to the dismissal of the
case !as e)uivalent to a
declaration of
conformit to its
dismissal or to an
e3press consent to its
termination !ithin the
meaning of section , of
#ule --=. 6e could not
thereafter revoke that
conformit since the
court had alread acted
upon it b dismissing
the case. 6e !as bound
b his counsel%s assent
to the dismissal
5Late!/ the #ases "e!e
!e5i5e&. The a##(se&
#onten&e& that the !e5i5a%
o the #ases "o(%& p%a#e
he! in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
That #ontention "as
!e8e#te& *e#a(se the
p!o5isiona% &is$issa% &i&
not p%a#e the in 8eopa!&+.
The!e "as no 8eopa!&+ in
s(#h &is$issa% *e#a(se
the "o!&s 6No o*8e#tion6
#on5e+e& the I&ea o (%%
#on#(!!en#e "ith the
&is$issa% an& "as
e;(i5a%ent to sa+in) 6I
a)!ee.6
Petition A!ante&/
assai%e& o!&e! set
asi&e.
@6
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
Peop%e 5. O*sania
1On No5e$*e! 22/ 196@/ *a!e%+ a &a+ ate! the o##(!en#e o
the a%%e)e& #!i$e/ E!%in&a 9o%%ente/ the 1@G+ea! o%& 5i#ti$/
an& he! pa!ents/ Ci!ia#o 9o%%ente an& Ca!$e%ita L(!eta/
i%e& in the $(ni#ipa% #o(!t o <a%(n)ao/ Pan)asinan a
#o$p%aint o! !ape "ith !o**e!+
2Ate! the #ase "as !e$an&e& to the Co(!t o Fi!st Instan#e
o Pan)asinan o! (!the! p!o#ee&in)s/ the assistant
p!o5in#ia% is#a% i%e& an ino!$ation o! !ape a)ainst the
a##(se&/ e$*o&+in) the a%%e)ations o the a*o5e #o$p%aint/
"ith an a&&itiona% a5e!$ent that the oense "as #o$$itte&
6"ith %e"& &esi)ns6.
3The a##(se& p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ (pon a!!ai)n$ent/ an&
o!th"ith his #o(nse% $o5e& o! the &is$issa% o the #ase/
#onten&in) that the #o$p%aint "as ata%%+ &ee#ti5e o!
ai%(!e to a%%e)e 6%e"& &esi)ns6 an& that the s(*se;(ent
ino!$ation i%e& *+ the is#a% "hi#h a5e!!e& 6%e"&
&esi)ns6 &i& not #(!e the 8(!is&i#tiona% ini!$it+. The #o(!t
a $uo )!ante& the $otion an& o!&e!e& &is$issa% o the
a#tion/ !(%in) that 6the ai%(!e o the #o$p%aint i%e& *+ the
oen&e& pa!t+ to a%%e)e that the a#ts #o$$itte& *+ the
a##(se& "e!e "ith C%e"& &esi)nsC &oes not )i5e this Co(!t
8(!is&i#tion to t!+ the #ase.6 F!o$ this o!&e!/ the is#a%
*!o()ht the instant appea%
3:N J%e"& &esi)nsK sho(%& *e a%%e&)e& in #o$p%aintS NO
1Rape &oes not !e;(i!e that spe#ii#
a%%e)ation.Las#i5io(s intent inhe!es in !ape an& the
(n#haste &esi)n is $aniest in the 5e!+ a#t itse% U the
#a!na% ,no"%e&)e o a "o$an th!o()h o!#e o!
inti$i&ation/ o! "hen the "o$an is &ep!i5e& o !eason
o! othe!"ise (n#ons#io(s/ o! "hen the "o$an is
(n&e! t"e%5e +ea!s o a)e.
3:N the!e is &o(*%e 8eopa!&+S NO
1In o!&e! that the p!ote#tion a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+
$a+ in(!e in a5o! o an a##(se&/ the o%%o"in)
!e;(isites $(st ha5e o*taine& in the o!i)ina%
p!ose#(tion2 (a) a 5a%i& #o$p%aint o! ino!$ationH (*) a
#o$petent #o(!tH (#) the &een&ant ha& p%ea&e& to the
#ha!)eH an& (&) the &een&ant "as a#;(itte&/ o!
#on5i#te&/ o! the #ase a)ainst hi$ "as &is$isse& o!
othe!"ise te!$inate& "itho(t his e-p!ess #onsent.
2The #o(!t then &is#(sses a %on) histo!+ o
8(!isp!(&en#e an& so$e"hat see$in)%+ #on%i#tin)
!(%in)s that is too %on) to p(t in the &i)est. In the en&
th!o()h the a##(se& #an *e estoppe& o! #an "ai5e
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
3The app%i#ation o the siste! &o#t!ines o "ai5e! an&
estoppe% !e;(i!es t"o sine ;(a non #on&itions2 i!st/
the &is$issa% $(st *e so()ht o! in&(#e& *+ the
&een&ant pe!sona%%+ o! th!o()h his #o(nse%H
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
an& se#on&/ s(#h &is$issa% $(st not *e on the $e!its
an& $(st not ne#essa!i%+ a$o(nt to an a#;(itta%.
In&(*ita*%+/ the #ase at *a! a%%s s;(a!e%+ "ithin the
pe!iphe!+ o the sai& &o#t!ines "hi#h ha5e *een
p!ese!5e& (ni$pai!e& in the #o!p(s o o(!
8(!isp!(&en#e.
Petition )!ante&/ o!&e! set asi&e.
@=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
A&a 5. Vi!o%a
1=2 SCRA ??6
1A&a "as initia%%+ #ha!)e& (n&e! <P 22 o! iss(in) ? #he#,s that
*o(n#e&
2<eo!e p!ose#(tion !este& its #ase/ he "as a%so #ha!)e& "ith
estaa/ "hi#h A&a t!ie& to o*8e#t to *(t "as a!!ai)ne&
ne5e!the%ess.
3Ate! p!ose#(tion !este& its #ase/ he i%e& a $otion to &is$iss the
%ate! #ases sa+in) it "as 5io%ation is 9o(*%e 8eopa!&+ !i)ht.
3:N the!e is &o(*%e 8eopa!&+S NO
1It is a sett%e& !(%e that to !aise the &eense o &o(*%e
8eopa!&+/ th!ee !e;(isites $(st *e p!esent2 (1) a i!st
8eopa!&+ $(st ha5e atta#he& p!io! to the se#on&H (2) the
i!st 8eopa!&+ $(st ha5e *een 5a%i&%+ te!$inate&H an& (?)
the se#on& 8eopa!&+ $(st *e o! the sa$e oense/ o! the
se#on& oense in#%(&es o! is ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& in the
oense #ha!)e& in the i!st ino!$ation/ o! is an atte$pt to
#o$$it the sa$e o! a !(st!ation the!eo.
2These !e;(isites &o not e-ist in the #ase at *a!. The
p!ohi*ition is a)ainst a se#on& 8eopa!&+ o! the sa$e
oense. The p%ea o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ app%ies "he!e the
oenses in the t"o ino!$ations a!e the sa$e in %a" an& in
a#t. It is not ne#essa!i%+ &e#isi5e that the t"o oenses $a+
ha5e $ate!ia% a#ts in #o$$on/ o! that the+ a!e si$i%a!/
"he!e the+ a!e not in a#t the sa$e. The test is not "hethe!
the &een&ant has a%!ea&+ *een t!ie& o! the sa$e a#t/ *(t
"hethe! he has *een p(t in 8eopa!&+ o! the sa$e oense. A
sin)%e a#t $a+ oen& a)ainst t"o (o! $o!e) enti!e%+ &istin#t
an& (n!e%ate& p!o5isions o %a"/ an& i one p!o5ision o %a"
!e;(i!es p!oo o an a&&itiona% a#t o! e%e$ent "hi%e the
othe! &oes not/ an a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion o! a &is$issa% o
the ino!$ation (n&e! one &oes not *a! p!ose#(tion (n&e!
the othe!. In othe! "o!&s/ "he!e t"o &ie!ent %a"s (o!
a!ti#%es o the sa$e Co&e) &eine t"o #!i$es/ p!io!
8eopa!&+ as to one o the$ is no o*sta#%e to a p!ose#(tion
o the othe!/ a%tho()h *oth oenses a!ise !o$ the sa$e
a#ts/ i ea#h #!i$e in5o%5es so$e i$po!tant a#t "hi#h is
not an essentia% e%e$ent o the othe!.
3The 2 %a"s a!e &istin#t !o$ ea#h othe!. The!e is no i&entit+
o oenses #ha!)e&.
@8
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
Peop%e 5. Re%o5a 1@8
SCRA ?.@
1The Po%i#e/ a!$e& "ith a sea!#h "a!!ant/ #on&(#te& a sea!#h on
p!i5ate !espon&ents p!ope!ties an& o(n& o(t he "as (sin) &e5i#es to
%o"e! his e%e#t!i# *i%%.
20e "as #ha!)e& in 5io%ation o o!&inan#e 1 an& p%ea&e& not )(i%t+.
30e i%e& a $otion to &is$iss sa+in) the oense has a%!ea&+ p!es#!i*e&
"hi#h "as )!ante&.
4Ate! 1@ &a+s/ he "as #ha!)e& no" (n&e! the RPC ?.9/ thet o
e%e#t!i#a% po"e!.
50e i%e& a $otion to ;(ash on the )!o(n& o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+. This
"as )!ante& *+ the t!ia% #o(!t.
8B1 >oulbe 4eopard bars the #PC informationG :2*
1The *asi# &ii#(%t+ "ith the petitione!Cs position is that it $(st
*e e-a$ine&/ not (n&e! the te!$s o the i!st senten#e o A!ti#%e
IV (22) o the 19=? Constit(tion/ *(t !athe! under the second
sentence of the same section. The i!st senten#e o A!ti#%e IV
(22) sets o!th the )ene!a% !(%e2 the #onstit(tiona% p!ote#tion
a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is not a5ai%a*%e "he!e the se#on&
p!ose#(tion is o! an oense that is &ie!ent !o$ the oense
#ha!)e& in the i!st o! p!io! p!ose#(tion/ a%tho()h *oth the i!st
an& se#on& oenses $a+ *e *ase& (pon the sa$e a#t o! set o
a#ts. The se#on& senten#e o A!ti#%e IV (22) e$*o&ies an
e-#eption to the )ene!a% p!oposition2 the #onstit(tiona%
p!ote#tion/ a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is a5ai%a*%e a%tho()h the
p!io! oense #ha!)e& (n&e! an o!&inan#e *e &ie!ent !o$ the
oense #ha!)e& s(*se;(ent%+ (n&e! a nationa% stat(te s(#h as the
Re5ise& Pena% Co&e/ provided that *oth oenses sp!in) !o$ the
sa$e a#t o! set o a#ts.
2P(t a %itt%e &ie!ent%+/ "he!e the oenses #ha!)e& a!e pena%iEe&
eithe! *+ &ie!ent se#tions o the sa$e stat(te o! *+ &ie!ent
stat(tes/ the i$po!tant in;(i!+ !e%ates to the identit' of offenses
charge* the #onstit(tiona% p!ote#tion a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is
a5ai%a*%e on%+ "he!e an I&entit+ is sho"n to e-ist *et"een the
ea!%ie! an& the s(*se;(ent oenses #ha!)e&. In #ont!ast/ "he!e
one oense is #ha!)e& (n&e! a $(ni#ipa% o!&inan#e "hi%e the
othe! is pena%iEe& *+ a stat(te/ the #!iti#a% in;(i!+ is to the
identit' of the acts "hi#h the a##(se& is sai& to ha5e #o$$itte&
an& "hi#h a!e a%%e)e& to ha5e )i5en !ise to the t"o oenses2 the
#onstit(tiona%
p!ote#tion a)ainst
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is
a5ai%a*%e so %on) as
the a#ts "hi#h
#onstit(te o! ha5e
)i5en !ise to the i!st
oense (n&e! a
$(ni#ipa% o!&inan#e
a!e the sa$e a#ts
"hi#h #onstit(te o!
ha5e )i5en !ise to the
oense #ha!)e& (n&e!
a stat(te.
3It is pe!haps
i$po!tant to note that
the !(%e %i$itin) the
#onstit(tiona%
p!ote#tion a)ainst
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ to a
s(*se;(ent
p!ose#(tion o! the
sa$e oense is not to
*e (n&e!stoo& "ith
a*so%(te %ite!a%ness.
The I&entit+ o
oenses that $(st *e
sho"n nee& not *e
a*so%(te I&entit+2 the
i!st an& se#on&
oenses $a+ *e
!e)a!&e& as the 6sa$e
oense6 "he!e the
se#on& oense
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&es
the i!st oense o! is
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e&
in s(#h i!st oense o!
"he!e the se#on&
oense is an atte$pt
to #o$$it the i!st o!
a !(st!ation the!eo.
-< Th(s/ o! the
#onstit(tiona% p%ea o
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ to *e
a5ai%a*%e/ not a%% the
te#hni#a% e%e$ents
#onstit(tin) the i!st
oense nee& *e
p!esent in the
te#hni#a% &einition o
the se#on& oense.
The %a" he!e see,s to
p!e5ent ha!!ass$ent
o an a##(se& pe!son
*+ $(%tip%e
p!ose#(tions o!
oenses "hi#h
tho()h &ie!ent !o$
one anothe! a!e
nonethe%ess ea#h
#onstit(te& *+ a
#o$$on set o!
o5e!%appin) sets o
te#hni#a% e%e$ents.
Petition denied.
@9
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
T0E PEOPLE o the P0ILIPPINES 5. DARIA 9EL CARDEN et a%.
PARAS '.
1The &een&ants "e!e p!ose#(te& in the $(ni#ipa% #o(!t o Dani%a o! the
#!i$e o $a%i#io(s $is#hie.
2Ate! p!esentation o e5i&en#e o! the p!ose#(tion/ the $(ni#ipa%
#o(!t &is$isse& the #ase on the )!o(n& that the p!ose#(tion
ai%e& to p!o5e that the !e$o5a% o! &est!(#tion o the p!ope!t+ in
;(estion ha& *een inspi!e& *+ !esent$ent/ !an#o!/ o! &esi!es o!
!e5en)e.
3S(*se;(ent%+/ the sa$e is#a% "ho i%e& the ino!$ation in the
$(ni#ipa% #o(!t/ i%e& the o%%o"in) ino!$ation o #oe!#ion in
the #o(!t o Fi!st Instan#e o Dani%a a)ainst the &een&ants.
0ssue@ 8hether or not there is double (eopardG :es, the rule
against double (eopard prohibits prosecution for the same
offense it seems basic that an accused should be shielded against
being prosecuted for several offenses made out from a single act.
1Co(nse% o! &een&ants i%e& a $otion to n(%%i+ the se#on& ino!$ation
on the )!o(n&s o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
2Contente& o! the appe%%ant the!e is no &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ sin#e the
se#on& ino!$ation #ha!)es an oense &ie!ent !o$ that
in#%(&e& in the ino!$ation i%e& in the $(ni#ipa% #o(!t.
3The !(%e a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ p!ote#tin) the a##(se& not a)ainst
the se#on& p(nish$ent o! the sa$e a#t *(t a)ainst *ein) t!ie& o!
the sa$e oense.
4A *!ie #o$pa!ison o the t"o ino!$ations/ the a#t #o$p%aine& o
in the #ase o! #oe!#ion is the sa$e a#t "hi#h o!$e& the *asis o
the ino!$ation o! $a%i#io(s $is#hie.
5The !(%e a)ainst &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ p!ohi*its p!ose#(tion o! the
sa$e oense it see$s *asi# that an a##(se& sho(%& *e shie%&e&
a)ainst *ein) p!ose#(te& o! se5e!a% oenses $a&e o(t !o$ a
sin)%e a#t. Othe!"ise/ an (n%a"(% a#t o! o$ission/ $a+ )i5e !ise
to se5e!a% p!ose#(tions &epen&in) (pon the a*i%it+ o
p!ose#(tin) oi#e! to i$a)ine as $an+ oenses as #an *e
8(stiie& *+ sai& a#t o! o$ission/ *+ si$p%+ a&&in) o! s(*t!a#tin)
essentia% e%e$ents.
6The #ase at *a! is an o##asion o! !e$in&in) p!ose#(tin) oi#e!s
to *e #a!e(% an& #o$p!ehensi5e in #!i$ina% in5esti)ations "ith
the 5ie" to &ete!$inin) &einite%+/ *eo!e i%in) the ne#essa!+
ino!$ation/ the oenses in a#t an& in %a" #o$$itte&/ in o!&e!
to a5oi& sit(ations s$a#,in) o pe!se#(tions.
>.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
CONRA9O DELO 5. T0E PEOPLE OF T0E P0ILIPPINES an& T0E CO7RT OF T0E FIRST
INSTANCE OF RIRAL
DORAN/ C. '.
1Petitione! Con!a&o De%o "as #ha!)e& on 9e#e$*e! 2=/ 19@9/ "ith
!(st!ate& ho$i#i&e/ o! ha5in) a%%e)e&%+ in%i#te& (pon <en8a$in
O*i%%o/ "ith a ,it#hen ,nie an& "ith intent to ,i%% at the Co(!t o
Fi!st Instan#e o RiEa%.
2On 9e#e$*e! 29/ 19@9/ at 8 a.$./ the a##(se& p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ to the
oense #ha!)e& an& at 1.21> p.$. o the sa$e &a+/ <en8a$in O*i%%o &ie&
!o$ his "o(n&s.
3E5i&en#e o &eath "as a5ai%a*%e to the p!ose#(tion on%+ on 'an(a!+ ?/
19>. an& 'an(a!+ @/ 19>. an& a$en&e& ino!$ation "as i%e&
#ha!)in) the a##(se& "ith #ons($$ate& ho$i#i&e.
4The a##(se& then i%e& a $otion to n(%%i+ the a$en&e& ino!$ation #%ai$in)
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
5Dotion "as &enie& *+ the !espon&ent #o(!tH hen#e/ instant petition o!
p!ohi*ition to en8oin the !espon&ent #o(!t !o$ (!the! ente!tainin) the
a$en&e& ino!$ation
0ssue@ 8hether or not an accused !ho pleaded guilt to the offense of
frustrated homicide, upon death of the offended part, could not rel
on a plea of double (eopard, if the information amended is to charge
him !ith homicideG 1o, because the petition is denied, and the
respondent court ma proceed to the trial of the criminal case under
the amended information.
1R(%e 1.6/ se#tion 1?/ 2& pa!a)!aph/ (n&e! this p!o5ision/ it "as
p!ope! o! the #o(!t to &is$iss the ino!$ation an& o!&e! the i%in) o
a ne" one o! the !eason that the p!ope! oense "as not #ha!)e& in
the o!$e! an& it &i& not p%a#e the a##(se& in a se#on& 8eopa!&+ o!
the sa$e o! i&enti#a% oense.
2JNo pe!son sha%% *e t"i#e p(t in 8eopa!&+ o p(nish$ent o! the sa$e
oenseK. Deanin) "hen a pe!son is #ha!)e& "ith an oense an& the
#ase is te!$inate& eithe! *+ a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion o! in an+ $anne!
"itho(t the #onsent o the a##(se&/ the %atte! #annot *e #ha!)e& "ith
the sa$e o! i&enti#a% oense.
3It is noti#e& that the
p!ote#tion o the
#onstit(tiona% inhi*ition is
a)ainst a se#on& 8eopa!&+
o! the Jsa$e oenseK/ the
on%+ e-#eption/ that i an
a#t is p(nishe& *+ a %a"
an& an o!&inan#e/
#on5i#tion o! a#;(itta%
(n&e! eithe! sha%%
#onstit(te a *a! to anothe!
p!ose#(tion o! the sa$e
a#t.
4JSa$e oenseK/ (n&e! the
)ene!a% !(%e/ has a%"a+s
*een inte!p!ete& to $ean
not on%+ that the se#on&
oense #ha!)e& is e-a#t%+
the sa$e as the one a%%e)e&
in the i!st ino!$ation/ *(t
a%so the t"o oenses a!e
i&enti#a%.
5The!e is i&entit+ *et"een
t"o oenses "hen the
e5i&en#e to s(ppo!t a
#on5i#tion o! one oense
"o(%& *e s(i#ient to
"a!!ant a #on5i#tion o! the
othe!.
6On the othe! han&/ the !(%e
o i&entit+ &oes not app%+/
"hen the se#on& oense
"as not in e-isten#e at the
ti$e o the i!st
p!ose#(tion/ o! the si$p%e
!eason that in s(#h #ase
the!e is no possi*i%it+ o!
the a##(se&/ &(!in) the
i!st p!ose#(tion/ to *e
#on5i#te& o! an oense
that "as in e-istent.
1The !(%e is that "he!e ate!
the i!st p!ose#(tion a ne"
a#t s(pe!5enes o! "hi#h
the &een&ant is
!esponsi*%e/ "hi#h #han)es
the #ha!a#te! o the oense
an&/ to)ethe! "ith the a#ts
e-istin) at the ti$e
#onstit(tes a ne" an&
&istin#t oense. The
a##(se& #annot *e sai& to
*e in se#on& 8eopa!&+ i
in&i#te& o! the ne"
oense.
>1
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
T0E PEOPLE o the P0ILIPPINES 5. RO9RIAO MORAC
FERNAN9O/ '.
1A #onstit(tiona% !i)ht not to *e p(t t"i#e in 8eopa!&+ o! the sa$e oense
"as the *asis o! a $otion to n(%%i+ *+ the a##(se&/ no" appe%%ee/
Ro&!i)o Mo!a#.
20e "as p!ose#(te& o! !(st!ate& $(!&e! a!isin) a%%e)e&%+ !o$
ha5in) assa(%te&/ atta#,e&/ an& hit "ith a pie#e o "oo& the oen&e&
pa!t+/ o! "hi#h he "as p!e5io(s%+ t!ie& an& senten#e& o! s%i)ht
ph+si#a% in8(!ies/ his p%ea *ein) one o )(i%t.
3The ino!$ation o! !(st!ate& $(!&e! "as *ase& on the se#on&
$e&i#a% #e!tii#ate )i5en *+ the sa$e ph+si#ian "hi#h "as $(#h
$o!e tho!o()h the se#on& ti$e/ to the ee#t that the 5i#ti$ &i& s(e!
a )!eate! in8(!+ than "as at i!st as#e!taine&.
4The %o"e! #o(!t/ p!esi&e& *+ 0ono!a*%e '(&)e Nesto! <. A%a$pa+/
#onsi&e!in) that the!e "as no s(pe!5enin) a#t that "o(%& ne)ate the
&eense &o(*%e 8eopa!&+/ s(staine& the $otion to ;(ash in an o!&e! o
'(ne 21/ 1968. The peop%e appea%e&.
5The a##(se& Mo!a# "as #ha!)e& "ith s%i)ht ph+si#a% in8(!ies *eo!e
the Cit+ Co(!t o <a#o%o&. The a##(se& p%ea& )(i%t+ on Ap!i% 16/
1968 !es(%tin) in his *ein) pena%iEe& to s(e! ten &a+s o a!!esto
$eno!.
6On Ap!i% 18/ 1968/ the p!o5in#ia% is#a% i%e& ino!$ation at the Co(!t
o Fi!st Instan#e o Ne)!os O##i&enta%/ #ha!)in) the sa$e &een&ant
"ith !(st!ate& $(!&e! a!isin) !o$ the a#t (pon anothe! $e&i#a%
#e!tii#ate &ate& Ap!i% 1=/ 1968.
7A $otion to n(%%i+ "as i%e& *+ the a##(se& on '(ne 1./ 1968 on the
)!o(n& that/ ha5in) *een p!e5io(s%+ #on5i#te& o s%i)ht ph+si#a%
in8(!ies an& ha5in) a%!ea&+ se!5e& the pena%t+ i$pose& on hi$ o! the
sa$e oense/ the p!ose#(tion o! !(st!ate& $(!&e! a!isin) o(t o the
sa$e a#t #o$$itte& a)ainst the sa$e oen&e& pa!t+/ he "o(%& *e
p%a#e& in se#on& 8eopa!&+ i in&i#te& o! the ne" oense.
0ssue@ 8hether or not the defendant, !ho had alread been convicted
of slight phsical in(uries and had served sentence therefore, ma be
prosecuted ane! for frustrated murder for the same act committed
against the same personG 1o, because there is no supervening fact that
had occurred !hich (ustifies the application, for !hich reason !e are
constrained to appl the
general rule of double
(eopard. B this, the motion
to )uash !as granted and
ordered the dismissal of the
case and immediate release of
the appellee.
1Fo! &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ not to
e-ist/ the!e is then the
in&ispensa*%e !e;(i!e$ent
o the e-isten#e o a ne"
a#t "hi#h s(pe!5enes o!
"hi#h the &een&ant is
!esponsi*%e #han)in) the
#ha!a#te! o the #!i$e
i$p(te& to hi$ an&
to)ethe! "ith the a#ts
e-istin) p!e5io(s%+
#onstit(tin) a ne" an&
&istin#t oense.
2No pe!son sha%% *e t"i#e p(t
in 8eopa!&+ o p(nish$ent o!
the sa$e oense.
3A &een&ant in a #!i$ina%
#ase sho(%& the!eo!e/ *e
8(&)e& eithe! )(i%t+ o! not
)(i%t+ an& the!eate! %et
a%one in pea#e/ in the %atte!
#ase the State *ein)
p!e#%(&e& !o$ ta,in) an
appea%.
4JThe Sa$e oenseK/ $eans
anothe! p!ose#(tion o! the
oense #ha!)e& ate! a
&een&ant sha%% ha5e *een
#on5i#te&
o! a#;(itte& o! the #ase
a)ainst hi$ te!$inate&
"itho(t his e-p!ess
#onsent/ o! an+ atte$pt to
#o$$it the sa$e o!
!(st!ation the!eo o! o!H
an+ oense "hi#h
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&es o! is
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& in the
oense #ha!)e& in the
o!$e! #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation.
1It o%%o"s that ate! the
i!st p!ose#(tion a ne" a#t
s(pe!5enes on "hi#h
&een&ant $a+ *e he%&
%ia*%e/ !es(%tin) in a%te!in)
the #ha!a#te! o the #!i$e
an& )i5in) !ise to a ne"
an& &istin#t oense/ the
a##(se& #annot *e sai& to
*e in se#on& 8eopa!&+ i
in&i#te& o! the ne"
oense.
2A%tho()h the!e is the
in&ispensa*%e !e;(i!e$ent
o the e-isten#e o a ne"
a#t "hi#h s(pe!5enes o!
"hi#h the &een&ant is
!esponsi*%e #han)in) the
#ha!a#te! o the #!i$e
i$p(te& to hi$ an&
to)ethe! "ith the e-istin)
a#ts p!e5io(s%+
#onstit(tin) a ne" an&
&istin#t oense.
>2
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
T0E PEOPLE o the P0ILIPPINES/ 5. CITM CO7RT o DANILA/ <RANC0 ZI an& FRANCISCO
AAPAM + DALLARES/
RELOVA '.
1This is a petition to !e5ie" the o!&e!/ &ate& No5e$*e! 1=/ 19=2/ o
the Cit+ Co(!t o Dani%a/ <!an#h ZI/ &is$issin) the ino!$ation o!
ho$i#i&e th!( !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e i%e& a)ainst !espon&ent F!an#is#o
Aapa + Da%%a!es on the )!o(n& o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
2Respon&ent #o(!t he%& that the p!i5ate !espon&ent ha5in) *een
p!e5io(s%+ t!ie& an& #on5i#te& o se!io(s ph+si#a% in8(!ies th!(
!e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e o! the &eath o the 5i#ti$ "o(%& p%a#e the
a##(se& in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
3The #ase at *a!/ the in#i&ent o##(!!e& on O#to*e! 1=/ 19=2. On the
o%%o"in) &a+/ O#to*e! 18/ ino!$ation "as i%e& a)ainst !espon&ent
o! se!io(s ph+si#a% in8(!ies th!( !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e. On the sa$e
&a+/ the 5i#ti$ 9io%ito &e %a C!(E &ie&.
4On O#to*e! 2./ 19=2/ p!i5ate !espon&ent "as a!!ai)ne& on the #ha!)e
o se!io(s ph+si#a% in8(!ies th!( !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e. 0e p%ea&e&
)(i%t+ an& "as senten#e& to one $onth an& one &a+ o a!!esto $a+o!/
an& #o$$en#e& se!5in) senten#e.
5On O#to*e! 2@/ 19=2/ ino!$ation o! ho$i#i&e th!( !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e "as
i%e& a)ainst !espon&ent.
6On No5e$*e! 1=/ 19=2/ the Cit+ Co(!t o Dani%a/ (pon $otion o
!espon&ent/ iss(e& an& o!&e! &is$issin) the ho$i#i&e th!( !e#,%ess
i$p!(&en#e #ase on the )!o(n& o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
0ssue@ 8hether or not a person !ho has been prosecuted for serious
phsical in(uries thru reckless imprudence and convicted thereof ma
be prosecuted subse)uentl for homicide thru reckless imprudence if
the offended part dies as a result of the same in(uries he had
sufferedG 1o, the fact remains that the victim >iolito de la CruC died
on October -+ one da after the accident and arrest of the respondent
Eapa and that on October /. the accused !as arraigned, pleaded
guilt and sentenced accordingl. $hus, (eopard had attached and no
ne! fact supervened after the arraignment and conviction of the
accused.
1It o%%o"s that ate! the
i!st p!ose#(tion a ne" a#t
s(pe!5enes on "hi#h
&een&ant $a+ *e he%&
%ia*%e/ !es(%tin) in a%te!in)
the #ha!a#te! o the #!i$e
an& )i5in) !ise to a ne"
an& &istin#t oense/ the
a##(se& #annot *e sai& to
*e in se#on& 8eopa!&+ i
in&i#te& o! the ne"
oense.
20o"e5e!/ a!ti#%e ?6> o the
Pena% Co&e p(nishes the
ne)%i)ent state o $in& an&
not the !es(%tin) in8(!+.
3The t!ia% #o(!t #on#%(&e&
that on#e p!ose#(te& o!
an& #on5i#te& o
ne)%i)en#e/ the a##(se&
#annot a)ain *e p!ose#(te&
o! the sa$e ne)%i)en#e
a%tho()h o! a &ie!ent
!es(%tin) in8(!+.
43e%%Gsett%e& is the !(%e that
one "ho has *een #ha!)e&
"ith an oense #annot *e
#ha!)e a)ain "ith the sa$e
o! i&enti#a% oense tho()h
the %atte! *e %esse! o!
)!eate! than the o!$e!.
50o"e5e!/ it $(st *e
pointe& that/ the !(%e o
i&entit+ &oes not app%+
"hen the se#on& oense
"as not in e-isten#e at the
ti$e o the i!st
p!ose#(tion/ o! the !eason
that in s(#h #ase the!e is no
possi*i%it+ o! the a##(se&/
&(!in) the i!st
p!ose#(tion/ to *e
#on5i#te& o! an oense
that "as then in e-istent.
1A##o!&in)%+/ "he!e the
a##(se& "as #ha!)e& "ith
ph+si#a% in8(!ies an& ate!
#on5i#tion/ the in8(!e&
pe!son &ies/ the #ha!)e o!
ho$i#i&e a)ainst the sa$e
a##(se& &oes not p(t hi$
t"i#e in 8eopa!&+.
2As state&/ the 5i#ti$
9io%ito &e %a C!(E &ie& on
the &a+ the ino!$ation
"as i%e&/ an& the a##(se&
"as a!!ai)ne& t"o &a+s
ate!/ o! on O#to*e! 2./
19=2. 3hen the
ino!$ation o! ho$i#i&e
th!( !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e
"as i%e& on O#to*e! 2@/
19=2/ the a##(se&G p!i5ate
!espon&ent "as a%!ea&+ in
8eopa!&+.
>?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
AEORAE DANANTAN/ 5. T0E CO7RT o APPEALS/ SPO7SES DARCELINO NICOLAS an&
DARIA NICOLAS
O7ISID<INA '.
1'(ne 1/ 198?/ thee P!o5in#ia% Fis#a% o Isa*e%a i%e& ino!$ation #ha!)in)
petitione! Danantan "ith !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e !es(%tin) in ho$i#i&e.
2On a!!ai)n$ent/ petitione! p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ to the #ha!)e.
3Petitione! "as a#;(itte& *+ the t!ia% #o(!t o ho$i#i&e th!o()h !e#,%ess
i$p!(&en#e "itho(t !(%in) on his #i5i% %ia*i%it+.
4On appea% !o$ the #i5i% aspe#t o the 8(&)e$ent in C!i$ina% Case
no. .66/ the appe%%ate #o(!t o(n& the petitione! Danantan #i5i%%+
%ia*%e an& o!&e!e& hi$ to in&e$ni+ p!i5ate !espon&ents Da!#e%ino
Ni#o%as an& Da!ia Ni#o%as o! a tota% o 1=@/@..... o! the &eath o
thei! son/ R(*en Ni#o%as.
5Petitione! $o5e& o! !e#onsi&e!ation/ *(t the appe%%ate #o(!t in its !eso%(tion
o A()(st 2@/ 1992 &enie& the $otion.
0ssues@ >id the ac)uittal of petitioner foreclose an further in)uir b
the Court of 'ppeals as to his negligence or reckless imprudenceG >id
the court a )uo err in finding that petitioner&s ac)uittal did not
e3tinguish his civil liabilitG
>id the appellate court commit a reversible error in failing to appl
the Manchester >octrine to C'HE.#. C? 1o. -,/<.G
1Petitione! a!)(es that the t!ia% #o(!t1s in&in) that he "as neithe!
i$p!(&ent no! ne)%i)ent "as the *asis o his a#;(itta% an& not
!easona*%e &o(*t. 0en#e/ (pon in&in) hi$ %ia*%e o! in&e$nit+ an&
&a$a)es/ the appe%%ate #o(!t not on%+ p%a#e& his a#;(itta% in
s(spi#ion/ *(t a%so p(t hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
2P!e%i$ina!+/ petitione!1s #%ai$ that the &e#ision o the appe%%ate #o(!t
a"a!&in) in&e$nit+ p%a#e& hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is $isp%a#e&.
3The #onstit(tion p!o5i&es that no pe!son sha%% *e t"i#e p(t in 8eopa!&+ o! the
sa$e oense.
4Fo! &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ to e-ist e%e$ents a!e esta*%ishe&. Fi!st is a
8eopa!&+ $(st ha5e atta#he& p!io! to the se#on&. The i!st 8eopa!&+
$(st ha5e *een te!$inate&. Last%+/ the se#on& 8eopa!&+ $(st *e o!
the sa$e oense as the i!st.
5In the instant #ase/ petitione! ha& on#e *een p%a#e& in 8eopa!&+ *+ the
i%in) o C!i$ina% Case No. .66 an& the 8eopa!&+ "as te!$inate& *+ his
&is#ha!)e.
60o"e5e!/ petitione! "as not #ha!)e& ane" in CAGA.R. No. 192@. "ith a
se#on& #!i$ina% oense i&enti#a% to the i!st oense.
7Re#o!&s #%ea!%+ sho" that no se#on& #!i$ina% oense "as *ein)
i$p(te& to petitione! on appea% the!eo!e the!e "as no se#on&
8eopa!&+ to spea, o. Petitione!1s #%ai$ o ha5in) *een p%a#e& in
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ is in#o!!e#t.
8O(! %a" !e#o)niEes t"o ,in&s o a#;(itta%/ "ith &ie!ent ee#ts on
the #i5i% %ia*i%it+ o the a##(se&. Fi!st is an a#;(itta% on the )!o(n&
that the a##(se& is not the a(tho! o the a#t o o$ission #o$p%aine&
o. This #%oses the &oo! to #i5i% %ia*i%it+. Se#on& is an a#;(itta% *ase&
on !easona*%e &o(*t on the )(i%t o the a##(se&/ in this #ase i the
)(i%t o the a##(se& has not *een satisa#to!i%+ esta*%ishe&/ he is not
e-e$pte& !o$ #i5i% %ia*i%it+ "hi#h $a+ *e p!o5e& *+ the
p!epon&e!an#e o e5i&en#e on%+.
10en#e/ petitione!1s a#;(itta%
"as not p!e#%(&e& !o$
%oo,in) into the ;(estion o
petitione!1s ne)%i)en#e.
2In %ine "ith this/ the
petitione! insists that he "as
a#;(itte& on a in&in) that
he "as neithe! #!i$ina%%+
ne)%i)ent no! !e#,%ess%+
i$p!(&ent.
30e a!)(es that "hen the
%atte! is not p!o5e&/ #i5i%
%ia*i%it+ #annot *e &e$an&e&
an& #on#%(&es that his
a#;(itta% *a!s an+ #i5i%
a#tion.
4Respon&ents #o(nte! that
the t!ia% #o(!t1s 8(&)e$ent
sho"s the 8(&)e$ent o
a#;(itta% &i& not #%ea!%+
&e#%a!e the nonGe-isten#e
o petitione!1s ne)%i)en#e
o! i$p!(&en#e. The+ a!)(e
that his a#;(itta% $(st *e
&ee$e& *ase& on
!easona*%e &o(*t.
5In;(i!+ *+ the %o"e! #o(!t1s
&e#ision in C!i$ina% Case No.
.66 s(ppo!ts the
#on#%(sion o the appe%%ate
#o(!t that the a#;(itta% "as
*ase& on !easona*%e &o(*t
hen#e petitione!1s #i5i%
%ia*i%it+ "as not
e-tin)(ishe& *+ his
&is#ha!)e.
60o"e5e!/ it o(n& that a
h+pothesis in#onsistent "ith
the ne)%i)en#e o the a##(se&
p!esente& itse% *eo!e the
#o(!t.
7The o!e)oin) #%ea!%+ sho"s
that petitione!1s a#;(itta%
*ase& on !easona*%e &o(*t
an& a s(it to eno!#e #i5i%
%ia*i%it+ o! the sa$e a#t o!
o$ission %ies.
8F(!the!$o!e/ petitione!
a!)(es that the Co(!t o
Appea%s $a&e a $ista,e in
a"a!&in) &a$a)es an&
in&e$nit+/ sin#e p!i5ate
!espon&ents &i& not pa+ the
#o!!espon&in) i%in) ees
o! thei! #%ai$s o!
&a$a)es "hen #i5i% #ase
"as instit(te& "ith the
#!i$ina% a#tion.
9P!i5ate !espon&ents a!)(e
that (n&e! the !(%es o #o(!t/
the i%in) ees o! the
&a$a)es a"a!&e& a!e a i!st
%ien on the 8(&)e$ent.
10 At the ti$e o the i%in)
o ino!$ation/ the i$p%ie&
instit(tion o #i5i% a#tions
"ith #!i$ina% a#tions "as
)o5e!ne& *+ R(%e 111/
se#tion 1 o the 196@/ R(%es
o Co(!t.
11 As pointe& o(t *+ the
!espon&ents/ (n&e! the sai&
!(%e/ it "as not !e;(i!e& that
the &a$a)es so()ht *+ the
oen&e& pa!t+ *e state& in
the #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation.
12 Th(s/ the #i5i% a#tion
is i$p%ie&%+ instit(te&
to)ethe! "ith the #!i$ina%
a#tion/ the a#t(a% &a$a)es
#%ai$e& *+ the oen&e&
pa!ties/ as in this #ase/ a!e
not in#%(&e& in the
#o$p(tation o the i%in)
ees.
13 Fi%in) ees a!e to *e
pai& on%+ i othe! ite$s o
&a$a)es s(#h as $o!a%/
no$ina%/ te$pe!ate/ o!
e-e$p%a!+ &a$a)es a!e
a%%e)e& in the #o$p%aint o!
ino!$ation/ o! i the+ a!e
not so a%%e)e&/ sha%%
#onstit(te a i!st %ien on the
8(&)e$ent.
14 The !(%es o #!i$ina%
p!o#e&(!e )(a!antee that
i%in) ees o! the a"a!& o
&a$a)es a!e i!st %ien on
the 8(&)e$ent/ the ee#t
o the eno!#e$ent o sai&
%ien $(st !et!o a#t to the
instit(tion o the #!i$ina%
a#tion.
15 The!eo!e/ "e in& no
*asis o! petitione!1s
a%%e)ations that the i%in)
ees "e!e not pai& o!
i$p!ope!%+ pai& an& that
the appe%%ate #o(!t
a#;(i!e& no 8(!is&i#tion.
The instant petition is
&is$isse& o! %a#, o $e!it.
>@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
SADSON V. CA
<A7TISTA ANAELO/ J.2
1R(ino T. Sa$son "as 8oint%+ #ha!)e& "ith A$a&o L. C!(E an&
<onia#io Ve!)a!a an& t"o othe!s "hose na$es a!e (n,no"n in t"o
sepa!ate ino!$ations "ith the #o$p%e- #!i$e o estafa th!o()h
a%sii#ation o t"o #he#,s o the Phi%ippine Nationa% <an,
2The t!io appea%e& !o$ the &e#ision an& the Co(!t o Appea%s
ai!$e& the sa$e *(t "ith a !e&(#e& pena%t+ "ith !e)a!& to
appe%%ants C!(E an& Ve!)a!a. Appe%%ant Sa$son "as on%+ o(n&
)(i%t+ o #o$$ittin) the #!i$e th!o()h )!oss i$p!(&en#e an& "as
a##o!&in)%+ senten#e& to @ $onths o arresto ma'or in ea#h o the
t"o #ases.
39issatisie& "ith his #on5i#tion/ Sa$son s(e& o(t the p!esent
petition o! !e5ie" #onten&in) (1) that the a#ts &one *+ hi$/ as
o(n& *+ the Co(!t o Appea%s/ &o not #onstit(te )!oss i$p!(&en#eH
(2) that the!e is no s(#h oense as estaa th!o()h (a%sii#ation *+)
ne)%i)en#eH an& (?) that the Co(!t o Appea%s e!!e& in &en+in) his
$otion o! ne" t!ia%.
4Espi!i&ion Las#aFo/ athe! o the %ate Fe%ipe Las#aFo/ a %ie(tenant o
the 7SAFFE/ "ho &ie& &(!in) the %ast 3o!%& 3a!/ an& his "i&o"
Rosanna Pa!as/ a!e Fe%ipe Las#anoCs on%+ %e)iti$ate s(!5i5in) hei!s/
5The+ i%e& thei! #%ai$ pape!s "ith the Re& C!oss Chapte! in the
P!o5in#e o So!so)on in the ea!%+ pa!t o 19@6.
6On O#to*e! 2/ 19@8 A$a&o L. C!(E as,e& the he%p o his o!$e!
#%ass$ate R(ino T. Sa$son in )ettin) the #he#,s o the t"o
#%ai$ants "ho "e!e "ith hi$ at Ca$p D(!ph+ .
7The+ "e!e s(##ess(% in ha5in) the #he#,s o the t"o #%ai$ants.
The+ "ent to A!isto#!at !esta(!ant an& Sa$son "ent on to "at#h a
$o5ie that ni)ht ( I ,no". 3ei!&.).
8'(st t"o &a+s ate! #ashin) the #he#,s/ "hi%e at Ca$p D(!ph+
Sa$son "as ino!$e& *+ Se5e!ino An&a/ one o those "ho "e!e
"ith the pa!t+ "hi#h #ashe& the #he#,s/ th(s sai& #hee,s "e!e
&e%i5e!e& to the "!on) pa!ties. 3o!!ie& *+ s(#h ne"s he %et o!
So!so)on the o%%o"in) &a+ to %o#ate the !ea% #%ai$ants.
90e o(n& Espi!i&ion too "ea, an& too o%& to )et o(t o the ho(se
an& sa" Rosa%ina (I thin, this sho(%& *e Rosanna) in the s#hoo%
"he!e she "as tea#hin) an& #oni!$e& that the o%& $an1s #he#, "as
ne5e! #%ai$e& *+ the$.
ISS'( (/2I:62+&) *+, Samson can be con"icted of the crime
of estafa through falsification by imprudence despite the fact that
the information filed against him charges only a willful act of
falsification and contains no reference to any act of imprudence
on his part- -(S
10 Appe%%ant "as/ o! $(st ha5e *een a"a!e that the #%ai$ "as o!
a siEea*%e a$o(nt/ tota%%in) o5e! t"e%5e tho(san& pesos/ an&
o!&ina!+ p!(&en#e !e;(i!e& that he sho(%& satis+ hi$se% *+ a%%
p!ope! an& a&e;(ate $eans o the i&entit+ o the pe!sons #%ai$in)
sai& a$o(nts/ sin#e the+ "e pe!sona%%+ (n,no"n to hi$. The $e!e
ass(!an#e o a o!$e! #%ass/ $ate "o(%& #e!tain%+ not *e a
satisa#to!+ i&entii#ation to 8(sti+ &is*(!se$ent o s(#h a %a!)e
a$o(nt i the (n&s *e%on)e& to appe%%ant.
11 7n&e! the a#ts o(n& *+ the Co(!t o Appea%s/ the a#ts o
appe%%ant #onstit(te in ea#h #ase the #!i$e o estafa th!o()h
a%sii#ation o a $e!#anti%e &o#($ent *+ !e#,%ess i$p!(&en#e/
*e#a(se in so a! as the a%sii#ation is #on#e!ne&/ his a#ts o
en&o!sin) the !espe#ti5e #he#,s *+ "a+ o i&entii#ation o the
si)nat(!es o the pa+ees entit%e& to sai& #he#,s an& thei!
p!o#ee&s/ #onstit(te& a "!itten
!ep!esentation that the t!(e
pa+ees pa!ti#ipate& in the
in&o!se$ent an& #ashin) o
the #he#,s ao!esai&/ "hen in
t!(th an& in a#t the t!(e
pa+ees ha& no &i!e#t
inte!5ention in the
p!o#ee&in)s (A!t. 1=1/
Re5ise& Pena% Co&e).
1E5en i s(#h in&o!se$ent an&
i&entii#ation "e!e e-t!aneo(s
to the oi#ia% &(ties o
appe%%ant/ he "o(%& *e
ne5e!the%ess %ia*%e as a p!i5ate
pe!son (n&e! A!ti#%e 1=2 o
the Re5ise& Pena% Co&e.
9e#isions o this Co(!t an& o
the S(p!e$e Co(!t o Spain
asse!t the 8(!i&i#a% stan&in) o
the #!i$e o a%sii#ation *+
i$p!(&en#e sin#e in a%si+in)
p(*%i# o! $e!#anti%e
&o#($ent/ o intent to #a(se
&a$a)e is not !e;(i!e&
*e#a(se "hat the %a"/ see,s to
!ep!ess is the p!e8(&i#e to the
p(*%i# #oni&en#e in these
&o#($ents.
2The !(%e !e)a!&in) 5a!ian#e
*et"een a%%e)ation an& p!oo
in a #!i$ina% #ase/ is2 63hen
the!e is 5a!ian#e *et"een the
oense #ha!)e& in the
#o$p%aint o! ino!$ation/ an&
that p!o5e& o! esta*%ishe& *+
the e5i&en#e/ an& the oense
as #ha!)e&/ is in#%(&e& in o!
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&es the
oense p!o5e&/ the &een&ant
sha%% *e #on5i#te& o the
oense p!o5e& in#%(&e& in
that "hi#h is #ha!)e&/ o! o
the oense #ha!)e& in#%(&e&
in that "hi#h is p!o5e&6
(Se#tion @/ R(%e 116. R(%es o
Co(!t).
3As a #o$p%e$ent "e ha5e
a%so the o%%o"in) !(%e2 6An
oense #ha!)e& ne#essa!i%+
in#%(&es that "hi#h is p!o5e&/
"hen so$e o the essentia%
e%e$ents o! in)!e&ients o the
o!$e!/ as this is a%%e)e& in
the #o$p%aint o! ino!$ation/
#onstit(te the %atte!. An& the
oense #ha!)e& is ne#essa!i%+
in#%(&e& in the oense
p!o5es/ "hen the essentia%
in)!e&ients o the o!$e!
#onstit(te o! o!$ a pa!t o
those #onstit(tin) the %atte!6
(Se#tion >/ R(%e 116/ 9dem.).
43hi%e a #!i$ina% ne)%i)ent a#t
is not a si$p%e $o&a%it+ o a
"i%%(% #!i$e/ as "e he%& in
4ui6on vs. 7ustice of the
Peace of Bacolor/
W
A.R. No.
LG66@1/ '(%+ 28/ 19>>/ *(t a
&istin#t #!i$e in itse%/
&esi)nate& as a ;(asi oense
in o(! Pena% Co&e/ it $a+
ho"e5e! *e sai& that
#on5i#tion o! the o!$e! #an
*e ha& (n&e! an ino!$ation
e-#%(si5e%+ #ha!)in) the
#o$$ission o a "i%%(%
oense/ (pon the theo!+ that
the )!eate! in#%(&es the %esse!
oense. This is the sit(ation
that o*tains in the p!esent
#ase.
5The a#t that the ino!$ation
&oes not a%%e)e that the
a%sii#ation "as #o$$itte&
"ith i$p!(&en#e is o no
$o$ent o! he!e this
&ei#ien#+ appea!s s(pp%ie&
*+ the e5i&en#e s(*$itte& *+
appe%%ant hi$se% an& the
!es(%t has p!o5en *enei#ia% to
hi$. Ce!tain%+/ ha5in) a%%e)e&
that the a%sii#ation has *een
"i%%(%/ it "o(%& *e
in#on)!o(s to a%%e)e at the
sa$e ti$e that it "as
#o$$itte& "ith i$p!(&en#e
o! a #ha!)e o #!i$ina% intent
is in#o$pati*%e "ith the
#on#ept o ne)%i)en#e.
>>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
STA. RITA V. CA
FELICIANO/ J.:
1Petitione! Sta. Rita "as #ha!)e& in the RTC "ith 5io%atin) Se#tion
2(a) in !e%ation to Se#tions 22(&) an& 28(e) o Rep(*%i# A#t No.
1161/ as a$en&e&/ othe!"ise ,no"n as the So#ia% Se#(!it+ La".
2The Ino!$ation a%%e)e& that petitione!/ 6as P!esi&ent:Aene!a%
Dana)e! o <. Sta. Rita Co./ In#. a #o$p(%so!i%+ (sic) #o5e!e&
e$p%o+e! (n&e! the So#ia% Se#(!it+ La"/ as a$en&e&/ &i& then an&
the!e "i%%(%%+ an& (n%a"(%%+ ai%/ ne)%e#t an& !e(se an& sti%% ai%s/
ne)%e#ts an& !e(ses to !e$it to the So#ia% Se#(!it+ S+ste$
#ont!i*(tions o! SSS/ De&i#a!e an& E$p%o+ees Co$pensation o!
its #o5e!e& e$p%o+ees.6
3Petitione! Sta. Rita $o5e& to &is$iss sai& #!i$ina% #ase
4The RTC s(staine& petitione!Cs $otion an& &is$isse& the #!i$ina%
#ase i%e& a)ainst hi$. It !(%e& that the De$o!an&($ o A)!ee$ent
ente!e& into *et"een the 9epa!t$ent o La*o! an& E$p%o+$ent
(69OLE6) an& the So#ia% Se#(!it+ S+ste$ (6SSS6) e-ten&in) the
#o5e!a)e o So#ia% Se#(!it+/ De&i#a% Ca!e an& E$p%o+$ent
Co$pensation %a"s to Fi%ipino seaa!e!s on *oa!& o!ei)n 5esse%s
"as n(%% an& 5oi& as it "as ente!e& into *+ the A&$inist!ato! o the
SSS "itho(t the san#tion o the Co$$ission an& app!o5a% o the
P!esi&ent o the Phi%ippines/ in #ont!a5ention o Se#tion @ (a) o
R.A. No. 1161/ as a$en&e&.
5The Peop%e/ th!o()h the So%i#ito! Aene!a%/ i%e& in the Co(!t o
Appea%s a petition o! certiorari/ p!ohi*ition an& mandamus
assai%in) the o!&e! o &is$issa% iss(e& *+ the t!ia% #o(!t.
6Respon&ent appe%%ate #o(!t )!ante& the petition.
7The!eate!/ petitione! i%e& in this Co(!t a $otion o! e-tension o
thi!t+ (?.) &a+s !o$ the e-pi!ation o !e)%e$enta!+ pe!io& "ithin
"hi#h to i%e a petition o! !e5ie" on certiorari. The Co(!t )!ante&
the $otion an& )a5e petitione! (nti% 9 '(ne 199> to i%e the petition
"ith "a!nin) that no (!the! e-tension "i%% *e )i5en.
89espite the "a!nin)/ the petition "as i%e& on%+ on 1? '(ne 199> o!
o(! (@) &a+s ate! the &(e &ate. Do!eo5e!/ it ai%e& to #o$p%+ "ith
!e;(i!e$ent no. 2 o Ci!#(%a! No. 1G88/ as a$en&e& an& Ci!#(%a!
No. 19G91 o the Co(!t as it &i& not #ontain an ai&a5it o se!5i#e o
#opies the!eo to !espon&ents. It "as on%+ on 1@ '(%+ 199>/ th!o()h
an e(parte $aniestation/ that the ai&a5it o se!5i#e "as *e%ate&%+
s(*$itte& to this Co(!t.
9In the Petition o! Re5ie"/ petitione! Sta. Rita #onten&s that the
Fi%ipino seaa!e!s !e#!(ite& *+ <. Sta. Rita Co. an& &ep%o+e& on
*oa!& o!ei)n 5esse%s o(tsi&e the Phi%ippines a!e e-e$pt !o$ the
#o5e!a)e o R.A. No. 1161 (n&e! Se#tion 8 (8) (>) the!eo
*+, T.( 6(TITI+, :'ST ;3I4 1'( T+ ,+,-
/+:64I3,/( *IT. T.( 62+/(1'234 2'4(S % -(S
10 It is "e%%Gsett%e& in o(! 8(!is&i#tion that the !i)ht to appea% is a
stat(to!+ !i)ht an& a pa!t+ "ho see,s to a5ai% o the !i)ht $(st
#o$p%+ "ith the !(%es.
<
These !(%es/ pa!ti#(%a!%+ the stat(to!+
!e;(i!e$ent o! pe!e#tin) an appea% "ithin the !e)%e$enta!+ pe!io&
%ai& &o"n *+ %a"/ $(st *e st!i#t%+ o%%o"e& as the+ a!e #onsi&e!e&
in&ispensa*%e inte!&i#tions a)ainst nee&%ess &e%a+s an& o! o!&e!%+
&is#ha!)e o 8(&i#ia% *(siness.
5
Petitione!Cs ai%(!e to seasona*%+ i%e
the Petition an& its ai%(!e to #o$p%+ "ith the ao!e;(ote& Ci!#(%a!s
o the Co(!t ne#essitate the &enia% o the Petition.
11 <esi&es/ e5en i the Petition ha& *een i%e& on ti$e an& ha&
#o$p%ie& "ith the Ci!#(%a!s/ it "o(%& sti%% ha5e to *e &enie& as
petitione! has ai%e& to sho" that !espon&ent appe%%ate #o(!t
#o$$itte& an+ !e5e!si*%e e!!o! in !en&e!in) the assai%e& &e#ision.
*+, T.(
I,;+2:3TI+, 393I,ST
6(TITI+,(2 IS
S';;I/I(,T- -(S
1The Co(!t a)!ees "ith the CA
that the Ino!$ation i%e&
a)ainst petitione! "as
s(i#ient as it #%ea!%+ state&
the &esi)nation o the oense
*+ the stat(te/ i.e. 5io%ation o
the So#ia% Se#(!it+ La"/ an&
the a#ts o! o$issions
#o$p%aine& o as #onstit(tin)
the oense/ i.e./ petitione!Cs
ai%(!e to !e$it his
#ont!i*(tions to the SSS. The
CA o(n& that the!e is prima
facie e5i&en#e to s(ppo!t the
a%%e)ations in the Ino!$ation
an& to "a!!ant the p!ose#(tion
o petitione!.
*+, T.( 0'(STI+,(1
:(:+23,1':
392((:(,T (1+4(-SSS&
IS 534I1- -(S
2Cont!a!+ to the t!ia% #o(!tCs
in&in)/ the De$o!an&($ o
A)!ee$ent "as app!o5e& *+
the So#ia% Se#(!it+
Co$$ission pe! the
Co$$issionCs Reso%(tion No.
@?=/ &ate& 1@ '(%+ 1988.
7pon the othe! han&/ the
De$o!an&($ o A)!ee$ent
is not a !(%e o! !e)(%ation
ena#te& *+ the Co$$ission in
the e-e!#ise o the %atte!Cs
;(asiG%e)is%ati5e a(tho!it+
7n&e! Se#tion @ (a) o R.A.
No.
1161/ as a$en&e&/ "hi#h
!ea&s as o%%o"s2
15 Se#. @. Po&ers and Duties of
the %ommission. U Fo! the
attain$ent o its $ain
o*8e#ti5es as set o!th in
se#tion t"o he!eo/ the
Co$$ission sha%% ha5e the
o%%o"in) po"e!s an& &(ties2
15 To a&opt/ a$en& an& !es#in&/
s(*8e#t to the app!o5a% o the
P!esi&ent/ s(#h !(%es an&
!e)(%ations as $a+ *e
ne#essa!+ to #a!!+ o(t the
p!o5isions an& p(!poses o
this A#t.
13hat the De$o!an&($ o
A)!ee$ent &i& "as to !e#o!&
the (n&e!stan&in) *et"een the
SSS on the one han& an& the
9OLE on the othe! han& that
the %atte! "o(%& in#%(&e
a$on) the p!o5isions o the
Stan&a!& Cont!a#t o
E$p%o+$ent !e;(i!e& in #ase
o o5e!seas e$p%o+$ent/ a
stip(%ation p!o5i&in) o!
#o5e!a)e o the Fi%ipino
seaa!e! *+ the SSS.
2The De$o!an&($ o
A)!ee$ent is not an
i$p%e$entin) !(%e o!
!e)(%ation o the So#ia%
Se#(!it+ Co$$ission "hi#h/
(n&e! Se#tion @ (a)
a*o5e;(ote&/ is s(*8e#t to the
app!o5a% o the P!esi&ent.
In&ee&/ as a $atte! o st!i#t
%a"/ the pa!ti#ipation o the
SSS in the esta*%ish$ent *+
the 9OLE o a (nio!$
stip(%ation in the Stan&a!&
Cont!a#t o E$p%o+$ent o!
Fi%ipino seaa!e!s "as not
ne#essa!+H the De$o!an&($
o A)!ee$ent !e%ate& si$p%+
to the a&$inist!ati5e
#on5enien#e o the t"o (2)
a)en#ies o )o5e!n$ent.
3The Stan&a!& Cont!a#t o
E$p%o+$ent to *e ente!e&
into *et"een o!ei)n
shipo"ne!s an& Fi%ipino
seaa!e!s is the inst!($ent *+
"hi#h the o!$e! e-p!ess thei!
assent to the in#%(sion o the
%atte! in the #o5e!a)e o the
So#ia% Se#(!it+ A#t. In othe!
"o!&s/ the e-tension o the
#o5e!a)e o the So#ia%
Se#(!it+ S+ste$ to Fi%ipino
seaa!e!s a!ises *+ 5i!t(e o
the assent )i5en in the
#ont!a#t o e$p%o+$ent
si)ne& *+ e$p%o+e! an&
seaa!e!H that sa$e #ont!a#t
*in&s petitione! Sta. Rita o! <.
Sta. Rita Co$pan+/ "ho is
so%i&a!i%+ %ia*%e "ith the
o!ei)n
shipo"ne!s:e$p%o+e!s.
4It $a+ *e note& that o!ei)n
shipo"ne!s an& $annin)
a)en#ies ha& )ene!a%%+
e-p!esse& thei! #ono!$it+ to
the in#%(sion o Fi%ipino
seaa!e!s "ithin the #o5e!a)e
o the So#ia% Se#(!it+ A#t
e5en p!io! to the si)nin) o
the 9OLEGSSS De$o!an&($
o A)!ee$ent.
5It is/ ina%%+/ "o!th+ o spe#ia%
note that *+ e-ten&in) the
*eneits o the So#ia% Se#(!it+
A#t to Fi%ipino seaa!e!s on
*oa!& o!ei)n 5esse%s/ the
in&i5i&(a% e$p%o+$ent
a)!ee$ents ente!e& into "ith
the stip(%ation o! s(#h
#o5e!a)e #onte$p%ate& in the 9OLEGSSS
>6
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AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
De$o!an&($ o A)!ee$ent/ $e!e%+ )i5e ee#t to the #onstit(tiona%
$an&ate to the State to ao!& p!ote#tion to %a*o! "hethe! 6%o#a% o!
overseas.6
(/2I:62+& *+, T.( 2(I,ST3T(:(,T +; T.( /2I:I,34
/3S( 393I,ST ST3. 2IT3 /+,STIT'T(S 1+'4(
8(+6321--,+
1The Co(!t o Appea%s p!ope!%+ he%& that the !einstate$ent o the
#!i$ina% #ase a)ainst petitione! &i& not 5io%ate his !i)ht a)ainst
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ sin#e the &is$issa% o the ino!$ation *+ the t!ia%
#o(!t ha& *een ee#te& at his o"n instan#e.
-.
The!e a!e on%+ t"o (2)
instan#es "he!e &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ "i%% atta#h not"ithstan&in) the a#t
that the #ase "as &is$isse& "ith the e-p!ess #onsent o the a##(se&.
The i!st is "he!e the )!o(n& o! &is$issa% is ins(i#ien#+ o
e5i&en#e o! the p!ose#(tionH an& the se#on& is "he!e the #!i$ina%
p!o#ee&in)s ha5e *een (n!easona*%+ p!o%on)e& in 5io%ation o the
a##(se&Cs !i)ht to spee&+ t!ia%.
--
Neithe! sit(ation e-ists in the #ase at
*a!. The!e is no %e)a% i$pe&i$ent to the !einstate$ent o C!i$ina%
Case No. OG92G?>@26 a)ainst petitione! Sta. Rita. (AS IN ITO
LANA ANA 9ISC7SSION A<O7T T0AT/ ARA0.)
>=
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
ANADER SALARAR V. PEOPLE
CALLE'O/ SR./ J.2
1On '(ne 11/ 199=/ an Ino!$ation o! estaa "as i%e& a)ainst he!ein
petitione! Ana$e! 9. Sa%aEa! an& #oGa##(se& Nena 'a(#ian Ti$a!io
"ith the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t o Le)aEpi Cit+.
2petitione! Ana$e! Sa%aEa! p(!#hase& ?.. cavans o !i#e !o$ '.M.
<!othe!s Da!,etin) Co!po!ation/ th!o()h D!. 'e!son Mao. As
pa+$ent o! these cavans o !i#e/ the petitione! )a5e the p!i5ate
#o$p%ainant Che#, No. .6=@81 &!a"n a)ainst the P!(&entia% <an,/
Le)aEpi Cit+ <!an#h/ &ate& O#to*e! 1>/ 1996/ *+ one Nena 'a(#ian
Ti$a!io in the a$o(nt o P21@/....
3'e!son Mao a##epte& the #he#, (pon the petitione!1s ass(!an#e that it
"as a )oo& #he#,. The cavans o !i#e "e!e pi#,e& (p the ne-t &a+
*+ the petitione!. 7pon p!esent$ent/ the #he#, "as &ishono!e&
*e#a(se it "as &!a"n (n&e! a #%ose& a##o(nt
(JA##o(nt C%ose&K).
4The petitione! "as ino!$e& o s(#h &ishono!. She !ep%a#e& the
P!(&entia% <an, #he#, "ith Che#, No. ?6>=.@ &!a"n a)ainst the
So%i& <an,/ Le)aEpi <!an#h/ "hi#h/ ho"e5e!/ "as !et(!ne& "ith the
"o!& J9A79K (9!a"n A)ainst 7n#o%%e#te& 9eposit).
5Ate! the p!ose#(tion !este& its #ase/ the petitione! i%e& a 9e$(!!e!
to E5i&en#e "ith Lea5e o Co(!t a%%e)in) that she #o(%& not *e
)(i%t+ o the #!i$e as #ha!)e&.
6The p!ose#(tion i%e& its #o$$ent:opposition to the petitione!1s
&e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e.
7TC2 !en&e!e& 8(&)$ent a#;(ittin) the petitione! o the #!i$e
#ha!)e& *(t o!&e!in) he! to !e$it to the p!i5ate #o$p%ainant the
a$o(nt o the #he#, as pa+$ent o! he! p(!#hase.
830EREFORE/ p!e$ises #onsi&e!e&/ the a##(se& Ana$e! 9.
Sa%aEa! is he!e*+ ACO7ITTE9 o the #!i$e #ha!)e& *(t is he!e*+
he%& %ia*%e o! the 5a%(e o the ?.. *a)s o !i#e. A##(se& Ana$e! 9.
Sa%aEa! is the!eo!e o!&e!e& to pa+ '.M. <!othe!s Da!,etin)
Co!po!ation the s($ o P21@/....... Costs a)ainst the a##(se&.
9In he! petition at *a!/ the petitione! assai%s the o!&e!s o the t!ia%
#o(!t #%ai$in) that ate! he! &e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e "as )!ante& *+
the t!ia% #o(!t/ she "as &enie& &(e p!o#ess as she "as not )i5en the
oppo!t(nit+ to a&&(#e e5i&en#e to p!o5e that she "as not #i5i%%+
%ia*%e to the p!i5ate !espon&ent. The petitione! in5o,es the
app%i#a*i%it+ o R(%e ?? o the R(%es o Ci5i% P!o#e&(!e in this #ase/
#onten&in) that *eo!e *ein) a&8(&)e& %ia*%e to the p!i5ate oen&e&
pa!t+/ she sho(%& ha5e *een i!st a##o!&e& the p!o#e&(!a% !e%ie
)!ante& in R(%e ??.
ISS'() *+, S343?32 S.+'41 ( 923,T(1 T.(
62+/(1'234 2(4I(; I, 2'4( @@- -(S
10 The !ese!5ation o the !i)ht to instit(te sepa!ate%+ the #i5i%
a#tion sha%% *e $a&e *eo!e the p!ose#(tion sta!ts p!esentin) its
e5i&en#e an& (n&e! #i!#($stan#es ao!&in) the oen&e& pa!t+ a
!easona*%e oppo!t(nit+ to $a,e s(#h !ese!5ation.
11 J (*) The #!i$ina% a#tion o! 5io%ation o <atas Pa$*ansa <%).
22 sha%% *e &ee$e& to in#%(&e the #o!!espon&in) #i5i% a#tion. No
!ese!5ation to i%e s(#h #i5i% a#tion sepa!ate%+ sha%% *e a%%o"e&.K
12 The #!i$ina% a#tion has a &(a% p(!pose/ na$e%+/ the
p(nish$ent o the oen&e! an& in&e$nit+ to the oen&e& pa!t+. The
&o$inant an& p!i$o!&ia% o*8e#ti5e o the #!i$ina% a#tion is the
p(nish$ent o the oen&e!. The #i5i% a#tion is $e!e%+ in#i&enta% to
an& #onse;(ent to the #on5i#tion o the a##(se&. The !eason o! this
is that #!i$ina% a#tions a!e p!i$a!i%+ inten&e& to 5in&i#ate an
o(t!a)e a)ainst the so5e!ei)nt+ o the state an& to i$pose the
app!op!iate pena%t+ o! the 5in&i#ation o the &ist(!*an#e to the
so#ia% o!&e! #a(se& *+ the oen&e!. On the
othe! han&/ the a#tion *et"een
the p!i5ate #o$p%ainant an&
the a##(se& is inten&e& so%e%+
to in&e$ni+ the o!$e!.
17n%ess the oen&e& pa!t+
"ai5es the #i5i% a#tion o!
!ese!5es the !i)ht to instit(te it
sepa!ate%+ o! instit(tes the
#i5i% a#tion p!io! to the
#!i$ina% a#tion/ the!e a!e t"o
a#tions in5o%5e& in a #!i$ina%
#ase. The i!st is the #!i$ina%
a#tion o! the p(nish$ent o
the oen&e!. The pa!ties a!e
the Peop%e o the Phi%ippines
as the p%ainti an& the
a##(se&. In a #!i$ina% a#tion/
the p!i5ate #o$p%ainant is
$e!e%+ a "itness o! the State
on the #!i$ina% aspe#t o the
a#tion. The se#on& is the #i5i%
a#tion a!isin) !o$ the &e%i#t.
The p!i5ate #o$p%ainant is the
p%ainti an& the a##(se& is the
&een&ant. The!e is a $e!)e!
o the t!ia% o the t"o #ases to
a5oi& $(%tip%i#it+ o s(its.
2The ;(ant($ o e5i&en#e on
the #!i$ina% aspe#t o the #ase
is p!oo *e+on& !easona*%e
&o(*t/ "hi%e in the #i5i%
aspe#t o the a#tion/ the
;(ant($ o e5i&en#e is
p!epon&e!an#e o e5i&en#e.
7n&e! Se#tion ?/ R(%e 1 o the
199= R(%es o C!i$ina%
P!o#e&(!e/ the sai& !(%es sha%%
)o5e!n the p!o#e&(!e to *e
o*se!5e& in a#tion/ #i5i% o!
#!i$ina%.
3The p!ose#(tion p!esents its
e5i&en#e not on%+ to p!o5e the
)(i%t o the a##(se& *e+on&
!easona*%e &o(*t *(t a%so to
p!o5e the #i5i% %ia*i%it+ o the
a##(se& to the oen&e& pa!t+.
Ate! the p!ose#(tion has
!este& its #ase/ the a##(se&
sha%% a&&(#e its e5i&en#e not
on%+ on the #!i$ina% *(t a%so
on the #i5i% aspe#t o the #ase.
At the #on#%(sion o the t!ia%/
the #o(!t sho(%& !en&e!
8(&)$ent not on%+ on the
#!i$ina% aspe#t o the #ase *(t
a%so on the #i5i% aspe#t
the!eo.
4In #ase the 8(&)$ent is o
a#;(itta%/ it sha%% state "hethe!
the e5i&en#e o the
p!ose#(tion a*so%(te%+ ai%e&
to p!o5e the )(i%t o the
a##(se& o! $e!e%+ ai%e& to
p!o5e his )(i%t *e+on&
!easona*%e &o(*t. In eithe!
#ase/ the 8(&)$ent sha%%
&ete!$ine i the a#t o!
o$ission !o$ "hi#h the #i5i%
%ia*i%it+ $i)ht a!ise &i& not
e-ist.
5The a#;(itta% o the a##(se&
&oes not p!e5ent a 8(&)$ent
a)ainst hi$ on the #i5i% aspe#t
o the #ase "he!e (a) the
a#;(itta% is *ase& on
!easona*%e &o(*t as on%+
p!epon&e!an#e o e5i&en#e is
!e;(i!e&H (*) "he!e the #o(!t
&e#%a!e& that the %ia*i%it+ o
the a##(se& is on%+ #i5i%H (#)
"he!e the #i5i% %ia*i%it+ o the
a##(se& &oes not a!ise !o$ o!
is not *ase& (pon the #!i$e o
"hi#h the a##(se& "as
a#;(itte&. .
6I the a##(se& is a#;(itte& on
!easona*%e &o(*t *(t the #o(!t
!en&e!s 8(&)$ent on the #i5i%
aspe#t o the #!i$ina% #ase/
the p!ose#(tion #annot appea%
!o$ the 8(&)$ent o a#;(itta%
as it "o(%& p%a#e the a##(se&
in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+. 0o"e5e!/
the a))!ie5e& pa!t+/ the
oen&e& pa!t+ o! the a##(se&
o! *oth $a+ appea% !o$ the
8(&)$ent on the #i5i% aspe#t
o the #ase "ithin the pe!io&
the!eo!.
7Ate! the p!ose#(tion has
!este& its #ase/ the a##(se&
has the option eithe! to (a) i%e
a &e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e "ith
o! "itho(t %ea5e o #o(!t
(n&e! Se#tion 2?/ R(%e 119 o
the Re5ise& R(%es o C!i$ina%
P!o#e&(!e/ o! to (*) a&&(#e
his e5i&en#e (n%ess he "ai5es
the sa$e
8I the #o(!t &enies the
&e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e i%e&
"ith %ea5e o #o(!t/ the
a##(se& $a+ a&&(#e e5i&en#e
in his &eense. 3hen the
&e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e is i%e&
"itho(t %ea5e o #o(!t/ the
a##(se& "ai5es his !i)ht to
p!esent e5i&en#e an& s(*$its
the #ase o! 8(&)$ent on the
*asis o the e5i&en#e o! the
p!ose#(tion.
9I &e$(!!e! is )!ante& an& the
a##(se& is a#;(itte& *+ the
#o(!t/ the a##(se& has the
!i)ht to a&&(#e e5i&en#e on
the #i5i% aspe#t o the #ase
(n%ess the #o(!t a%so &e#%a!es
that the a#t o! o$ission
>8
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AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
!o$ "hi#h the #i5i% %ia*i%it+ $a+ a!ise &i& not e-ist. I the t!ia% #o(!t
iss(es an o!&e! o! !en&e!s 8(&)$ent not on%+ )!antin) the &e$(!!e! to
e5i&en#e o the a##(se& an& a#;(ittin) hi$ *(t a%so on the #i5i%
%ia*i%it+ o the a##(se& to the p!i5ate oen&e& pa!t+/ sai& 8(&)$ent
on the #i5i% aspe#t o the #ase "o(%& *e a n(%%it+ o! the !eason that
the #onstit(tiona% !i)ht o the a##(se& to &(e p!o#ess is the!e*+
5io%ate&
1The p!in#ip%es in& (ni5e!sa% a##eptan#e an& a!e te!se%+ e-p!esse& in
the otG;(ote& state$ent that p!o#e&(!a% &(e p!o#ess #annot possi*%+
*e $et "itho(t a J%a" "hi#h hea!s *eo!e it #on&e$ns/ "hi#h
p!o#ee&s (pon in;(i!+ an& !en&e!s 8(&)$ent on%+ ate! t!ia%.K
2This is so *e#a(se "hen the a##(se& i%es a &e$(!!e! to e5i&en#e/ the
a##(se& has not +et a&&(#e& e5i&en#e *oth on the #!i$ina% an& #i5i%
aspe#ts o the #ase. The on%+ e5i&en#e on !e#o!& is the e5i&en#e o!
the p!ose#(tion.
>9
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE OF T0E P0ILIPPINES/ et al., +.. PANFILO D. LACSON.
DAM 28/ 2..2
1On Da+ 18/ 199>/ then PNP 9i!e#to!GAene!a% Re#a!e&o Sa!$iento
35 anno(n#e&/ in a p!ess #one!en#e/ the ,i%%in) o e%e5en (11)
$e$*e!s o the Furatong Baleleng Aan) (4<A) in a shooto(t "ith
po%i#e e%e$ents nea! the %+Go5e! a%on) Co$$on"ea%th A5en(e/
O(eEon Cit+ at a*o(t @2.. A.D. that &a+.
2On Da+ 22/ 199>/ $o!nin) pape!s #a!!ie& the ne"s that SPO2
E&(a!&o &e%os Re+es ha& #%ai$e& that the ,i%%in) o the e%e5en (11)
)an) $e$*e!s "as a J!(*Go(tK o! s($$a!+ e-e#(tion an& not a
shooto(t.
3On Da+ 26/ 199>/ SPO2 Co!aEon &e%a C!(E/ anothe! CIC
in5esti)ato!/ e-e#(te& an ai&a5it #o!!o*o!atin) the $ate!ia%
a%%e)ations o &e%os Re+es. 9e%a C!(E #%ai$e& that she "as "ith
&e%os Re+es !o$ the ti$e the e%e5en (11) 4<A $e$*e!s "e!e
a!!este& (p to the ti$e the+ "e!e ,i%%e& in Co$$on"ea%th A5en(e.
4On Da+ ?1/ 199>/ A!$an&o Capi%i/ a !epo!te! o Remate1 e-e#(te&
an ai&a5it statin) that he "as p!esent "hen the 4<A $e$*e!s
"e!e a!!este& in S(pe!5i%%e S(*&i5ision.
5On '(ne 1/ 199>/ Chie S(pe!inten&ent 'o* A. Da+o/ PNP 9i!e#to!
o! In5esti)ation/ i%e& $(!&e! #ha!)es "ith the Oi#e o the
O$*(&s$an a)ainst ninet+Gse5en (9=) oi#e!s an& pe!sonne% o
A<RITFA. The ne-tGoG,in o the s%ain 4<A $e$*e!s a%so i%e&
$(!&e! #ha!)es a)ainst the sa$e oi#e!s an& pe!sonne%.
6On No5e$*e! 2/ 199>/ the O$*(&s$an i%e& *eo!e the
,andiganba'an e%e5en (11) Ino!$ations o! D7R9ER/ &o#,ete&
as C!i$ina% Cases Nos. 2?.@= to 2?.>=/ a)ainst !espon&ent Pani%o
D. La#son an& t"ent+Gi5e (2>) othe! a##(se&.
77pon $otion o the !espon&ent/ the #!i$ina% #ases "e!e !e$an&e&
to the O$*(&s$an o! !ein5esti)ation. On Da!#h 1/ 1996/ A$en&e&
Ino!$ations "e!e i%e& a)ainst the sa$e t"ent+Gsi- (26) s(spe#ts
*(t the pa!ti#ipation o !espon&ent La#son "as &o"n)!a&e& !o$
p!in#ipa% to a##esso!+ (TAC4LE9 IN LACSON
22. EZEC. SEC.)
2<eo!e the a##(se& #o(%& *e a!!ai)ne&/ p!ose#(tion "itnesses
E&(a!&o &e %os Re+es/ Co!aEon &e %a C!(E/ A!$an&o Capi%i an&
'ane Ao$eE !e#ante& thei! ai&a5its "hi#h i$p%i#ate& !espon&ent
La#son in the $(!&e! o the 4<A $e$*e!s.
3On the othe! han&/ p!i5ate #o$p%ainants D+!na A*a%o!a/ Leono!a
A$o!a/ Nenita A%apGap/ I$e%&a Donte!o/ Da!)a!ita Re&i%%as/
Ca!$e%ita E%#a$e% an& Ro%an&o Sip%on a%so e-e#(te& thei!
!espe#ti5e ai&a5its o &esistan#e &e#%a!in) that the+ "e!e no %on)e!
inte!este& to p!ose#(te these #ases.
49(e to these &e5e%op$ents/ the t"ent+Gsi- (26) a##(se&/ in#%(&in)
!espon&ent La#son/ i%e& i5e sepa!ate *(t i&enti#a% $otions to (1)
$a,e a 8(&i#ia% &ete!$ination o the e-isten#e o p!o*a*%e #a(se o!
the iss(an#e o "a!!ants o a!!estH (2) ho%& in a*e+an#e the iss(an#e
o the "a!!ants/ an& (?) &is$iss the #ases sho(%& the t!ia% #o(!t in&
%a#, o p!o*a*%e #a(se.
5The !e#o!&s o the #ase *eo!e (s a!e not #%ea! "hethe! the p!i5ate
oen&e& pa!ties "e!e notiie& o the hea!in) on Da!#h 22/ 1999
he%& *+ '(&)e A)ni! to !eso%5e the $otions i%e& *+ !espon&ent
La#son an& the othe! a##(se&.
6On Da!#h 2=/ 2..1/ PNP 9i!e#to! Lean&!o R. Den&oEa in&o!se& to
the 9epa!t$ent o '(sti#e the ne" ai&a5its o P:Insp. Ms$ae%
19. M( an& P:S Insp. A*e%a!&o Ra$os !e)a!&in) the Furatong
Baleleng in#i&ent o! p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation. On the st!en)th o
this in&o!se$ent/ Se#!eta!+ o '(sti#e 0e!nan&o <. Pe!eE o!$e& a
pane% to in5esti)ate the $atte!..
1On Da+ 28/ 2..1/ !espon&ent
La#son/ et a%./ in5o,in)/
a$on) othe!s/ thei!
#onstit(tiona% !i)ht a)ainst
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+/ i%e& a
petition o! p!ohi*ition "ith
app%i#ation o! te$po!a!+
!est!ainin) o!&e! an&:o! "!it
o p!e%i$ina!+ in8(n#tion "ith
the Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t o
Dani%a/ p!i$a!i%+ to en8oin
the State p!ose#(to!s !o$
#on&(#tin) the p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation.
2On '(ne 6/ 2..1/ e%e5en (11)
Ino!$ations o! $(!&e!
in5o%5in) the ,i%%in) o the
sa$e $e$*e!s o the
Furatong Baleleng )an) "e!e
i%e& *eo!e the Re)iona% T!ia%
Co(!t o O(eEon. The ne"
Ino!$ations #ha!)e& as
p!in#ipa%s thi!t+Go(! (?@)
peop%e/ in#%(&in) !espon&ent
La#son an& his t"ent+Gi5e
(2>) othe! #oGa##(se&. The
#!i$ina% #ases "e!e assi)ne&
to '(&)e Da. The!esa L.
Ma&ao.
3The Co(!t o Appea%s iss(e& a
te$po!a!+ !est!ainin) o!&e!
en8oinin) '(&)e Ma&ao !o$
iss(in) a "a!!ant o a!!est o!
#on&(#tin) an+ p!o#ee&in) o!
hea!in) in C!i$ina% Cases
Nos. .1G1.11.2 to .1G1.1112.
4On A()(st 2@/ 2..1/ the
Co(!t o Appea%s (Spe#ia%
Thi!& 9i5ision)/ !en&e!e& the
no" assai%e& 9e#ision. It
#ha!a#te!iEe& the te!$ination
o C!i$ina% Cases Nos. OG99G
816=9 to OG99G
81689 as Jp!o5isiona%
&is$issa%/K an& #onsi&e!e&
C!i$ina% Cases
Nos. .1G1.11.2 to .1G1.1112
as $e!e !e5i5a%s o the sa$e.
App%+in) Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11=
o the 2... Re5ise& R(%es o
C!i$ina% P!o#e&(!e/ it
&is$isse& the #!i$ina% #ases
a)ainst the !espon&ent
ISS'() whether Section A,
2ule BBC bars the filing of
the ele"en (BB& informations
against the respondent
4acson in"ol"ing the killing
of some members of the
Duratong aleleng gang-,+
(3T 4(3ST ,+T -(T&
5Li,e an+ othe! a5o!a*%e
p!o#e&(!a% !(%e/ this ne" !(%e
#an *e )i5en !et!oa#ti5e
ee#t. 0o"e5e!/ this Co(!t
#annot !(%e on this 8()(%a!
iss(e &(e to the %a#, o
s(i#ient a#t(a% *ases. Th(s/
the!e is nee& o p!oo o the
o%%o"in) a#ts/ vi6* (1)
"hethe! the p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #ases ha& the
e-p!ess #onsent o the
a##(se&H (2) "hethe! it "as
o!&e!e& *+ the #o(!t ate!
noti#e to the oen&e& pa!t+/
(?) "hethe! the 2G+ea! pe!io&
to !e5i5e has a%!ea&+ %apse&/
an& (@) "hethe! the!e is an+
8(stii#ation o! the i%in) o
the #ases *e+on& the 2G+ea!
pe!io&.
6The!e is no (n#e!taint+ "ith
!espe#t to the a#t that the
p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o the
#ases a)ainst !espon&ent
La#son *ea!s his e-p!ess
#onsent. It "as !espon&ent
La#son hi$se% "ho $o5e& to
&is$iss the s(*8e#t #ases o!
%a#, o p!o*a*%e #a(se *eo!e
then '(&)e A)ni!/ hen#e/ it is
*e+on& a!)($ent that thei!
&is$issa% *ea!s his e-p!ess
#onsent.
7The !e#o!&s o the #ase/
ho"e5e!/ &o not !e5ea% "ith
e;(a% #%a!it+ an&
#on#%(si5eness "hethe!
noti#es to the oen&e& pa!ties
"e!e )i5en *eo!e the #ases
a)ainst the !espon&ent La#son
"e!e &is$isse& *+ then '(&)e
A)ni!.
8The iss(e o "hethe! o! not
the !ein5esti)ation is *a!!e&
*+ Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11= "as
not ta#,%e& *+ the %iti)ants at
the RTC %e5e%.
9No! "as the a#t o noti#e to
the oen&e& pa!ties the
s(*8e#t o p!oo ate! the
e%e5en (11) ino!$ations o!
$(!&e! a)ainst !espon&ent
La#son an& #o$pan+ "e!e
!e5i5e& in the RTC o O(eEon
Cit+ p!esi&e& *+ '(&)e Ma&ao.
The!e "as ha!&%+ an+
p!o#ee&in) #on&(#te& in the
#ase o! !espon&ent La#son
i$$e&iate%+ i%e& a petition
o! #e!tio!a!i in the appe%%ate
#o(!t #ha%%en)in)/ a$on)
othe!s/ the a(tho!it+ o '(&)e
Ma&ao to
6.
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
ente!tain the !e5i5e& ino!$ations o! $(%tip%e $(!&e! a)ainst hi$.
1This is not to *e "on&e!e& at. The app%i#a*i%it+ o Se#tion 8/ R(%e
11= "as ne5e! #onsi&e!e& in the t!ia% #o(!t. It "as in the Co(!t o
Appea%s "he!e !espon&ent La#son !aise& o! the i!st ti$e the
a!)($ent that Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11= *a!s the !e5i5a% o the $(%tip%e
$(!&e! #ases a)ainst hi$.
2In&ee&/ the !e#o!&s o this #ase a!e in#on#%(si5e on the a#t(a% iss(e
o "hethe! the $(%tip%e $(!&e! #ases a)ainst !espon&ent La#son a!e
*ein) !e5i5e& "ithin o! *e+on& the 2G+ea! *a!. The !e#,onin) &ate o
the 2G+ea! *a! has to *e i!st &ete!$ine& G G G
"hethe! it is !o$ the &ate o the O!&e! o then '(&)e A)ni!
&is$issin) the #ases o! !o$ the &ates the O!&e! "e!e !e#ei5e& *+ the
5a!io(s oen&e& pa!ties o! !o$ the &ate o the ee#ti5it+ o the ne"
!(%e.
3I the #ases "e!e !e5i5e& on%+ ate! the 2G+ea! *a!/ the State $(st *e
)i5en the oppo!t(nit+ to 8(sti+ its ai%(!e to #o$p%+ "ith sai&
ti$e%ine. The ne" !(%e i-es a ti$e%ine to pena%iEe the State o! its
ine-#(sa*%e &e%a+ in p!ose#(tin) #ases a%!ea&+ i%e& in #o(!ts. It #an
the!eo!e p!esent #o$pe%%in) !easons to 8(sti+ the !e5i5a% o #ases
*e+on& the 2G+ea! *a!.
4In %i)ht o the %a#, o o! the #on%i#tin) e5i&en#e on the 5a!io(s
!e;(i!e$ents to &ete!$ine the app%i#a*i%it+ o Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11=/
this Co(!t is not in a position to !(%e "hethe! o! not the !eGi%in) o
the #ases o! $(%tip%e $(!&e! a)ainst !espon&ent La#son sho(%& *e
en8oine&. F(n&a$enta% ai!ness !e;(i!es that *oth the p!ose#(tion an&
the !espon&ent La#son sho(%& *e ao!&e& the oppo!t(nit+ to *e hea!&
an& to a&&(#e e5i&en#e on the p!esen#e o! a*sen#e o the p!e&i#ate
a#ts (pon "hi#h the app%i#ation o the ne" !(%e &epen&s.
5>0*PO*0$0?2@ #ase at *a! is !e$an&e& to the RTC G O(eEon Cit+/
<!an#h 81 so that the State p!ose#(to!s an& the !espon&ent La#son
#an a&&(#e e5i&en#e an& *e hea!& on "hethe! the !e;(i!e$ents o
Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11= ha5e *een #o$p%ie& "ith on the *asis o the
e5i&en#e o "hi#h the t!ia% #o(!t sho(%& $a,e a !(%in) on "hethe! the
Ino!$ations in C!i$ina% Cases Nos. .1G1.11.2 to .1G1.1112 sho(%&
*e &is$isse& o! not. Pen&in) the !(%in)/ the t!ia% #o(!t is !est!aine&
!o$ iss(in) an+ "a!!ant o a!!est a)ainst the !espon&ent
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
61
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE V LACSON
APRIL 1/ 2..?
1<eo!e the Co(!t is the petitione!s1 Dotion o! Re#onsi&e!ation o
the Reso%(tion &ate& Da+ 28/ 2..2
ISS'() *+, S(/TI+, A, 2'4( BBC +; T.( 2(5IS(1
2'4(S +; /2I:I,34 62+/(1'2( IS 3664I/34( T+
/2I:I,34 /3S(S ,+S. 0-EE-ABFCE T+ 0-EE-ABFAE- ,+
20a5in) in5o,e& Se#tion 8/ R(%e 11= o the Re5ise& R(%es o
C!i$ina% P!o#e&(!e *eo!e the petitione!sGpane% o p!ose#(to!s an&
*eo!e the Co(!t o Appea%s/ the !espon&ent is *(!&ene& to esta*%ish
the essentia% !e;(isites o the i!st pa!a)!aph the!eo/ na$e%+2
1. the p!ose#(tion "ith the e-p!ess #ono!$it+ o the a##(se& o!
the a##(se& $o5es o! a p!o5isiona% (sin per<uicio) &is$issa% o the
#aseH o! *oth the p!ose#(tion an& the a##(se& $o5e o! a p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #aseH
2. the oen&e& pa!t+ is notiie& o the $otion o! a p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #aseH
3. the #o(!t iss(es an o!&e! )!antin) the $otion an& &is$issin)
the #ase p!o5isiona%%+H
3@. the p(*%i# p!ose#(to! is se!5e& "ith a #op+ o the o!&e! o
p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o the #ase. The o!e)oin) !e;(i!e$ents a!e
#on&itions sine $ua non to the app%i#ation o the ti$eG*a! in the
se#on& pa!a)!aph o the ne" !(%e.
4The raison dG etre o! the !e;(i!e$ent o the e-p!ess #onsent o the
a##(se& to a p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o a #!i$ina% #ase is to *a! hi$
!o$ s(*se;(ent%+ asse!tin) that the !e5i5a% o the #!i$ina% #ase "i%%
p%a#e hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ o! the sa$e oense o! o! an oense
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& the!ein.
5A%tho()h the se#on& pa!a)!aph o the ne" !(%e states that the o!&e!
o &is$issa% sha%% *e#o$e pe!$anent one +ea! ate! the iss(an#e
the!eo "itho(t the #ase ha5in) *een !e5i5e&/ the p!o5ision sho(%&
*e #onst!(e& to $ean that the o!&e! o &is$issa% sha%% *e#o$e
pe!$anent one +ea! ate! se!5i#e o the o!&e! o &is$issa% on the
p(*%i# p!ose#(to! "ho has #ont!o% o the p!ose#(tion "itho(t the
#!i$ina% #ase ha5in) *een !e5i5e&. The p(*%i# p!ose#(to! #annot *e
e-pe#te& to #o$p%+ "ith the ti$e%ine (n%ess he is se!5e& "ith a #op+
o the o!&e! o &is$issa%.
6E-p!ess #onsent to a p!o5isiona% &is$issa% is )i5en eithe! viva voce
o! in "!itin). It is a positi5e/ &i!e#t/ (ne;(i5o#a% #onsent !e;(i!in)
no ine!en#e o! i$p%i#ation to s(pp%+ its $eanin). 3he!e the
a##(se& "!ites on the $otion o a p!ose#(to! o! a p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #ase )o ob<ection o! ?ith m' conformit'/ the
"!itin) a$o(nts to e-p!ess #onsent o the a##(se& to a p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #ase. $he mere inaction or silence of the accused
to a motion for a provisional dismissal of the case or his failure
to ob(ect to a provisional dismissal does not amount to e3press
consent.
7A $otion o the a##(se& o! a p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o a #ase is an
e-p!ess #onsent to s(#h p!o5isiona% &is$issa%. I a #!i$ina% #ase is
p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse& "ith the e-p!ess #onsent o the a##(se&/ the
#ase $a+ *e !e5i5e& on%+ "ithin the pe!io&s p!o5i&e& in the ne"
!(%e. On the othe! han&/ i a #!i$ina% #ase is p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse&
"itho(t the e-p!ess #onsent o the a##(se& o! o5e! his o*8e#tion/ the
ne" !(%e "o(%& not app%+. The #ase $a+ *e !e5i5e& o! !ei%e& e5en
*e+on& the p!es#!i*e& pe!io&s s(*8e#t to the !i)ht o the a##(se& to
oppose the sa$e on the )!o(n& o &o(*%e 8eopa!&+ o! that s(#h
!e5i5a% o! !ei%in) is *a!!e& *+ the stat(te o %i$itations.
8The #ase $a+ *e !e5i5e& *+ the State "ithin the ti$eG*a! eithe! *+
the !ei%in) o the Ino!$ation o! *+ the i%in) o a ne"
Ino!$ation o! the sa$e
oense o! an oense
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& the!ein.
The!e "o(%& *e no nee& o a
ne" p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation.
0o"e5e!/ in a #ase "he!ein
ate! the p!o5isiona% &is$issa%
o a #!i$ina% #ase/ the o!i)ina%
"itnesses o the p!ose#(tion
o! so$e o the$ $a+ ha5e
!e#ante& thei! testi$onies o!
$a+ ha5e &ie& o! $a+ no
%on)e! *e a5ai%a*%e an& ne"
"itnesses o! the State ha5e
e$e!)e&/ a ne" p!e%i$ina!+
in5esti)ation $(st *e
#on&(#te& *eo!e an
Ino!$ation is !ei%e& o! a ne"
Ino!$ation is i%e&. A ne"
p!e%i$ina!+ in5esti)ation is
a%so !e;(i!e& i asi&e !o$ the
o!i)ina% a##(se&/ othe!
pe!sons a!e #ha!)e& (n&e! a
ne" #!i$ina% #o$p%aint o!
the sa$e oense o!
ne#essa!i%+ in#%(&e& the!einH
o! i (n&e! a ne" #!i$ina%
#o$p%aint/ the o!i)ina% #ha!)e
has *een (p)!a&e&H o! i (n&e!
a ne" #!i$ina% #o$p%aint/ the
#!i$ina% %ia*i%it+ o the
a##(se& is (p)!a&e& !o$ that
as an a##esso!+ to that as a
p!in#ipa%. The a##(se& $(st
*e a##o!&e& the !i)ht to
s(*$it #o(nte!G ai&a5its an&
e5i&en#e. Ate! a%%/ Jthe is#a%
is not #a%%e& *+ the R(%es o
Co(!t to "ait in a$*(shH the
!o%e o a is#a% is not $ain%+ to
p!ose#(te *(t essentia%%+ to &o
8(sti#e to e5e!+ $an an& to
assist the #o(!t in &ispensin)
that 8(sti#e.K
1In this #ase/ the !espon&ent
has ai%e& to p!o5e that the
i!st an& se#on& !e;(isites o
the i!st pa!a)!aph o the ne"
!(%e "e!e p!esent "hen '(&)e
A)ni!/ '!. &is$isse& C!i$ina%
Cases Nos. OG99G816=9 to OG
99G81689. I!!e!a)a*%+/ the
p!ose#(tion &i& not i%e an+
$otion o! the p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the sai& #!i$ina%
#ases. Fo! his pa!t/ the
!espon&ent $e!e%+ i%e& a
$otion o! 8(&i#ia%
&ete!$ination o p!o*a*%e
#a(se an& o! e-a$ination o
p!ose#(tion "itnesses.
2The !espon&ent &i& not p!a+
o! the &is$issa%/ p!o5isiona%
o! othe!"ise/ o C!i$ina%
Cases Nos. OG99G816=9 to OG
99G81689. Neithe! &i& he e5e!
a)!ee/ i$p%ie&%+ o! e-p!ess%+/
to a $e!e p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #ases.
3The !espon&ent1s a&$issions
$a&e in the #o(!se o the
p!o#ee&in)s in the Co(!t o
Appea%s a!e *in&in) an&
#on#%(si5e on hi$. The
!espon&ent is *a!!e& !o$
!ep(&iatin) his a&$issions
a*sent e5i&en#e o pa%pa*%e
$ista,e in $a,in) s(#h
a&$issions.
4To app%+ the ne" !(%e in
C!i$ina% Cases Nos. OG99G
816=9 to OG99G81689 "o(%&
*e to a&& to o! $a,e
e-#eptions !o$ the ne" !(%e
"hi#h a!e not e-p!ess%+ o!
i$p%ie&%+ in#%(&e& the!ein.
This the Co(!t #annot an&
sho(%& not &o.
5The Co(!t a%so a)!ees "ith the
petitione!s1 #ontention that no
noti#e o an+ $otion o! the
p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o
C!i$ina% Cases Nos. OG99G
816=9 to OG99G81689 o! o
the hea!in) the!eon "as
se!5e& on the hei!s o the
5i#ti$s at %east th!ee &a+s
*eo!e sai& hea!in) as
$an&ate& *+ R(%e 1>/ Se#tion
@ o the R(%es o Co(!t. It
$(st *e *o!ne in $in& that in
#!i$es in5o%5in) p!i5ate
inte!ests/ the ne" !(%e !e;(i!es
that the oen&e& pa!t+ o!
pa!ties o! the hei!s o the
5i#ti$s $(st *e )i5en
a&e;(ate a priori noti#e o
an+ $otion o! the p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o the #!i$ina% #ase.
S(#h noti#e $a+ *e se!5e& on
the oen&e& pa!t+ o! the hei!s
o the 5i#ti$ th!o()h the
p!i5ate p!ose#(to!/ i the!e is
one/ o! th!o()h the p(*%i#
p!ose#(to! "ho in t(!n $(st
!e%a+ the noti#e to the
oen&e& pa!t+ o! the hei!s o
the 5i#ti$ to ena*%e the$ to
#one! "ith hi$ *eo!e the
hea!in) o! appea! in #o(!t
&(!in) the hea!in). The p!oo
o s(#h se!5i#e $(st *e sho"n
&(!in) the hea!in) on the
$otion/ othe!"ise/ the
!e;(i!e$ent o the ne" !(%e
"i%% *e#o$e i%%(so!+
62
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
1Sin#e the #on&itions sine $ua non o! the app%i#ation o the ne" !(%e
"e!e not p!esent "hen '(&)e A)ni!/ '!. iss(e& his !eso%(tion/ the State
is not *a!!e& *+ the ti$e %i$it set o!th in the se#on& pa!a)!aph o
Se#tion 8 o R(%e 11= o the Re5ise& R(%es o C!i$ina% P!o#e&(!e.
The State #an th(s !e5i5e o! !ei%e C!i$ina% Cases Nos. OG99G816=9
to OG99G81689 o! i%e ne" Ino!$ations o! $(%tip%e $(!&e! a)ainst
the !espon&ent.
*+, T.( TI:(-32 I, S(/TI+, A, 2'4( BBC +; T.(
2(5IS(1 2'4(S +; /2I:I,34 62+/(1'2( S.+'41 (
3664I(1 2(T2+3/TI5(4-- ,+
2The ne" !(%e is not a stat(te o %i$itations. Stat(tes o %i$itations a!e
#onst!(e& as a#ts o )!a#e/ an& a s(!!en&e! *+ the so5e!ei)n o its
!i)ht to p!ose#(te o! o its !i)ht to p!ose#(te at its &is#!etion
3On the othe! han&/ the ti$eG*a! (n&e! Se#tion 8 o R(%e 11= is a,in to
a spe#ia% p!o#e&(!a% %i$itation ;(a%i+in) the !i)ht o the State to
p!ose#(te $a,in) the ti$eG*a! an essen#e o the )i5en !i)ht o! as an
inhe!ent pa!t the!eo/ so that the %apse o the ti$eG*a! ope!ates to
e-tin)(ish the !i)ht o the State to p!ose#(te the a##(se&.
4The ti$eG*a! (n&e! the ne" !(%e &oes not !e&(#e the pe!io&s (n&e!
A!ti#%e 9. o the Re5ise& Pena% Co&e/ a s(*stanti5e %a". It is *(t a
%i$itation o the !i)ht o the State to !e5i5e a #!i$ina% #ase a)ainst the
a##(se& ate! the Ino!$ation ha& *een i%e& *(t s(*se;(ent%+
p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse& "ith the e-p!ess #onsent o the a##(se&.
7pon the %apse o the ti$e%ine (n&e! the ne" !(%e/ the State is
p!es($e&/ a%*eit &isp(ta*%+/ to ha5e a*an&one& o! "ai5e& its !i)ht to
!e5i5e the #ase an& p!ose#(te the a##(se&.
5The Co(!t a)!ees "ith the !espon&ent that p!o#e&(!a% %a"s $a+ *e
app%ie& !et!oa#ti5e%+. In Tan1 7r. v. %ourt of #ppeals 1 this Co(!t he%&
that2KStat(tes !e)(%atin) the p!o#e&(!e o the #o(!ts "i%% *e #onst!(e&
as app%i#a*%e to a#tions pen&in) an& (n&ete!$ine& at the ti$e o thei!
passa)e. P!o#e&(!a% %a"s a!e !et!oa#ti5e in that sense an& to that
e-tent. The a#t that p!o#e&(!a% stat(tes $a+ so$eho" ae#t the
%iti)ants1 !i)hts $a+ not p!e#%(&e thei! !et!oa#ti5e app%i#ation to
pen&in) a#tions. The !et!oa#ti5e app%i#ation o p!o#e&(!a% %a"s is not
5io%ati5e o an+ !i)ht o a pe!son "ho $a+ ee% that he is a&5e!se%+
ae#te&. No! is the !et!oa#ti5e app%i#ation o p!o#e&(!a% stat(tes
#onstit(tiona%%+ o*8e#tiona*%e. The !eason is that as a )ene!a% !(%e no
5este& !i)ht $a+ atta#h to/ no! a!ise !o$/ p!o#e&(!a% %a"s. It has
*een he%& that Ja pe!son has no 5este& !i)ht in an+ pa!ti#(%a! !e$e&+/
an& a %iti)ant #annot insist on the app%i#ation to the t!ia% o his #ase/
"hethe! #i5i% o! #!i$ina%/ o an+ othe! than the e-istin) !(%es o
p!o#e&(!e.K
6>0*PO*0$0?22 D.R. ARANTE9H RTC 9IRECTE9 TO
FORT03IT0 PROCEE9 3IT0 T0E CRIDINAL CASES
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien
6?
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
PEOPLE V. LACSON
OCTO<ER =/ 2..?
1<eo!e the Co(!t a!e the o%%o"in) $otions o the !espon&ent/ to
"it2 (a) O$ni*(s DotionH (*) Dotion o! Re#onsi&e!ationH (#)
S(pp%e$ent to Dotion o! Re#onsi&e!ationH (&) Dotion To Set o!
O!a% A!)($ents
2RESPON9ENT asse!ts that p(!s(ant to a %on) %ine o 8(!isp!(&en#e
an& a %on)Gstan&in) 8(&i#ia% p!a#ti#e in app%+in) pena% %a"/ Se#tion
8/ R(%e 11= o the RRCP sho(%& *e app%ie& p!ospe#ti5e%+ an&
!et!oa#ti5e%+ "itho(t !ese!5ations/ on%+ an& so%e%+ on the *asis o its
*ein) a5o!a*%e to the a##(se&. 0e asse!ts that #ase %a" on the
!et!oa#ti5e app%i#ation o pena% %a"s sho(%& %i,e"ise app%+ to
#!i$ina% p!o#e&(!e/ it *ein) a *!an#h o #!i$ina% %a".
3The !espon&ent insists that Se#tion 8 "as p(!pose%+ #!ate& an&
in#%(&e& as a ne" p!o5ision to !eino!#e the #onstit(tiona% !i)ht o
the a##(se& to a spee&+ &isposition o his #ase. A##o!&in)%+/
p!ospe#ti5e app%i#ation the!eo "o(%& in ee#t )i5e the petitione!s
$o!e than t"o +ea!s !o$ Da!#h 29/ 1999 "ithin "hi#h to !e5i5e
the #!i$ina% #ases/ th(s 5io%atin) the !espon&ent1s !i)ht to &(e
p!o#ess an& e;(a% p!ote#tion o the %a".
ISS'() 3664I/3TI+, +; T.( TI:(-32 2'4(-
62+S6(/TI5( +2 2(T2+3/TI5(<- +,4- 62+S6(/TI5(.
2332.
4The ti$eG*a! (n&e! the ne" !(%e "as i-e& *+ the Co(!t to e-#ise
the $a%aise that p%a)(e& the a&$inist!ation o the #!i$ina% 8(sti#e
s+ste$ o! the *eneit o the State an& the a##(se&H not o! the
a##(se& on%+.
5The Co(!t e$phasiEe& in its assai%e& !eso%(tion that2 In the ne" !(%e
in ;(estion/ it has i-e& a ti$eG*a! o one +ea! o! t"o +ea!s o! the
!e5i5a% o #!i$ina% #ases p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse& "ith the e-p!ess
#onsent o the a##(se& an& "ith a p!io!i noti#e to the oen&e& pa!t+.
In i-in) the ti$eG*a!/ the Co(!t *a%an#e& the so#ieta% inte!ests an&
those o the a##(se& o! the o!&e!%+ an& spee&+ &isposition o
#!i$ina% #ases "ith $ini$($ p!e8(&i#e to the State an& the a##(se&.
It too, into a##o(nt the s(*stantia% !i)hts o *oth the State an& o the
a##(se& to &(e p!o#ess. The Co(!t *e%ie5e& that the ti$e %i$it is a
!easona*%e pe!io& o! the State to !e5i5e p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse&
#ases "ith the #onsent o the a##(se& an& noti#e to the oen&e&
pa!ties.
6The Co(!t app!o5e& Se#tion 8 p(!s(ant to its po"e! (n&e! A!ti#%e
VIII/ Se#tion >/ pa!a)!aph > o the Constit(tion. This #onstit(tiona%
)!ant to p!o$(%)ate !(%es #a!!ies "ith it the po"e!/ inte! a%ia/ to
&ete!$ine "hethe! to )i5e the sai& !(%es p!ospe#ti5e o! !et!oa#ti5e
ee#t. Do!eo5e!/ (n&e! R(%e 1@@ o the R(%es o Co(!t/ the Co(!t
$a+ not app%+ the !(%es to a#tions pen&in) *eo!e it i in its opinion
thei! app%i#ation "o(%& not *e easi*%e o! "o(%& "o!, in8(sti#e/ in
"hi#h e5ent/ the o!$e! p!o#e&(!e sha%% app%+.
7The a*sen#e o a p!o5ision in Se#tion 8 )i5in) it p!ospe#ti5e
app%i#ation on%+ &oes not p!os#!i*e the p!ospe#ti5e app%i#ation
the!eoH no! &oes it i$p%+ that the Co(!t inten&e& the ne" !(%e to *e
)i5en !et!oa#ti5e an& p!ospe#ti5e ee#t. I the stat(to!+ p(!pose is
#%ea!/ the p!o5isions o the %a" sho(%& *e #onst!(e& as is #on&(#i5e
to ai!ness an& 8(sti#e/ an& in ha!$on+ "ith the )ene!a% spi!it an&
po%i#+ o the !(%e. It sho(%& *e #onst!(e& so as
not to &eeat *(t to #a!!+ o(t
s(#h en& o! p(!pose. A stat(te
&e!i5es its 5ita%it+ !o$ the
p(!pose o! "hi#h it is
app!o5e&. To #onst!(e it in a
$anne! that &is!e)a!&s o!
&eeats s(#h p(!pose is to
n(%%i+ o! &est!o+ the %a". In
Co$eta 5. Co(!t o Appea%s /
this Co(!t !(%e& that 6the spi!it
!athe! than the %ette! o the
stat(te &ete!$ines its
#onst!(#tionH hen#e/ a stat(te
$(st *e !ea& a##o!&in) to its
spi!it o! intent.6 3hi%e "e
$a+ not !ea& into the %a" a
p(!pose that is not the!e/ "e
ne5e!the%ess ha5e the !i)ht to
!ea& o(t o it the !eason o! its
ena#t$ent. In &oin) so/ "e
&ee! not to the 6%ette! that
,i%%eth6 *(t to the 6spi!it that
5i5iieth/ to )i5e ee#t to the
%a"$a,e!1s "i%%.6
1The Co(!t a)!ees "ith the
petitione!s that to app%+ the
ti$eG*a! !et!oa#ti5e%+ so that
the t"oG+ea! pe!io&
#o$$en#e& to !(n on Da!#h
?1/ 1999 "hen the p(*%i#
p!ose#(to! !e#ei5e& his #op+
o the !eso%(tion o '(&)e
A)ni!/ '!. &is$issin) the
#!i$ina% #ases is in#onsistent
"ith the inten&$ent o the
ne" !(%e. Instea& o )i5in) the
State t"o +ea!s to !e5i5e
p!o5isiona%%+ &is$isse& #ases/
the State ha& #onsi&e!a*%+
%ess than t"o +ea!s to &o so.
2In this #ase/ "hen the Co(!t
app!o5e& Se#tion 8/ it
inten&e& the ne" !(%e to *e
app%ie& p!ospe#ti5e%+ an& not
!et!oa#ti5e%+/ o! i the
intention o the Co(!t "e!e
othe!"ise/ it "o(%& &eeat the
5e!+ p(!pose o! "hi#h it "as
inten&e&/ na$e%+/ to )i5e the
State a pe!io& o t"o +ea!s
!o$ noti#e o the p!o5isiona%
&is$issa% o #!i$ina% #ases
"ith the e-p!ess #onsent o
the a##(se&. It "o(%& *e a
&enia% o the State1s !i)ht to
&(e p!o#ess an& a t!a5est+ o
8(sti#e o! the Co(!t to app%+
the ne" !(%e !et!oa#ti5e%+ in
the p!esent #ase as the
!espon&ent insists/
#onsi&e!in) that the #!i$ina%
#ases "e!e p!o5isiona%%+
&is$isse& *+ '(&)e A)ni!/ '!.
on Da!#h 29/ 1999 *eo!e the
ne" !(%e too, ee#t on
9e#e$*e! 1/ 2.... A
!et!oa#ti5e app%i#ation o the
ti$eG*a! "i%% !es(%t in a*s(!&/
(n8(st an& opp!essi5e
#onse;(en#es to the State an&
to the 5i#ti$s o #!i$es an&
thei! hei!s.
3>0*PO*0$0?2@ !espon&ent
Pani%o D. La#son1s O$ni*(s
Dotion an& Dotion to Set o!
O!a% A!)($ents a!e 9ENIE9.
The !espon&ent1s Dotion o!
Re#onsi&e!ation an& its
S(pp%e$ent a!e
9ENIE9 3IT0 FINALITM.
The E-e#(ti5e '(&)e o the
Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t o
O(eEon Cit+ is he!e*+
9IRECTE9 to
CONSOLI9ATE C!i$ina%
Cases Nos. .1G1.11.2 to .1G
1.1112 an& to REGRAFFLE
the sa$e "ith &ispat#h to one
o the *!an#hes o the
Re)iona% T!ia% Co(!t o
O(eEon Cit+ &esi)nate& as a
spe#ia% #o(!t/ e-#%(si5e%+ to
t!+ an& &e#i&e heino(s #!i$es.
6@
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |Martin | Vien
CON9RA9A V. PEOPLE
CALLE'O/ SR./ '.2
1Petitione! "as #ha!)e& "ith !ape. 3hen he "as a!!ai)ne& on
Fe*!(a!+ 26/ 1999/ petitione! p%ea&e& not )(i%t+ to the #ha!)e
a)ainst hi$.
2On Da!#h ?1/ 1999/ the &ate set *+ the t!ia% #o(!t o! the initia%
hea!in)/ the p!ose#(tion $o5e& that the sa$e *e postpone& &(e to
the a*sen#e o the #o$p%ainant an& he! "itnesses. The hea!in) "as
!eset on Ap!i% 29/ 1999.
3On Ap!i% 29/ 1999/ the p!ose#(tion a)ain $o5e& to postpone the
hea!in) &(e to the a*sen#e o the #o$p%ainant an& he! "itnesses.
4Petitione! o*8e#te& to the $otion on the )!o(n& that his !i)ht to
spee&+ t!ia% "as *ein) 5io%ate& *+ s(#h postpone$ents. The t!ia%
#o(!t )!ante& the p!ose#(tion1s $otion an& !eset the hea!in) on
Da+ ?1/ 1999. It a%so &i!e#te& that the s(*poenae to the #o$p%ainant
an& he! "itnesses *e #o(!se& th!o()h the Nationa% <(!ea( o
In5esti)ation "hi#h han&%e& the in5esti)ation o the #ase.
59(!in) the hea!in) on Da+ ?1/ 1999/ the p!ose#(tion !e;(este& o!
anothe! postpone$ent. Petitione! $o5e& o! at %east a te$po!a!+
&is$issa% o the #ase. The p!ose#(tion $anieste& that it "o(%& not
o*8e#t to a te$po!a!+ &is$issa%. Th(s/ on the sa$e &ate/ the t!ia%
#o(!t iss(e& an o!&e! te$po!a!i%+ &is$issin) the #ase.
6On '(ne 22/ 1999/ the p!ose#(tion i%e& a Dotion o! Reinstate$ent
an&:o! Re5i5a% o C!i$ina% Case No. 1.==.. Appen&e& to sai&
$otion "as the ai&a5it o p!i5ate #o$p%ainant that the s(*poenae
sent to he! o! the t!ia% o the #ase &i& not !ea#h he! *e#a(se in the
$eanti$e she ha& t!anse!!e& he! !esi&en#e.
7The t!ia% #o(!t set the hea!in) on the $otion o! !einstate$ent on
'(ne 2>/ 1999.
8Petitione! oppose& the $otion #onten&in) that the !e5i5a% o!
!einstate$ent o the #ase "i%% p%a#e hi$ in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+. On
Septe$*e! 29/ 1999/ the Co(!t iss(e& a !eso%(tion !einstatin) the
sai& #ase an& !eite!atin) the iss(an#e o a "a!!ant o a!!est o!
petitione!.
9Petitione! i%e& a $otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation o sai& !eso%(tion
insistin) that the !einstate$ent o the #ase "i%% p%a#e hi$ in &o(*%e
8eopa!&+.
10 On 'an(a!+ 1@/ 2.../ the #o(!t iss(e& a !eso%(tion &en+in) the
$otion o! !e#onsi&e!ation o petitione!. Conse;(ent%+/ C!i$ina%
Case No. 1.==. is sti%% pen&in) *eo!e the t!ia% #o(!t.
11 A))!ie5e&/ petitione! i%e& the instant petition on Fe*!(a!+ 1/
2.... 0e #%ai$s that C!i$ina% Case No. 1.==. #annot *e !e5i5e&
*e#a(se the &is$issa% o the #ase on Da+ ?1/ 1999 is pe!$anent in
#ha!a#te!/ ha5in) *een $a&e in #onsi&e!ation o his !i)ht to spee&+
t!ia%.
12 The So%i#ito! Aene!a%/ on the othe! han&/ #onten&s that the #ase
"as &is$isse& not *e#a(se petitione!1s !i)ht to spee&+ t!ia% has *een
5io%ate& *+ the postpone$ents o the t!ia% on se5e!a% instan#es/ *(t
*e#a(se petitione! th!o()h #o(nse% $o5e& that the #ase *e &is$isse&
at %east e5en te$po!a!i%+ to "hi#h the p(*%i# p!ose#(to! inte!pose&
no o*8e#tion. The So%i#ito! Aene!a% points o(t that the p!ose#(tion
$o5e& o! the postpone$ent o the t!ia% se5e!a% ti$es in )oo& aith
an& o! 5a%i& !easons. 0e %i,e"ise a!)(es that the !e5i5a% o the #ase
&oes not p%a#e the petitione! t"i#e in 8eopa!&+ o! the sa$e oense
*e#a(se the &is$issa% o the #ase on Da+ ?1/ 1999 "as $a&e at
petitione!1s instan#e.
ISS'(S)
3.*hether or not the
dismissal of /riminal /ase
,o. BGCCG by the trial court
in its +rder of 8une HI, BEEE
is permanent in character so
as to operate as an ac!uittal
of the petitioner for the crime
charged- ,+
.*hether or not the
reinstatement of /riminal
/ase ,o. BGCCG places the
petitioner in double
jeopardy.- ,+
1A pe!$anent &is$issa% o a
#!i$ina% #ase $a+ !ee! to the
te!$ination o the #ase on the
$e!its/ !es(%tin) in eithe! the
#on5i#tion o! a#;(itta% o the
a##(se&H to the &is$issa% o
the #ase &(e to the
p!ose#(tion1s ai%(!e to
p!ose#(teH o! to the &is$issa%
the!eo on the )!o(n& o
(n!easona*%e &e%a+ in the
p!o#ee&in)s/ in 5io%ation o
the a##(se&1s !i)ht to spee&+
&isposition o! t!ia% o the #ase
a)ainst hi$. In #ont!ast/ a
p!o5isiona% &is$issa% o a
#!i$ina% #ase is a &is$issa%
"itho(t p!e8(&i#e to the
!einstate$ent the!eo *eo!e
the o!&e! o &is$issa%
*e#o$es ina% o! to the
s(*se;(ent i%in) o a ne"
ino!$ation o! the oense
"ithin the pe!io&s a%%o"e&
(n&e! the Re5ise& Pena% Co&e
o! the Re5ise& R(%es o Co(!t.
2In the p!esent #ase/ it is #%ea!
!o$ the !e#o!&s that the
&is$issa% o!&e!e& *+ the t!ia%
#o(!t on Da+ ?1/ 1999 "as a
te$po!a!+ &is$issa% o the
#ase/ an& not a pe!$anent
&is$issa% on the )!o(n& that
the !i)ht o the a##(se& to
spee&+ t!ia% ha& *een 5io%ate&
*+ the &e%a+ in the
p!ose#(tion o the sai& #ase.
The t!ia% #o(!t appa!ent%+
&enie& petitione!1s $otion to
ha5e C!i$ina%
Case No. 1.==. &is$isse& on
the )!o(n& o his !i)ht to
spee&+ t!ia% "hen &espite sai&
$otion $a&e in open #o(!t on
Ap!i% 29/ 1999/ it o!&e!e& the
!esettin) o the hea!in) o the
#ase on Da+ ?1/ 1999. In
s(*se;(ent%+ )!antin)
petitione!1s !e;(est o! the
&is$issa% o C!i$ina% Case
No. 1.==. on Da+ ?1/ 1999/
the t!ia% #o(!t e-p!ess%+ state&
that the sa$e "as s(*8e#t to
!einstate$ent "ithin thi!t+
&a+s !o$ the &ate o the
te$po!a!+ &is$issa%.
3The!eo!e/ it #annot *e
)ainsai& that the &is$issa% o
C!i$ina% Case No. 1.==. on
Da+ ?1/ 1999 "as p!o5isiona%
o! te$po!a!+/ "itho(t
p!e8(&i#e to the !e5i5a%
the!eo "ithin thi!t+ &a+s
!o$ the &ate o &is$issa%.
Th(s/ the Co(!t in&s that the
!einstate$ent the!eo on '(ne
2>/ 1999 &i& not p%a#e
petitione! in &o(*%e 8eopa!&+.
4The p!os#!iption a)ainst
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ p!es(pposes
that an a##(se& has *een
p!e5io(s%+ #ha!)e& "ith an
oense/ an& the #ase a)ainst
hi$ is te!$inate& eithe! *+ his
a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion/ o!
&is$isse& in an+ othe! $anne!
"itho(t his #onsent. As a
)ene!a% !(%e/ the o%%o"in)
!e;(isites $(st *e p!esent o!
&o(*%e 8eopa!&+ to atta#h2 (1)
a 5a%i& in&i#t$ent/
(2) *eo!e a #o(!t o
#o$petent 8(!is&i#tion/ (?) the
a!!ai)n$ent o the a##(se&/
(@) a 5a%i& p%ea ente!e& *+
hi$/ an&
(5)the a#;(itta% o! #on5i#tion
o the a##(se&/ o! the
&is$issa% o! te!$ination o the
#ase a)ainst hi$ "itho(t his
e-p!ess #onsent. 0o"e5e!/
the!e a!e t"o e-#eptions to the
o!e)oin) !(%e/ an& &o(*%e
8eopa!&+ $a+ atta#h e5en i
the &is$issa% o the #ase "as
"ith the #onsent o the
a##(se&2 i!st/ "hen the!e is
ins(i#ien#+ o e5i&en#e to
s(ppo!t the #ha!)e a)ainst
hi$H an& se#on&/ "he!e the!e
has *een an (n!easona*%e
&e%a+ in the p!o#ee&in)s/ in
5io%ation o the a##(se&1s
!i)ht to spee&+ t!ia%.
2Petitione! is not in &an)e! o
*ein) t"i#e p(t in 8eopa!&+
"ith the !einstate$ent o
C!i$ina% Case No. 1.==.
*e#a(se as ea!%ie! state&/ sai&
#ase "as p!o5isiona%%+
&is$isse& *+ the t!ia% #o(!t
(pon his $otion. Th(s/ the
!e;(i!e$ent that the &is$issa%
o the #ase $(st *e "itho(t
the #onsent o the a##(se& is
not p!esent in
6>
CrimPro (Bail, Motion to Quash)
this #ase. Neithe! &oes the #ase a%% (n&e! an+ o the ao!e#ite&
e-#eptions. The p!ose#(tion ha& not +et p!esente& e5i&en#e at the
ti$e the #ase "as &is$isse& on Da+ ?1/ 1999. Do!eo5e!/ as
p!e5io(s%+ e-p%aine&/ sai& &is$issa% "as te$po!a!+ in nat(!e/ as the
#ase "as s(*8e#t to !einstate$ent "ithin thi!t+ &a+s !o$ the &ate o
&is$issa%
AJ | Amin | Cha | Janz | Julio |
Martin | Vien