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A ctual
A F U N A N O I N F ORM A T I V E W A Y T O I M PROV E Y OU R E N GL l SH!
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Contents
38I Business: Multitasking workers
Lacest technology allows peopIe ro accomplish more in less time.
28 I City guide: J erusalem
Every square inch of the stony ground iscovcrcd in blood and history, hopes
and prayers. perdition and redempcion. For each traveler and every residem,
chehstory isdifrecent, chemap h diffecem, d:e cruth is dHTerent.
441Storytelling: Pygmalion
The andem Greeks tdl chelegend of the sculpcor Pygmalion.
who crQced ascatueof awoman (J ~such beauty mat he fcll
in lavewich his own creadon. Cemuries lacer, Gwrge Bernard
Shaw captured chemagic of chislegend in his ceJ ebracedpla)'.
AsV3.'it tracts of rain forest are c1eared, Brazil has become tite world's fourth-
largest producer of [he greenhouse gases thar causeglobal warming. aftee the
United Sutes. China and Indone;ia, according to the mast recent data &om
the U.S.ba.sedWorld Rc:sources Institute.
12 I The AIOSuaccine
Each day, 13,000 people worldwide contraer che virus rhar causes AJ OS, rhe
United Nacions estimares. But [wo decades afier [he disease was fiese
identified, scienrists are srill srruggling [Q find a vaccine rhar could help
comain its spread.
22 I The Amazon
18 I Fashion: Co um dr m
The mase rnearrica1 evening looks by [he grealesr designers
32 Ilnfo: Dakar Rally
Plus...
34 I Music Reuiew
36 I Packing
40 I English Tips &Tricks
48 I Triuia: MATRIX
2I Ilnfo: Champagne
2 I CO-ROM contents
26 I BIO: Mickey Mouse
Surveying his company's success, ~'alt
Oisney nOled, "Ir was a1l started by a
Mouse",
3 I Wonderful World
Exciting news fromaround (he
world.
10 I Gadgets
Technology fan? If [he answer is yes~
you should check our monthly
selection of cool gizmos.
2 Actual En lish ISSUE 07

CD-ROM Con ten ts


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lko, l'lettmO;!'lO. ;x. lOI OCopiao (l. a~"", ttro, sin" ~t'. m1S Oprel;o ~pof emitC oe l:">!a US . :I l"d,Tol'laJ . (el ;001 Me. (Ialchy _ lrll:unl" mlOfrrallln !>er',:es
1lI f A !OS I o<J CCI r'(' la ej . 8~er'lOS A lfes Daiaga, 1 C < e , v. 1, ~8 P ; 10'. 18 an. I A rnJ alEnglish) I I S fN 978- - 981. 1410- 2<:- 61', EiJ (WOI l, (DO3il
NelllS ' , , .' ~UPPER I NTERMEDI ATE/ADVANCED
onder uf W ' a
A heart in aj ar
RESEARCHERS AT THE UNlVERSI TY OF MI NNESOTA
HAVE GROWN A BEATI NG HEART I N AJ AR.
3
They used detergents to strip a rat heart 01 its own celis, lea-
ving behind a white, three-dimensional scaffolding2 01 con-
nective tissue. They then inlused it with living cardiac cells
Irom newborn rats, which multiplied and greVl into a luliy
lunelional heart, a lirst in the lield 01tissue engineering.
"We've ligured out hoVl to use nature's own matrix: cham-
bers, valves, blood vessels," said Dr. Doris Taylor, the lead
researcher and director 01 the university's Center lor
Cardiovascular Repair. She said that the technique holds pro-
mise lor grolVing human tissue to repair not only hearts, but
many other parts 01 the body. It might be possible, she said,
to grow whole organs lor patients who need a transplant.
Other tissue engineering scientists around the country said
there are enormous obstades to u,;ng the technique lor
people, but described the work as exciting and a landmark
l
.
"11'sgutsy4. I am very impressed 'Mth her going right lor the
University 01Minnesota researcher DorisTaylor
talks about using decellularized swine' hearts inher
experiments to grow anew heart,
meat
S
01 it ... and shovving remarkable results," said Dr.
Buddy Ratner, a University 01 Washington bio-engineer,
Growing human tissue outside the body has been a medical
Holy Grail lor decades, Progress accelerated in recent years
with the use 01 stem celis, special celis in embryos and
adults that can be manipLiated to grow into many kinds 01
tissue. The Nationai Institute 01 Health has provided millions
01 doliars lar tissue engineering, but so lar researchers have
had success with only a lew types 01 human tissue -primariiy
bladders6, skin, and blooc vessels.
I fos'Phin, Marr:ol1J
1 swlne: (formal or North American) ;1 pig I 2 scaffolding: .supporting mmework I3 landmarlc: an evem, idea, or in:m thar represents a
significant or historie deveJ opmenr I4 gutsy: showing courage, boldnC5S, and determinanon I5 meat: important. valuable or inte:ttSting ideas or
informadoR or the essence or important pm of som~hing 16 bladder(s): an organ or ather body part fer storing aliquid or gas. espedally the sac
mar stores urine (urinary bladder) al me su: tliar stofCl bile (gallbladdcr)
4
NeliJS ( ~ . IlflPER IfJ 1 !lrJ l~lJ l/,1 :r\l)j/.rJ( )
Can an 'eco-city' clear
the air in China?
TO THE RESIDENTS OF CHIl'A'S MOST CRO'W'DED ANO POPULOUS CITY. THE AIR ON
NEARBY CHONGMING ISLAND HAS AN UNFNvllLIAR QUALITY: IT'S FRESH.
AbOut an hour's lerry ride 110mthe edge 01the city,
the island's lanns and lishing villages are a world
apart lrom the pollution that pervades2 modern lile
in China, and increasingly spills out3 beyond it.
A steady breeze rustles4 through lushs green ma"h
grass, the only sound besides lhe chirping6 01migra-
ting birds at the mouth 01the Yangtze River. Fields 01
watennelon and cabbage stretch lor miles.
"11'sthe last piece 01undev=loped land in Shanghai, "
said Yan Yang, who grew uo in this city before go;ng
to work ler Seattle architecture firm Callison. "It's a
treasure." Shanghai developers plan to build what
Rush hour' traffic heads west,
fading into the smog at dusk
on the North Third Ring Road
in Beijing, China.
they say will be lhe world's first sustainable "eco-
city" on a plot7 three-Ioueths lhe size 01Manhattan.
Called Dongtan, or East Beach,the project attempts
to channel China's voracious demand lor housing
and energy into a radical1evv model: a city lhat
eventually supports hall a million residents, recycies
almost all 01its waste, produces its electricity lrom
wind turbines, solar panels and bioluel, and lemes8
people around in hydrogfll luekell buses and solar-
powered water taxis.
I Krist Hrim .
1 rush hour: a p~riod ofh~vy traffic:n me moming and evening during which people are rravding ro ani from work 12 pervade(s): [O spm.d
mrough ocbe present throughout something 13 spJII(s) out: lO Row oc &11OUt of acontainer 14 rustle(s): ro movewith aswishing or 50ft crack1ing
sound I5 lush: growing vigorousIy espedally with luxuriam foliageI6 chirplng: asharp sound made by small birds oc inStS I7 plot: a picee of
J and mar has becn rnarked or m~ured for aparticular purpose I8 ferry(ies): [O U2nSport p:usengers or goods back 2nd forth by any vehide
Gua
EXP~L ENGUAS@
y CULTURAS
Articles of interest Bookstores C:orporate Tourism
Cultural Tourism Dubbing Embassies & Consulates
Ethnic Restaurants Interpreters language Institutes
Language Tourism Modern Language Departments
Neutral Spanish Professional Associations Proofreading
Publishing Companies Radio and TV Announcers Simultaneous
Interpretation Equipment Social TourismSpanishfor Foreigners
SpecializedBooks & Publications Subtitling Training Translators
Trends in the industry University Dorms
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6
Deal i ng wi t h
a dat i ng SMOKER
>Understand that it's an addiction, a disease. It's out of the person's control, like diabetes or cancel.
>Have sorne compassion and seek serenity and detachment from the addiction.
> The smoker in the relationship should be respedful and polite, Le. go outside, brush thE ir teeth,
use breath mints, etc.
>C ouples should not try to force their ideas on each other.
> The nonsmoker has to consider whether he or she can handle it if the addid
gets sick or gets cancer. Y ou have to ask yourself: Are you willing to see
them through that
4
)
Source: Dr, lois Nightingale, psychologist and director of the Nightingale
(linic in Yorba linda.
I Ko.thain< Nguyen
1 come up with: to produce or discO\'tr something .. in response to a need or ehaHenge 12boost to improve. st~ngthen. or encourage somebody
or sorncthing I 3 endorse: [O appmve er suppon (an idea) openly I 4 see (t hem) t hrough (t hat ): to provide somebody with hdp. 2dvke.
and 5uppon, espedally in times of troublt
S M A L L B U S IN E S S ?
E X P A N D !
8
F a i t h
h ea li ng
IN STEEPLY PITCHEO CHAPELS', PLAlN
HOTELS ANO LIVING ROOMS, THE
SICK ARE CALLING ON GOO TO HEAL
THEIR PAlN. ANO IN MANY CASES,
THEY SAY,GOO IS ANSWERlNG.
Marianela fajardo said her daughter, stricken with cystic
fibrosis, is breathing easier.Aeagamol 'E ck"
P oonpipatana e1aimshis lame
1
arm is more limberl. And
C 1ifford Vaughn swears he's cured of ireurable AIOS .
In an era when people invest billions oi dollars searching
lar the next medical breakthrough
4
, m)fe people are
turning to faith. While pecple have alv.ays prayed for
good health, experts say t1e number IIho believe in divi-
'ne healing is increasing, partiy due to the inftuence 01
charismatic churches, one 01 the lastesl-growing seg-
ments 01 C hristianity,
This cornes despite a major study published last year that found some people who
were prayed for didn't recover any bener than those who weren'!.
Nationwide, 29 percent of Americans say they have actually witnessed .divine
healing," says a 2006 survey by the P ew forum on R eligion & P ublic life, It's a
leaps from anoher poll6 that found only 10 percent of Americans believed in
divine healing three de<ades ago.
Vaughn is still partially blind and deaf, and his Irequent smiles reveal a row of
missing teeth. But he is con,inced that t~e Al OS has vanished. P eople might queso
tion his sanity, but he says the Bible is lull 01 people whose laith was stronger
than detractors who questi01ed them . C ra"! for the lord," he said. "It's era"!
faith," I Kim \lo
How t o k eep left ouers
7
s af e:
Prop er s t orage of lef t overs and ot her p revious ly cook ed f oods 15imp erat ive
f or f ood s af et y. As s hown here, various lef t overs can be p laced in p las t ic
freezer ba gs or ot h er (ont a i ners.
>R efrigerate foods q4ickly because cold
temperatures keep most harmful bacteria
Irom growing and multiplying. R efrigerate or
freeze perishables., prepared lood and
leftovers within two hours. foods left out
longer should be discarded.
>S et the refrigerator at 34to 40 degrees and
the freezer unit at O f and occasionally check
these temperatures with a thermometer.
>Never defrost (or marinate') foad on Ihe
kitchen counter. Use the refrigerator, cold
runnirrg wat er or t he microwave,
>Divide large amounts of leftovers into small,
shallow containers lar quick cooling in the
ref rif erat or.
>With poultry'O and other stuffed meats",
remove the stuffing and refrigerate it in
a s ep arat e cont ainer.
>Hot foods may be put directly ;nto the
refri,erator or freezer, but don't overload.
>Use rlfrlgerated leftovers within three lo lour
day>. freeze quantities that can't be used
by then, I Bob Guinn
1 st eeply pi t ch eCl ch a pels: ch a pds wi t h ; l. sh a rp.a nglC'droo I 2 la me: movi ng wi t h pa i n or di ffkult y on a ccount of i njury. defect o or
t empora ry obst rucdon of a funct i on I 3 Ii mber: a ble 10 bend a nd movc ('a si ly :a .nd gra ccfuJly J 4 break t hrough: a n i mport a nt new di scovery.
espeda lly i n sci ena . medi ci ne. or Icch nology. t h .n h a s a dra ma li c a nd fa r.rea ch i ng effect I 5 lea p: a sui den a brupt ch a nge or i ncre:uC' 1 6 poli : a
quest i oni ng of!h e popula ri on or of a reF resenuri ve sa mple 10 ra lly opi ni ons or ga rh er orh er i nforma non 17 left over(s): somerh i ng. especi a Jly food.
; ema i ni ng a n:er t h e rest h a s been used 18 peri sh a bles: foods rh a r wi IJ deca y ra pi dly i f not refri get a red 19 ma rlna t e: soa k food i n a ma ri na de (a
:ni xt ut e. usua Jly rort ra i ni ng oi l. wi ne or vi nega r. a nd h erbs a nd spi ces. wh i ch you pour over fuh or mea r befa re i t i s cooked. i n order ro a dd fla vour t o
i r or ma ke i r t ender) 110 poult ry: flesh of ch i ckens or t urkeys or ducks or gee~rai~dfor food 111 st uffed mea t (s): mea r fi lled wi t h a mi xt ure
of food. suro a s brea d, oni ons a nd h erbl before bei ng cooked
,,i UPPER-I NTERMEDI A TE/A DV A NCED
9
The first automobile
Leonardo
da Vlnel
(1452-1519)
Englneer.
selentlst,
arehlteet;
also an
artlst,
palnted
" Mona Usa"
and "The
Last
Sup er"
r4i'~
~~~
Elght-tooth ~
steertnggear Four-tooth
Sharpturn steerlnggear _
Gentleturn
G raph l c : 8 el i nd l l L ong , Sun. Sent l nl l l
S oU rc ll: C B toI a an d Part nel l , I n stltule an d MUSl l um of ttle Hl l It l rj 0 1 S d en c tl
( A orenc e, l t at ) , Muaeum o t Sc l t l nc l I ( B ost onl , B B C , R eut l If 1
Cart onlywenl
short dlslances,
m ay h aya been
wheeI 'lnlended lor
r am usem ent at
c ourt f east a
.f\.....
" J O ."
.~
QJ
e 2004K R T
, I
l.
"
,',
!TA LlA N SCI ENTI STS HA V E BUI LT A WO RKI NG MO DEL O F A SPRI NG-
PO WERED V EHI CLE THA T LEO NA RDO DA V I NCI CO NCEI V ED 500 YEA RS
BEFO RE THE FI RST A UTO MO BI LE.
I .t} I
I
f
4 Steerlng gear moves arm
that turns rear wheel
4 ft.
(1.2 m) long
mode/based
on sketch /n 1478
notebook
3Sleerlng dlrectlon I s
preset before cart starts
movlng by I nstalling a
removable gear wlth
petal-shaped leeth
How It w ork s
Seholarseould not makea
working model until reeently,
when they finally understood
the eart's motor and steerlng
1C olledsprlngs arewound tlght whlle brake
holds cart I nplace
2 As sprtngs unwlnd, Q' ,~,. ,
drlvlng gears y ,,~~ , w -. _~
t um c art ' s 1 I ~ S ,'-' f 1 : : '
tron! wheels -- - ,,- o ,I
10
Gadgets: Three
worth watching
HOW DOES A HIGH-DEFINITION VIDEO
DISPLAY MAKER STAND OUT IN THE
CROWDED FIELD OF 300 CURRENT MODELS?
\VE SAMPLED THE !J \TEST CROP' ANO BRlNG
YOU THREE OF THE BEST.
II,( ' / l Z ! , ! " 1) / ' / - 1 j IJ I )
flat-panel set makers are sharpeni ng {oeus on the 32-i neh eategory, a
sereen si ze that li lls the bi l' lor the second room. The Phi li ps
32PfL73320 li gh15 up a small spaee i n a speci al way, wi th pi dures that
l o o m
10
l a r g e r t h a n t h e s c r : ! e n .
Wi th onli ne pri ci ng 01 1900 10 SI, 100, thi s set costs at least 1100 more
tran other li rsl.ti e,.brandll 32-i nehers, bUI i t seems well worth i t.
--
-. . .-. . . . .
J he J lm' nlllflf{}lI ir
Oh, how people eomplai n about hi gh-deli ni ti on vi deo
proj edorsl The produdS are expensi ve and demand a
totally dark room to pertorm well. And LCO.based
models s'J ffer Irom vi si ble lag" and blurri ng
7
when
di splayi ng fast-movi ng sports and vi deo game aai on.
Clear~, these eomplalners haven't met the new
Panasoni e PT-AX 200U, maybe the best Ii nle 720p LCO
proj eetor that's ever landed on these shores.
The new PT-AX 200U earri es a SI ,299 mi ni mum
adverti sed "Ice, slashedB lrom theSI,999 tag lor Its
less leature-ri eh(l) predeeessor, A good deal!
' ..
/W /lt'lJ ) J '/11J ll (' {./, Ir I
One 01the ori gi nators 01flat-panel plasma Ns. Pi oneer has lost
eustomers to both larger. hi gh-volume compani es and low-overhead
2
neweomer brands wi th less-expensi ve sets. Rather than cut eornersl.
Pi oneer has gone to the othe' extreme. redesi gni ng and bui ldi ng the
best produd i t can to lure4 dseerni ng eustomers wi lli ng to paya
p r e m i u m . T h e r e s u l t 7 T h e n e w P i o n e e r K u r o U n e o f p l a s m a s c r e e n s
avai able i n 50- and 60-i neh sereen si zes wi th 720p ard 1080p versi ons,
all top rated by every revi ew,," who's lai d eyes and hands on one,
Theli st pri ee i s a steep' S5.000, but I found the Pi oneer POp-5010fO
onli ne at manuladurer'authori zed (thus "arranty-seeu'ed) Beaeh
Camera lor S3,500.
-------------------
LEVELS.ADVANCED I PROFICIENCY 11
B i g s e r e e n , b i g s o u n d
Today's "home Ihealer" is afusion of two leehnofogies - alarge, olten
high-definition video sereen and amufti-speaker sUffound sound system
Power
surge
protector
Subwooler
Liquid erystal display
C2007 Mel
Receiverf
amplilier
(central
eleetronie
eomponent)
D e p l o y i n g t h e e l e m e n t s '
Distanee from TV lOviewer should be
about three times 11ewidth 01Ihe
sereen, for example 15 fl. (4.5 m)
. lar a 60 in. (152 eff) screen
Digitallight
p r o c e s s i n g ; al s o
called rear projeelion
V i d e o s c r e e n t y p e s
Typieal sizes (measured diagonally)
8righlness,
color quality,
weight and
cosl vary
widely
S p e ak e r ar r an g e m e n t s '
5 s p e ak e r s
plus subwoofer
Standard home
Ihealer syslem
e
(1))))jlg 7 s p e ak e r s ~\O
1
,=',,,,'_ m. ~~I
Hiii: (;~~:r~~w @((r
~ Irequeney) ( "
o~Wm < m i O
8 \\~~\O
~ 6 s p e ak e r s ~ ~
t:ll)})))~ sut~~~ler @((l
l~ (/ 1.
w' m (ff@(o
S c i e n c e Mat t e r s
1 t h e (Iat e s t ) c r o p : che oUlpm of something i n a seuoo; 3. ba:h or 1m of somcrhing produced durit1g a particular c y e l eI 2 l o w-
overhead: low-eost (of a bminC'ssrun wirhlow costs) 13 cut corners: to do somcthing [he chcapcsf or e a< > i e S I way 14 lure: 10 persuade
somcbody to do something b y offering wrr,(,lhing tempting I 5 s t e e p : (i n fo r m al ) unreasonably or exccssi\'ely high, e~peciallrin roSI I 6
lag: ddays. rhe act of slowing clown 17 blurring: loss uf dear vision 18 slashed: (of rar~or priccs) rcJuccd sharpl)' 19 fill(s) the
b i l l : to be exacdy what is nceded, ro be suitable 110 10 0 m : t appear as a large or indisrinct (ami sometirr.es mcnacing) shape ur ob;ccr 1
11 first-tier~brand:of a brand that is legarded a~ a UHlass brand due to me quality of its pruducu
- ,
The AIDS vaccine, OVL'" "V I
5 sickle-cell anemia: chronic htrcdirary form of anemia [har occurs ma.inly in peoplc of African deseent. lt is causcd by 2gene inht'rircd from
bOlh pa~nB I6 screen(lng): lOreorsomcbody or somcthing for an illness ar dis~ I7 mandatory: required by )awor mandare; compulsary.
obligarory I 8 dlscourage(s): (O rry lO srop someone from doing somcthing I 9 level(ed) off: to reach a level and becomc scable and
unchanging I 10 uproar: a hcard ar ntense controvcrsy I 11 by-product: a sccondary and somc=ornes unexpected ::onscquence I 12
blueprint: a plan of aetion al aguidc ro doing sorncrhing
I S
AdullS and children eslimaled to be living wilh HIV/AIDS by year's end 2007:
I r'
EastAsa
South, 8 ,0;000
SutheliSt
A si a',
4.0 mil.'
Eastern Europe,
Central ASia
1.6 mil.
Sub.Saharan
Africa .
22.5mi.
Down Irom estimale published in 2006 of 39.5 milliQ"l due in larga
parl lo changas in lhe way lndia's H1Vrates are assessed
A I D S e p i d e m i c
C2007 MCT
Source: UNAIDS
Overall
Living wilh
HIVlAIOS'
33.2 mi Ilion
New
inleotions
during 2007
2.5 million
Oied during
2007
2.1 mi Ilion
The data produced Irom such stud"s and other
research inlormation will be put on 3 public Web
site lar use by all Al OS researchers ,nd members
01 the .virtual consortium." Scientists will use
the data to try to come up with 13new ideas lor
a vaccine, with the aim 01getting vaccine candi-
dates in human testing by 2009.
trials -about 30- locus on achieving a particular kind 01 immune res-
ponse to the virus in the bloodstream The lirst results lrom those stu-
dies should be released in 2008. The new research eftort, however,
will also locus on some neglected'5 areas 01study, including the pos-
sibility that a nasal-spray vacelne could stimulate the body's mucus
Iinings
'6
-including in the genitals- to neutralize HIV belore it enters
the bloodstream and causes inlection.
SUME P R UB LEMS WITH THE VACCINE
With one 01 the largest AIOS epidemics in the
world, South Alrica is already involved in creating
and testing potential AIOS vaccines, but its vacci-
ne candidates show promise only in Iimiting the
level 01virus in the bloodstream 1401those who
become inlected, rather than curing their inlec-
tion altogether.
The problem is that most vaccines help a newly
inlected person clear the virus or bacteria lrom
the blood, ensuring the disease never develops.
With HIV, however, there is no known case 01an
inlected person ever clearing the virus Irom his
body, which means an effective va':cine would
have to prevent inlection in the lirst place to be
eftective.
Nearly all the HIV vaccines currently in human
Charline Noel J ocelyn (center) i5a 16-year-old HIV positive
teenager living at the Ilainbow House orphanage lor children
affected by AIOS in P ort-au-P rince, Hait.
VOCA BUlA RY " ..~.~", I c e ": .'... :"'.~... ;:".':"',: " .. ,.- . ",".,;:"''''7: PO: ,
. --------- --._---".._-----_.-------- . . .~~
13 come up wi th: ro produc e or di sc o'-c r some thi ng, i n re sponse to a n~d oc e halle ngc : 1'4bloodstream: the flowof blood drc ul~ti llg
through the blood ,.e ssds of a pe rson or ani mal 115 ne gle c te d: di sre garde d or not re c e i vi ng e nough atte nri on 116 muc us I i ni ng(s): a laye r
of muc us c ove ri ng me i nsi de the organs of u,e body
.
Read the following paragraphs from the artic1eand
that best explains the
16
..The AIDS i/acCi~eC6i tE -RStb~y>;:,~,i {~~:(L ~ L S;'I ~T ~~;;~~;~;~;~p~"f~.I .~~'~':~ri l '~-E
.; . . '. ~. , . ;~. . . .".~
lL~'[[;]]M O V I E S;;
, ~~~. ~ ~
111recenl y(>af~the filrnrnilking induwy . . "
~d~ ff'flf'(tt'{j lhi~i !l cwe. Thefollowing I ~ el
(,st 0 1 ti moV \t'S I hat have tWal t wl th th
t1i seaSC!i n thl 'i , \(reel1pld~: . , ;~
. ".
t
meaning of the text:
1>~.l ore than 70 AJ DS vacci nes have reachcd human tri al s. But onl y one
has made i r 10 adyanced tcSti l l g, and i t has shown l i ttl e si go of bei ng
cffecti vc.
a) O ol y one AJ DS vacci ne has beco tested i n humam.
b) O f I he 70 AJ O S V <l cci nes (bl reached human [ri al s, onl y one has reachcd
advanceJ tcsl i ng.
e) So faro 70 AJ DS vacci nes have been tcsted 00 humans, wi th no posi ti vc
resul ts.
2) Wi th HI V , however. mere i s no known case of an i nfected persao ever
cl eari ng the vi rus from hi s body, whi ch means an effecti ve vacci ne woul d
have to prevent i nfecti on jn the fi rst pl ace to be efT ecti ve.
a) I n l he case of HI V , a vacci ne wi l l be effeai vc onl r i f i l manages to cl ear
l he vi rus from l he body.
b) No ane has cver cured of AI O S, or al l easl , l here i s no known case.
e) An efT eedveAJ DS vaeci nes woul d have l O prevem i nfecl i on. because
cl eari ng l he vi rus from the bO J )' seems co be i mpossi bl e.
3) T hc ne\\' researc:h effort, however, wi l l al so focus on sorne negl eeted areas
of study. i ncl udi ng the possi bi l i ty that a nasal .spray vacci ne (uul d sdmul ate
the body's mucus l i ni ngs -i ncl udi ng i n (he geni tal s. to neutral i z.e HI V
before i t entees the bl oodstream and causes mfceti an.
a) T he new researeh wi l l try tD neutral i ze HI V befare i r enters che
bl oodstream.
b) T he ne'>vrescareh wi l l foeus on che possi bi l i cy of t1ndi ng a vaeci ne char
eoul d sti mul atc chebody to fi ghr off the di sease.
e) T he ncw research wi l l focus on che possi bi l i cy of fi ndi ng a vaeci ne char
eoul d sti mul ace [he body's mucus l i ni ngs to neutral i ze HI V .
4}Soum Afri can sci enti sts say that cven a l esser vacci ne [har keeps me l e, .. ei
of the ,i rus l ow i n peopI e who become i nfected woul d be a hel p. Al though
i t woul d not neeessari l y save thei e l i ves. i t (oul d hel p l ower the l i kel i hood
mey pass the di sease to omers, sl owi ng me rapi d transmi ssi on.
a) Accordi ng to South Afri can sci enti sts, a vacei nc chackeeps [he l evel of the
vi rus l ow woul d be useful to s10wcl own l ransmi ssi on.
b) 50mh Afri Cdnsci cnti sl s bdi eve that a vacci ne char kceps the l eve! of [he
vi rus l ow woul d 5.1\'C rhe l i ves of i nfected pati ents.
e}50mh Afri can sci cnti scs sa? t,haci nfeered peopl e wi l l l i kel y pass chedi sease
to ochers i f chey don't know they are i nfecl ed.
(~:":(' :( :(' :l i{q:1
:A3}I I UM SNY
0,' I ~E CO AUDI O ART l CL E&M O RE E X E RCI SE S
: Phi l adel phi a
: Angel s i n Ameri ta
: An ear1v frost _
:: T he l i vi ng end t: ~.
:: And l he bond pl ayed on
>l' "
:: Boys on l he si de "~<\.
::Gi a
:: Common threads, sl ori es fron
l l he qul l l .,
:: l o'ngti me compani on ",
. , .
:: Safe
:: T o"g5 uni ted
:: O ur sons
A HE W HU P E
The idea lar that theory comes from a
group 01 prostitutes in A lriea who:
despite regularly having unproteeted
sexwith HIV-positive men, have never
become positive lor the virus themsel-
ves. Seientists, ineluding' Hay, es,
believe something in their mueus
linings may neutralize the virus, keep
it lrom entering the bloodstream or
allow them to light ofl" inleetion.
Researehers warn that linding sueh a
vaeeine will take time, even with a
eooperative eflOrl.
"The vaeeine will not be a 'E ureka!"8
moment. It will be a very slow pro-
eess. Williamson said.
SJ uth A lr;ean scientists say that even
a lesser vaeeine that keeps the level 01
the virus low in people who beeome
inleeted would be a help. A lthough it
would not necessarily save their lives,
it could help lower the Iikelihood they
pass the disease to others, slowing the
rapid transmission. A E
17flght off: ro dri v(' away or resi st an
2uacker 118 E urekaf: (excl amadon) a cry of
jO )' or sati sfacti on when ooe l l nds or di sco\'C'rs
somC'thi ng
Carolina He"era blue silk aepe strapless cocktail
dress, $2,990, retaillocations at
www.carolinahe era.com. Stella McCartney fuchsia
silk pumps, $S95, Neiman Marcus.
LEVELS: INTERMEDIATE I UPPER INTERMEDIATE
r .
A1.xander McQueen silk
taffeta strapless balloon
gown, $4,465,
www.alexandennequeen.eom
lo. retaillocations.
MiuMiusuede
4
pumps5,
$450, BameY ' New Y ork.
1 f.III.: a closdy wov~n.sJighdy ribbed s.iJk,conon, 01 rayon fabric 12 tull.: of a ,hin nmed. ofttn stiffcned. silk, nylon, 01rayon &bric..
used in ballet costumes, I:Vcning dresses. "dls, etc. I ; ) s m(s): me line aloog which pieces of doth Of Jeamer are joined by sewing I 4
suede: leathc:r with the flesh sidc turned outward and rubbed up te mue a vdvety nap I 5 pump(s}: a typc of plain mee wim a raised
heel and no fastenings whkh is worn by W ' ; )r n c n
I
1
LEVELS: I NTERMEDI ATE I UPPER I NTERMEDI ATE
Dscar de la Renta liereeP
empire gown
1
01 buml orange
silk laffeta, $4,450, Oscar de la
Renta.
, , . . , ,
"
Ruffianmetallie silk dress wlth
ruffled8 collar, $4,995,
inlormation at www,ruffian.eom.
Monique Lhuillieremerald silk dress with layered slieed
tulle and beaded9 belt, $4,1 45, Neiman Mareus,
Ale.ander MeQueen platinum and gold leather
platform boal$, $1 ,41 5, www.alexandermequeen.com
lor retail localions.
6 tiered: having or acrangl:d in cien or layees I 7 emplre gown: awoman's dress popular during me Frc:nch Fust Empirc.
dJ aracterized by a low-eut nedJ ine and a high waist from which the skin: hangs straight and loose I 8 ruffled: omamentul wim or
gawrc:d inro a friJ I (astrip of guhered or pleared material used as adecorarive edging) 19 beaded: covertd wirh bcads (small, lLSually
round object of gIass.wood, sronc, or me Iikewith a hale through it, onen strung with amen of in kincl in nedlaccs, rosaries. dC.)
, ACTUAL ENGL SH LEVELS: INTERMEDIATE I UPPER-INTERMEDIATE 21
Champagne
@2007MCT
Pr o d u c t i o n met ho d
Alter primary
fermenlalion and
bottling, a second
alcoholic
fermenlalion occurs
in lhe botlle; induced
v:5= by adding yeasl and
~ < rock sugar
~ Grape types
,J$~" allowed: Pinol noir,
i! .- Pinol meunier,
Chardonnay
Grasp
cork and
cage firmly
wilh one hand,
turn lhe boltle
ilself by holding il
al lhe base wilh
other hand
Glass Tulip-shaped, space for bubbles, room for aromas
Ho w t o o pen
Remove foil, undo
wire cage wilhoul
removing il
Hi s t o r y
17t h century Sparkling wine invenled
18t h century Champagne is sweel, like loday's
Demi-secs, used wilh desserls
19t h cenlury Brul Champagne becomes a less sweel
aperitif, useful for all meals
10km
-
-
10 mi les
Dom Perignon (1638-1715), French monk,
said to have invented sparkling wine.
Drink it chilled.
not iced
CHAMPAGNE
I
Mai n . ~i>'Rei ms
gr o w t h .~. ~.'J
ar ea 4:X"~~ River 0
._.-~lQ)~ Mame h
~:tt ~ ,.
- . Epern3):-. Cj
6 ~",~:;. ~ ~./
. ~'-
:-
~
So u r c e: c hampagne,c o m Gr aphi c : Zi lha OJs en, Mo r t en lyhne
1 s par kli ng w i ne: winc:
{har is m O ld e effervcsccnt natu~
r.tlly through a sc=cond (erm en-
ution in (hc: borrle or artificially
through che introd uetion of
atbon d ioxid e I 2 yeast: a
trpe of funb'US which is used in
m aking alcoholie d rinks such as
be=er anJ wine, and ror m aking
bread ~wdland becom e light I
3 foil: a \'cryrhin sheet of
m etal. especially used to wrap
food in to ~epir fresh I 4
grasp: 10 quickly take som c-
m ing in youe hand (s) and hotd
ir finnl)' I 5 cork: a shan
cylind rical piecc= of cork, oc
som etim es plastic or ruhLx:r,
which is pur into che top uf a
bord e. esped ally a wine bord e,
[odo~i(
Champagne is a sparkling
wme produeed by indu-
cing the in-bottle secan-
daf'1 lermentallon 01wine
to effect carbonation. It is
produced exclusively
within lhe Charnpagne
region of Franee, Iram
whlCh It takes its narne.
While lhe terrn "eharn-
pagne"is used by sornE
makers 01sparklmg wine
in other parts 01the
world, numerous eountres
limil he use 01lhe terrr
te only those wmes that
came lrom lhe
Charnpagne appellation
F
oc more (han a decacle,
Vigilio de Souza Pereira
has earved his living our'
of rhe mick Amazon rain
forest around his ranch in nonhcrn
Brazil.
When Pereiraneeds more land foc his
crops and came. he cuts more virgin
jungle and sers me vegetation ablaze2.
When (he nutrienr-poor soil hasbeeo
depleted. he moves on and cues down
more jungle.
Such slash-and-burn agriculrure has
helped rhe 51-year-old Pereira aod
millions of orher arroces and
ranchers scrarch out alivingl fron
lhe foresto bUl ir has pUl Brazil al me
hearr of me environmemal ehallenge
of me cenrury.
Greenhouse gases
As vas! traces of rain foresr are
c1eared. Brazil has become rhe wotld's
foutth-Iargesl producer of rhe
greenhouse gases rhar cause global
warming, afree[he United States,
China and Indonesia, according to
che mase recene data froro che U.S.~
based World Resources Insdrute.
And while aboUl mree-quatters of me
greenhouse gases emitted around the
world come [rom power planes,
transportarion and industrial actiYiry.
more than 70 percent of Brazil's
emissions come [rom deforestadon.
Burning and cutting [he forest
rdeases hundreds of millions of tons
of carhon dioxide, memane and other
gases mal lhe vegetarion had ttapped.
Those gases collect in me atmosphere;
preve,;r hea, from escaping and hdp
raise the Earth's temperature.
VOCABULARY
c: - ~r'" t"". ... .1
" .,>- ." . ' ; i ! - . . ~ , .
" ;:: . ,': .~. ..- " .. . " .
~:'" . ;;" AI.r.e~dY. som'~f.armeis are cutting trees sel~~iv,ely ancl,s.ellin
g
~ ~-:.:':~, ' 1 '
.o'''.' .~::" :~~.:l..the.wood as." green" lumber !c0r!J 1ult.ples~tt~~ prlce lll,.;..~':
S-:~~;'" . . they'd'getfor iIIegal wood.' -.. ,' ,"
. ~ 1
Keeping greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere has become crucial to saving
me planet from catastrophic climate change, scientists sayoHowever, stopping
the destruction of the vast Amazon rain forese means confronting the region's
lawlessness4 aod persuading Brazilians such a, Pereira 1 0 leave me foresl alone.
Somenumbers
The 1.5-million-square-mile Brazilian Amazon. larger rhao rhe emire narion of
India, conrains more than 40 percenr of (he world's rain forests. and about a
fifth of ir already has disappeared. mosrly in ao " are of deforesrarion" along me
forest1s sou(hern and <;:~tc:rnedges.
Every rear, anocher chunk of forest the size of Connecticllt oc larger disappears
as farmers, illegalloggers
5
and others cIcar jungle, mostly without govc:rnmenr
approval. Violent clashes6 over land are common, as are murders of
environmen(alists.
5copping the destruction means persuading p::ople such as wood merchant
Francisco de Assis 10 give up selling iIIega! J umber
7
exttacted from me rain
forest around the northern Brazilian town ofTailandia.
The rown. Iirrle more man a wide spor on rhe highway a decade ago. has grown
1carve(d) (his living) out: to make or aehieve something (a living) through sustained hard work 12 ablaze: on Are:burning strongly 13
scratch out (a living): to make a bardy adequa[r living 14 lawlessness: ast.ue of lack of law and disordet (u5ually resulting from afailure
of governmen[) I5 logger(s): a lumberman who euts trees into logs after the trees havc:been ftlled I6 clash(es): flgh[ Ot argument: a short
fleree meounter. verbal or physical, with another person or group 17 lumber: the wood of trecs cut and prepared for use as building material
24
rnvironment
Theeffects of the
Amazon's contlnued
destruetlon could be
especlally severe In
southern Brazll.where
much of the country's
agrlculture. Industry and
populatlon are based.
Burnlng and cuttlng the forest releases hunil S
mlllionsof tons of CIIrbondloxide. methane ai'il
other gases that the vegetatlon had trapped.
crops grown on defores,ed land is also crucial, many said,
"The important rhing mar we want ro show is that if you
don'( create economic srimulus for protection, t'll he very
difficulr ro have any quick acrian," said J ase Heder
Benatti, me president of a land management agency in me
stare afPara. "Because we Uvein a capitalisr COUntry, me
market is a srrong force or acrion."
The federal governmem's environmental ageney, fur
example, has oniy a ,hird the number of inspectors i,
needs ro do the joh in Para, which is (hree times me size of
California, said Anibal Picaneo, ,he ageney's
superimendent in the state.
That means land owners such as Dacia Bernardes who
want ro go green 11afren flnd themselves at the merey of
(he jungle's nororious
12
lawlessness.
ineo a 54,OOO-person ciey of sawrr.ills
B
, bars and has,ily
buil, shaeks
9
, 1, also has B,azil's seventh-highest homicide
rateo
"This business is keeping peopIe alive." de Assis said on a
recem afternoon as he led potential buyees rhrough just-
c1ea,ed jungle, "Bu, I don', ,hink therell be any wood left
hece in a few years."
Political adions
Veteran diplomar Sergio Serra, who in April was named
Brazil's first ambassador in eharge of global warming
issues, said his counrry is doing ics pare by, among orher
rhings, srrengthening enforcemem of environmenra11aws
and creating vasr foresr reserves.
"Brazil is conscious of irs responsibilities," Serta said. "We
are already combating [he problem with more vigor. and
tha' led 'o this significan, decline."
Convincing millions of people ,ha<they can make more
money by leaving the teees alone :han by cuning ,hem
clown is key ro saving more of me foresto Already. sorne
farmees are cutring trees seleetively and sellir:g (he wood as
"green" lumber for multiples of ,he price ,hey'd ge, for
iIIega! wood.
Environmentalisrs say Brazil also could rake pan in an
nremarional marker of carhon credits
10
that would pay
people not to cut down forest. Brazil's gavernmenr
apposes such a caroon marker hecause ir wouldn'r reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, Serra stid. Persuading
agribusiness gimes ro stop buying soybeans and omer
VOCABULARY
8sawmill(s): afactor)' in whkh wood issawed (cut) into planks or boards by machine or ;, powetful sa. ing machine I 9shack(s): avery simple
and small building (such as a hut or cabin) made from bits of . ood. metal or orher ma[erials ( 10 carbon credit(s): pcrmit [har allows 'lO emity
[O emit a specif1ed amount of greenhouse ga.~es,also called emis:sion ~rmit I 11 go green: ro become someone who worlu or aet5 for rhe
conservation and improvement of [he natural environment ( 12 notorious: wdl known for sorne undesirable fearure, qualiry, or ae[
Bernacde5 tried switching ro sustainable forestry
io 199400 his 57,700-acre raoch oear Tailaodia
and even won certificacion from the
international Foces! Stewacdship Council,
meaniog hecould export the wocd ashigher
priced, fotest-frieodJ y lumber.
AlI mat unt~uchedland, howevec, proved too
great a temptarion, and armed loggers poured in
last year and devastated the property. Federal
officials said they' d visited me area and seized
illega!wood but couldn't stop th, loggers from
rerurning.
The business, which had employed about 300
people, aHbut shU[ down. Today, [he ranch is
likemuch of me deforesred Amazon, an
apocalyptic landscape of charred 1) vegetarion
and tree stumps 14.
"Werried doing this me right way, bU[we
received no suppon at aU,u Bernardes said. "If
chis conrinues, 1don't give the Amaron 50
more years."
The cons
The effects of me Amazon's combued
descfUccion could be especially severe in
southern Brazil, where much of che counrry's
agriculture, indumy and popuJ adon arebased.
Abour 40 percem of the precipication there
comes from moisrure evaporated off the rain
foresc's thick reee cover. Curting blck more of
me Amazon could mean scarving [he area of
water.
"The hydrodimatic cyde of theAnazon reaUy
depends on having foresc thece," said Thomas
Lovejoy, presiden<of the U.S.-based H.J ohn
Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and
the Environmenr. "It's all roUed into one big
picture, which in che end comes down ro 15
whac happens ro che forese."
Any plan ro crack clown on l'defcrestation,
however, depends on che government's abilic}' ro
enfocce irs laws, which farmers said is practically
nonexistem in much of me jungle. AE
VOCABlJ LJ \R:t .... __
13 charred: slighdy or panly hume I 14 tree
stump(s): the base pan of a tree tha[ rcmains sr:mJing
after [he [rce has lleen fclleJ I 15 come(s) down to:
Odiomatic) ro depend upon, ba~Cllly, ultimardy or in
euence I 16 crack down on: to enfor:c laws or pU:1ish
(somcthing) more vigilandy
Without going back to the articie, fill in the blanks
in the text below. Tip: the missing words are all
connected with environmental care
kvast traets of rain forest are a) ,
Brazil has beeome the world's fourth-Iargest produeer of
the b) gases that cause global
el , aher the United States, China
and Indonesia, aeeording to the most reeeOl data from
the U.S.-based World Resources Institute. And while
about three-quartors of me greenhouse gases
dI arollnd the world come from
power planrs, transporration and industrial activiry, more
than 70 pereeOl of Brazil's e) .
come from deforestation ..
Burning and clltting the foresr f) .
hundreds of millions of tons of c.1tbon
g) , methane and other
h) that the vegetation had
rrapped. Those gases 1)............. in the
atmosphere, prevent heat from eseaping and help raise
the Earth' s /l .
:uT\Jf:l.Jw~(f
~1Q:)(l
...(,
~p!:rotp ti
O
< ""l"'!lU'I (~
-P;>lI!W~{p
llI'!L1lJ ~"'" (J
:>mQ'lu=ll (q
p=:>p (~
:A3)llI;lMSNlf
25
26
lB), Jimmie Dodd, Jody Mitori and Becky Sher

.j
1
.
phones.
elearly the world's most beloved animated
character, Mickey continues toward the century
mark just as he began his life 80 years ago~. .'
fu I steam aread
8
. AE
."
over the year;, Mickey's appearance changed a' 1
bit: he gained some weight around the midale,
donned
7
a pair of white gloves and grew more
angular. But his personality never changed from
the friendly mouse that Walt Disney first creat-
ed in the 1920s.
Today, Mickey has became the Intemational
symbol of the Disney Empire (the three-circle sil-
houette of his head is one of lhe most recog-
nized corporate symbols in the world). And his
image - the famous two-button pants, the big
yellow shoes - has graced every kind of mer-
chandise imaginable, from T-shirts to tele-
E TURNS 80 THIS YEAR, Bur YOU'O NEVER KNCW IT
by lookhg at him. M'Ckey tIIouse is still as
sprightly 1 as ever, wlth not even a laugh
linel to ;how his age. Mickey's come a long
way since his tJrn as a deckhand
3
In " 5teamboat
Willie" in 1923. Back then, the Disney studio's
hopes were pEgged4 to the mischievous rodent.
They hoped he would bring the campany success
after the rights to Walt Dlsney's 'lrst successful
character, Osw31d the Lu,ky Rabbit, were sold to
anomer studio by its distributors. Walt sketched a
mouse - who looked an awful lot Ike his prede-
cessor, Oswald - and his wlfe, Lilly, christened
s
the
mouse Mickey.
Mickey was a rit, and saon he had a band of bud-
dies with whom he got in:o all kinds of scrapes and
messes
6
. (He never offiClally married Minnie
Mouse, but they're still the world's most famous
animated caup'e.) Accoraing ta Disney, more than
1 mili ion children jOlned the onglnal Mickey Mouse
Club between 1929 and 1932. And his fans ranged
from American children to famous names Ike Mary
Plck'ord, Franklin Del3no Roosevelt, Benito
Mussolini, thE Nizam of Hyderabad and King
Geo'ge V of England.
As animation techniques grew more sophisticated
VOCABULARY _ _ _ ,_ . '. ..
Mickey Mouse
1 sprightly: full of Jife and vigur, es.'ccially .... ith J ligh! and sprngy S!CP I 2 laugh line: a wtinkle jn the skin al he OIlter comer uf your C)'cs.; "
13 deckhand: a mcmbcr uf d, ship'so:rcw pcrfinming deaning Ot manual wnrk 14 pegged: auache-l [(1 I S ehristen(ed): to gi"e a nam(' ro
somclhing or sOlllcbody. '... irll ur wirhollt an ;\o.:(;omp.ln)'ing C<'rcmulI)' 1 6 scrapes and messes: ~haotic,confusloll, or rrouble51HllC ~lattS ur
sirualinllS 17 don{ned): (formal) ro pUl on an anidc ofellllhing 18 full steam ahead: at the greatcsl .~Ill'edpossihlc 19 quail: a small ,~hort.
tailed ganll' hin!. lypically wi,h brown :amoulhlgcd plumage 110 HTurkey in the Straw
H
: a wdl known Arnnican folk song daring fmm the
carl)' 19th O:llturyo In animatcd cartoans ir is comm'lnly lIscd fc)r ~uggcs[ing fanm or rurallifc. ur old f.l~hiuned coumry reoplc 111 seagull: .lny
of oumerous loog-wingcd wch-forcd ~qlla[ichirds 112 bait: a sm.ll1 amoum uf food on.l hook af in a spedal dcvicc IlScd ro JrtraC{ and calch J
thh Uf ani/llJl
I
1. HSteamboat Willie" (1928)
2. HMickey's Choo-Choo
H
(1929)
3. HTheMad Doctor
H
(1933)
4. HThePointer
H
(1939)
5. "The Simple Things" (1953)
6. HRunaway Brain
H
(1995)
28
I By Chris Welsch
HOSE TRUTHS OFTEN COllIDE. PUTT1NG
J erusalem at [he center of dazeos of wars
dueing lhe pas' 3.000 yealS.
In ,he faee of every heart-eending 1dispute, lhe
idea of this dcy's holiness endures. Ir dcesn'r
marreehow arduous [hejourney, how daunting
2
(heviolence, or how har (he anger, (he pilgrims
come. For aslong as[hecehas beco aJ erusalem.
there havebeco people imem on getting thece.
The Old CilY is a maze3: Theee- and foue-story
huildings tine (he narrow sereets: which seldom
run straight foc more (han afewhundred yards.
There are no caes; [hece is no room foc rhero.
AboUI 35.000 people liveinside ,he stone walls.
eompleeely imael and aboll[ ahalf-mile long on
a side. Seventy percent of (he people nside [he
Old City aeeMuslim, 20 peeeen' aeeCheistian
and 10 peeeem aee]ewish. AlI of ,hem eelyon
pilgrims. rourists and travelers [Okeep [heneigh.
borhood's economy buzzing
4

THE Hon' SEPlJ LCHRE


I walked aboll[ 10minutes feommy hOlel lO ,he
Chueeh of ,he Holy Sepulchee. lt was Palm
Sunday. and ,he small eoueryaed in from of me
ehueeh was paeked5.
I eouId haedly eell l'd artived aeone of ehemost
important shrines
6
in Christianity. There is no
grand vista. not even aclearly dcflned structure.
The Chureh of lhe Holy Sepulchre is an amal-
IN jERUSALEM, EVERY SQUARE
INCH OF THE STONY GROUNO
IS COVEREO IN BLOOO ANO
HISTORY, HOPES ANO PRAYERS,
PERDITION ANO REOEMPTION.
FOR EACH TRAVELER ANO EVERY
RESIDE T, THE HISTORY IS
DIFFEREt T, THE MAP IS DIFFERENT
THE TRUTH IS DIFFERENT
gamation of buildings and additjons from different eras and sects
rhaemerges Wilhrhe srone walls cf the buildings around it.
A eolumn of lighe feomeheopen,ng io ,he dome pieeeed ehehaze'
of incense floating aboye Christ's wmb. astone structure as big asa
small house that sits where the original gronoS is thought ro have
been.
Neae ,he emry. a flighe of srep' leads lO ,he top of whal many
Christians believe is ,he eX'el SPOI of Golgo,ha. the Plaee of ,he
Skull, wheee Cheist was eeucif1ed. Pilgeims knel, eo touch tiny
patch of exposed stone under an omate altar
9
One after another.
they walked away with eearsin eheir eyes.
THE WESTERN WALL
In my imaginacion. J erusalemwasavaseciey;the realieywasquite the
opposite. Ir only took 15 minutes [Q walk from the most importanc
1heart-rending: having astrong ettte[ upon [he emotions, inclining one [O sadness or phYi heart.breaking I 2daunting: Iikely to discourage,
intimidare, or frightt'n somebody I 3maze: acomplica[ed systcm of paths or pasS3geswhich rx=0plctry te find [heir way through for amusemcnl I 4
buzzing: noisy like Ibe sound of abe'( I 5 packed: fulJ of people and extremely crowd~ I 6 shrine(s): aplacc for worship which isholy because
nf/' con~cCtiun with a.holy per~n ~r obje~ I 7 haze: mist, doud. or smokc suspended in the atmosphere and obscuring or obsrrucring rhe viewI 8
9 ~tto. :l cave, cspcclaJ ly00(: WlmIntm:sung natural fcarures or:ln imitation cave, esrx=daJ lyasan omamauaJ shelrer in aformal garden I 90rnateo
havmg elaborare or excess:h:edecor.aion o
30
A group of Palestinian students on a field trip leaving the Dome of the Rock.
chrch in Chrisrianiry ro [he mast revered sire in J udasm, [he
Western Wall.
It wasasunny Tuesday afternoon, and 1was in [hecampany of guide
Gil Daleski, a native of J erusalem. Before wecould seerhe Wall, we
had to pass rhrough a meral detecror and a par down. Two guards
made acareful inventory of ro)' camera bago
The mount is fior a moumain: ir's astruc{Ure of massivestones built
around asmall hill. In rheJ ewishr"dirion, rhar hill isMounr Moriah,
where Abraham was prepared [Osacrifice his son Isaac, DaJ eski said.
On rop of (har box of stones was(he site of [he original Temple. the
most revered10 landmark of rhe J ewish fairh. For sorne J ews, rhe
Temple marked rhe very place "ihere rhe world began and rhe very
placewhere ir will end.
An icon in the Russian Church of the Ascension
on the Mount of Olives, East J erusalem.
The Temple was demolished by invaders more
rhan once; The Second Temple, builr by !Gng
Herod, was desrroyed by rhe Roman Empetor
TIrus, who replaced ir with a temple to'J upiter.
Eventually. (har temple was [om clown, too.
Now rhe rop of rhe Temple Mounr is Occupied
by rhe Al-Aq,a Mosque and rhe Dome of rhe
Rack, signifiClnt Islamic holr sites.
The wall is ;ust rhar: a span of lighr-coloced
stone blocks thar cises nearly as high as a 10-
story building. The worship area is cordoned
off1
1
and divided mo men's and women's sides.
ISIAMIC IANOMARKS
The next morning, 1rerraced 12 m)" sreps. To gel
to rhemost holy Islamic landmarks inJ erusalem,
a non-Muslim must remm lOme Western Wall,
and pass mrough an evenmore rigoroos securiry
check to ger onto rhe plaza rha, is on rop of ir,
and Al-Masj:d Al.Aqsa, Arabic foc "The Far
Mosque,"
In me Islamicworld, al-Aqsaisavery holy place,
rhird in importance behind Mecea and Medina.
Wby? Beeauseapivoral
13
evenr in rhe !ifeof rhe
propher Mohammed happened hece.
The Dome of rhe Rock and Al-Aqsawete builr
in rhelare600s, hesaid, afrerJ ecusalemwascon-
10 revered: gready respecte<! or admirtd, worshiped I 11 cordoned off: of an arca, endosro or divided by means of a rope=. [Ocontrol access to ir
112 retrace(d): ro go b.tckover apam. Ol route again I 13 plvotal: vitalIy imporwtt. especially in dc[(nnining me outcome, progress, or success of
someching 114 close to the surface: stiUexistent, stiUprtsent
31
(~:w ~(q:L. :!~"):(lI:s:t':t :(p:,: (J :'I: ~('l:1
:A;J )( H;J MSNV
a) A span nf lighr-colored MOlle l:J ocks [har rist:snearly ashigh
:l') a 1O-story building. Somelim~callni rhe Wailing ,('all, ir is
\'isired itl grear nurnllt:rs by J ews asa holy plan' litar commcm-
orares lheir ')orrows 1rom l'J rlicsr rimes.
g) A hol)' place in rhe IsIamic wor~d, rhird in importance
behind Mecca and !'vIdina
8) The Old Tcm le
7) Dome of the ock
2) Thc Holy SCl'lIlchre
e) In lhe J ewish rradirion. wIH.:reAhr;lham was prepJ red to sac-
ritlee his sor, Isa;l("
Holy Places: G2ill!I1
with their corresponding definitions.
b) A .~hrine in J ertlsalern ar rhe sire [mm which Mohamm(.'d
a,lCended through the ~eyen hcavens ro the rhwfH..'or God: sup-
poseoly builr on the .. jre of the J ewish 'lemple.
1) The Cardo
4)MOllnt Mori"h
3) Golgotha
5) AI-Aqsa Mosqllc
6) The Western \X':!1I
d) Thc hill (llItside.Icrusalem whert' Chrisrians br.:lit'\.crhat
J esus W;lS crucified
e) According ro lhe LClelis, a reJ 11?It. thJ .f was loc:ued on dH:
sire whcn: rhe Dome of lhe Rock -.vasbuilr
h) A popular shopping streer during J erusalem '5 da)'s asa
Roman ourposr now, a popular spor for tourisrs :md visitors on
rhe approach ro rhe \Vesrern Wall.
f)In Chrisrianiry, rhe [Omb in which rhe bod)' of J esus Chrisr
.. \'as laid afrer rhe Crucifixion, bcnveen burial and rcsurrecriol1
ON THE CD: AUDIO ARTICLE & MORE EXERCISES
I
~
~-
J
J
.-~
quered by !v1uslm[orcesand onl)' a few )'e~trs
arree dI(: prophct Mol13J l1ll1ed's dcarh. Foe more
than 1.300 yeaes(asidc [romaccmury when rhe
Crusaders c1aimcd rhe dry roc Europe). al~Aqsa
hashecll acentee of (he Islamic imdlcctua! anJ
spiritual world. he said. It still s .
The irueriors of bmh monumcnts are c1o.~cdto
non.lvtuslims. Because of ongoing conflicts
between Israclis and Palcstinians, hard fedings
are clase ro rhe surface 14,
"There was Ilorhing hefe when the lvluslims
carne," he said. "J USt garbage 3nJ ruios. 111C
IsraeIis 53Y rhe Dome of rhe Rack isbuilr on rhe
site of rhe old Temple. bU( no one k.nows where
rhar was, J erusalem has been destroyed seven
times. No one knows,"
The nones of J erusalem have been sanetifled in
prayer in nearly every language on E.'trrh, and ir's
eas)' ro forgcr rhar rhese rhree faid:s aH pra)' [Q
rhe same monorheisric God.
The hope foc rhe fmure lies in rec(J gnizing rilar
rhoseprayershavemuch in coroman. no matter
who isgiving rhemvoice. AE
The Cardo was a popular sh
street during J erusalem's d~' asa- j
Roman outpost; now t'sa~~lar spot
for tourists and visitors on
,
approach to the Western# , .;tt:r:a
family celebrating Passover
the ruins. . ,,'
32
, ACTUAL ENGllSH lEVElS: I NTERMEDI ATE I UPPER-I NTERMEDI ATE
9:30 p.m.
Bedlime
r J
7:00 p.m. Pr epar e r oad book
and mount it on bike a
8:00 p.m. Dinner (j~
9:00 p.m. Br iefing; collecl
GPS code, check slar l lime
&:00p.m. Check
bike and make
r epair s il necessar y
~Qo. Flnish
.g~5:00 p.m. Ar r ive at
Liaison Time Contr ol (bivouac);
hand incar d, r ecover r oad book lor
nexl day; liII up wilh luel; pitch tenl
and get r eady for the next day
Speciat leg, timed, on
or off road; establishes
standings
7:30 a.m. Ar r ive at Liaison
Finish Time Conlr ol pr ior to
Special star t; check equipment
again (also check r oad book)
11:40 a.m.
Recover car d and
sel off again on
the Special leg
11:30 a.m.
Ar r ive at fuel
slop; hand in
car d, gel fuel,
eat and dr ink,
check bike
@) 8:30a.m.
Recover car d and
begin Special
Challenge leg
Liaison leg, normaUy on
tarmac, time limited; only used
to reach specialleg
A typical day in the
Dakar Rally
~
02007UCT
Sour ce: Oakar Rally, or ganizar a
Gr aphic: J ulta Scheibe, Mor 1en lyhne
Start
5:50 a.m. Head lo Star t Tme
Contr ol 10minules ear ly; tur n
on and check eleclr onic
equipmenl (such as GPS)
o&:00
a.m. Pick up
car d and begin
liaison leg
G
5:00 a.m. Wake-up ~
call; pack tenl and
belongings
5:20 a.m. Br eakfast; or ganize
food r ations and water lor the
day and stow them in jacket;
check star t time and position
in lield
_.VOCABU_LARY _ . _._ _ - ~-_ .. --- -
1 liaison: achanncl of communi::atioll bctwec:n prople Of groups wha work .. th caen amer 12 leg:.1 particular sClgl: of ajoumey. competidon
or aetivir:y I 3 tarmac: (also 3.rr.lacadam: rrademark) black material uscd fOI building mads, which consists of ur mixcd wth small SI ones14
stow: topJ .cksOffit"thingOf pllt s(lOlcthing away 15 road book: apublicadon fOf road uscrsshowingmaps antl an indo: ro, a11me romes in an
. ateaI hand in: te give 01 slI bmit somcthing tosornebody 17 set off: tocavc; 10 bt-gin ajourney or rrip 18 flll up: tomake something fUll
(espedallya gasolinc r:mk) 19 pitch (tent): toput up a[cm .lndfix ir into position 110 briefing: amcccing hcld te providc informarlon aoout
lhe main f.1CtS of an i&'iUCor sitllati<:n. or [he info~mation providcd a[ abriefing
MI_,.,. ... kPe
:jo A tudoCOLOft "fija
i
PCTol
Actl_ soIudonos Y'
.~ 1 ' < ; " INClU YE ce contur.OI'i aIes
~ '1" * - - . . . ~1rwWr
MANUAL del USUARIO
,. . . -
OE;~U EI.:I:R~
E X CE L
-- APMNOA A AAMAII RO&OTSOfSOf (fIlO
~=-c.}
~_. . . . . ~
RE PARACI6Nde
Music Review
~~(
"
'.
.'
'~'...
Polly Harvey rakes her music clown a
1lC\"'- creative avenue. The album bre-
eles along a(a low-to-mid tempo
pace, wirh rhe numbers "Silence" and
"TIe Piano" abouc as upbeat
S
as the
musie gcrs.
> Dolores O'Riordan, "Are You
Listening?": The former from woman
of [he lrish rock group, The
Cranberries serves up' a [exrurally
smooth effort on her firsr solo
album. Her deliciously [he' voice
and robus[ inS[rumenta[ion produce
a rr:e1odicpotency that almos(rises
to .:.melodramadc level, but nevcr
succumbs [Qir.
H
ere's a bricflook at sorne of
the orhcr notewonhy rdeases
from women anis(S ayer the
lasr 365 day'.
>Tori Amos, "American 0011 Posse":
The state America's current social
fabric, politicalleadership. war and
the impersonal nature of rhe digital
age converge [O shapc (he rhemate
currems of chis album. Widi her rip-
pling] piano and distinctivc vocal
arrangemems. Amos delivers a salid
23-song playlisr worrhy of oft-repea-
red
4
listening.
> P.). Harvey. "White Chalk": Sparse,
eanhy, and spirimally introspective,
Women return
to m usic lim elight
A WAVE OF VIBRANT ROCK MUSIC SURGED FROM
WOMEN ARTISTS IN 2007.
1 ominous: suggcsting or indiColting mal somcthing bad is going to happcn or be ft'\'caled 1 2 slitting (her) wrists: making a long srraigh[ narrow
cut in (her) wrists. in olha \ . ' , " O N s . arrempting suicide I ) rippling: moving with a gcncle lapping sound 14 oft.-repeat~: (old wc or formal) often 15
upbeat: (informal) (adj.) lUll qf oprimi;m or chcenulllCS5; (noun) an unaccellled bea[ or portion of a bear in a musical melSure 16 serve (s) up: provi-
J e (usually bUI nO(nr:ces.uril)' food) 17 lithe: young. hc:.ucllY.attraetive anJ ablc: tu !llove and hcnd gracduUl
8 knob: (vulgar slang) ; 1 , man'spc'ni~19 rekindle(d): ro m'ive or renew somelhing such 'u afa:lillg or inl~R'sI1 1 0 angst: ; l, profound fJ inS of gene-
raJ izcdanxiety or drn.d 111 cut the mustard: (idiomaric) 1 0 achievethe standard of pcrfomlance necessary ror success 112 smudged: diny or nor
c1 car:rubb<=d113 bouffant: a hairscr1 einwhich me hair isarranged in ahigh rounded. shapc=114 dire: (infonnal) very bad seriou..~or extreme 115
entreaty(ies): urgem praycr. carneS[ petition; pressingooliciralion 116 sludgy: (disapproving) soft, wet and very mick; slimy or mucky 117 bleak:
not hopeful or encouraging 118 weightiness: me prof'l=nyof bdng hea\')' in proportion to its bulk: the propc:; tyof bdng importam or cOruiequential
36
acking. It's (he tast hurdle' becween you and
pulling out of me driveway. And doing i, \Vell i,
(he difference bernreen a clean geraway:Z and a
Chevy Chase vacatian movic. These days, (hece's a
lO[ more [O jr [han J USt nO( forgeuing an)'!hing. Srronger
airporr security measures have caused liS {O rethink
3
Olany
aspects of rraveling. especially paoong. You muse be prepared
to unpack and rcpack befare gaiog to your gateo
It's a process we're al) seeking tO simplify. YOlle bese straregy
might jusr be the perfecdy packed bago
Lighten up
Weighr isa majar concern because Olan)' airlines naw charge a
(ee foc luggage char exceeds cerrain limies. Cochrane says [he
chaJ lenge [oc manufacUlrers has be:n ro develop marerials char
are durable hue igheeT. so char rravelers can pUl more in eheie
bags. A popular choice? Ballistic n::lon.
Tryexpanding
Anorher facet of your bag is expandabiliry. \X'hile expandable
luWge isn't new, the rrend ismoving to zipperless
4
expansiono
Simply press aburran inside your bag and warch ir pop up,
much like apop-up campers.
TIPS FROM A PROFESSIONAL
Pat Shannon has traveled hundreds I)fthousands of
miles during 14years as aflight attE:ndant for American
Eagle. and she strongl~'advises packing light for the
salce01you. back and rou' wallet Shegets all 01 he,
needs inane roll-on and one carry-m. -The thing to
remember is tilat no one you know isgoing to see
you," Shannon says.
Plan to wear outfits more than once, 50 you don't
have to paek as many clothes.
PaCKclothes made from Iightweght fabrks. such
as cotton, silk and linen.
(haose dothes incomplementary colors tIlat layer
easil)', 50 YOUare comfortable at any temperature.
Don't paek your coat or jacket wear it onthe plane.
Get everything in one suitcase. Get
through security faster. Get there
looking better.
Put the squeeze on it
The compressor bag, aboYe, has several uses. Place bulky rerns,
like sweaters. inside and then roO me bag tO rdea.se me excess
air and savespace. On rheway horne, pue your dirry clorhes in
ir ro keep rhose from raking up as much room, as weJ l. Ir can
also be used for \Alerrhings, likeswimsuirs and towels from rhar
las, di
p
6 in ,he pool.
Without a wrinkle
Rolling rour clorhes is one of me rnost common!y suggesred
methods for avoiding wrinkles, mough Chris Luce, abuyer for
The Container Srore. says me real key is keeping clorhes frorn
moving around. Amy Fletcher, apacking demonsrrator for The
Container Store, also suggests alrernating collars
7
and
wrapping panrs around shirrs to avoid crcasing!. Or you can
skip the folder and juS! place pants at ,he botrom of ,he bago
layer
9
shirrs over thero, and fold the pants over rhe topo
Plastic makes perfed
Put a1l of your loose personal ireros in a large zip.lock bag
before passi~g rhrough securiry. so that you can save time
instead of emprying )"our pockets and rhen collecting
everyrhing again. Do rhe: same with your personal dectronic
devices: put them in a cJ ear plastic envelope to keep them all
together. which also hdps ro prevem others froro accidental!y
picking up what's yours.
Resources
-7 Don't wanr to forger anyrhing, bU[ toO busy to make a
lisr? Ler someone clse do ir. Try The Universal Packing Ust
W'eb sire at upl.codeq.info. You'lI select rhe basic parameters
of your trip. and the ste will generare a packing listo
-7 If you want ro pack light, rry che tips at OneBag.com.
The site shows rou ho'iV to pack everyrhing you need in a
carry-on 10. AE
VO.CJ \!!l!LA!!! .. . ._._ ._._ . _
1 hurdle: an obstade: or difficulry 1 2 getaway: ashott vacation or brc I 3 rethink: [O think about something again. csP'=dally using new
information or in arder to produce ab=tter resul[ I 4 zlpperless: wi[hoUI azipper (a faslener for dOlhes, bags, or garmenu consisdng of nvo rows
of interlocking metal or plastic teelh w:th an :mached sliding tab putled to open or clase: the fastener) I 5 pop~up eamper: aponable dwdling (as
aspeciaJ ly equipped trailer or autornorive vchicle) for use during casual trave! and camping I 6 dip: a b~ief fWim in water I 7 collar(s): a band of
material around the neck of ashin or orber garmen!. dther uprigh[ or turned over I 8 creasing: the a:t o E producing wrinkles or folds 1 9 layer:
to arrange something in layen (levds (me 00 top of [he other) I 10 carry-on: a piece of luggage suita:.le for bdog arried aboard an airplane by :a
passenger
I By Kelly Rmfrow

ln
38
.
Actual En lish M.WS
M u l t i t a s k i n W
ork harder, play harder, and -wi[h a
boos t
1
from che: l a t es t t echn ol ogy-
s qu eeze2 31 hou rs of a cdvi t y i mo a
24-hour day.
A srudy done for acable-TV nerwork
concluded [har people can acruallyadd abour
SO peccen t more a ct i vi ry ro a t ypi ca l da y of 16
waking hours. Spend ahalf-hour Ii"ening (O
podea s es whi l e a n s weri n g e~mail,a n d you 've
cra rn med
3
60 mi n u t es of work i mo 30.
M u l ri t a s k i n g4 i s n mhi n g n ew, bu ! du ri n g rhe
pasr decade, rechnology has helped speed i"
~preadrhrou ghou r ou r l i ves . The a vera ge yea rl )'
n erea s e i n U,S. w~rkers' produ ct i vi ry, f o c
example, has doubled from 1.5percent during
rheperiod 1987-1996 ro 3 percent from 1997
to 2006, according (OU.S. Labor Department
fi gu res .
"There's been a n en orrn ou s cha n gc i n (he
American economy," said Ed Reilly,chief
execu t i ve of che Ameri ca n M a n a gcmem
As s oci a t i on , whi ch hel ps everyon e from
i n di vi du a l s [Q t he n a t i on 's bi gges t corpora t i on s
i mprove ehei e performa n ce.
Bu r even a s rcchn ol ogy i s l et t i n g work ers
a ccompl i s h more i n l es s t i me, i r i s a 150 exa ct i n g
5
aprice.People mal' beworking and playing
harder and getting more done e<ehday, bu,
rhey'refeelingoverwhelmed
6
by rhe mulliplicity
of ehei e l i ves .
"There's a s cn s e of fa t i gu e rha t comes from
multi,asking," Reilly ,aid. "Youcan force
you rs el f t o k eep doi n g t hi n gs . bu r you ma y n or
be a s effect i ve."
Peop!etoday describeturning on their
el ect ron i c ga dget s befa re t he mNn i n g coft ee i s
brewed
7
and keeping Ihemhandy until
tumbling8 into bed at night.
E-mail overload.Vibrating cell phones.The
di gi t a l con n ecri on goes ro meet i n gs . where
Bl a ck Berry mcs s a ges ca n be fu rt i vel y ryped hy
,humb under rhe [ableon [iny keyboards.And
on i t goes
9
: a t di n n er, i n [he a i rport , even on
va ca t i on , s o-ca l l ed k n owl edge work ers rema i n
t i ed t o t he work pl a ce.
"Thi s crea tes a bu rden for s oci ery: peopl e
ha vi n g n o down t i me
10
," s a i d Ron n i e Koros ec, a
Un i vers i t y of Cen t ra l Fl ori da profes s or
s peci a l i zi n g i n i n forma t i on
t echn ol ogy a n d produ ct i vi t y.
"Thcre i s n o t i me when peopIe ca n 't
be rea ched. s o we s ee s t res s l evel s
i n crea s i n g," s he s a i d.
Ti m Bu rri l l recen rl y wa t ched a s (he:
hea d of a con s rru ct i on crew,
fru s rra t ed by frequ en t e-ma i l
i n t erru pt i on s , ya n k ed
11
hi s
BlackBerry off his belr and angrily
rhrew i r t o t he grou n d, vowi n g 12 n O{
ro u s e i t a ga i n .
Bu rri l l , a con s rru ct i on -projecr
a dmi n i s t ra ror a r Fl ori da Hos pi t a l i n
Orl a n do. ca rn e ro t he res cu e. He s et
up an e-mail lter so rhe BlackBerry
wou l d vi bra t e on l y whcn i t ha d a
rn es s a ge from s omeon e t he fru s t ra t ed
work er con s i dered very i mport a n t .
Even wi t h proper rra i n i n g, di l i gen t
13
work ers ca n fi n d t hems el ves work i n g
ha rder rha n ever, u n a bl e ro es ca pe rhe
i n vi s i bl e. el ect ron i c ret her
14
.
"Provi di n g peopl e wi t h bct t er copi og
skills" means helping people use
rechn ol ogy t o a rder a n d pri ori t i ze
rhei r work da y," he s a i d. "Peopl e n ecd
ro u n ders ra n d rhe rel a t i ve i mporra n ce
of rhe job a n d wha r's rn os t
i mport a n r. "
Sorn e of [he s a mc i s s u es a ra s e a [ t .1e
t u ro of t he l a s r cen t u ry, when (he
U .S. a u ro i n du s rry wa s s wepr by
rechn ol ogi ca l cha n ge.
"The i n t rodu cri on of [he a s s embl !
l i n e'6 wa s a n en orrn ou s
i mprovemen r," Rei l l y s a i d. "Bu t n ot
t .'Vcryon e ra n rhei r a s s embl y l i n es wi rh
rhe s a me l evel of effi ci en cy."
Tha t wa s rhe era of rhe 53-hou r
work week . No on e ha d yer i ma gi :l ed
a31-hour day.
J ennifer Wakefield
multi.tasks with her cell
phone and computer,
a n d ma n a ges t o gra b a
cup of coffee as well, in
Orlando, Florida, on
May 31, 2006.
I B y Chris Cobbs
- ,
lEVFl~ I NTERMFDI i\H'llrr RI "H[RM[[lI ATl _
gWORKERS
Latest technology allows people to accomplish more in less time
VOC8RULAR'C ______ _ _ _ __
1 boost: som~thing mar hdps ro improv( or strengmen sorntthing 12 squeeze: la manage ro pUl somerhing mo aremktcd space;ro Bod rime or
space fOI someth:ng in abusy schedule 13 aam(med): la fora=something ioto aspacc=mar istoo smaU [O hold it comforubly 14 multitasking:
[he simultaneous mana~ment of rwo or more tasks by acomputcr or a person I 5 exad(ing): demand and obtain (something) from someonc 16
overwhelmed: mOldepowerle:ss bytoo much of $Omcming (inmis case. too much work) 17brewed: (0 aninfusion) prcpareJ 18tumble(ing):
ro fall suddenly and hdplessly 19 And on itgoes: And che lisr oominue:s as follows: 110 downtime: 1period of rehxation berween pcriods of
work 111 yank(ed): to remoye somethirtg suddenly and quiddy 112 vow(ing): to make adetermincd decision or promisc ro do something 113
dillgent: careful and h.ud-working in atzk or aetivhy 114 tether: arape that istied. to borh ananimal and aprnt. so that [heanimal's movemenr
is rcsuicted to asmall arca 115 coping skills: chemethods aperson uses to deal with stmsful sicuations 116 assembly line: meehanical systcm
in afaCtorywhereby an anide isconv~.ed through sires:;1. [ which successiveoperations att pcrformed on ir
'.
Do you have any doubrs abour English? Oon'r worry, rhis
section iswhar you've been waiting for! J usr drop us your
quesrions ro acrualenglish@redusers.com.
Reade S ' QUESTIONS
What isthe difference between 'expect' and 'hope'?
CanI usethemto express the same idea?
This is an interesting tapie to diseuss,
espeeiallyif we add the verb 'wair to
the group. So, let's compare the
Cleanings of 'expect', 'nope' and
'wai!' and the struetures in whieh they
usually oecur.
DIFFERENCE OF MEANING
1) expeet and hope
Expecting is mental rather than
emotional. ~1expect something to
happen I have a good reason to tlink
it INill in fact happen. Hoping is more
emotional. If 1hope far something lo
happen, 1would Iike it to happen. but
I do not know whether it will. Please
compare:
-She is expecting a baby. (She is
pregnant)
-She is hoping it will be a girl.
-I'm expecting J ohn to phone. (He
said he would phone)
-1hope he has passed the exam.
2) expect and wait
One waits when somebody or
something is late, when one is early
for something, ar when one wants
time to pass 50 that something will
happen. Pleasecompare:
-I'm expecting a phone eall from
Peter at two o'doek.
(NOT I'm waiting far a phone eall
from Peter at two o'doek.)
-1hope he rings on time. 1don't like
waiting for people to phone.
(NOT I don't like expecting people to
phone)
-1expected J ulia at 8, but she didn't
turn up.
-1waited far her until 9, and then I
le'1.
DIFFERENCE DF STRUCTURE
a) Direct object: Befare a direct object,
'hope' and 'wait' need the preposition
'for':
~'vVe'reexpecting rain soon
-We're hopping for a lot of rain
.We've been waiting for rain far two
rTronths.
b) Infinitive: AII three verbs can be
used with 'to infinitive'
- We expect to spend the summer in
Italy.
-\lVehope to see Marco in Italy.
-But we are still waiting to hear from
him.
e) Object +infinitive
- I expect J ohn to arrive about ten.
- We're hoping for him to come up
with new ideas.
- I cm still waiting for him to pay
me back that money.
d) That Clause: 'expect' and 'hope'
can be followed by that-dauses.
- I expect (that) she'lI be here soon.
1hope (that) 1'11recognise her.
(NOT I'm waiting that she arrives)
e) Expectsomething of somebody:
This structure refers to people's
feelings about how other people
ought to behave.
My parents expected too much of
me when 1was a child.
Far further reading material on this
and other grammar topies, check
Mi,haeISwan, Practical English Usage
or any goOO grammar book
recommended by your teache,
. .
,. " .
,

t h a t t e a e h l e s s o n s
, , f"
rhe persoll "I/n i s m (/JJroe 01 a pla(e IS Il or rher Jnd rhe
4 4
I by Jam es Joyee

a Ion
ACT II
,\1","1 ti". "Iay
The ancien! Greeks Idl lhe
J egend of lhe culplor Pygmalion.
who creatcd a stalUC of a woman
of sueh beauty m,u he fdl in love
""ilb his own creadOR. Then.
Aphroditc. taking pity on this
man whose lo.eoould nOI reach
beyond lhe barriee of stone.
brought me suroe lO Ufeand
ga'\'!:her to Pygmalion as bis
bridc. Centuries Iatcr, George
Bcm;ro Sha. caplUred the magic
of mis legcnd in his celchrated
play. J etells me storr of Ucmry
Higgins, a profcssor of phonctics.
who makcs a be! wilb his fricnd
Colone! Pickcring thal hecan
succcssfuJ ly pus off a Cockney
flowcr girl lhey jusI met in
Covcnl Gardcn, E liz.a Doolinle.
as a ceRned sodcty lady by
teaching her haw to spuk wim
an uppee class acccm and
training her in etiquettc. In me
procw, Higgins aud DooJ inJ c
growdose, bUI as me rotuio
faUs. me awaited happy endiog
vanishes away..
E XT DAYAT 11 A.M. HIGGINS'S
laboratory in Wimpole SUtet,
It is a room on the llrs[ finar,
looking on [he mect, and was
meant ror Ihe drawing-room.
The double doors are in the
middle of the back hall; and
persons entering nnd in the
corner to their right rwo tall file C1binels at righl
angles [Qone another against me walls. In Ihis cor.
nc:r s[ands a fiat writing-uble. on which an: a
phonograph, a Iaf)'nrope 1. a row of tiny organ
pi>eSwith a beUows , a set of larop chimneys for
singing Aames with burnees anached [O .1. gas plug
in [he wall by an indiarubber tube. severa! mning.
forks of different si:zes, a Iife.size image of half a
human head, sho.. ing in section the vocal oegaos.
ar.d a box containing a supply of wax cylinders for
the phonograp:t.
Fllrther down the room. on the same side, isa I1re-
place, with a comfortable leamer-coyered easy.
d..air ae the side of the heanh
3
nearest the door,
ar.da coal.scunle
4
. There isa dock on the mantel.
picce, Berween the fireplace and the phonograph
rabie isa stand for newspapers.
On the other side of the central doot, tOthe len of
!he visitar, is a cabinet of shallow drawers. 00 ir is
a [e1ephone and me tdephone directaty. The cor-
ner beyond, and mase of che side wall. isoccupied
by agrand piano, with the keyboard at [he end fur.
mest from me door. and a bench for the player
e)lending che fuU lengrh of the keyboard. 00 the
piano isadessert dish heaped \\;th fruit and sweets.
rr.ostly chocolates.
The middle of the room is dear. Besides [he ea5)'
cbair. me piano bench, and rwo chairs al me
phonograph rabie. rhere is one stray chair. Ir
stlOds near the fireplace. On the walls. engrav-
ir.gs
5
; mostly Piraoesis and mezw(int
6
pomaits.
1\0 paimings.
P.ckering issC4tedat the table, putting down some
C1rds and a mnng-fork which he has been using.
Higgins is moding up nar him. dosing [WO or three
me drawers . hich a~ hanging out. He appears in Ihe
moming ligb as a robust, vital, appetiting son of man
offony or lhereabouts
7
, dressecl in aprofessional.look.
ing black frock-coa[ with awhite linen collar and black
silk tie. He ii of (he energetic, .sciemific rype. heartily,
even violently imerested in everything that can be srud-
ied as a .scienlifk subject. and careless about himself
and olher prople. induding rheir feelings. He is. io
facr, but for his years and siz.e. rarner Iike a vety
imperuous bby "ralcing notice
S
" eagerly and loudly.
and requiri~ almos[ as much watching (O keep him
out of wtinlended mi.schief. His manner mes from
genial bullybg when
he is in a goxi humor lO s(ormy perulance when any-
ming goes rong; but he is so emirely frank and void
of malice m;( he n-mains likcable even in his least rea-
sonable moneots.
HIGGINS [ashe shUlS<h, las, drawer] Wdl, 1think
that's the whole show.
PICKE RING. !t's really amaziog. I hayen't taken half
of it io. )'ou know.
HIGGINS. Would you like (O go ayer any of it again?
PICKE RING [risiog aod coming to che fireplace.
where he pl;nts himself wim his back to me fire] No,
thank you; r.or now. l'mquite done up9 for this moro.
iog.
HIGGINS [folIowlng him, and standing besld, him
00 his le&] 1ired ofliscening tOsounds?
PICKE RlNG. YesoIr's a fearful strain. 1ramer fanded
rnyself because 1can pronouoce {Yo'enry.four dlsrinct
vowel sounCs; but your hundred and thirty bea( me. 1
can't hoar abit of illfference bcrweeo most of them.
HIGGINS :chuck1ing. and going over ro me piano 10
ear sweetsJ
Oh. ma( comes wim practice, Youhear no differencc ar
first; but yon keep on lisreniog. and presc=ntlyyou fiod
they're all a! differem as A from B. {Mes. Pearce looks
in: she is Higgios's housekceper] What's the matter.
~~..L.- ._.. _
1 laryngoscope: a medical instrtlrnent consisting of a short metal or plasrk: tube filted wirh a tiny Iight bulb, used when examining Ihe l.arynx I
2bellows: ;l device wilh achamber that can beexpanded tOduw air in and comprC'ssC'dto force the air OUt; a rool used ro blow airoespecially mo
a fire tu make il bum better I 3 hearth: lhe !loor or surround of a fireplace I 4 coal-scuttle: a metal container for holding and pouring coal for
adomestic E heI S engraving(s): a pic[ure printed anta paper IToma piece of wood or metal inro which [he design has been cut I 6 mezzotint:
a prinr made from an engraved metal plate, the surface of which has been sc:raped and polished [Qgi"e 2reas of sh;de and lighr respectively I 7
thereabouts: approximately I 8 take(ing) natlce: observe whh special altemion I 9 done up: (informal) worn out; exhauseed
46
MRS. PEAReE [hesitating.. ~idcntl}" per-
plexed] A young ,""amanwanu to Stt YOll, sir.
HIGGINS. A )'oung waman! What does she
wanr:
MRS, PEARCE. Well. sir, she 13.ysyou'll be
gl:td ro see her when )'OU know whar she's
come abollt. She's quite a common girl. sir.
Very common ind~. 1should have sem her
;;.way.onl)' 1thought perhaps you wanr:d her
to talk ioto youe machines. 1 hope I've nO(
donewrong: but reallyyou s suchqur
prople somdmes- you'lI excuse me, I'm
suee, sir-
HIGGINS. Oh, rhar's all right, Mes. Pearce.
Has she an interesting accrnt?
MRS. PEARCE. Oh, something dreadiitl. sir,
really. I don't know haw you can rake an
merest in it.
HIGGINS [lO Pickering) Lds have ~.er up.
Show her up, Mes. Pearce [he rushes across ro
his working rabie and picks Out a cylinder to
use on (he phonograph].
~lRS. PEARCE [only hall resign,d 10il] V,')'
wdl, sir. Ir's foc you ro sayo [She goes down.
staits).
HICGINS. This is r.uher a bit of lude. 1'11
~how you how I make re::ords. \'(fe'J I ,er her
talking; and I'Utake ir down firsein Bdl's vis-
ible Speech; rhen in broad Rumie; and then
. e'l1 get her on the phonograph so tbt you
can rum her on as ofteo as you like .. hh the
wriuen transcript before you.
MRS. PEARCE [rcrurning] This is the young
woman, sir.
11,c flower girl emers in stare. She h:ti a hat
wirh mree osuich
1
O feaehers, orang=, sky-
bluc, and red. She has a ncarly clean apron,
and rhe shoddy 11 coat has beco tidied J . linlc.
Thc parhos 12 of [his deplorable figure, wieh
its onocent vanit)' and coos<."quemial air,
rouches Pickcring, who has aJ n:ady slraighr.
ene<! himself in me presencc of Mrs. Pearce.
But as to Higgins, the only distinaion he
makes bet\vocn men and ',\lomen is rha[ when
he is neither bullying nor exclaimiog to me
heavens against sorne featherweight 1] cross,
he coaxcs14 women as achild coaxes iesnurse
when i[ wants lO get anyrhiog out ofher.
HIGCINS :brusqudy, recognizing h:r with
unconccaled disappointment, aod a: once,
bab)'-like, makiog an intolerable gril"VJ .nceof
ir] Wh)', thi, is ehe gir! I jacte<! clown15 J ast
night. Shc's no use: I've gor aH the l'C'cords1
want of the Lisson Grove Iingo; aod I'm nor
goiog to waste 30mher c)'linder on it. [To the
girl] Beoff with )'ou: 1don't wam )'Oll.
THE FLOWER GIRL. Don't you be so
saucy 16. You ain't heard whar I come fOf yet.
(To ~irs. Peara=, who i.swailing at the door
for funher instruction) Oid you tell him 1
come in a taxi~
MRS. PEARCE. Nonsense, girl! what do )'ou
rhink agentl<::manlike Mr. Higgins cares whar
you carne in?
THE FLOWER CIRL, Oh, weare proud! He
ain't above giving lessons, not him: I hc=ard
hiro say so. ~rdl, 1ain' ecome here to ask for
any compliment; and if my moncy's not good
enough 1can go dsewhere.
HICGINS. Cood enough for what~
THE FLOWER GIRL. Good ,nough lor y'-
-oo. Now you know, doo't you? I'm come lO
have lessons, 1am, And to pa)' for em too:
make no mistake.
HIGGINS [stupt:nt 17] WELL!!! [Recovering
his breath with agasp]
\'(:nat do you expeet me ro say to you~
mE FLOWER CIRL \'(Idl, if you was a
gentleman, you might ask me
tO sit down, 1 think. Oon'( 1 tell you I'm
bringing you business?
HICGINS. Pickering: shall we ask this bag-
gage to sit down or shall we throw her out of
(he window?
THE FLOWER GIRL [running away in ter.
ror ro the piano, wherc she
turns ar bay} Ah.-ah-ah.-ow-ow.-ow-oo!
[Wounded and whimpcring]1 won'e be called
a baggage when I've offered to pay Iike any
lady. Mo(ion!:=ss, me [\','0 men sTare ar her
from the other side of the room, amaz.cd.
PICKERING [gcndy] What is ir )'ou wam,
m)' girl?
THE FLO\('ER GIRL. I want ro be alady in
a flower shop stead of selling ar rhe comer of
Tonenharn Caun Road. BU[ [hey won't cake
me unless l can ralk more gemee18. He said
he could reach me. Well, here I am'rcady lO
pay him-not asking ao)' favor-and he treats
me as if l was diT(.
MRS. PEARCE. Hnw C.'Ul you be such afool-
ish ignorant girl as to think )'OUcould afford
10 pay Mr. Higgins?
THE FLOWER GIRL. Why ,houldn', 111
kno.... what lessons cost as weIl as you do; and
I'm rc=ady[O pay.
HIGGINS. How mum1
THE FLOWER GIRL [eoming b.ck 'o him.
triu.llphanr} Now you're talking! I thought
you d come off ir when )'Ou saw a chance of
getting back a bit of wha[ you chucked
19
at
me last night. [Coofidemially] You'd had a
drop in, hadn't )'ou~
HIGGINS iP',emplorily2Oj Si, down.
THE FLO\\;'ER GIRL Oh. il you'" going 10
make a complimem ofit-
HIGGINS [thundering at her] Sir down.
MRS. PEARCE [" ."elr] Sil down. girI. Do
as you're toldo [She places me stray chair near
the heanhru~1 berween Higgins and
Pickering, and stands behind :r waiting for the
girl to sir down].
THE FLOWER GIRL Ah-m-ah--ow--Qw-
-00' [She stands, half rebellious, half bewil.
d",d].
PICKERING [very courteous] Won't YOl.: sit
clown?
LIZA [coyly22] Oon't mind ifl do. [She sits
down. Pickering retllrns ro me hearthrug].
HIGGINS. What's your name?
THE FLOWER GIRL. LizaDoolirtl,.
HIGCINS [declaiming gravelyJ Eliza,
FJ imbech, Bersy and Bcss, They weor lO me
woods ro geca birds nes':
PICKERINC. They found a nest wim four
egp init:
HIGGINS. The}' took one apiece, and J efe
thr~ in it,
Th..-y laugh heartily at thcir own \Vit.
LIZA. Oh, don't be:silly.
MRS. PEARCE. You musr: speak lO ehe
gendeman like ma[,
LIZA. Wdl. why won'[ he speak sensible ro
me'
HICCINS. Come back to business. How
much do you propase lO par me for the les.
sons?
LIZA.. Oh, 1know what's right. A lady friend
of min<::gets Fr<::nch
lessons for eightet'npence an hour from a real
Fl'C'nchgentleman. Wdl, you wouldn't have
the face [O ask me me same fOf reaching me
my own language a.~you would far French; so
l won'r give more man a shilling. Take ir or
leave it.
HICCINS [walking up and down the room,
rattling his k~ and his cash in his pockets]
You know, Pickering, if you con.~id('r a
shilling, not as asimple shilling, but as a per.
centage of this girl's income, it works out as
fully c:quivalent to sixty OI seventy guineas
from a millionaire.
llOCABULARY . _
10 ostrich: a{\\Io.tocd fm.runningbird with along bare ne<:k,small heaJ , and fluffy droaping feathers 111 shoddy: badly and cardessly made,
using low quality maeerials I 12 pathos: (lirerary) che powcr of a situation, piecc of writing, work of 3n or persan tO cause fcdings of sadncss,
especially hecame of sympachy 113 featherweight: somchody or something chat isV<::I}' Iight, small, or insignificanl 114 coax(es): to persuade
~()mcbody gcnrly lOdo somerhing 115 jot(ted) down: wrilC hriefly ur hurril'dly; wrire ashort note of something 116 saucy: (old.fashioncd)
rude and lacldng respect 117 stupent: excremdy surprised; so shock<::dlitar )'ou canuoI spcak 118 genteel: bdng very polite, or trying tOOhard
lO seem of a higher soci;;.1dass Ih,m ~.ou really are I 19 chuck(ed): (informal) lO throw something, especially in a cardcss or casual way I 20
peremptorily: cxpecting 10 b<=obcyed immcdia(e1y and without qucstioniug 121 hearthrug: a rug laid in from of a fircplace 122 crown:
aformer Brilish coin wonh fiveshillings
P1CKERlNG. How so?
HIGGINS. Figure it ClIIt. A millionaire ha~J .bolH ISO pounds : J day.
She carm about half-a_crnwn
23
.
LIZA [hallgluHy24] Who mld you I 001;-
HIGGINS lconriouing] She offers me (\O,'o-fifthsof hcr da)"s income
for a Iesson. p,\l0-l1fth5 of a millionairc'5 income fin a da)' wOllld be
wm~.here about 60poun(k I['s handsome. B y George, it's enormousl
!t's rhe biggest otTer 1ever hado
I.lZA [rising, terrified] Sixt)' pound.s! \'l;'1m an )'Oll ralking about? I
Ile.. er offered )'ou sixty pmmds. \Vhere "ould I gcr
HIGGINS. Hold Y(lur fOngue,
UZA [weeping] Bur 1ain't gor 5ll: rypowlds. Oh--
MRS. P E.<\HCE. Don'r Cf)',rou siJ lygirl. Sit down. Nobody i5going to
tuuch rOllr mane)',
HrCGI"S. Somcbod~. is going ro tollch : rOll.with ab,oomstiek. if you
don't stop 5nivclling2S. Sit down.
LIZA [obeying slowl)'] Ah--ah~.ah.-o\\I~-O(}.'''o! One wauld think y ou
w. ~lll)' tuher.
1-I1GGINS. If 1decide ro leach )'ou, 1'U he worse than n\'o fathcn ro
you, Here [he eoffm her his ;ilk handkerchicll!
LIZA. 'V: : 1lar'schis for~
tIIGGINS. Towipe your eyes. To wire atl)' pan of)'our faee thar feeh
moist. Remember. t11J t'S your handke"hief; ,lIld that's your slen'c,
DOll't mistake rhe one for the orher if yoo wish (Qhecome a lady in a
shop. Liu, uud)' bewildcrc: d, stares hdpc: ~~I)';u him.
J v1R.S.PEARCE. lt's no \J .~cralking to htr like rhar. Mr. Higgins: she
doesn'r undersund }'OU, 'k.les, )'ou're {luir!' wrong: she doe.m'r d0 ir
rltar w: w ar all [she take.~the handkerchidl
LIZA (~narching it]llere! Yougive me rhH h,lIlJ kerchid: He givc ir to
me, nm ro you.
PICKERJ NG : aughing] He did. 1 thinl it musr be Teg'.lrdedas her
pwpcn)', .\1rs. I'earce.
MRS. PURCE [re.igning h('rsc!ll Serve y ou riglH, Mt. Higgins.
PJ CKERlNG. Higgins: J 'm interesroo. ' \ ; l : . 1 w abOln rhe ambassadot'.~
~arJ ell pan)'? I'lI say )'oll're rhe grearesr tracbcr ;lJ in' ir rou make mar
gnod. 1'11ber you all dH.: expensl"Sof rhe experimcnr )'011 can'rdo il. AnJ
I'IJ pay for the Ics.soos.
U/_A ..Oh, you 1ft' rcal good. Thank YOll.C;lprain.
f IlGGINS {tempred, looking at her] l almosr irresistible. She's so
ddiciomly low~~sohorrihly diny-.
LIZA [protesting eXlrl'mt'!y] Ah.~ah--ah-;lh--ow--ow--nnoo!!! I ain'r
ditl)': I washeu rny bce ;lIld h: lI1J s afore l come. , did.
l'ICKERING. YOll'recenainly Ilor going Dmm her head \VirhAaucr)',
Hi~ins.
MRS. PEARCE IUne;l\"}'JOh, don'[ say rh~t, sir: (here's more ways (han
olle uf rurning a gir!'s head; and nobody cm do it hetter than .\ir.
Higgins, rhough he ma)' nl)( always mt';Ul it. I do hop<', sir, )'ou wor
l'ncollrage him ro do ;mything fonlish.
H[(;GINS [bccomin; excit(,d ;lSrhe ide; gtows on himJ \'l;'hat is J ife
hut a .'iCriesof inspircd fc)lJ il';6~ The diRlculry is 10 fina chcm ro do.
Ne: H'r lose: a chance: ir dncsn'c come cvef)' da}'. I shallmake a duchess
of thi.~dragglcrailerj27 gutrersnipe28,
U/.A [mongly dcprl'caling rhis vit"wof hcrJ Ah~-ahah.-()w.~ow-
\lO!
HIGGINS [carded awayj Yes: in six mollt!ls-in duce if she has a
glloJ C;Irand aqukk longlJ e~.l'lJ rakc her mywhere ;U1dpass heT off: t.\
all}'thing. \'(Ie'(I nart roday: now! rhis Oloml'llr! AE
I VOCABULARV' ." , ,-,_o _ _
23 coyly: (cspeci.dly or wllm~n) being or -rett'nJ ing ro besh}',mnJ est,
dlildhh or lacking in euntlJ ellce I 24 haughtily: exeessivd)' nr
lli~d.1jllfullyptoud 1 25 snivel(ling): ro ct}' slighrl)' in a wJ .y that is
wcak J llJ J oc: s I: UI make mht'r peor'c feel .~Ylllp<lrhyt<lt )'ou I 26
folly(ies): foolish an or idea 1 27 draggletailed: unridy: dirr}'
and '.lIIkempr, or with hair or dorhes in chisMarc 128guttersnipe:
(imulr) somebod~' rcgardcd as hJ ving a tnugh or vulgar nunner,
espl'CiallysomehoJ y wirh a IOl',er-cJ a-ssbackpounJ
Without going
back to the texto match each 01the
101l0wingJ ines with its
corresponding character
Une
1)I do hope, sir, you won't encourage himto do
anything loolish.
2) I'minterested. What about the ambassador's
garden party)
3) You're certainly nol going to turn her head
with Ilattery,
4) I rather fancied m,sell because1 can
pronounce twenty-Iour distinct vowel sounds; but
your hundred and thirty beat me,
5)I'mcome to have l:sson5, I amo And to pay lar
emtoo: make no mis1ake.
6) Oh, something dre,dlul, sir, really. 1 don't
know how you can ta<ean interest in it.
7) Don't you be so saJ CY.
8) What is lile but a series 01 inspired lollies) The
cifficulty is to lind the11 to do,
9) It's the biggest offer 1ever had,
10)Don't 1tell you I'mbringing you business?
Charclcter
a) Eliza Ooolille
b) M. Higgins
el Mr. P icke.ing
d) Mrs. P earce
(e~L: ~~: ~~: ~(l ~~~K~~~(E~(Z~{1
: A.3)1lBMSN't'
ON THE CD: AUDIO ARTIClE &MORE EXERCISES
47
f l ' E E
The Matrix series continues to capture the imagination
1
. ,
I
...with the description 01the charaers

E
~
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~
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'"
it
e
'"

e
J j
.2
z
M

,
l'
; -
o
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N
5 1
z
~
. . .
o

. ;

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V i
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o
w
~
~
z
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TRINITY is the f:rst mate 01the Nebuchadnezzar. Her relationship with Neo represents the power of love.
She provides hir; with strength, and their bond' motvates him to do extracrdinary things. Because of
the prophecy she received fTcm the Grade, she has complete faith in Morpheus and Neo.
NIOBE represents the strength behind the humans' rehellion against the machines. While she left
Morpheus becalJ se his ques! far The One became too overwhelming
2
, she begins to realize she 5till has
feelings far him and volunteers her crew to back up the Nehuchadnezzar.
NEO,whose name means "new" and s an anagram for "one," represents "'Iope lo the rebels. They
hope he will fulfill the prophecy and the machines wiH be destreyed. Nee has gained extraordinary abili-
tles while inside the Matrix, and perhaps finally believes he is The One. He is an anomaly.
AGENT SMITH represents the machines' hatred
3
fer humans. But beca use his code mixes with Neo's at
the end of "The Matrix," he becomes an anomaly himself. With his ability t:>multiply himself and take
over
4
humans not in the Matrix, he Is an extreme threat to the rebels .
MORP HEUS, captain of the Nebuchadnezzar, is a leader for the rebel humam. His undying
5
faith that Neo
is The One, wh~e at times consuming
6
, has brought him respeet among the rebels. He represents their
falth. He is the first person 10 tell Neo the truth abol. . ! the Matrix and recruits him to fight for the rebels .
...Match the quotes below with the appropriate character from 1
first two "Matrix" movies. ~

I
V\'"hO SAj)
10 ~Neversend a numanto do a machine'sjoboW
2. "Hope: Ir is [he quintessentia' human delusion7,simultaneously the sourceof your greatest strengh,and your greatest weakress. "
3" "'Dodge. this. "
4. "1know you're out there. Icanfeel you nOIV. 1know that you're afraid. You'reafraid of us. You'reafraid of change. ~
So "'Youtake rhe blue pHIand thestory ends. 'l'ouwake in your bed and you believewhatever youW(:ntto believe. Voutake the red pill
and you stay inwanderland. and Ishow youhow deep the rabbit hale goes. "
6. "1envy you. But sucha thing is not meanl to last. "
7. "It seemsthat every time we meet. Ihavenothing but bad neW$. W
8. "You do not truly know someoneuntil youfight mem. "
9. "'Mark my words boy - mal themwell. Ihavesurvived your predecessorsand Iwill surviveyou:
10. "A little pieceof advice. '1'00 seean agent,you do what we do. Run. ~
J
, e
~
1
. ~.
<5
~
~
;j'
1 bond: ; l force oc feding (hu unites rror1c in a relationship I2overwhelming: having such a great effea as ro be cmotionall)' !1'
ovcrpowering (impo,'isible ro rcsist oc control: 13 hatred: a fcclingofintcnse honility rowards somebody oc someming 14 take over:
10 obrain or a.\sume control of somerhing. oc gaio contmJ of somcthing from somebody cisc I5 undying: describes an emorion [har
d
doC".> n~f di:ninish .bm cominues. forevC'f.'6 consuming: so inrense as ro cakeup all of somebody's mencion, time. and cnergy I7
elus.lon. a pCfmlenr falsc I::dJ ('fheld In (he facc of strong conrradiclorv evidena- 18dodge" 'cld d dd I
'd . . . -/ oromovC'qUl yan su enytoone
SI e ro aV Old Ix- mgcaught oc ha by mmC'body oc somerhing oc ro avoid doing something r~rded as unpleasam
P LUS ...
Blo lu.l: Do you know whal do hydrogen, 1311grass, sugar cane and
p i g m a n u r e h a v e i n c o m m o n ? S C i e n t i s t s a r e g e t t i n g b i o f u e l f r a m t h e m
t o m a k e o i ! i n d e p e n d e n c e p o s s i b l e . B u y i n g y o u r I i r s l h o u s e : O f c o u r s e ,
i t s n ' t a s e a s y a s p i c k i n g u p g r o c e r i e s a l t h e c o m e r s t o r e . I n f a c i ,
p u r c h a s i n g a h o m e c a n b e i n t i m i d a t i n g , e s p e c i a l t y l a r a f i m l - t i m e
buyer. S o, here you have guidance for firsHme buyers. Gadgels:
Map, hillhe road: GP S navig.llon systems may be the honesl
innovation in lhe aulo induslry. A global.posilioning-system device is
practica! and ~ provides a definitive answer lo lhe agold questions:
'Are welosl7 "Do we lum here7 "Are we lhere yet7
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