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# Aircraft Equations of Motion - 2

## Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics, MAE 331,

2012
Rotating frames of reference
Combined equations of
motion
FLIGHT 6-DOF simulation
program
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html
Euler Angle Rates
Euler-Angle Rates
and Body-Axis Rates
Body-axis
angular rate
vector
(orthogonal)
!
B
=
!
x
!
y
!
z
"
#
\$
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
'
B
=
p
q
r
"
#
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
Euler-angle
rate vector
Form a non-
orthogonal vector
of Euler angles
! =
"
#
\$
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*

!
! =
!
"
!
#
! \$
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
,
x
,
y
,
z
%
&
'
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
*
I
Relationship Between Euler-Angle
Rates and Body-Axis Rates
is measured in the Inertial Frame
is measured in Intermediate Frame #1
is measured in Intermediate Frame #2
Inverse transformation [(.)
-1
# (.)
T
]
!

"
!

"
!

"

p
q
r
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
= I
3
!
'
0
0
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
+H
2
B
0
!
(
0
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
+H
2
B
H
1
2
0
0
! )
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&

p
q
r
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
=
1 0 'sin(
0 cos) sin) cos(
0 'sin) cos) cos(
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
!
)
!
(
! *
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
= L
I
B
!
+

!
!
!
"
! #
\$
%
&
&
&
'
(
)
)
)
=
1 sin! tan" cos! tan"
0 cos! *sin!
0 sin! sec" cos! sec"
\$
%
&
&
&
'
(
)
)
)
p
q
r
\$
%
&
&
&
'
(
)
)
)
= L
B
I
+
B
Can the inversion
become singular?
What does this mean?
... which is
Euler-Angle Rates and Body-Axis Rates
Avoiding the Singularity at ! = 90
! Dont use Euler angles as primary
denition of angular attitude
! Alternatives to Euler angles
- Direction cosine (rotation) matrix
- Quaternions
! Propagation of rotation matrix
(9 parameters)
- From previous lecture

!
H
B
I
h
B
= " !
I
H
B
I
h
B

!
H
I
B
t ( ) = ! " "
B
t ( )H
I
B
t ( ) = !
0 !r t ( ) q t ( )
r t ( ) 0 !p t ( )
!q t ( ) p t ( ) 0 t ( )
#
\$
%
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
(
B
H
I
B
t ( ); H
I
B
0 ( ) = H
I
B
)
0
,*
0
,+
0
( )
Consequently
Avoiding the Singularity at ! = 90
! Propagation of quaternion vector
o see Flight Dynamics for details
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
=
x-component of rotation axis
y-component of rotation axis
z-component of rotation axis
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
! Quaternion vector: single rotation from
inertial to body frame (4 parameters)

! e t ( ) =
! e
1
t ( )
! e
2
t ( )
! e
3
t ( )
! e
4
t ( )
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
&
=
0 'r t ( ) 'q t ( ) 'p t ( )
r t ( ) 0 'p t ( ) q t ( )
q t ( ) p t ( ) 0 'r t ( )
p t ( ) 'q t ( ) r t ( ) 0
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
&
e
1
t ( )
e
2
t ( )
e
3
t ( )
e
4
t ( )
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
&
= Q t ( )e t ( ); e 0 ( ) = e (
0
,)
0
,*
0 ( )
Rigid-Body
Equations of Motion
Point-Mass
Dynamics
Inertial rate of change of translational position
Body-axis rate of change of translational velocity
Identical to angular-momentum transformation

! r
I
= v
I
= H
B
I
v
B

! v
I
=
1
m
F
I
! v
B
= H
I
B
! v
I
! " "
B
v
B
=
1
m
H
I
B
F
I
! " "
B
v
B
=
1
m
F
B
! " "
B
v
B
F
B
=
X
Y
Z
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
=
C
X
qS
C
Y
qS
C
Z
qS
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
v
B
=
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&

! r
I
t
( )
= H
B
I
t
( )
v
B
t
( )

! v
B
t ( ) =
1
m t ( )
F
B
t ( ) +H
I
B
t ( )g
I
! " "
B
t ( )v
B
t ( )

!
!
I
t ( ) = L
B
I
t ( )"
B
t ( )

! !
B
t ( ) = I
B
"1
t ( ) M
B
t ( ) " " !
B
t ( ) I
B
t ( )!
B
t ( )
#
\$
%
&
Rate of change of
Translational Position
Rate of change of
Angular Position
Rate of change of
Translational Velocity
Rate of change of
Angular Velocity
r
I
=
x
y
z
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
I
!
I
=
"
#
\$
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
I
v
B
=
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
!
B
=
p
q
r
"
#
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
B
Translational
Position
Angular
Position
Translational
Velocity
Angular
Velocity
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
(Euler Angles)
Aircraft Characteristics
Expressed in Body Frame
of Reference
I
B
=
I
xx
!I
xy
!I
xz
!I
xy
I
yy
!I
yz
!I
xz
!I
yz
I
zz
"
#
\$
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
'
B
F
B
=
X
aero
+ X
thrust
Y
aero
+Y
thrust
Z
aero
+ Z
thrust
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
=
C
Xaero
+ C
Xthrust
C
Yaero
+ C
Ythrust
C
Zaero
+ C
Zthrust
!
"
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
B
1
2
'V
2
S =
C
X
C
Y
C
Z
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
q S
Aerodynamic
and thrust
force
Aerodynamic and
thrust moment
Inertia
matrix
Reference Lengths
b = wing span
c = mean aerodynamic chord
M
B
=
L
aero
+ L
thrust
M
aero
+ M
thrust
N
aero
+ N
thrust
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
=
C
laero
+ C
lthrust
( )b
C
maero
+ C
mthrust
( )c
C
naero
+ C
nthrust
( )b
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
&
B
1
2
'V
2
S =
C
l
b
C
m
c
C
n
b
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
q S
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion:
Position

! x
I
= cos! cos" ( )u + #cos\$sin" + sin\$sin! cos" ( )v + sin\$sin" + cos\$sin! cos" ( )w
! y
I
= cos! sin" ( )u + cos\$ cos" + sin\$sin! sin" ( )v + #sin\$ cos" + cos\$sin! sin" ( )w
! z
I
= #sin! ( )u + sin\$ cos! ( )v + cos\$ cos! ( )w

!
! = p + qsin! + r cos! ( ) tan"
!
" = qcos! # r sin!
! \$ = qsin! + r cos! ( )sec"
Rate of change of Translational Position
Rate of change of Angular Position
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion:
Rate

! u = X / m! gsin" +rv !qw
! v =Y / m+ gsin# cos" !ru + pw
! w = Z / m+ gcos# cos" +qu ! pv

! p = I
zz
L+ I
xz
N ! I
xz
I
yy
! I
xx
! I
zz ( )
p+ I
xz
2
+ I
zz
I
zz
! I
yy ( )
"
#
\$
%
r
{ }
q
( )
I
xx
I
zz
! I
xz
2
( )
! q =
1
I
yy
M ! I
xx
! I
zz
( ) pr ! I
xz
p
2
!r
2
( )
"
#
\$
%
! r = I
xz
L+ I
xx
N ! I
xz
I
yy
! I
xx
! I
zz ( )
r + I
xz
2
+ I
xx
I
xx
! I
yy ( )
"
#
\$
%
p
{ }
q
( )
I
xx
I
zz
! I
xz
2
( )
Rate of change of Translational Velocity
Rate of change of Angular Velocity
Mirror symmetry, I
xz
" 0
FLIGHT -
Computer Program to
Solve the 6-DOF
Equations of Motion
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html
FLIGHT - MATLAB Program
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html
FLIGHT - MATLAB Program
Examples from FLIGHT
Longitudinal Transient
Response to Initial Pitch Rate
Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m
For a symmetric aircraft, longitudinal
perturbations do not induce lateral-
directional motions
Transient Response
to Initial Roll Rate
Lateral-Directional Response Longitudinal Response
Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m For a symmetric aircraft, lateral-
directional perturbations do
induce longitudinal motions
Transient Response to
Initial Yaw Rate
Lateral-Directional Response Longitudinal Response
Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m
Crossplot of Transient
Response to Initial Yaw Rate
Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m
Longitudinal-Lateral-Directional Coupling
Alternative Reference
Frames
Velocity Orientation in an Inertial
Frame of Reference
Polar Coordinates Projected on a Sphere
Body Orientation with Respect
to an Inertial Frame
Relationship of Inertial Axes
to Body Axes
Transformation is
independent of
velocity vector
Represented by
Euler angles
Rotation matrix
v
x
v
y
v
z
!
"
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
= H
B
I
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
= H
I
B
v
x
v
y
v
z
!
"
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
Velocity-Vector Components
of an Aircraft
V, !, "
V, !, "
Velocity Orientation with Respect
to the Body Frame
Polar Coordinates Projected on a Sphere
No reference to the body
frame
Bank angle, \$, is roll angle
V
!
"
#
\$
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
=
v
x
2
+ v
y
2
+ v
z
2
sin
)1
v
y
/ v
x
2
+ v
y
2
( )
1/ 2
#
\$
&
'
sin
)1
)v
z
/ V ( )
#
\$
%
%
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
(
(
v
x
v
y
v
z
!
"
#
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
&
I
=
V cos' cos(
V cos' sin(
)V sin'
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
Relationship of Inertial Axes
to Velocity Axes
Relationship of Body Axes
to Wind Axes
No reference to
the inertial frame
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
=
V cos' cos(
V sin(
V sin' cos(
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
V
!
"
#
\$
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
=
u
2
+ v
2
+ w
2
sin
)1
v / V ( )
tan
)1
w / u ( )
#
\$
%
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
(
Angles Projected
on the Unit Sphere
!
" : angle of attack
# : sideslip angle
\$ : vertical flight path angle
% : horizontal flight path angle
& : yaw angle
' : pitch angle
( : roll angle (about body x ) axis)
: bank angle (about velocity vector)
Origin is
airplanes center
of mass
Alternative Frames of Reference
Orthonormal transformations connect all reference frames Next Time:
Linearization and Modes of
Motion

Flight Dynamics, 234-242,
255-266, 274-297, 321-330
Virtual Textbook, Part 10
Supplemental Material

! r
I
= H
B
I
v
B

! v
B
=
1
m
F
B
+ H
I
B
g
I
! " "
B
v
B

! !
B
= I
B
"1
M
B
" " !
B
I
B
!
B
( )
Rate of change of
Translational Position
Rate of change of
Rotation Matrix
Rate of change of
Translational Velocity
Rate of change of
Angular Velocity
r
I
=
x
y
z
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
I
!
I
= fcn H
I
B
( )
v
B
=
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
!
B
=
p
q
r
"
#
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
B
Translational
Position
Angular
Position
Translational
Velocity
Angular
Velocity
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
(Attitude from Rotation Matrix)

!
H
I
B
= ! " "
B
H
I
B

! r
I
= H
B
I
v
B

! v
B
=
1
m
F
B
+ H
I
B
g
I
! " "
B
v
B

! !
B
= I
B
"1
M
B
" " !
B
I
B
!
B
( )
Rate of change of
Translational Position
Rate of change of
Rotation Matrix
Rate of change of
Translational Velocity
Rate of change of
Angular Velocity
r
I
=
x
y
z
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
I
!
I
= fcn H
I
B
e ( )
"
#
\$
%
v
B
=
u
v
w
!
"
#
#
#
\$
%
&
&
&
B
!
B
=
p
q
r
"
#
\$
\$
\$
%
&
'
'
'
B
Translational
Position
Angular
Position
Translational
Velocity
Angular
Velocity
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
(Attitude from Quaternion Vector)

! e = Qe