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Timber

The term "timber" describes sawn wood that is 140mm or more in its smallest
dimension. There are two categories of timbers. Rectangular "Beams and Stringers" (width
more than 51mm greater than thickness) are typically used as bending members, and square
"Posts and Timbers" (width less than 51mm greater than thickness) are typically used for
columns.
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Wood timbers and construction most commonly
are related with such a general terms as timber
framing and post-and beam constructions.
That means building with heavy timbers rather
than using dimensional lumber. Method is
realized by using heavy squared-off and carefully
fitted and joined timbers to create a structures.
Generally it can be seen in buildings which are
from 19
th
century and earlier. Usage of timber
and timber framing method can be considered
as base or principle for modern wood treatment
and material manufacturing. The only difference
is technology, because comparing development and progress, the way how things were done are
different. In those times saws were used to cut lumber from the starting material stock, then with the
help of axes, draw knifes and other hand powered tools details/materials were assembled together to
make a structure for a building which was capable of bearing weight of itself and other parts.
In nowadays materials available from lumber yard stocks are usually
made by cutting large timbers in logs, which comes in sizes up to
394 x 394mm. Availability of large size and long length timbers are
set by pre-order from suppliers, specifying the request.
There has been little in-grade strength test data on timbers, due to
the relatively small volume of timbers produced. Therefore, the
design values for timbers are determined on the basis of small clear
tests adapted for grade characteristics. Generally timbers, along with
other materials, for example glulam and laminated veneer lumber (LVL),
are used for post and beam constructions.






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Canadian Wood Council, Timber - http://cwc.ca/wood-products/lumber/timber/. Retrieved 16.04.2014

Sizes/Dimensions
Timbers are sometimes manufactured to large dimensions and resawn later to fulfill specific
orders. The table below shows the most common sizes, which range from 140mm x 140mm to 292 x
495mm in lengths of 5m to 9m and longer, with longer lengths which means a bigger price.
Table 1: Timber Sizes
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140 x 140 Post and Timber
x191
x241

Beam and Stringer
x292
x343
x394
x445
191 x 191 Post and Timber
x241
x292

Beam and Stringer
x343
x394
x445
x495
241 x 241 Post and Timber
x292
x343
Beam and Stringer x394
x445
x495
292 x 292 Post and Timber
x343
x394
Beam and Stringer x445
x495
Notes:
Timbers are surfaced (dressed) and sold green
Source: Canadian Wood Council, Timber
http://cwc.ca/wp-content/uploads/Timber.pdf
Created by: Aivars ogla



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Canadian Wood Council, Timber - http://cwc.ca/wood-products/lumber/timber/, Retrieved 16.04.2014
Moisture Control
The large size of timbers makes kiln drying impractical due to the drying stresses which
would result from differential moisture contents between the interior and exterior of the timber.
For this reason, timbers are usually dressed green (moisture content above 19 percent), and the
moisture content of timber upon delivery will depend on the amount of air drying which has
taken place.
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Likewise dimensional lumber, timber starts to shrink when its moisture content falls below approx. 28
percent limit. The degree of shrinkage depends on the climatic conditions of the environment. For
instance, if timber is exposed to the outdoor conditions, then shrinkage is anticipated from 1.8 to 2.6 %
in width and thickness (depends on species). Timbers used outdoors, where climate is drier expected
shrinkage would be in range of 2.4 to 3.0 % in width and thickness. In either case length changes are
negligible.
When constructing with Posts and Timbers or Beams and Stringers, allowance should be made
for anticipated shrinkage based on the moisture content at the time of assembly. Where the
building envelope relies on caulked seals between timbers and other building components, the
selection of caulks should take into account the amount of movement which must be
accommodated as shrinkage occurs.
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For a surface of a timber minor checks are common in most service conditions. Therefore an allowance
has been made in assignment of working stresses. Checks for columns do not make such an importance,
unless there is any signs that there could form a splits or cracks, that could lead to rift (disrupt), dividing
column apart.
Conclusion
In nowadays wood timbers are less commonly used, because of advantages from other, similar
materials. But few of advantages are still helping wood timber as a material, to hold its positions. For
example one of the aspects could be fire safety. Timbers, compared to unprotected dimension lumber,
offer increased resistance to fire and that leads to fact that timber is often used in Heavy Timber
constructions to meet minimum size and fire-resistance rating requirements of building codes.
In the United States and Canada, timber-frame construction traditions has been restored since the
1970s and is now experiencing a burgeoning renaissance based on ancient skills.
Once technologies now are a big part of our life and a heart of all industries, the impact can not be left
unmentioned also in building industry. Timber-frame construction has now been modernized with the
help of modern industrial tools. These machines and mass-production techniques have led to growth
and availability - affordable frames and shorter lead-times for projects.


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Canadian Wood Council, Timber, Moisture Control - http://cwc.ca/wp-content/uploads/Timber.pdf. Retrieved
16.04.2014
4
IBID
Preservative-Treated Wood
Preservative-treated wood is wood which has been surface coated or impregnated by means of
pressure with chemicals which improve resistance to damage from decay and insect attack.
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Preservative-treatment processes do not change the characteristics of wood, but improves quality of
material itself, by extending its lifetime and improving severe service conditions.
Why wood should be treated?
Deterioration of wood in use is commonly caused by decay fungi and certain insects (usually
termites and carpenter ants), however other organisms, like marine borers and weather also effects the
process. All these aspects can cause a great damage to wood in service.
Decay fungi, or wood rotters, are lower forms of plant life related to mushrooms, rusts, molds, and
mildews. Wood rotters grow throughout the wood in threadlike strands digesting cellulose and other
components for food.
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At the beginning it causes a large loss in strength of wood and sooner or later
results in soft and crumbly wood.
The objective of a wood preservative is to preserve wood from the wood destroying agents like fungus
or insects, in that way extending the life span of the wood. Specifically getting rid of or avoiding of the
fourth condition necessary for fungal growth, the food source. It refers to the treatment of wood using
toxic substance, so the fungi are unable to utilize the wood for food. It is probably the most efficient
method used today for all types of situations when wood is used in exterior exposed constructions.
Objectives of Wood Preservative Treatment
1. To increase the wood durability by decreasing the risks of wood destroying agents like fungi,
insects and other organisms. It aims in extending the service life of non durable wood.
2. To reduce the maintenance and replacement cost of wood after use.










5
Canadian Wood Council, Preservative treated wood, http://cwc.ca/wood-products/treated-wood/preservative-
treated-wood/. Retrieved 18.04.2014

6
Hoffman T. R., Dr. Hendricks L.T., Powell K., Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on
landscape timbers, University of Minnesota, 2002, p.1;
Table 2: Pests and Disease of Wood
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Wood Inhabiting Fungi: Wood decay, Mold and most sapwood stains are
caused by fungi. There are two types of fungi:

1. Wood Destroying
Fungi:
These are decay fungi
that cause Brown rots,
White rots and Soft
rots.
2. Wood Staining
Fungi:
Discoloration of wood,
it has little or no
effects on its strength.
They are sap staining
fungi, mold fungi etc.
Insects: Several kinds of insects attack wood for shelter
and foods. The most important
are Termites, Carpenter ants and various Beetles
(for example Powdery post beetle, Anobiid
beetles), Marine borers etc.
Source: An Introduction to Wood Preservative, Rajendra Kumar KC
http://www.forestrynepal.org/images/wood_preservatives_rkc.pdf
Created by: Aivars ogla
Commonly used preservative
Through experience and experimentation, wood preservatives commonly used today have
proved to be highly toxic and hazardous to wood destroying organisms that cause deterioration.
Preservatives are generally divided into two categories: oil-type and waterborne salts.
Oil-type preservatives
Because oil-type preservatives are insoluble in water, they are resistant to leaching and do not
cause wood to swell during treatment. Creosote and pentachlorophenol are the two most commonly
used oil preservatives.
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Creosote is a brownish-black oil composed of hundreds of organic compounds. Creosote is usually made
by distilling coal oil, but it can also be made from wood or gasoline mixtures. Creosote treating gives
wood that brownish to black look, but the main fact is that it is broadly used in treating timbers, piles,
poles and crossties.
To lower the costs for preservatives creosote is often combined with add mixtures, like coal tar and
heavy petroleum oil. However this may decrease the quality of preservative treatment, because adding

7
Rajendra K.C. An Introduction to Wood Preservative.
http://www.forestrynepal.org/images/wood_preservatives_rkc.pdf. Retrieved 18.04.2014
8
Hoffman T. R., Dr. Hendricks L.T., Powell K., Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on
landscape timbers, University of Minnesota, 2002, p.4;
extra ingredients decreases toxicity to fungi, but in other hand it increases service life because oils and
tar helps to reduce weathering and protects material from moisture.
Pentachlorophenol, also known as penta or PCP, must be dissolved in petroleum oils or more volatile
organic solvents such as mineral spirits, liquefied petroleum gas, and methylene chloride in order to treat
wood. Using more volatile solvents will weaken the mixture, by leaving only preservative. Treating
solutions normally contain 5% penta by weight.
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Pentachlorophenol treated wood will vary from light to
dark brown in color depending on the solvent that used. Penta has commonly been used in the millwork
industry and for treating posts and poles.
How it is already stated oil-based preservatives include creosote, pentachlorophenol, but few of them,
like copper naphthenate, and copper-8- quinolinolate can be divided in specialized oilborne preservative
category. Copper naphthenate is safe for use where living plants contact the wood. Copper-8-
quinolinolate is unique because it can be applied to food or feed contact surfaces. Elemental copper is
an essential element for all known living organisms, including humans and other animals. Copper is
normally kept in balance in the human body. Copper compounds are most commonly used in agriculture
to treat plant diseases, like mildew, or for water treatment and as preservatives for wood, leather, and
fabrics. Food naturally contains copper.
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Waterborne preservatives
Waterborne preservatives are primarily inorganic metal systems that include chromate
copper arsenate (CCA), copper azole, ammoniacal copper quaternary, copper citrate, and
ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate. CCA is by far the most commonly used waterborne system for
wood treatment and tends to leave the wood a greenish color.
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Waterborne preservatives are soluble in water during treatment. Since water is used as a
carrier for the chemicals, the wood after treatment should be dried (to a moisture content of
19% or less unless otherwise specified.
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(Waterborne preservatives are divided into two basic
types leach-resistant and leachable.
Leach-resistant preservatives chemically forms insoluble compounds that bond to the wood.
Subsequent rewetting of the wood will not cause preservative loss. Leachable compounds do
not bond with the wood structure that is why it should not be used in areas of high decay

9
Hoffman T. R., Dr. Hendricks L.T., Powell K., Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on
landscape timbers, University of Minnesota, 2002, p.4;
10
E. Roberts Alley & Associates Inc. Environmental Engineering Consultants. Environmental and Health Risk
Evaluation of Copper Naphthenate and Copper Naphthenate Treated Wood.
http://www.coppercare.com/Documents/Technical/CuNap_Health_Risk.pdf. Retrieved 18.04.2014
11
United Nations Environment Programme. Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee, Report of the Methyl
Bromide Technical Options Committee, UNEP/Earthprint, 2003, p. 302;
12
Hoffman T. R., Dr. Hendricks L.T., Powell K., Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on
landscape timbers, University of Minnesota, 2002, p.5;

hazard. Two of the most commonly used waterborne salts are chromate copper arsenate (CCA)
and ammoniac copper arsenate (ACA). Both substances are leach-resistant and suitable for
ground contact.
CCA can be defined as a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This
mixture commonly contains chromium (VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic (V)
(pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pent oxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide,
often in an aqueous solution or concentrate.
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There are three different types varying in the
percentage of these chemicals and they are equally effective and are used to treat lumber,
plywood, and timbers. (See table below)
Table 3: Percentages of Weight %
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Components Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
Chromium 61 35.3 47
Copper 17 19.6 19
Arsenic 22 45.1 34
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Trade names
Greensalt, Langwood,
Edalith, Tanalith
Boliden CCA, Koppers
CCA-B, Osmose k-33,
Koppers CCA-C
Wolman CCA,
Wolmanac CCA, Chrom-
ar-cu
Source: Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on landscape timbers
Authors: Thomas R. Hoffman, Dr. Lewis T. Hendricks, Kevin Powell
Created by: Aivars ogla
CCA gives wood a greenish color which with the time weathers to gray, although by approach of
new process developed CCA treated wood can be also in brown color.
ACA is used for many of the same uses as CCA. Copper and arsenic compounds are dissolved in
ammonia. After treatment the ammonia evaporates but leach-resistant copper arsenate
remains in the wood. ACA is commonly available in Canada and United States.
Three other waterborne preservatives are not so commonly used in treating wood. For
example, acid copper chromate (ACC) is a leach-resistant preservative that is used in solutions
above ground and for nonstructural items in ground contact. The remaining two - Chromated
zinc chloride (CZC) and Fluor chrome arsenate phenol (FCAP) are leachable preservatives that

13
Agency for Toxicology and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine. Chemical-
specific health consultation for chromate copper arsenate chemical mixture.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18429380. Retrieved 18.04.2014
14
Hoffman T. R., Dr. Hendricks L.T., Powell K., Selecting preservative treated wood with special emphasis on
landscape timbers, University of Minnesota, 2002, p.5;
not so effective, but still are adopted in constructions with ground contact or very wet
conditions.
Process
Most preservative-treatments are applied using the full-cell pressure method by which wood is
placed in a pressure vessel and a vacuum is applied to draw air from the wood cells.
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The preservative
solution is admitted to the cylinder and is first drawn into the cells by the vacuum. In all treatment
methods involving the use of pressure of vacuum it is necessary to place the wood in a pressure vessel,
usually known as a cylinder or autoclave. The wood is loaded through a door at one end, usually on
railway bogies but sometimes on wheeled baskets, or occasionally loose. (see figure 9.8) Wood
impregnation in cylinders can be achieved using a variety of treatment cycles but before discussing these
in detail it is necessary to consider the units of pressure and vacuum which are used to describe them.
16






15
Canadian Wood Council, Preservative treated wood, http://cwc.ca/wood-products/treated-wood/preservative-
treated-wood/. Retrieved 18.04.2014
16
Barry A Richardson, Wood Preservation, Second Edition, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003, p. 76;
Source: Canadian Wood Council. Wood Reference Handbook, p. 464. Figure 9.8
Pressure of 690 to 1380 kPa (100 to 200 psi) is
applied forcing more into the wood
preservative. Finally, with last vacuum
reoccupy cleaner is removed from the surface
of the excess chemicals.
To avoid release of excess chemical after
treatment, wood in manufacturing premises
should be set aside for a time to let chemical
to fix into wood cell walls. Once a solid phase
over, the waterborne preservative is
chemically affixed to the cell walls and
material is ready to be used.

Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
Introduction
Laminated veneer lumber also referred to as LVL is an engineered lumber built up of high grade
lumber veneers glued together. The strength properties of LVL enables it to span further and bear
greater loads than traditional lumber can with smaller dimensions. It can be used for such things as
lintels, columns, beams, truss cords, rafters and formwork. In this chapter we will look into the different
aspects of the LVL that will help when making a decision of material in the building process.
History
Laminated veneer lumber was first used in the production of wooden propellers in World War
two airplanes such as the de Havilland Mosquito. It was not until 1970 that the first commercially
produced LVL for building construction would be patented as MICRO-LAM laminated veneer lumber.
Since then the demand for this structural lumber has grown bring other manufactures to the market
under such names as GANG-LAM, STRUCLAM and VERSA-LAM.
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Species
Douglas fir, Pine and Poplar are commonly used in the product of laminated veneer lumber
because of their density and strength properties. It will vary with the location of the producer and what
species is assessable to harvest and transport to the factory without great cost.
Production
This process starts out in the field were lumber is graded and selected by the producer or the
forestry service personal in a cut block before harvesting. When the trees are harvested they graded
once more and cut to the appropriate length for producing and shipping. At the mill the logs bark is
removed and they are then placed up into hot water ponds where they soak for approximately one hour
to soften the fibers in the log. With the logs fibers soft it is placed on a large wood lath where the
veneers are piled off at a thickness between 2.5mm and 4.8mm
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(depending on the manufacturer). The
veneers are then graded and sorted for quality and moisture content where they proceed to the dry
kilns. From the kiln the Veneers are scanned through an ultrasonic scanner that is able to detect any
weakness in the grains of the veneers. Veneers with acceptable but weaker grains will be used on the
core where the strongest grains to the outside. A water proof pheno-formalydehyde adhesive resin is
applied to both sides of the veneers before they are placed into billets with the grain running length
wise. These billets in principle can be endless but are limited by maximum transport lengths. The billet is
then rolled through the hot press where microwave heat and pressure is used to bond the billet
together to create a large LVL that is then saw into the desired dimensions and treated on the sawn
ends. Quality control is then undertaken again using the ultrasonic scanner and various mechanical test
to ensure the quality and performance of the engineered product is to the highest standards. Third
party quality control is used to ensure the product is worthy of the certification that it has received from
the wood council of the countries it is being used in. The LVL is now ready to be ship directly to the
contractor, if it was specially order or the building supplier.

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Gaspar Lewis & Floyd Vogt, Carpentry 3 Edition by Delmar Copyright 2001 Unit 3 Page 43
18
Canadian Wood Council ,Wood Reference Handbook Page 166 Figure 3.18
Sizes
LVLs are produced in large billets normally around 1320mm in width and up to 89mm in
thickness which can give a variation of sizes depending on the application it is to be used in. In the chart
below the standard sizes that can be found at a supplier are displayed.
Table 1: LVL Standard Sizes (inclusive meter price in Danish Krone
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)
Size (bxd) in mm
45 x 260 - 121.50 DKK pr.m 45 x 300 - 140 DKK pr.m 45 x 360 - 166.50 DKK pr.m
45 x 400 187.33 DKK pr.m
Lengths of up to 20m
If the standard size alone cannot fulfill the static requirements of the building component the LVL can be
fastened together according to the manufactures requirements. This also makes it easier for handling
and placement on site when the component can be placed in plys and fastened together in place. The
following chart shows the number of screws (SDW Structural Wood Screws) to be used when assembling
2 or more LVLs.
Table 7
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Multi-Ply LVL, PSL and LSL Assemblies
Allowable Uniform Load Applied to Either outside Member

Characteristics
The high grade veneers used are low in moisture and free from strength reducing knots making
laminated veneer lumber less prone to shrinkage and warping as well as making it stronger, straighter
and more uniform than traditional Timber lumber.
Durability
Durability is partly based on the species of wood used to produce the component and although
the adhesive used is fully water proof it is not recommended for use with permanent exposer to the
elements. If the application of the LVL requires exposer to the elements it is to be special treat after
manufactures guidelines, pay special attention to the cut ends and joints. It may also be acceptable to
decay if it is located in a high moisture that does not have any ventilation. LVL are not normally treated
for pests such as termites so if it is used in an area where pests are a problem it should be treated
accordingly.

19
http://www.bygmax.dk/byggematerialer/limtrae/lvl-bjaelker.html Retrieved 16.04.2014
20
http://www.strongtie.com/products/connectors/SDW.asp Retrieved 16.04.2014
Quality Assurance
The Laminated veneer lumber is under constant scrutiny right from the start when the tree is
harvested through to the production. It is quality controlled at every stage of production for moisture,
strength and visual quality. The finish product is controlled with ultrasonic scanners and mechanical
tests to ensure that only quality products leave production line. Radom third party test are also run on
the product to ensure a non-bios result that ensures the certification of the finished product.
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When
delivered on site the LVL should be stored flat and of the ground with a cover protecting it from the
elements. In cases where there is more than one batons should be laid between each row allowing
ventilation around the component.
Properties
Design Stresses for 2.0E Microllam LVL
Modulus of elasticity E 13800 Mpa
See annex 1 for all the design Properties to calculate deflections.
Density
LVL in Douglas fir 552 kg/m3
LVL in Pine 652 kg/m3
LVL in Yellow Poplar 554 kg/m3
All properties are taken from one manufacturer and should be checked if another manufacture is chosen
to deliver the component.
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Fire
Laminated veneer lumber reacts similar to solid timber when exposed to fire, with a slow and
predictable charring rate. This Predictable charring rate which is established in test and transferred to a
chart that can be used to over dimension the component to compensate for the exposer to fire. The
higher the fire rating the longer the exposer which leads to more charring thus the beam will be thick
and deeper to compensate. Before making these calculation a dialog between the manufactures and
local fire authorities should be established to ensure that is carried out to satisfy all.
Parallam Strand Lumber (PSL)
Parallam strand lumber or PSL made up of the same veneer as the LVL. It is actual a by-product
of LVL because the sheets of veneer that meet the strength requirements but have knots or other
blemishes are cut into small, long strips used to produce parallam strand lumber. PSL products are
controlled with the same quality assurance at the various stages and produced with the same technics
as laminated veneer lumber. They share the same characteristics, durability and relation to fire as the
LVL, the difference is in the properties of the finish product and the standard sizes.

21
Canadian Wood Council The Design Publications Possibilities of Engineered Wood Products Page 9
22
Weyerhaeuser Tru Joist Specifiers Guide TJ-9505 January 2013 Page 4

Sizes
Beams
Widths in mm 44, 68, 89, 133, 178
Depths in mm 241, 281, 302, 356, 406, 483
Lengths of up to 20m
Columns
Dimensions in mm 89x89, 133x133, 178x178
Properties
Design Stresses for 2.2E Microllam PSL
Modulus of elasticity E 15168 Mpa
See annex 1 for all the design Properties to calculate deflections.
Density
LVL in Douglas fir 610 kg/m3
LVL in Pine 728 kg/m3
LVL in Yellow Poplar 536 kg/m3
All properties are taken from one manufacturer and should be checked if another manufacture is chosen
to deliver the component.
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Price
I consulted with the local building market on the meter price of PSL and I was informed that it is
a product that is ordered after application.
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Conclusion
LVL and PSL components offer a strong uniform engineered wood that can be used as beams,
lintels, rafters, truss cords and form work. The high quality materials and controlled production gives the
components predictable properties that can outperform traditional lumber in span and load baring
capacity. LVL would be the most suitable to be used in the rafter framing of the Activity Center in Nab
Bay because of the standard measurements, availability, and cost of the product in Denmark compared
to PSL wood products. PSL could be considered for beams for example in the ridge but should be
compared to glulam beams before making a decision. Laminated veneer lumber products are pushing
the limits of what we can do with wood, they enable us to build higher and larger while giving buildings
properties that cannot be achieved with other materials.

23
Weyerhaeuser Tru Joist Specifiers Guide TJ-9505 January 2013 Page 4
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Bygma Nyborg Lyvej 7, 5800 Nyborg 88 32 30 00
Plywood
Plywood is made up mainly soft wood veneers (Douglas fir and Southern pine in structural
panels) that are processed in the same way as laminated veneer lumber and graded for moisture,
strength and visual aspects. All grades of veneers are used in plywood to produce different grades based
on the functional and visual aspects of the finished product. The veneers are placed ninety degrees from
one another in layers of odd numbers so that each face of the panel has the grains running length wise.
Veneers are bonded with a water proof adhesive under heat and pressure and then finished in various
ways depending on the intent for the product.
Construction Plywood
Plywood that is used in the construction as sheathing that helps stabilize the building
structurally and gives a base for the chosen finish. Sheathing normal has a tongue and note on the long
axis of the panel to interlock each panel and should be joined over the structure (joist or rafter) on the
short axis. These panels finish can from rough to smooth sanded depending on the product that is to be
applied to the surface.
Sizes
Panels are a standard size of 1220mmx2440mm but have different thicknesses that should be
chosen from the structural demands of the application and the demands of the finish product being
applied to the panel.
Standard Thickness and price per panel in Danish Krone
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12mm - 189, 50 DKK
15mm - 214, 50 DKK
18mm - 248, 50 DKK
21mm - 298, 50 DKK
Sheets also come in 610mmx2440mm for easy handling on site.
Conclusion
When choosing a plywood for the construction the span between the rafters and joist should be
looked at to help determine the thickness required. The finishing/covering material should also be
considered for the thickness as well as the finish grade of the plywoods surface. Plywood is a strong
engineered panel that is produced in an array of types to suit many applications.





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http://www.bygmax.dk/byggematerialer/plader/krydsfiner/tag-og-gulvkrydsfiner.html Retrieved 17.04.2014
Glued laminated timber
Introduction
Glue laminated timber also called Glulam, consists of end joining individual pieces of
dimensional lumber laminations or boards together with structural adhesives to create long length
laminations (span). These long length laminations of timber are then face glued/bonded together with
adhesives, side against side, to create the desired glulam piece with different shape and large span.
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Types of wood
The majority of the glulam is produced in common spruce, Siberian larch, pine and fir, but there
is also focus on combination of wood, such as fir larch, hem fir and spruce pine.
Common Spruce
The most common wood used in glulam production is coniferous spruce. Common spruce has good
strength quality, light and appearance. That absorbs moisture, dries out relatively slowly and works in
case of changes in the moisture.
Siberian Larch
Siberian Larch grow slowly and the gain width of the wood is therefore narrow, that is due to
continental climate in Siberia, where the summer is short - warm and the winter long - cold. This mean a
high medium density, which is about 40% higher than common spruce. The prevailing colour of the
timber is yellowish-brown or yellowish-grey and sometimes orange, which creates a beautiful and warm
play of colours in the wood.
Pine
Pine is also used in the production of glulam. This type of wood contains the same good qualities as
common spruce. Pine differs from common spruce by its great play of colours. Unlike common spruce
and Siberian larch it is possible to pressure-treat pine, because the sapwood has an open porosity.
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Process
The process of glued laminated timber is following the points:
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1. Laminations are graded to ensure they meet the specified structural grade.
2. Timber is kiln-dried to a moisture content of 12% 2% for maximum bond-strength and glulam
stability.
3. Finger joints are machined and bonded to the appropriate strength grade.
4. Finger jointed laminations are planed to required thickness and cut to length.
5. Carefully controlled adhesive mix is applied to faces of the lamination.
6. Glulam is placed in mechanical or hydraulic systems of the appropriate shape and
pressure applied to specification.
7. Glulam piece is trimmed to size and the bond strength is tested to specification.
8. Cured Glulam member is planed to size and to remove any glue squeezed out in the jigs.

26
Gaspar Lewis & Floyd Vogt, Carpentry 3 Edition by Delmar Copyright 2001 Page 52-53
27
http://www.lilleheden.dk/uk/glulam.asp?id=2 Retrieved 15.4.2014
28
http://www.glulam.co.uk/specGuide_brochure/specGuide04.htm Retrieved 14.4.2014
9. Any appearance defects, where it is necessary within the grade, the Glulam member is cut,
shaped and drilled if required, and any finishing treatments are applied.
10. Finished Glulam members are usually wrapped and packed for delivery to site.

Quality Assurance
Adjustable - Glulam can be manufactured to the exact dimensions and adjusted as required.
Workable - Since glulam is glued together using thin flexible lamination timber it can easily be
manufactured in different shapes by preheating and hydraulic system, which is normally expensive in
other types of structural materials. This ability gives huge potential for the manufacture of different
shape which the architect invents from arches to portal frames. Through the laminating process, a
variety of shape can be created ranging from straight rectangular cross-sections to complex curved
shapes with varying cross-sections.
Durability It is important, such as glulam retain its strength and structural integrity after it has been in
service, and, in some cases exposed to exterior conditions under normal conditions of use.
29

In the open air, under cover and protected against seeping water common spruce and pine is very
durable. This is due to the closed cell structure. The common spruce cannot be chemically protected by
pressure treatment, because the fluid cannot be pressed into the wood, the rainwater cannot be
absorbed as well. Heartwood has natural good duration, whereas the sapwood is easily perishable. With
a constructive wood preservative there is a strong possibility that glulam of coniferous trees will have a
long duration.
The several elements of Siberian larch are hundred years old in Siberia, whick is very durable in a
continental climate, cannot be expected to be just as durable in our wet countries, because heartwood-
rich pine, which is property surface treated, will be able to pressure-treated pine without soil contact.
Fire Resistance
Glulam does not burn very well, that can therefore be made extremely fire safe and easily fulfil
the standards concerning BD-constructions (fire resistant) set by the authorities.
Size
Beam: Standard finished widths of glulam members and common widths of the laminating stock
they are 80, 89, 130, 140, 175, 184, 225 or 215, 235, 275 or 265, 286, 315 and 365 mm. Single widths of
lumber are used for the complete width dimension for members less than 275mm wide. However,
members wider than 175 mm may consist of two boards laid side by side. All members wider than
275mm are made from two pieces of lumber placed side by side, with edge joints staggered within the
depth of the member. Standard depths for glulam members range from 114mm to 2128mm. A thicker
member made laminations costs significantly less than an equivalent smaller member laminations.
However, the smaller laminations allow for a greater amount of curvature than thicker laminations.
Laminating lumbers may be end jointed into lengths of up to 40m, but the practical limitation may
depend on transportation clearance restrictions.
30


29
http://www.woodaware.info/PDFs/SCLandGlulam.pdf Retrieved 16.4.2014
30
http://cwc.ca/wood-products/glulam/sizes-available/ Retrieved 19.4.2014
Column: Standard size in mm 65x225-315, 90x225-495, 115x225-495 and 140x225-495. Square column
size in mm 140x140, 160x160 and 200x200.
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Strength
Glulam is fabricated from many graded lamellas and growth defects in the wood will be minimal
during treatment. Therefore glulam has strength, which is proven by many years of experience.


Characteristic Strengths (Mpa) Elastic Moduli (Mpa)
GL
Grade
Bending Tension Parallel
to Grain
Shear in
Beam
Compression Parallel to
Grain
Short Modulus of
Elasticity Parallel
to the End Grain
Short Duration
Modulus of
Rigidity for
Beams
GL12 25 12.5 3.7 29 11500 770
GL10 22 11 3.7 26 10000 670
GL8 19 10 3.7 24 8000 530
Table 1: The table show a numbers that are characteristic strength and elastic moduli of glulam beams.
32

Density
The sorting parameters that companies focuses on are the density and also number/size of
knots in the timber. Average density for glulam in common spruce, pine has 460 kg/m and Siberian
larch has 650 kg/m.
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Import
Companies is imported the type of engineering wood from selected sawmills in Scandinavia, so
raw material is always first quality. All properties are taken from one manufacturer and should be
checked if another manufacture is chosen to deliver the component.
Conclusion
Glulam is a beautiful, strength and flexible material, which can be used in almost all types of
buildings and to can be used almost anywhere for many different types of structures, and typically are
installed as floor, roof beams, columns, headers over doors and windows, studs in wall framing, bridges,
etc.

Steel
When beginning a project, we often debate from what materials the project will be made of,
whether to use wood, steel or concrete in building. Steel has the perception of strength and endurance.

31
http://www.trada.co.uk/jail/downloads/dir/memberBrochures/8973D4F0-EC05-11D6-864C-
00D0B7B8B494/Lilleheden_Glulam_Sizes.pdf Retrieved 19.4.2014
32
http://www.mcintosh.co.nz/TECHNICAL+INFORMATION/Characteristic+Strengths+and+Elastic+Moduli+for+Glula
m+Grades.html Retrieved 19.4.2014
33
http://www.lilleheden.dk/uk/glulam.asp?id=2 Retrieved 13.4.2014
Introduction
Structural steel is a construction material commonly with a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross
section, certain standards and mechanical properties. Structural steel is made from organised
combination of steel members designed to carry loads and provide adequate rigidity.
Advantages
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- High strength: The high ratio of strength to weight (the strength per unit weight)
- Excellent ductility and seismic resistance: Withstand extensive deformation without failure even
under high tensile stress
- Elasticity, uniformity of material: Predictability of properties, close to design assumption
- Ease of fabrication and speed of erection
Disadvantages
35

- Susceptibility to corrosion
- Loss of strength at elevated temperature: Fireproofing costs
- Susceptibility to buckling: Slender member in compression
- Fatigue and brittle fracture
Structure steel can be used in many types of projects/buildings such as multi-storey and high-rise
buildings, buildings of heavy duty plants, tower & mast structures, portal frames, bridges,
infrastructures, deployable structures and generalized structures-mechanical.
Common shape of steel beam include the IPE, HE A/B, HL, HD sections.
Why wood
36

Wood is more environmentally friendly, constantly growing and is sustainable. Wood in forests,
particularly in young vigorous forests, absorbs carbon dioxide, making a growing forest an efficient
carbon sink. The forests that are available for timber harvest are large enough to grow wood products to
build 1.6 million homes each year, endlessly into the future. Wood is the greenest construction material
on the market.
Wood buildings have a longer life span than steel building, because Steel sweats causing moisture that
provides conditions for mold to grow, which leads to corrosion and rust shortening the longevity of the
entire building.
Wood, a naturally more efficient insulator than metal, can cut costs on heating and cooling by 30 to 50
percent.
Wood retains its structural strength at temperatures higher than 1100 C and its predictable charring
rate makes it easy to over dimension to meet fire rating demands, while steel loses 80 percent of its
strength at 550C

34
http://www.sals.org.cn/teaching/zhaosir/Introduction-1.pdf Retrieved 19.4.2014
35
http://www.sals.org.cn/teaching/zhaosir/Introduction-1.pdf Retrieved 19.4.2014
36
http://reavesbuildings.com/why-wood Retrieved 19.4.2014
Conclusion
The quality of engineered lumber products today gives wood the ability to build higher, wider and
heavier than in the past , making it a sustainable alternative to steel in all low rise building applications
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37
http://reavesbuildings.com/why-wood Retrieved 19.4.2014