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CONCENTRATIONS OF REACTANTS:

Reaction rates generally increase as the

concentrations of the reactants are increased.
TEMPERATURE:
Reaction rates generally increase rapidly as
the temperature is increased.

PARTICLE SIZE:
The rate increases as the smaller the size of
reacting particles .

CATALYSTS:
Catalysts speed up reactions.
Factors affecting rate of reaction

A) CONCENTRATIONS OF REACTANTS

The frequency of collision increases increases with the

concentration
Reaction rate
collision
time
4 particle system
(2 and 2) 4 collision

A) CONCENTRATIONS OF REACTANTS

A concentration of reactants increases, the frequency

of collision increases.

This would also result in the increase in the quantity of

effective collision. Thus the reaction rate increases.
5 particle system
(3 and 2) 6 collision

A) CONCENTRATIONS OF REACTANTS

This oservation correlates with the RAT! "A# that has

een previously discussed\$
Reaction rate % k & A '
x
& ( '
y
\$

(ased on this equation,

(A & B = reactants)
(x & y = rate order)
Reaction rate concentration of reactants

REMINDER!
)nly in zero order reactions, the rate of reaction is not
dependant upon the concentration of the reactants.
(depending on its rate order)
Reaction rate % k & A '
*
% k (constant)

B) TEMPERATURE

As temperature increases, +inetic energy, of

molecules increases

Furthermore, the higher the +inetic energy, the

higher the energy of the effective collisions.

,o more molecules will have energy greater

than activation energy, !
a

Thus, the rate of reaction increases

Distribution of Kinetic Energies of Molecules
Represent total numer of molecules
with +inetic energy greater than !
a

ARRHENIUS EQUATION
-n .//0, ,vante Arrhenius proposed the following
mathematical e1pression for the effect of temperature on
the rate constant, k2
B) TEMPERATURE
k = A e
-E
a

RT
#here\$
k % rate constant
% constant +nown as the collision f!"#!nc\$ f%c&o
e % natural log e1ponent
E
a
% activation energy for the reaction
! % universal gas constant 3/.4.5 6 mol
7.
8
7.
9
" % asolute temperature

ARRHENIUS EQUATION

The relation ship etween the rate constant, k and

&!'(!%&#! can e seen in the k vs T graph2
B) TEMPERATURE
k = A e
-E
a

RT
#\$" (K
%#
9

ARRHENIUS EQUATION ) DERI*ATION

The relationship etween k and T is clearer when

we further derive the Arrhenius !quation\$
B) TEMPERATURE
RT
E
a
Ae k

=
) . ln( ln
RT
E
a
e A k

=
) ln( ln ln
RT
E
a
e A k

+ =
A e
RT
E
k
a
ln ln ln +

=
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln +

=
.
Natural log both ends
(But ln e = 1)
Thus
See the linear relationship?
y %
m x
:
C

raph !epresentation "# The Arrhenius \$%uation

;lotting a ln k &s
#
\$
"
graph would show a clearer
relationship etween k 3Rate constant9 and te&perature
B) TEMPERATURE
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln +

=
.
#here,
!
a
% Activation !nergy
R % /.4.5 6mol
7.
8
7.
T % Asolute Temp
A % Collision freq. factor

-f the value of A 3collision frequency factor9 is not +nown and the same reaction
conducted at two different temperatures.The Arrhenius equation at each temperature
can e written and comined to formed the equation shown in the o1.
B) TEMPERATURE
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln +

=
.
.
.
Since 'A+ is a constant
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln +

=
<
<
.
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln = +
<
<
.
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln = +
.
.
.
and
!earranging the e%uations (ould give
) ( ln ) ( ln
<
<
.
.
. .
T R
E
k
T R
E
k
a a
+ = +
) ( ) ( ln ln
. <
< .
. .
T R
E
T R
E
k k
a a
=
) ( ln
. < <
.
. .
T T R
E
k
k
a
=

DATA:
SOLUTION,
E-!cis!, &.! Ac&i/%&ion !n!0\$
The decomposition of hydrogen iodide,
has rate constants of 0.=. 1 .*
70
" mol
7.
s
7.
at =** 8 and
...*1.*
7=
" mol
7.
s
7.
at >** 8. Find \$
a
.
\$
a
% ..?> 1 .*
=
6@mol % .?> +6@mol
2 HI (g) H
2
(g) + I
2
(g)
k
.
% 0.=. 1 .*
70
" mol
7.
s
7.
T
.
% =**8
k
<
% ...* 1 .*
7=
" mol
7.
s
7.
T
.
% >**8
) ( ln
. < <
.
. .
T T R
E
k
k
a
=
.
. < <
.
. .

= ) )( ln(
T T k
k
R E
a
.
0
=
=**
.
>**
.
.* =. 0
.* .* .
4.5 /

= ) )(
.
.
ln( ) . (
a
E

A c%&%l\$s& is a sustance that increases the rate of a

chemical reaction without itself eing consumed.

Addition of a catalyst increases the reaction rate y

increasing the frequency of effective collision. That is y
A
Becreasing the !
a
, and
A Correct orientation
C) CATALYST

Addition of a catalyst changes the value of k 3rate
constant9 .
C) CATALYST
Reaction rate % k & A '
x
& ( '
y
(A & B = reactants)
(x & y = rate order)

The catalyst reacts y reducing the !

a
and increasing A,
thus increasing the k.
A
T R
E
k
a
ln ) ( ln +

=
.

uncatalyzed catalyzed
rate
uncataly'ed
( rate
cataly'ed

#hen E
%
decreases, k increases,
!\$A)T*"N !AT\$ increases
C) CATALYST
E
%
1 E2
%
Reaction pathway

D) PARTICLE SIZE
The smaller the size of reacting particles, the greater is
the total surface area e1posed for reaction and
consequently the faster the reaction. -n the case of
heterogeneous systems, in which the reactants are in
different phases, the area of contact etween the reacting
sustances will influence the reaction rate consideraly.