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ME-EM 3220 ENERGY LABORATORY


Air Flow Measurements
Pitot Static Tube
A slender tube aligned with the ow can measure local velocity by means of pressure differences. It
has sidewall holes to measure the static pressure p
s
in the moving stream and a hole in the front to
measure the stagnation pressure p
o
, where the stream is decelerated to zero velocity. The pitot static tube
may also be of the modied ellipsoidal-nose type. The tube has a very small diameter compared to that of
the duct diameter, but the resultant error caused by the additional blockage effect is considered minimal for
this investigation.
Instead of measuring p
o
and p
s
separately, it is customary to measure their difference with, say, a
transducer, as in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Pitot Tube Conguration
Pitot tubes are affected by Reynolds number at low uid velocities. The minimum Reynolds number for
total pressure measurements is approximately 30. This is the point where the characteristic length of the
pitot tube is equal to the diameter of the impact hole. Below this value, the indicated impact pressure is
higher than the streamimpact pressure due to viscosity effects. For air at standard atmospheric conditions,
the error due to low Reynolds number is only apparent for air velocities less than 12 ft./sec. (3.66 m/sec.).
And this is for pitot tubes with impact hole diameters of 0.010 inches (0.2543 mm) or less. For low-velocity
for example, U = 1 ft./sec. in standard air, p
0
-p equal to only 0.001 lb
f
/ft
2
(0.048 Pa). This is beyond the
resolution of most pressure gages.
The accuracy of pitot tubes is also affected if the sensor head is not parallel to the uid. The total and
static pressure measurement error due to yaw and pitch angles increase rapidly above angles of 5
o
.
Fortunately, they cancel each other out so velocity pressure measurements are 2% accurate up to angles
of attack of 30
o
.
Fluid ow
V p
o
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
o
p
o
p
o
2
The measurements of static pressure is also sensitive to the presence of uid boundaries. The
presence of a pitot tube in a pipe also affects the static pressure. The pitot tube partially blocks the ow
passage which increases the ow velocity in the vicinity of the device. This results in an indicated static
pressure which is less than the actual static pressure.
The speed of response of pitot tubes is also geometry dependent. The diameter of the air passage
within the probe, the diameter and length of the interconnecting tubes, and the displacement volume of the
manometer determines the time constant. For tubes diameters greater than 1/8 inches (3.175 mm) and
ordinary manometer connections, the time constant is very short. However the time constant increases
rapidly for smaller diameter tubes, with a response time of approximately 15 to 60 seconds for tubes
having a 1/16 inches (1.59 mm) diameter. Because of the slow response of the uid-lled tubes leading to
the pressure sensors, it is not useful for unsteady-ow measurements. One common problem with pitot
tubes that have very small diameters is that they tend to choke up easily if there is ne dirt in the uid.
The pitot static tube is useful in liquids and gases; for gases a compressibility correction is necessary if
the stream Mach number is high.
If Re
D
> 1000, where D is the probe diameter, the ow around the probe is nearly frictionless and
Bernoullis relation applies with good accuracy.
[1]
or
[2]
For an incompressible ow
[3]
Assuming that the elevation pressure difference is negligible, this reduces to
[4]
Here is the air density in kg/m
3
;
, [5]
is the static pressure in Pascal, is the gas constant and the value is 287 m
2
/(s
2
.K), is the absolute
temperature in Kelvin.
The velocity measured by the pitot tube needs to be corrected due to geometry and ow interactions. It
is done as follows
[6]
where , and the Reynolds number,
[7]
p
2
p
1

-----------------
1
2
--- V
2
2
V
1
2
( ) g z
2
z
1
( ) + + 0 =
p
1

-----
1
2
-- -V
1
2
gz
1
+ +
p
2

-----
1
2
---V
2
2
gz
2
+ + const = =
p
s
1
2
---V
2
gz
s
+ + p
0
1
2
--- 0 ( )
2
gz
0
+ +
g z
s
z
0
( )
V
th
2 p
0
p
s
( )

------------------------- =

p
s
RT
------- =
p
s
R T
V V
th
=
f Re
D
( ) =
Re
D
VD

------------ =
3
Table below gives the range of as a function of Reynolds numbers.,
Since V is not known, process is one which requires iteration, as described next;
STEP 1: - guess your values anywhere from 0.986 to 0.991
Hint: Start from the lowest value.
STEP 2: - plug in the values and calculate V
STEP 4: - Evaluate
STEP 5: - Look up your guess values whether it matches with the calculated or not
STEP 6: - If the assumed values is not in the calculated range, repeat Steps 1 - 5.
NOTE:
Different sensors will require a calibration data generated for that particular case. If such information is not
available use the table above as valid for the pitot tube you are using. Depending on the application you
have, you may also be advised to delete velocity correction altogether, = 1.
For channel ow where an average velocity is required, can also be determined by
evaluating the effective pressure (or average) for the channel after multiple measurements as follows:
[8]
where N is the number of measurements.
0.986 0.988 0.990 0.991
Re
D 3 10
4
1 10
5
3 10
5
1 10
6

Re
D
Re
D
Re
D
p
0
p
s
( )
P
eff
1
N
---- P
j
0.5
j 1 =
j N =

2
=
4
Calculating the Flow Rate from the Velocity Prole
The volumetric airow rate can be directly determined from the velocity prole across the duct. Recall
that a uid of velocity passing across an innitesimal area dA with outward unit normal vector .
Figure 2 Velocity Prole
Denoting the cross sectional area of the duct as A, the volume ow rate through any given cross
section of the duct can be found from integration
[9]
For a ow which is axisymmetric, the velocity is only a function of radial distance from the tube axis
(centerline) as it is in the case of circular cross-section but it will have also have an azimuthal angle
dependency otherwise.
What follows is a discussion for a channel of circular cross-section area only. In this instance,
[10]
and the innitesimal area element
[11]
where r is the radial distance from centerline, which varies from r=0 to r=R (the tube wall). The vector dot-
product can be simplied by recognizing the ow velocity is always perpendicular to the cross section of
the tube. Thus
[12]
where u is the magnitude of the velocity. With these simplications, the volumetric ow-rate in the circular
tube is given by
[13]
Knowing the velocity prole u(r) then allows us to calculate the volumetric ow rate by integration.
Since the data set is usually limited to a nite number of values u(r), we cannot perform the exact analytic
integral. We can, however, use a numerical estimate to approximately evaluate the ow rate. This
numerical estimate is best understood by recognizing that integration is the process of calculating the area
underneath a curve.
The curve in Figure 3 represents the true function u(r), for which the discrete values ,
, etc. are available. We can approximate the integration by summing the areas represented
by the shaded rectangles. In this case, the ow rate can be estimated from
u n
u
n
dA
Q u n ( ) A d
A

=
u u r ( ) =
dA 2rdr =
u r ( ) n u r ( ) =
Q 2u r ( )r r d
r 0 =
r R =

=
u
1
u r
1
( ) =
u
2
u r
2
( ) =
5
Figure 3 Approximating an Analytic Integral With Discrete Numeric Values
[14]
[15]
Mass ow rate can be evaluated as
[16]
An analysis similar to above can be performed for rectangular cross-sections as well.
r
1
u
1
u
2
u(r)
r
2
r
3
r
4
r
5
r
6
=R
dr
1
dr
2
Q 2 u
n
r
n
dr
n
n 1 =
6

Q 2 u
1
r
1
dr
1
u
2
r
2
dr
2
u
3
r
3
dr
3
u
4
r
4
dr
4
u
5
r
5
dr
5
u
6
r
6
dr
6
+ + + + + ( )
m Q =
6
Air Flow Measurements
Bernoulli Obstruction Theory
Consider the generalized ow obstruction shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 Velocity and Pressure Change through a Generalized Bernoulli Obstruction
Meter
The energy grade line (EGL) shows the height of the total Bernoulli constant
[17]
The hydraulic grade line (HGL) shows
[18]
where the height corresponding to elevation and pressure head
h
0
z
p

---
V
2
2g
------ + + =
V
2
2g
------
7
[19]
that is, the EGL minus the velocity head. The HGL is the height to which liquid would rise in a piezometer
tube attached to the ow. In an open-channel ow the HGL is identical to the free surface of the water.
The ow in the basic duct of diameter D is forced through an obstruction of diameter d; the is a key
parameter of the device,
[20]
After leaving the obstruction, the ow may neck down even more through a vena contracta of diameter
D2 < d, as shown. Apply the continuity and Bernoulli equations for incompressible steady frictionless ow
to estimate the pressure change:
Continuity:
[21]
Bernoulli
[22]
Eliminating , we solve these for or Q in terms of the pressure change :
[23]
But this is surely inaccurate because we neglected friction in a duct ow, where we know friction will be
very important. Nor do we want to get into the business of measuring vena contracta ratios D
2
/d for use in
Equation 23. We assume that and then calibrate the device to t the relation.
[24]
where subscript t denotes the throat of the obstruction. The dimensionless discharge coefcient C
d
accounts for the discrepancies in the approximate analysis. By dimensional analysis for a given design we
expect
[25]
where
[26]
The geometric factor involving in Equation 24 is called the velocity-of-approach factor
[27]
One can also group C
d
and E in Equation 24 to form the dimensionless ow coefcient
[28]
z
p

--- +

d
D
---- =
Q

4
---D
2
V
1
D
2
2
V
2
= =
p
0
p
1
1
2
---V
1
2
+ p
1
2
---V
2
2
+ = =
V
1
V
2
p
1
p
2
( )
Q
A
2
------ V
2
2 p
1
p
2
( )
1 D
2
4
D
4
( )
-----------------------------------
1 2
=
D
2
D
Q A
t
V
t
C
d
A
t
2 p
1
p
2
( )
1
4
( )
--------------------------
1 2
=
C
d
f Re
D
, ( ) =
Re
D
V
1
D

--------------- =

E 1
4
( )
1 2
=

C
d
E
C
d
1
4
( )
1 2
--------------------------- = =
8
Thus,
[29]
Obviously the ow coefcient is correlated in the same manner:
[30]
Occasionally one uses the throat Reynolds number instead of the approach Reynolds number
[31]
Since the design parameters are assumed known, the correlation of or of is the desired solution
to the uid-metering problem.
Figure 5 shows three basic devices recommended for use by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO): the orice, nozzle, and venturi tube.
Figure 5 Orice, Nozzle, and Venturi Tube Congurations
Q A
t
2 p
1
p
2
( )

--------------------------
1 2
=
f Re
D
, ( ) =
Re
D
V
t
d

------------
Re
D

---------- = =
C
d
9
Thin-Plate Orice.
An orice plate is nothing but a at plate with a hole in it. Once placed in the duct, it restricts ow and
causes an increase in velocity similar to a venturi. Directly behind the orice plate an area of low pressure
exists. By measuring the difference in pressure from this point to the-free owing duct, the volumetric ow
rate can be found using the following equation:
[32]
where ow coefcient, expansibility factor, diameter of orice, m, pressure drop over orice
plate, Pa, density upstream of the device (i.e. at atmospheric pressure) kg/m
3
.
The values of for the orice plates are as follows:
65 mm orice: = 0.599
95 mm orice: = 0.596
The value of for an inlet orice is given by the following expression
[33]
where = pressure upstream of the device (atmospheric), Pa.
Nozzle.
The ow nozzle, with its smooth rounded entrance convergence, practically eliminates the vena
contracta and gives discharge coefcients near unity. The volumetric ow rate is determined from the
following expression;
[34]
The values of the dimensionless compound coefcient is given by the expression
[35]
Nozzle Inlet Venturi Flow-Rate Measuring Device.
A venturi is just a gradual constriction in the duct. Since the mass ow rate is constant, the velocity
must increase as the area decreases. A change in static pressure occurs, and that change in pressure can
be used to nd the ow rate using the following formula and dimensions (same as the nozzle).
[36]
The values of the dimensionless compound coefcient is given by the expression
[37]
Q
d
2
4
---------
2P

u
----------- = m
3
s
d P

0.42
P
P
u
------- =
P
u
Q
d
2
4
---------
2P

u
----------- = m
3
s
0.986 0.0055 10
3
P ( ) =
Q
d
V
2
4
----------
2P

u
----------- = m
3
s
0.986 0.0055 10
3
P ( ) =
10
Conical Inlet Venturi Flow-Rate Measuring Device.
This device is mounted on the inlet side of the fan ducting. The volume ow relationship is given by
the expressions
[38]
where
when [39]
and
when [40]
Note that conical inlet ow measurement should not be used when Re
d
<2x10
4
. Here, d diameter of con-
stant diameter duct section (meters) = 0.095,
I
is density of air upstream device - (kg/m
3
), differential
pressure measured in pascals [kg/(m.s
2
)].
Flow Rate Measurements: Cusson Wind Tunnel
Q
Q
d
V
2
4
----------
2P

u
----------- = m
3
s
1.0 0.5Re
d
0.2
= 2 10
4
Re
d
30 10
4
< <
0.960 = Re
d
30 10
4

P
Fan
venturi
Fan outlet
valve
large and small
manometers
Pitot tube
conical inlet
95 mm nozzle
65 mm orice
95 mm orice
nozzle
Place the
orice or
nozzle
here
Off button
Start button
On/Off switch
11
Experimental setups and Apparatus. (Cusson - For orice plate)
Apparatus
Air Flow Bench, Manometers (small & large scale), Orice (65 mm& 95 mm), Nozzle (95 mm), Conical
Inlet cone, Venturi, Pitot tube
Procedure: (Emperiments I, and III)
1. Couple the 1 meter long ducting to the ow straightening section positioned at the inlet of the fan
using the toggle catches
2. Attached the orice inlet adapter housing to that 1 meter duct
3. Support the overhanging section of the assembly to a suitable height using the stand
4. Ensure that the ow straightening honeycomb disc is positioned squarely within the orice inlet
adapter housing
5. Insert the 65 mm orice plate into the inlet adaptor housing. (The orice plate is positioned with
the counter sunk side downstream from the inlet, i.e. facing into the housing)
6. Fit the pitot static tube and scale to the 1 meter ductwork at any of the three radial positions.
(Blank off the pitot static tube tappings if not in use)
7. Connect the pitot static tube to the smaller manometer (Total Pressure to the back of the small
manometer inlet) (Static Pressure to the limb of the smaller adapter
8. Connect the orice adapter housing tapping to the larger manometer limb.
9. Set each manometer limb in the upright position, level and zero the manometer
10. Fully close the fan outlet valve and then switch on the fan
11. Set the orice plate manometer limb to the most sensitive position possible and re-zero it again
(after disconnecting the pressure taping tube). Record the reading in kPa
Note: The readings should be multiplied with the multiplier written on that manometer.
Experimental setups and Apparatus. (Hampden)
Apparatus
Standard test section, pitot-static probe, probe positioner, Manometers
Procedure: (Experiment II)
1. Install the standard test section in the wind tunnel
2. Install a pitot-static probe, in the probe positioner and through the duct access hole in the test
section
3. Connect pressure tubing from the static and total pressure taps on the pitot-static tube to one of
the appropriate manometers
4. Using the variable frequency drive control to adjust fan speed and the pitot tube positioner to
locate the pitot tube vertical location in the duct, read and record velocity pressures at various locations
Note: The lab instructor will show how to turn on/off the drive control and monitor the speed.
Area of the inside duct (standard test section) is 0.444 ft
2
(0.0413 m
2
) inside dimensions.
12
EXPERIMENT I
Pitot-Tube Based Velocity Prole and Flow Rate Measurements
Cusson Wind Tunnel (D = 147 mm)
For air at 20
o
C and 1 atm; = 1.20 kg/m
3
, = 1.8 E-5 kg/(m.s), = 1.51 E-5 m
2
/sec
1. Traverse the pitot static tube across the diameter of the ductwork, noting the manometer reading
at each position and record them in Data Sheet. (The manometer should be in the most sensitive position
possible, bearing in mind that the maximum values will be obtained at the central positions)
2. Repeat the experiments again by adjusting the fan outlet to the center and almost open posi-
tion and record your data in Data Sheet.
Assignments:
Complete the table above.
Plot the velocity across the diameter.
Calculate the entrance length required to establish a fully developed boundary layer at inlet (refer
to Chapter 6 of your text book).
Discuss the velocity prole within the light of the entrance length.
Trial # Pitot Tube Locations
Valve Outlet Positions
Almost closed Center Almost open
V V V
M=1 + 6 cm
M=2 + 5 cm
M=3 + 4 cm
M=4 + 3 cm
M=5 + 2 cm
M=6 + 1 cm
M=7 CENTER: 0 cm
Effective
(Pascal)
Average
Velocity
(m/s)
Volume Flow
Rate
Mass Flow
rate
(kg/s)
p p p
p
P
eff
Eq 8 ( ) =
V
av
Q AV
av
=
m Q =
13
EXPERIMENT II
Pitot-Tube Based Velocity Prole and Flow Rate Measurements
Hampden Wind Tunnel (Test section Inside area 0.0413 m
2
)
For air at 20
o
C and 1 atm; = 1.20 kg/m
3
, = 1.8 E-5 kg/(m.s), = 1.51 E-5 m
2
/sec
1. Traverse the pitot static tube across the cross section of the test chamber, noting the manometer
reading at each position and record them in Data Sheet. (The manometer should be in the most sensitive
position possible, bearing in mind that the maximum values will be obtained at the central positions)
2. Repeat the experiments again by adjusting the fan outlet to the center and almost open posi-
tion and record your data in Data Sheet.
Assignments:
Complete the table above.
Plot the velocity across the plane.
Calculate the entrance length required to establish a fully developed boundary layer at inlet (refer
to Chapter 6 of your text book).
Discuss the velocity prole within the light of the entrance length.
Trial # Pitot Tube Locations
Valve Outlet Positions
N = 800 rpm N = 1600 rpm N = 2400 rpm
V V V
M=5 + 8 cm
M=4 + 6 cm
M=3 + 4 cm
M=2 + 2 cm
M=1 CENTER: 0 cm
Effective
(Pascal)
Average
Velocity
(m/s)
Volume Flow
Rate
Mass Flow
Rate
(kg/s)
p p p
p
P
eff
Eq 8 ( ) =
V
av
Q AV
av
=
m Q =
14
EXPERIMENT III
Cusson Wind Tunnel (D = 147 mm)
Orice Plate For Flow Rate Measurements
Nozzle For Flow Rate Measurements
Conical Inlet Venturi For Flow Rate Measurements
Nozzle Inlet Venturi For Flow Rate Measurements
Valve Positions) kPa
Q m
3
/s
Almost closed
Center
Almost Open
Valve Positions) kPa
Q m
3
/s
Almost closed
Center
Almost Open
Valve Positions) kPa
Q m
3
/s
Almost closed
Center
Almost Open
Valve Positions) kPa
Q m
3
/s
Almost closed
Center
Almost Open
P
P
P
P
15
Bernoulli Equation Demonstrator
Background
Pressure Measurements In Moving Fluids
Pressure measurements in moving uids deserve special considerations. Consider the ow over the
bluff body shown in Figure 1.
Figure 6 Streamlines over a bluff body
Assume that the upstream ow is uniform and steady. Points along the two streamlines labeled as A
are to be studied. Along streamline A, the ow moves with a velocity, , such as at point 1 upstream of
the body. As the ow approaches point 2 it must slow down and nally stop at the front end of the body.
Point 2 is known as the stagnation point and streamline A the stagnation streamline for this ow. Along
streamline B, the velocity at point 3 will be and because the upstream ow is considered to be uniform
it follows that . As the ow along B approaches the body, it is deected around the body. From
conservation of mass principles, . Application of conservation of energy between points 1 and 2
and between 3 and 4 yields
[41]
[42]
However, because point 2 is the stagnation point, , and
[43]
Hence, it follows that by an amount equal to , an amount equivalent to the kinetic
energy per unit mass of the ow as it moves along the streamline. If the ow is brought to rest in an
isentropic manner (i.e., no energy lost through irreversible processes such as through a transfer of heat
1
),
V
1
V
3
V
1
V
3
=
V
4
V
3
>
p
1
V
1
2
( ) 2g ( ) + p
2
V
2
2
( ) 2g ( ) + =
p
3
V
3
2
( ) 2g ( ) + p
4
V
4
2
( ) 2g ( ) + =
V
2
0 =
p
2
p
total
p
0
p
1
V
1
2
( ) 2g ( ) + = = =
p
2
p
1
> V
2
2
2g
16
this translational kinetic energy will be transferred completely into p2 is known as the stagnation or total
pressure and will be noted as p
0
. The total pressure can be determined by bringing the ow to rest at a
point in an isentropic manner.
The ow at 1, 3, and 4 are known as the stream or static pressures
2
of the ow. Because the ow is
uniform, , so that . The static pressure and velocity at points 1 and 3 are known as the
freestream pressure and freestream velocity. However, as the ow accelerates around the body its velocity
increases such that, from Eq (1), . The pressure, such as at point 4, is called a local static
pressure. The static pressure is that pressure sensed by a uid particle as it is moves with the same
velocity as the local ow.
Background
Closely related to the steady-ow energy equation is relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation
in a frictionless ow, now called the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli equation is very famous and very
widely used, but one should be wary of its restrictions - all uids are viscous and thus all ows have friction
to some extent. to use the Bernoulli equation correctly, one must conne it to regions of the ow which are
nearly frictionless.
For an incompressible uid, the Bernoulli equation is
[44]
[45]
[46]
where is the static pressure head; is the velocity pressure head; and is the potential energy head.
The total pressure head is equal to the sum of the static and velocity pressure heads. This is the Bernoulli
equation for steady frictionless incompressible ow along a streamline.
A venturi tube can be used to demonstrate the Bernoulli equation as shown in Figure 3.
It is readily apparent that the potential energy head is zero ( , the Bernoulli equation reduces
to
[47]
Using the conservation of mass, the mass ow rate at points 1 and 2 must be the same, or
[48]
V
1
V
3
= p
3
p
1
=
p
4
p
3

p
2
p
1
( )

----------------------
1
2
--- V
2
2
V
1
2
( ) g z
2
z
1
( ) + + 0 =
p
1

-----
V
1
2
2
------ gz
1
+ +
p
2

-----
V
2
2
2
------ gz
2
+ + const = =
p
1

-----
V
1
2
2g
------ z
1
+ +
p
2

-----
V
2
2
2g
------ z
2
+ + const = =
p

---
V
2
2g
------ z
Figure 3: Venturi
AIR FLOW
DIRECTION
z
1
z
2
=
p
1

-----
V
1
2
2g
------ +
p
2

-----
V
2
2
2g
------ + const = =
V
1
A
1
V
2
A
2
=
17
MEEM 3220 ENERGY LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT IV
(HAMPDEN WINDTUNNEL)
Objective
To investigate the Bernoulli equation as it relates to pressure and velocity of a uid along a streamline.
Experimental Setups
3. Attached the venturi section with convergent and divergent sections oriented as shown in Figure
4. Make sure that the fastening screws are tightened to provide a tight seal.
Figure 7 Schematic Diagram
4. Install a pitot-static probe into the probe positioner and one access hole in the duct. Align the
probe head with the center line of the convergent-divergent section.
5. Connect the total and static pressure taps of the pitot-static tube to the appropriate manometers
as shown in Figure 4. please note that the choice of which inclined manometer is used depends on the
magnitude of the static pressure; and this changes along the length of the venturi tube. Two universal tee
connectors are required.
18
Experimental Procedure
6. Turn ON the fan and use the variable frequency drive control to adjust fan speed. Always run the
fan in forward for proper air ow direction.
STEP 1 Press JOG button.
STEP 2 Press LOCAL.
STEP 3 Press FWD.
STEP 4 Press ARROW BUTTON UP to increase the speed or Press ARROW BUTTON
DOWN to decrease the speed.
STEP 5 Press STOP to turn OFF the fan
STEP 6 Directly Press FWD to choose the same speed as chosen before.
7. Measure and record the total, static, and velocity pressures (inches of H
2
O) at various points
along the cross section of the venturi tube at each location.
Equations:
[49]
; is also known as [50]
[51]
[52]
where in absolute pressure (Pa or ) is the gas
constant (287 is the absolute temperature (K)
in m/s; where in Pascal or [53]
Conversions:
[54]
[55]
[56]
[57]
[58]
[59]
Assignments
Plot and Bernoulli Constant along the venturi.
(Refer to Eq (3) for Bernoulli Constant)
P
total
P
static
P
dynamic
+ =
P P
total
P
static
P
dynamic
P
velocity
= = = P
dynamic
P
velocity
P gh
static
h
static
= =

P
static
( )
abs
RT
-------------------------- =
P
static
N m
2
P
static
( )
abs
P
atm
P
static
( )
gauge
+ = R
m
2
s
2
K ( ) T
V
2P

----------- = P N m
2

1cm
2
1 10
4
m
2
=
1Pa 1N m
2
=
1inH
2
O 249.1Pa =
1atm 101325Pa =
1inHg 3372.2Pa =
1mmHg 133.32Pa =
AV
19
DATA SHEET IV
Fan = _____rpm Patm = ___ inH
2
O = ____N/m
2
T = ________ K = _______ kg/m
3
Test
(Pressure)
gauge
A V AV P/
V
2
/2g
Bernoulli
Constant
# Types inH
2
O
N/m
2
m
2
m/s kg/s meter meter meter
1
P
static
P
total
2
P
static
P
total
3
P
static
P
total
4
P
static
P
total
5
P
static
P
total
6
P
static
P
total
7
P
static
P
total
8
P
static
P
total
9
P
static
P
total
10
P
static
P
total

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P