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artikel ini membahas tentang pitot tube dan aplikasinya

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- Pitot Tube Lab Manual
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- Fluid Friction
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- Determination of Discharge by Use of the Pitot Tube
- Air Velocity
- air flow
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- Venturi Meter

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Air Flow Measurements

Pitot Static Tube

A slender tube aligned with the ow can measure local velocity by means of pressure differences. It

has sidewall holes to measure the static pressure p

s

in the moving stream and a hole in the front to

measure the stagnation pressure p

o

, where the stream is decelerated to zero velocity. The pitot static tube

may also be of the modied ellipsoidal-nose type. The tube has a very small diameter compared to that of

the duct diameter, but the resultant error caused by the additional blockage effect is considered minimal for

this investigation.

Instead of measuring p

o

and p

s

separately, it is customary to measure their difference with, say, a

transducer, as in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Pitot Tube Conguration

Pitot tubes are affected by Reynolds number at low uid velocities. The minimum Reynolds number for

total pressure measurements is approximately 30. This is the point where the characteristic length of the

pitot tube is equal to the diameter of the impact hole. Below this value, the indicated impact pressure is

higher than the streamimpact pressure due to viscosity effects. For air at standard atmospheric conditions,

the error due to low Reynolds number is only apparent for air velocities less than 12 ft./sec. (3.66 m/sec.).

And this is for pitot tubes with impact hole diameters of 0.010 inches (0.2543 mm) or less. For low-velocity

for example, U = 1 ft./sec. in standard air, p

0

-p equal to only 0.001 lb

f

/ft

2

(0.048 Pa). This is beyond the

resolution of most pressure gages.

The accuracy of pitot tubes is also affected if the sensor head is not parallel to the uid. The total and

static pressure measurement error due to yaw and pitch angles increase rapidly above angles of 5

o

.

Fortunately, they cancel each other out so velocity pressure measurements are 2% accurate up to angles

of attack of 30

o

.

Fluid ow

V p

o

p

s

p

s

p

s

p

o

p

o

p

o

2

The measurements of static pressure is also sensitive to the presence of uid boundaries. The

presence of a pitot tube in a pipe also affects the static pressure. The pitot tube partially blocks the ow

passage which increases the ow velocity in the vicinity of the device. This results in an indicated static

pressure which is less than the actual static pressure.

The speed of response of pitot tubes is also geometry dependent. The diameter of the air passage

within the probe, the diameter and length of the interconnecting tubes, and the displacement volume of the

manometer determines the time constant. For tubes diameters greater than 1/8 inches (3.175 mm) and

ordinary manometer connections, the time constant is very short. However the time constant increases

rapidly for smaller diameter tubes, with a response time of approximately 15 to 60 seconds for tubes

having a 1/16 inches (1.59 mm) diameter. Because of the slow response of the uid-lled tubes leading to

the pressure sensors, it is not useful for unsteady-ow measurements. One common problem with pitot

tubes that have very small diameters is that they tend to choke up easily if there is ne dirt in the uid.

The pitot static tube is useful in liquids and gases; for gases a compressibility correction is necessary if

the stream Mach number is high.

If Re

D

> 1000, where D is the probe diameter, the ow around the probe is nearly frictionless and

Bernoullis relation applies with good accuracy.

[1]

or

[2]

For an incompressible ow

[3]

Assuming that the elevation pressure difference is negligible, this reduces to

[4]

Here is the air density in kg/m

3

;

, [5]

is the static pressure in Pascal, is the gas constant and the value is 287 m

2

/(s

2

.K), is the absolute

temperature in Kelvin.

The velocity measured by the pitot tube needs to be corrected due to geometry and ow interactions. It

is done as follows

[6]

where , and the Reynolds number,

[7]

p

2

p

1

-----------------

1

2

--- V

2

2

V

1

2

( ) g z

2

z

1

( ) + + 0 =

p

1

-----

1

2

-- -V

1

2

gz

1

+ +

p

2

-----

1

2

---V

2

2

gz

2

+ + const = =

p

s

1

2

---V

2

gz

s

+ + p

0

1

2

--- 0 ( )

2

gz

0

+ +

g z

s

z

0

( )

V

th

2 p

0

p

s

( )

------------------------- =

p

s

RT

------- =

p

s

R T

V V

th

=

f Re

D

( ) =

Re

D

VD

------------ =

3

Table below gives the range of as a function of Reynolds numbers.,

Since V is not known, process is one which requires iteration, as described next;

STEP 1: - guess your values anywhere from 0.986 to 0.991

Hint: Start from the lowest value.

STEP 2: - plug in the values and calculate V

STEP 4: - Evaluate

STEP 5: - Look up your guess values whether it matches with the calculated or not

STEP 6: - If the assumed values is not in the calculated range, repeat Steps 1 - 5.

NOTE:

Different sensors will require a calibration data generated for that particular case. If such information is not

available use the table above as valid for the pitot tube you are using. Depending on the application you

have, you may also be advised to delete velocity correction altogether, = 1.

For channel ow where an average velocity is required, can also be determined by

evaluating the effective pressure (or average) for the channel after multiple measurements as follows:

[8]

where N is the number of measurements.

0.986 0.988 0.990 0.991

Re

D 3 10

4

1 10

5

3 10

5

1 10

6

Re

D

Re

D

Re

D

p

0

p

s

( )

P

eff

1

N

---- P

j

0.5

j 1 =

j N =

2

=

4

Calculating the Flow Rate from the Velocity Prole

The volumetric airow rate can be directly determined from the velocity prole across the duct. Recall

that a uid of velocity passing across an innitesimal area dA with outward unit normal vector .

Figure 2 Velocity Prole

Denoting the cross sectional area of the duct as A, the volume ow rate through any given cross

section of the duct can be found from integration

[9]

For a ow which is axisymmetric, the velocity is only a function of radial distance from the tube axis

(centerline) as it is in the case of circular cross-section but it will have also have an azimuthal angle

dependency otherwise.

What follows is a discussion for a channel of circular cross-section area only. In this instance,

[10]

and the innitesimal area element

[11]

where r is the radial distance from centerline, which varies from r=0 to r=R (the tube wall). The vector dot-

product can be simplied by recognizing the ow velocity is always perpendicular to the cross section of

the tube. Thus

[12]

where u is the magnitude of the velocity. With these simplications, the volumetric ow-rate in the circular

tube is given by

[13]

Knowing the velocity prole u(r) then allows us to calculate the volumetric ow rate by integration.

Since the data set is usually limited to a nite number of values u(r), we cannot perform the exact analytic

integral. We can, however, use a numerical estimate to approximately evaluate the ow rate. This

numerical estimate is best understood by recognizing that integration is the process of calculating the area

underneath a curve.

The curve in Figure 3 represents the true function u(r), for which the discrete values ,

, etc. are available. We can approximate the integration by summing the areas represented

by the shaded rectangles. In this case, the ow rate can be estimated from

u n

u

n

dA

Q u n ( ) A d

A

=

u u r ( ) =

dA 2rdr =

u r ( ) n u r ( ) =

Q 2u r ( )r r d

r 0 =

r R =

=

u

1

u r

1

( ) =

u

2

u r

2

( ) =

5

Figure 3 Approximating an Analytic Integral With Discrete Numeric Values

[14]

[15]

Mass ow rate can be evaluated as

[16]

An analysis similar to above can be performed for rectangular cross-sections as well.

r

1

u

1

u

2

u(r)

r

2

r

3

r

4

r

5

r

6

=R

dr

1

dr

2

Q 2 u

n

r

n

dr

n

n 1 =

6

Q 2 u

1

r

1

dr

1

u

2

r

2

dr

2

u

3

r

3

dr

3

u

4

r

4

dr

4

u

5

r

5

dr

5

u

6

r

6

dr

6

+ + + + + ( )

m Q =

6

Air Flow Measurements

Bernoulli Obstruction Theory

Consider the generalized ow obstruction shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Velocity and Pressure Change through a Generalized Bernoulli Obstruction

Meter

The energy grade line (EGL) shows the height of the total Bernoulli constant

[17]

The hydraulic grade line (HGL) shows

[18]

where the height corresponding to elevation and pressure head

h

0

z

p

---

V

2

2g

------ + + =

V

2

2g

------

7

[19]

that is, the EGL minus the velocity head. The HGL is the height to which liquid would rise in a piezometer

tube attached to the ow. In an open-channel ow the HGL is identical to the free surface of the water.

The ow in the basic duct of diameter D is forced through an obstruction of diameter d; the is a key

parameter of the device,

[20]

After leaving the obstruction, the ow may neck down even more through a vena contracta of diameter

D2 < d, as shown. Apply the continuity and Bernoulli equations for incompressible steady frictionless ow

to estimate the pressure change:

Continuity:

[21]

Bernoulli

[22]

Eliminating , we solve these for or Q in terms of the pressure change :

[23]

But this is surely inaccurate because we neglected friction in a duct ow, where we know friction will be

very important. Nor do we want to get into the business of measuring vena contracta ratios D

2

/d for use in

Equation 23. We assume that and then calibrate the device to t the relation.

[24]

where subscript t denotes the throat of the obstruction. The dimensionless discharge coefcient C

d

accounts for the discrepancies in the approximate analysis. By dimensional analysis for a given design we

expect

[25]

where

[26]

The geometric factor involving in Equation 24 is called the velocity-of-approach factor

[27]

One can also group C

d

and E in Equation 24 to form the dimensionless ow coefcient

[28]

z

p

--- +

d

D

---- =

Q

4

---D

2

V

1

D

2

2

V

2

= =

p

0

p

1

1

2

---V

1

2

+ p

1

2

---V

2

2

+ = =

V

1

V

2

p

1

p

2

( )

Q

A

2

------ V

2

2 p

1

p

2

( )

1 D

2

4

D

4

( )

-----------------------------------

1 2

=

D

2

D

Q A

t

V

t

C

d

A

t

2 p

1

p

2

( )

1

4

( )

--------------------------

1 2

=

C

d

f Re

D

, ( ) =

Re

D

V

1

D

--------------- =

E 1

4

( )

1 2

=

C

d

E

C

d

1

4

( )

1 2

--------------------------- = =

8

Thus,

[29]

Obviously the ow coefcient is correlated in the same manner:

[30]

Occasionally one uses the throat Reynolds number instead of the approach Reynolds number

[31]

Since the design parameters are assumed known, the correlation of or of is the desired solution

to the uid-metering problem.

Figure 5 shows three basic devices recommended for use by the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO): the orice, nozzle, and venturi tube.

Figure 5 Orice, Nozzle, and Venturi Tube Congurations

Q A

t

2 p

1

p

2

( )

--------------------------

1 2

=

f Re

D

, ( ) =

Re

D

V

t

d

------------

Re

D

---------- = =

C

d

9

Thin-Plate Orice.

An orice plate is nothing but a at plate with a hole in it. Once placed in the duct, it restricts ow and

causes an increase in velocity similar to a venturi. Directly behind the orice plate an area of low pressure

exists. By measuring the difference in pressure from this point to the-free owing duct, the volumetric ow

rate can be found using the following equation:

[32]

where ow coefcient, expansibility factor, diameter of orice, m, pressure drop over orice

plate, Pa, density upstream of the device (i.e. at atmospheric pressure) kg/m

3

.

The values of for the orice plates are as follows:

65 mm orice: = 0.599

95 mm orice: = 0.596

The value of for an inlet orice is given by the following expression

[33]

where = pressure upstream of the device (atmospheric), Pa.

Nozzle.

The ow nozzle, with its smooth rounded entrance convergence, practically eliminates the vena

contracta and gives discharge coefcients near unity. The volumetric ow rate is determined from the

following expression;

[34]

The values of the dimensionless compound coefcient is given by the expression

[35]

Nozzle Inlet Venturi Flow-Rate Measuring Device.

A venturi is just a gradual constriction in the duct. Since the mass ow rate is constant, the velocity

must increase as the area decreases. A change in static pressure occurs, and that change in pressure can

be used to nd the ow rate using the following formula and dimensions (same as the nozzle).

[36]

The values of the dimensionless compound coefcient is given by the expression

[37]

Q

d

2

4

---------

2P

u

----------- = m

3

s

d P

0.42

P

P

u

------- =

P

u

Q

d

2

4

---------

2P

u

----------- = m

3

s

0.986 0.0055 10

3

P ( ) =

Q

d

V

2

4

----------

2P

u

----------- = m

3

s

0.986 0.0055 10

3

P ( ) =

10

Conical Inlet Venturi Flow-Rate Measuring Device.

This device is mounted on the inlet side of the fan ducting. The volume ow relationship is given by

the expressions

[38]

where

when [39]

and

when [40]

Note that conical inlet ow measurement should not be used when Re

d

<2x10

4

. Here, d diameter of con-

stant diameter duct section (meters) = 0.095,

I

is density of air upstream device - (kg/m

3

), differential

pressure measured in pascals [kg/(m.s

2

)].

Flow Rate Measurements: Cusson Wind Tunnel

Q

Q

d

V

2

4

----------

2P

u

----------- = m

3

s

1.0 0.5Re

d

0.2

= 2 10

4

Re

d

30 10

4

< <

0.960 = Re

d

30 10

4

P

Fan

venturi

Fan outlet

valve

large and small

manometers

Pitot tube

conical inlet

95 mm nozzle

65 mm orice

95 mm orice

nozzle

Place the

orice or

nozzle

here

Off button

Start button

On/Off switch

11

Experimental setups and Apparatus. (Cusson - For orice plate)

Apparatus

Air Flow Bench, Manometers (small & large scale), Orice (65 mm& 95 mm), Nozzle (95 mm), Conical

Inlet cone, Venturi, Pitot tube

Procedure: (Emperiments I, and III)

1. Couple the 1 meter long ducting to the ow straightening section positioned at the inlet of the fan

using the toggle catches

2. Attached the orice inlet adapter housing to that 1 meter duct

3. Support the overhanging section of the assembly to a suitable height using the stand

4. Ensure that the ow straightening honeycomb disc is positioned squarely within the orice inlet

adapter housing

5. Insert the 65 mm orice plate into the inlet adaptor housing. (The orice plate is positioned with

the counter sunk side downstream from the inlet, i.e. facing into the housing)

6. Fit the pitot static tube and scale to the 1 meter ductwork at any of the three radial positions.

(Blank off the pitot static tube tappings if not in use)

7. Connect the pitot static tube to the smaller manometer (Total Pressure to the back of the small

manometer inlet) (Static Pressure to the limb of the smaller adapter

8. Connect the orice adapter housing tapping to the larger manometer limb.

9. Set each manometer limb in the upright position, level and zero the manometer

10. Fully close the fan outlet valve and then switch on the fan

11. Set the orice plate manometer limb to the most sensitive position possible and re-zero it again

(after disconnecting the pressure taping tube). Record the reading in kPa

Note: The readings should be multiplied with the multiplier written on that manometer.

Experimental setups and Apparatus. (Hampden)

Apparatus

Standard test section, pitot-static probe, probe positioner, Manometers

Procedure: (Experiment II)

1. Install the standard test section in the wind tunnel

2. Install a pitot-static probe, in the probe positioner and through the duct access hole in the test

section

3. Connect pressure tubing from the static and total pressure taps on the pitot-static tube to one of

the appropriate manometers

4. Using the variable frequency drive control to adjust fan speed and the pitot tube positioner to

locate the pitot tube vertical location in the duct, read and record velocity pressures at various locations

Note: The lab instructor will show how to turn on/off the drive control and monitor the speed.

Area of the inside duct (standard test section) is 0.444 ft

2

(0.0413 m

2

) inside dimensions.

12

EXPERIMENT I

Pitot-Tube Based Velocity Prole and Flow Rate Measurements

Cusson Wind Tunnel (D = 147 mm)

For air at 20

o

C and 1 atm; = 1.20 kg/m

3

, = 1.8 E-5 kg/(m.s), = 1.51 E-5 m

2

/sec

1. Traverse the pitot static tube across the diameter of the ductwork, noting the manometer reading

at each position and record them in Data Sheet. (The manometer should be in the most sensitive position

possible, bearing in mind that the maximum values will be obtained at the central positions)

2. Repeat the experiments again by adjusting the fan outlet to the center and almost open posi-

tion and record your data in Data Sheet.

Assignments:

Complete the table above.

Plot the velocity across the diameter.

Calculate the entrance length required to establish a fully developed boundary layer at inlet (refer

to Chapter 6 of your text book).

Discuss the velocity prole within the light of the entrance length.

Trial # Pitot Tube Locations

Valve Outlet Positions

Almost closed Center Almost open

V V V

M=1 + 6 cm

M=2 + 5 cm

M=3 + 4 cm

M=4 + 3 cm

M=5 + 2 cm

M=6 + 1 cm

M=7 CENTER: 0 cm

Effective

(Pascal)

Average

Velocity

(m/s)

Volume Flow

Rate

Mass Flow

rate

(kg/s)

p p p

p

P

eff

Eq 8 ( ) =

V

av

Q AV

av

=

m Q =

13

EXPERIMENT II

Pitot-Tube Based Velocity Prole and Flow Rate Measurements

Hampden Wind Tunnel (Test section Inside area 0.0413 m

2

)

For air at 20

o

C and 1 atm; = 1.20 kg/m

3

, = 1.8 E-5 kg/(m.s), = 1.51 E-5 m

2

/sec

1. Traverse the pitot static tube across the cross section of the test chamber, noting the manometer

reading at each position and record them in Data Sheet. (The manometer should be in the most sensitive

position possible, bearing in mind that the maximum values will be obtained at the central positions)

2. Repeat the experiments again by adjusting the fan outlet to the center and almost open posi-

tion and record your data in Data Sheet.

Assignments:

Complete the table above.

Plot the velocity across the plane.

Calculate the entrance length required to establish a fully developed boundary layer at inlet (refer

to Chapter 6 of your text book).

Discuss the velocity prole within the light of the entrance length.

Trial # Pitot Tube Locations

Valve Outlet Positions

N = 800 rpm N = 1600 rpm N = 2400 rpm

V V V

M=5 + 8 cm

M=4 + 6 cm

M=3 + 4 cm

M=2 + 2 cm

M=1 CENTER: 0 cm

Effective

(Pascal)

Average

Velocity

(m/s)

Volume Flow

Rate

Mass Flow

Rate

(kg/s)

p p p

p

P

eff

Eq 8 ( ) =

V

av

Q AV

av

=

m Q =

14

EXPERIMENT III

Cusson Wind Tunnel (D = 147 mm)

Orice Plate For Flow Rate Measurements

Nozzle For Flow Rate Measurements

Conical Inlet Venturi For Flow Rate Measurements

Nozzle Inlet Venturi For Flow Rate Measurements

Valve Positions) kPa

Q m

3

/s

Almost closed

Center

Almost Open

Valve Positions) kPa

Q m

3

/s

Almost closed

Center

Almost Open

Valve Positions) kPa

Q m

3

/s

Almost closed

Center

Almost Open

Valve Positions) kPa

Q m

3

/s

Almost closed

Center

Almost Open

P

P

P

P

15

Bernoulli Equation Demonstrator

Background

Pressure Measurements In Moving Fluids

Pressure measurements in moving uids deserve special considerations. Consider the ow over the

bluff body shown in Figure 1.

Figure 6 Streamlines over a bluff body

Assume that the upstream ow is uniform and steady. Points along the two streamlines labeled as A

are to be studied. Along streamline A, the ow moves with a velocity, , such as at point 1 upstream of

the body. As the ow approaches point 2 it must slow down and nally stop at the front end of the body.

Point 2 is known as the stagnation point and streamline A the stagnation streamline for this ow. Along

streamline B, the velocity at point 3 will be and because the upstream ow is considered to be uniform

it follows that . As the ow along B approaches the body, it is deected around the body. From

conservation of mass principles, . Application of conservation of energy between points 1 and 2

and between 3 and 4 yields

[41]

[42]

However, because point 2 is the stagnation point, , and

[43]

Hence, it follows that by an amount equal to , an amount equivalent to the kinetic

energy per unit mass of the ow as it moves along the streamline. If the ow is brought to rest in an

isentropic manner (i.e., no energy lost through irreversible processes such as through a transfer of heat

1

),

V

1

V

3

V

1

V

3

=

V

4

V

3

>

p

1

V

1

2

( ) 2g ( ) + p

2

V

2

2

( ) 2g ( ) + =

p

3

V

3

2

( ) 2g ( ) + p

4

V

4

2

( ) 2g ( ) + =

V

2

0 =

p

2

p

total

p

0

p

1

V

1

2

( ) 2g ( ) + = = =

p

2

p

1

> V

2

2

2g

16

this translational kinetic energy will be transferred completely into p2 is known as the stagnation or total

pressure and will be noted as p

0

. The total pressure can be determined by bringing the ow to rest at a

point in an isentropic manner.

The ow at 1, 3, and 4 are known as the stream or static pressures

2

of the ow. Because the ow is

uniform, , so that . The static pressure and velocity at points 1 and 3 are known as the

freestream pressure and freestream velocity. However, as the ow accelerates around the body its velocity

increases such that, from Eq (1), . The pressure, such as at point 4, is called a local static

pressure. The static pressure is that pressure sensed by a uid particle as it is moves with the same

velocity as the local ow.

Background

Closely related to the steady-ow energy equation is relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation

in a frictionless ow, now called the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli equation is very famous and very

widely used, but one should be wary of its restrictions - all uids are viscous and thus all ows have friction

to some extent. to use the Bernoulli equation correctly, one must conne it to regions of the ow which are

nearly frictionless.

For an incompressible uid, the Bernoulli equation is

[44]

[45]

[46]

where is the static pressure head; is the velocity pressure head; and is the potential energy head.

The total pressure head is equal to the sum of the static and velocity pressure heads. This is the Bernoulli

equation for steady frictionless incompressible ow along a streamline.

A venturi tube can be used to demonstrate the Bernoulli equation as shown in Figure 3.

It is readily apparent that the potential energy head is zero ( , the Bernoulli equation reduces

to

[47]

Using the conservation of mass, the mass ow rate at points 1 and 2 must be the same, or

[48]

V

1

V

3

= p

3

p

1

=

p

4

p

3

p

2

p

1

( )

----------------------

1

2

--- V

2

2

V

1

2

( ) g z

2

z

1

( ) + + 0 =

p

1

-----

V

1

2

2

------ gz

1

+ +

p

2

-----

V

2

2

2

------ gz

2

+ + const = =

p

1

-----

V

1

2

2g

------ z

1

+ +

p

2

-----

V

2

2

2g

------ z

2

+ + const = =

p

---

V

2

2g

------ z

Figure 3: Venturi

AIR FLOW

DIRECTION

z

1

z

2

=

p

1

-----

V

1

2

2g

------ +

p

2

-----

V

2

2

2g

------ + const = =

V

1

A

1

V

2

A

2

=

17

MEEM 3220 ENERGY LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT IV

(HAMPDEN WINDTUNNEL)

Objective

To investigate the Bernoulli equation as it relates to pressure and velocity of a uid along a streamline.

Experimental Setups

3. Attached the venturi section with convergent and divergent sections oriented as shown in Figure

4. Make sure that the fastening screws are tightened to provide a tight seal.

Figure 7 Schematic Diagram

4. Install a pitot-static probe into the probe positioner and one access hole in the duct. Align the

probe head with the center line of the convergent-divergent section.

5. Connect the total and static pressure taps of the pitot-static tube to the appropriate manometers

as shown in Figure 4. please note that the choice of which inclined manometer is used depends on the

magnitude of the static pressure; and this changes along the length of the venturi tube. Two universal tee

connectors are required.

18

Experimental Procedure

6. Turn ON the fan and use the variable frequency drive control to adjust fan speed. Always run the

fan in forward for proper air ow direction.

STEP 1 Press JOG button.

STEP 2 Press LOCAL.

STEP 3 Press FWD.

STEP 4 Press ARROW BUTTON UP to increase the speed or Press ARROW BUTTON

DOWN to decrease the speed.

STEP 5 Press STOP to turn OFF the fan

STEP 6 Directly Press FWD to choose the same speed as chosen before.

7. Measure and record the total, static, and velocity pressures (inches of H

2

O) at various points

along the cross section of the venturi tube at each location.

Equations:

[49]

; is also known as [50]

[51]

[52]

where in absolute pressure (Pa or ) is the gas

constant (287 is the absolute temperature (K)

in m/s; where in Pascal or [53]

Conversions:

[54]

[55]

[56]

[57]

[58]

[59]

Assignments

Plot and Bernoulli Constant along the venturi.

(Refer to Eq (3) for Bernoulli Constant)

P

total

P

static

P

dynamic

+ =

P P

total

P

static

P

dynamic

P

velocity

= = = P

dynamic

P

velocity

P gh

static

h

static

= =

P

static

( )

abs

RT

-------------------------- =

P

static

N m

2

P

static

( )

abs

P

atm

P

static

( )

gauge

+ = R

m

2

s

2

K ( ) T

V

2P

----------- = P N m

2

1cm

2

1 10

4

m

2

=

1Pa 1N m

2

=

1inH

2

O 249.1Pa =

1atm 101325Pa =

1inHg 3372.2Pa =

1mmHg 133.32Pa =

AV

19

DATA SHEET IV

Fan = _____rpm Patm = ___ inH

2

O = ____N/m

2

T = ________ K = _______ kg/m

3

Test

(Pressure)

gauge

A V AV P/

V

2

/2g

Bernoulli

Constant

# Types inH

2

O

N/m

2

m

2

m/s kg/s meter meter meter

1

P

static

P

total

2

P

static

P

total

3

P

static

P

total

4

P

static

P

total

5

P

static

P

total

6

P

static

P

total

7

P

static

P

total

8

P

static

P

total

9

P

static

P

total

10

P

static

P

total

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

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