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Water supply and drainage

The origin off all sources of water is rainfall. As it rains water can be
collected from roof before it falls on ground or as it flows on surface it gets
collected in the form of ponds, lakes, streams, river or sea. Water that
percolates or seeps into the ground gets stored as ground water which can be
tapped in the form of springs shallow wells, deep wells, artesian wells, etc.
adequate supply of portable water is essential for the occupants of building.
The municipal corporations or the municipalities are responsible for
providing public water supply system which includes collection of water from
source of supply, giving necessary treatment to water to makes it hygienically
safe and potable and finally distribution of water through a network of piping
work (trunk mains, street mains etc) . Water from the street main is supplied
to the individual building through a service connection. Within the building,
water is distributed to different fixture through pipes which may run on
surface or concealed in walls or below flooring. Water thus supplied may be
used for bathing, cooking flushing of w.c., washing clothes/utensils/floors etc.
In this manner the potable water gets converted into waste water which is
drained out into a sewer or other suitable disposal system like septic tank etc.
Technical terms
1) Soil appliance this includes water closets, urinals, bed-pan washers
2) Soil pipe a pipe which carries discharge from w.c, urinal, or any other
soil appliances.
3) Waste appliance this includes wash basins, sinks, bath tubs, washing
through, drinking water fountain etc.
4) Waste pipe a pipe which carries waste water from kitchen, bathroom,
floor traps, nahani trap or any other waste appliance.
5) Rain water pipe this is a pipe provided to carry rain water.
Plumbing systems
The plumbing system broadly includes the following.
(i) Entire system of water supply and distribution pipes, including
fitting and fixtures like traps, valves, tanks etc. used in connection
with water supply.
(ii) Entire system of sanitary drainage including fitting and fixtures like
wash basins, sinks, water closets, urinals, trap, soil types, waste
pipes, vent pipes, sewers, septic tanks etc.
(iii) Entire system of storm water including collection and carrying of
rain water (from roofs, paved areas and ground surface ) to a public
storm water drain or to a pond or river etc.
Water distribution system
There are two distinct of supply of water to a building from the mains:
(1) Direct system in direct system also known as upward
distribution system, the supply of water is given to various floors in a
building directly from the mains which has sufficient pressure to feed all
the floor and water fittings at the highest part of the building.
(2) Indirect system in direct system also known as down take
supply or downfall distribution system, the water supply from the
mains may be drawn either by
(a) Feeding water directly into the overhead storage tank provided at
roof of the building from where the water is supplied to different
floors by gravity or
(b) Feeding the water into a underground water storage tank. The
water from the underground tank is pumped to overhead storage
tank from where the water is supplied by gravity.
Types of pipes
(1) Cast iron pipes
(2) Steel pipes
(3) Galvanized iron pipes
(4) Copper pipes
(5) Polythene pipes
(1) Cast iron pipes cast iron (C.I.) pipes are extensively used in
water distribution mains because they are comparatively cheaper in
Highly resistant to corrosion and have very long life.
(2) Steel pipes steel pipes are recommended for use in water mains
in situations where the pipes is subjected to very high pressure (i.e.
above 7 kg/cm sq) and the diameter of pipe required in large.
(3) Galvanized iron pipes galvanized iron (G.I) pipes are wrought
steel pipes provided with zinc coating. G.I. pipes are most commonly
used for water supply work inside the buildings.
(4) Copper pipes copper pipes are used in hot water supply
installations. They have high tensile strength and can therefore have
thin walls and they can be bent easily.
(5) Polythene pipes polythene and P.V.C pipes are being used
increasingly these days for supply of cold water in external and internal
plumbing work.
Taps, valves and cock
The term taps, valves and cocks are used to name different types of fittings
required to control the flow of water either along or at the end of a pipeline.
Valves : valve is a fitting commonly used to commonly control the flow of
water along a pipeline. With the introduction of valves it is a possible to
isolate any sections of a pipelines for the purpose of inspection, repair of a
leak or addition/alteration to the already functioning water supply system.
(a) Globe value
(b) Gate value
(c) Float value
(d) Taps and stop cock.
(a) Globe valve this is the most commonly used type of valve for manually
controlling or completely closing the flow of water in domestic water
installation. This type of valve is normally made up of brass. Globe value
as such or in some modified form is used to control flow of water to
wash basins, shower, kitchen sink etc.

(b) Gate valve this type of valve is used to control flow of water or
for completely stopping the flow of water in a pipe lines. This type is
normally used in low pressure system and it offers much less resistance
to flow of water as compared with Globe valve.

(c) Float valve or a ball float valve is used to supply water to a storage
tank or flushing cistern and to automatically shut off the supply when
the pre-determined level is reached. The valve is operated by a float
which allows the valve to be fully open when it is in lower position.

(d) Taps and stop cock taps are used at the end of a pipelines for
draw off purposes. Taps are also called Bid cock or Bid tap. A stop cock
is a valve used in the pipeline for controlling or completely stopping the
flow of water to a fixture.

A traps is a fitting provided in a drainage system to prevent entry of foul
air or gases from the sewer or drain into the building. The barrier to the
passage of foul air is provided by the water seal in the trap. In its simplest
form trap is merely a double bend or loop in the sanitary fitting, the depth of
water seal being the distance between the top of the bend and the bottom of
the second.
Types of traps traps can be made in different shapes and they are normally
named after the shape of the letter they resemble. Out of the different shapes,
the trap resembling the letter, P (or P-tap), Q (Q-tap) and S (S-trap) are more
common. The trap are normally made of cast iron and glazed stone ware.
Depending upon the use and location, the various types of traps can be
broadly summarized as under.

(i) Floor trap or Nahani trap
(ii) Gully trap
(iii) Intercepting trap
(iv) Grease trap
(v) Silt trap

(i) Floor trap or Nahani trap : Trap provided in floors to collect used
water from floors of bath room, kitchen or washing floor etc. are
known as floor trap or Nahani traps.

(ii) Gully trap : gully trap is a deep seal trap which is provided on the
external face of wall for disconnecting the waste water flowing from
kitchen, bath, wash basin and floor from the main drainage system.
(iii) Intercepting trap : this trap is provided at the junction of house drain
(inspection chamber) and street sewer to prevent entry of foul gases
from sewer into the house drain. The intercepting trap is thus
provided to disconnect the house drain from the street sewer. The
trap is made of glazed stoneware and has a opening at top (known as
cleaning eye).

(iv) Grease trap : grease trap are provided in large hotels, restaurants or
other industries producing large quantity of greasy waste with the
primary aim of removing the greasy or oily matter is not removed,
being sticky in nature, it will induce deposition of solids in the drain
which can cause obstruction to the flow of water in the drain and
may finally result in blockage of drain.

(v) Silt trap : silt trap are provided only in situations where the waste
water carries large amount of silt, sand, coarse particles etc.

Sanitary fittings
The fitting or appliance used for collection and discharge of soil or waste
matter is termed as sanitary fitting. Different types of sanitary fitting are
required in building to perform different type of fuctions.
(i) Wash basin
(ii) Sink
(iii) Bath tub
(iv) Urinal
(v) W.c
(vi) Flushing cistern

(i) Wash basin a wash basin is used for washing hands, face etc. it is
made of porcelain vitreous enameled steel, or plastic and is available
of wash basin normally used in a house has an oval shaped bowl with
an overflow slot at top. The wash basin has a flat back and has
provision for making holes for installing one, two or even three taps.
(ii) Sink sink is commonly used in kitchen, hospitals and laboratories.
Sink is made of glazed fire clay, stainless steel, plastic, marble and
R.C.C. (finished with terrazzo finishing). Sink may be made with or
without overflow arrangement.
(iii) Bath tub a shower is considered to be more efficient and hygienic
means of talking bath and as such is widely used in bathrooms by
most of the people. However, some people prefer to use bath tub is
restricted to certain class of hotels and private residence.
(iv) Urinals urinals fall under the category of soil appliance and as such
the discharge from urinals is connected to soil pipe either directly or
through a trap provided with gun-metal or bass domed shaped
removable grating.

(v) Water closets water closets is a sanitary appliance provided for
collection and discharge of human excreta into the soil pipe through
a trap. The W.C is connected to a flushing cistern to flush the excreta
from the pan.

(vi) Flushing cistern a flushing cistern is used for storage and discharge
of water for flushing of contents from a W.C. or urinal, cistern is
made of cast iron, vitreous china or pressed steel plates or plastic.