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6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for

[Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained

1. Difference: Syllogism vs Logical connectives

2. Standard format: logical connectives

3. Logical connective: if then

4. Logical connective: Only IF

5. Logical Connective: UNLESS

6. Logical connective: otherwise

7. Logical connective: When, Whenever, every time

8. Logical Connective: Either OR

9. Demo Q: Only if: bored TV brother (CSAT 2012)

10. Demo Q (If, then) Professor Headaches (CAT’98)

11. Demo Q: Either or: derailed/late train (CAT’97)

Difference: Syllogism vs Logical connectives11. Demo Q: Either or: derailed/late train (CAT’97) Syllogism (all cats are dog) is a common

Syllogism (all cats are dog) is a common and routinely appearing topic in most of the aptitude exams (Bank PO, LIC, SSC etc). But Logical connectives is rare. However, in UPSC CSAT 2012 the topic was asked, therefore, you’ve to prepare it.

 

Syllogism

Logical connectives

Contains words like “all, none, some” etc. Can be classified into UP, UN,PP and PN. Already explained in previous articles.

Contains words like “if, unless, only if, whenever” etc. can be classified into 1, ~1, 2, ~2 (we’ll see in this article)

Have to mugup more formulas, takes more time than logical connective questions.

Less formulas and quicker than syllogism.

 

Question statements:

1. I watch TV only if I am bored

Question Statements:

2. I am never bored when I have my brother’s company.

I.

All cats are dogs

3. Whenever I go to the theatre I take my brother along.

II.

some pigs are cats

III. no dogs are bird

 

Conclusion choices:

Conclusion choices:

A. If I am bored I watch TV

A.

Some cats are dogs

B. If I am bored, I seek my

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

B. No birds are cats

brother’s company.

C. some pigs are birds

C. If I am not with my brother, than i’ll watch TV.

D. Some pigs are not birds

D. If I am not bored I do not watch TV.

Standard format: logical connectivesare not birds D. If I am not bored I do not watch TV. If, unless,

If, unless, only if, whenever, every time etc. are examples of Logical connectives.I do not watch TV. Standard format: logical connectives Whenever you’re given a question statement, first

Whenever you’re given a question statement, first rule is: question statement must be in the standard format.every time etc. are examples of Logical connectives. The standard format is ****some logical connective word

The standard format isrule is: question statement must be in the standard format. ****some logical connective word *** simple

****some logical connective word *** simple statement#1, simple statement #2.must be in the standard format. The standard format is It means, the question statement must

It means, the question statement must start with a logical connective word, otherwise exchange position. For exampleconnective word *** simple statement#1, simple statement #2. Given question statement Exchange position? If

Given question statement

Exchange position?

If you’re in the army, you’ve to wear uniform

no need because the simple statement containing “IF” is given in the beginning. This is already in the standard format.If you’re in the army, you’ve to wear uniform

You’ve to wear uniform, if you’re in the army

We need to exchange position because the part containing “IF” is not given in the beginning of this statement, given statement is not in standard format.You’ve to wear uniform, if you’re in the army

Therefore, Rewrite given statement asthis statement, given statement is not in standard format. If you’re in the army, you’ve to

If you’re in the army, you’ve to wear uniform.in standard format. Therefore, Rewrite given statement as You’ve to salute, whenever Commanding Officer comes in

You’ve to salute, whenever Commanding Officer comes in your cabin.

Need to exchange position. Because statement doesn’t start with the logical connective “whenever”.You’ve to salute, whenever Commanding Officer comes in your cabin.

Therefore rewrite the given statement asstatement doesn’t start with the logical connective “whenever”. Whenever CO comes in your cabin, you have

Whenever CO comes in your cabin, you have to salute.Because statement doesn’t start with the logical connective “whenever”. Therefore rewrite the given statement as

Now let’s derive valid inferences for various logical connectives.

Logical connective: if thenderive valid inferences for various logical connectives. Consider these two simple statements

Consider these two simple statements

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

1. You’re in army

2. You’ve to wear uniform.

These are two simple statements. Now I’ll combine these two simple statements (#1 and #2) to form a complex statement.

If you’re in army(#1), you have to wear uniform.(#2)simple statements (#1 and #2) to form a complex statement. What about its reverse? You’ve wearing

What about its reverse?

You’ve wearing uniform (#2)—> that means you’re in the army.(#1)you have to wear uniform.(#2) What about its reverse? But there is possibility, you’re in navy—->

But there is possibility, you’re in navy—-> you’ll still have to wear a uniform. It means,uniform (#2)—> that means you’re in the army.(#1) if 1=>2, then 2=>1 is not always a

if 1=>2, then 2=>1 is not always a valid inference. not always a valid inference.

Let’s list all such scenarios in a table.1=>2, then 2=>1 is not always a valid inference. Given statement:   If you’re in army(#1),

Given statement:

 

If you’re in army(#1), you have to wear uniform.(#2)

Inference?

Valid / invalid?

1. If #2,

 

you’ve to wear uniform in navy, air force, BSF etc. so this inference is not always valid.

then

If you’ve to wear uniform, you’re in army.

#1

2. If not

   

#1,

if you’re not in army, you don’t have to wear uniform.

you’ve to wear uniform in navy, air force, BSF etc. so this inference is not always valid.

then

not #2

3. if not

   

#2,

If you don’t have to wear uniform, you’re not in army.

then

Always valid.

not #1

In the exam, you don’t have to think ^that much. Just mugup the following rule:you’re not in army. then Always valid. not #1 Given statement =“If #1 then #2”, in

Given statement =“If #1 then #2”, in such situation the only valid inference is “if Not #2, then not #1”.have to think ^that much. Just mugup the following rule: In other words, “if 1 s

In other words, “if 1 s t happens then 2 n d happens”, in such situation, the only valid inference st happens then 2 nd happens”, in such situation, the only valid inference is “if 2 nd did not happen then 1 st did not happen”.

Now I want to construct a short and sweet reference table for the logical connective problems. So I’ll use the symbol ~= negative.2 n d did not happen then 1 s t did not happen”. ~1=meaning NOT 1

~1=meaning NOT 1 ( or in other words, negative of #1)

~1=meaning NOT 1 ( or in other words, negative of #1)
~1=meaning NOT 1 ( or in other words, negative of #1)
~1=meaning NOT 1 ( or in other words, negative of #1)
~1=meaning NOT 1 ( or in other words, negative of #1)

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

Given

Valid inference

If 1, then 2

If not 2, then not 1

If 1=>2

~2=>~1

In some books, material, sites, you’ll find these rules explained as using “P” and “Q” instead of 1 and 2.then 2 If not 2, then not 1 If 1=>2 ~2=>~1 But in our method, you

But in our method, you first make sure the given (complex) statement starts with a logical connective (or you exchange position as explained earlier)explained as using “P” and “Q” instead of 1 and 2. We denote the first simple

We denote the first simple sentence as #1 and second simple sentence as #2.connective (or you exchange position as explained earlier) The reason for using 1 and 2= makes

The reason for using 1 and 2= makes things less complicated and easier to mugup.simple sentence as #1 and second simple sentence as #2. Logical connective: Only IF In such

Logical connective: Only IF1 and 2= makes things less complicated and easier to mugup. In such scenario, you’ve to

In such scenario, you’ve to rephrase given statement into “if then” and then apply the logical connective rule for “if then”.complicated and easier to mugup. Logical connective: Only IF For example: given statement: he scores a

For example: given statement: he scores a century, only if the match is fixed. only if the match is fixed.

The “standard format”= only if the match is fixed(1), he scores a century(2). only if the match is fixed(1), he scores a century(2).

In case of “only if”, we further convert it into an “if” statement, by exchanging positions. That isonly if the match is fixed(1), he scores a century(2). if he scores a century(#2), the

if he scores a century(#2), the match is fixed(#1).into an “if” statement, by exchanging positions. That is Then apply the formula for “if then”

Then apply the formula for “if then” and get valid inference.That is if he scores a century(#2), the match is fixed(#1). Here we’ve “if 2=>1” as

Here we’ve “if 2=>1” as per our formula for “if then”, the valid inference will be ~1=>~2. Don’t confuse between 1 and 2. Because essentially the valid inference is “negative of end part => negative of starting part ”. negative of end part => negative of starting part”.

Therefore “if 2=>1 then ~1=~2”negative of end part => negative of starting part ”. similarly “if 98=>97, then valid inference

similarly “if 98=>97, then valid inference will be ~97=>~98”of starting part ”. Therefore “if 2=>1 then ~1=~2” Similarly “if p=>q, then valid inference will

Similarly “if p=>q, then valid inference will be ~q=>~p”,98=>97, then valid inference will be ~97=>~98” similarly “if b=>a, then valid inference will be

similarly “if b=>a, then valid inference will be ~a=~b”) .“if p=>q, then valid inference will be ~q=>~p”, Update our table Logical Given Valid inference using

Update our table“if b=>a, then valid inference will be ~a=~b”) . Logical Given Valid inference using symbol Valid

Logical

Given

Valid inference using symbol

Valid inf. In words

connective

statement

If

If 1=>2

~2=>~1

Negative of end part=> negative of start part

Only if

Only if

~1=>~2

Negative of start part=>negative of end part.

1=>2

Logical Connective: UNLESSof start part=>negative of end part. 1=>2 Given statement : Unless you bribe the minister(#1), you

Given statement: Unless you bribe the minister(#1), you will not get the 2G : Unless you bribe the minister(#1), you will not get the 2G

license.(#2)

Unless = if…bribe the minister(#1), you will not get the 2G license.(#2) So, I can re-write the given

So, I can re-write the given statement asyou will not get the 2G license.(#2) Unless = if… (new) Given statement: If you don’t

(new) Given statement: If you don’t bribe the minister(#1), you’ll not get the 2G license.(#2)Unless = if… So, I can re-write the given statement as not. How to come up

not.

How to come up with a valid inference here?

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

#1

You don’t bribe the minister

#2

You’ll not get the 2G license.

the minister #2 You’ll not get the 2G license. For “if then”, We’ve mugged up the

For “if then”,

We’ve mugged up the rule: 1=>2 then only valid inference is

~2=>~1. (in other words, negative of end part => negative of starting part).

let’s construct the valid inference for this 2G minister.negative of end part => negative of starting part). we want ~2 => ~1 Negative of

we want ~2 => ~1let’s construct the valid inference for this 2G minister. Negative of (2) => negative of (1)

Negative of (2) => negative of (1)valid inference for this 2G minister. we want ~2 => ~1 Negative of (you’ll not get

Negative of (you’ll not get the 2G license)=>negative of (you don’t bribe the minister)we want ~2 => ~1 Negative of (2) => negative of (1) You’ll get the 2G

You’ll get the 2G license => you bribe the minister.license)=>negative of (you don’t bribe the minister) In other words, If I see a 2G license

In other words, If I see a 2G license in your hand, then I can infer that you had definitely bribed the minister.You’ll get the 2G license => you bribe the minister. This is one way of doing

This is one way of doing “unless” questions = via converting it into “if…not” type of statement.I can infer that you had definitely bribed the minister. The short cut is to mugup

The short cut is to mugup another formula: unless1=>2 then ~2=>1.= via converting it into “if…not” type of statement. How did we come up with above

How did we come up with above formula?is to mugup another formula: unless1=>2 then ~2=>1. Deriving the formula for unless Unless 1=>2 (given

Deriving the formula for unless

Unless 1=>2 (given statement)come up with above formula? Deriving the formula for unless if not 1=>2 (because unless=if not)

if not 1=>2 (because unless=if not)the formula for unless Unless 1=>2 (given statement) if ~1=>2 (I’m using symbol ~ instead of

if ~1=>2 (I’m using symbol ~ instead of “not”)(given statement) if not 1=>2 (because unless=if not) ~2=> ~(~1) (because we already mugged up the

~2=> ~(~1) (because we already mugged up the rule “if 1=>2, then valid inference is ~2=>~1)if ~1=>2 (I’m using symbol ~ instead of “not”) ~2=>1 (because ~(~1) means double negative and

~2=>1 (because ~(~1) means double negative and double negative is positive hence ~(~1)=1)the rule “if 1=>2, then valid inference is ~2=>~1) This is our second rule: Unless1=>2 then

This is our second rule: Unless1=>2 then ~2=>1

Table

Logical

Given

Valid inference using symbol

Valid inf. In words

connective

statement

If

If 1=>2

~2=>~1

Negative of end part=> negative of start part

Only if

Only if

~1=>~2

Negative of start part=>negative of end part.

1=>2

 

Unless

 

Negative of end part=>start part unchanged.

Unless

1=>2

~2=>1

Logical connective: otherwisepart unchanged. Unless 1=>2 ~2=>1 Suppose given statement is: 1, otherwise 2. you can write it

Suppose given statement is: 1, otherwise 2.1=>2 ~2=>1 Logical connective: otherwise you can write it as unless 1 then 2. (unless1=>2) Then

you can write it as unless 1 then 2. (unless1=>2)otherwise Suppose given statement is: 1, otherwise 2. Then use the formula for “unless.” Logical connective:

Then use the formula for “unless.”2. you can write it as unless 1 then 2. (unless1=>2) Logical connective: When, Whenever, every

Logical connective: When, Whenever, every time2. (unless1=>2) Then use the formula for “unless.”

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

Given statement: he scores century, when match is fixed.CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal This is not in standard format of “**logical

This is not in standard format of “**logical connective word**, simple statement #1, simple statement #2.” “**logical connective word**, simple statement #1, simple statement #2.”

So first I need to exchange the positions: “when match is fixed (#1), he scores century (#2)”.word**, simple statement #1, simple statement #2.” In case of when and whenever, the valid inference

In case of when and whenever, the valid inference is= same like “If, then”. That means negative of end part=>negative of starting part.“when match is fixed (#1), he scores century (#2)”. Same formula works for “whenever” and “Everytime”.

Same formula works for “whenever” and “Everytime”.means negative of end part=>negative of starting part. Update the table Logical Given Valid inference using

Update the tableSame formula works for “whenever” and “Everytime”. Logical Given Valid inference using symbol Valid

Logical

Given

Valid inference using symbol

Valid inf. In words

connective

statement

If

If 1=>2

   
 

When

When

1=>2

Negative of end part=> negative of starting part

 

Whenever

~2=~1

Whenever

1=>2

Everytime

Everytime

 

1=>2

Only if

Only if

~1=>~2

Negative of start part=>negative of end part.

1=>2

 

Unless

 

Negative of end part=>starting part unchanged.

Unless

1=>2

~2=>1

part unchanged. Unless 1=>2 ~2=>1 Logical Connective: Either OR Given statement: Either he is

Logical Connective: Either OR

Given statement: Either he is drunk(1) or he is ill(2).

In such cases, if not 1 then 2. And if not 2 then 1.

Meaning,

1. if he is not drunk then he is definitely ill

2. if he is not ill, then he is definitely drunk

both are valid. Update the table

   

Valid

 

Logical

connective

Given statement

inference

using symbol

Valid inf. In words

If

If 1=>2

   

When

When 1=>2

~2=~1

Negative of end part=> negative of starting part

Whenever

Whenever 1=>2

Everytime

Everytime 1=>2

   

Only if

Only if 1=>2

~1=>~2

Negative of start part=>negative of end part.

Unless

Unless 1=>2

   

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

Otherwise

1 otherwise 2=> rewrite as

~2=>1

Negative of end part=>starting part unchanged.

Unless1=>2.

     

Negative of any one part=>

Either or

Either 1 or 2

~2=>1~1=>2

~1=>2~2=>1

remaining part remains unchanged.

Now let’s solve some questions from old CSAT and CAT papers~2=>1 ~1=>2 remaining part remains unchanged. Please note : in the exam, actual wording / meaning

Please note: in the exam, actual wording / meaning of the simple statement doesn’t matter. Just : in the exam, actual wording / meaning of the simple statement doesn’t matter. Just apply the formulas as given in above table.

For example, “if you’re in army, you have to wear uniform.” Then valid inference is ~2=>~1 (you don’t have to wear uniform, then you’re not in army).matter. Just apply the formulas as given in above table. Now ofcourse there would be exceptional

Now ofcourse there would be exceptional situation when army officer/jawan doesn’t need to wear uniform, for example during espionage mission behind the enemy lines. In that case you don’t have to wear uniform, but you’re still in the army.don’t have to wear uniform, then you’re not in army). But keep in mind, while solving

But keep in mind, while solving logical connective question under the “aptitude/reasoning” portion you don’t have to surgically dissect or nitpick the meaning every statement. Just “if 1=>2” then “~2=>~1”.have to wear uniform, but you’re still in the army. Demo Q: Only if: bored TV

statement. Just “if 1=>2” then “~2=>~1”. Demo Q: Only if: bored TV brother (CSAT 2012) Examine

Demo Q: Only if: bored TV brother (CSAT 2012)

Examine the following statements:

1. I watch TV only if I am bored

2. I am never bored when I have my brother’s company.

3. Whenever I go to the theatre I take my brother along.

Which one of the following conclusions is valid in the context of the above statements?

A. If I am bored I watch TV

B. If I am bored, I seek my brother’s company.

C. If I am not with my brother, then I’ll watch TV.

D. If I am not bored I do not watch TV.

Approach

First we’ll construct valid inferences from the question statements

Given Question Statement #1:

Given =I watch TV only if I am boredfrom the question statements Given Question Statement #1: This is not in standard format. So first

This is not in standard format. So first exchange positionQuestion Statement #1: Given =I watch TV only if I am bored Only if I’m bored

Only if I’m bored (1), I watch TV(2)This is not in standard format. So first exchange position What is the valid inference? Just

What is the valid inference? Just look at the formula tableexchange position Only if I’m bored (1), I watch TV(2)

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

Only if 1=>2 then ~1=~2CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal Valid inference= if I’m not bored, I do

Valid inference= if I’m not bored, I do not watch TV.approach explained » Mrunal Only if 1=>2 then ~1=~2 Look at the statements given in the

Look at the statements given in the answer choices, (D) matches. Therefore, final answer is (D).Valid inference= if I’m not bored, I do not watch TV. Demo Q (If, then) Professor

answer choices, (D) matches. Therefore, final answer is (D). Demo Q (If, then) Professor Headaches (CAT’98)

Demo Q (If, then) Professor Headaches (CAT’98)

You’re given a statement, followed by four statements labeled A to D. Choose the ordered pair of statements where the first statement implies the second and two statements are logically consistent with the main statement.

Given statement: If I talk to my professors(1), then I didn’t need to take a pill for

headache.(2)

Four Statements

A. I talked to my professors

B. I did not need to take a pill for headache

C. I needed to take a pill for headache

D. I did not talk to my professor.

Answer choices

I.

AB

II.

DC

III.

CD

IV.

AB and CD

Approach

Given statement is in standard format already

#1

I talk to my professors

#2

I didn’t need to take a pill for headache.

Let’s classify the four statements

Classification

Four statements

1

A. I talked to my professors

2

B. I did not need to take a pill for headache

~2

C. I needed to take a pill for headache

~1

D. I did not talk to my professor.

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

Answer choice (i) AB

If you observe the answer choice (I): AB= I talked to my professors, I did not need to take a pill for headache. This is valid because if 1=>2 is already given in the question statement itself.

Answer choice (ii) DC

I did not talk to my professor (~1), I needed to take a pill for headache (~2). Meaning ~1=>~2.in the question statement itself. Answer choice (ii) DC This is invalid because as per our

This is invalid because as per our table, if 1=>2, then valid inference is invalid because as per our table, if 1=>2, then valid inference is

~2=>~1.

Answer choice (iii) CD

I needed to take pill for headache (~2), I did not talk to my professor (~1). Meaning ~2=>~1. This is valid as per our table. Therefore final answer is (IV) AB and CD

as per our table. Therefore final answer is (IV) AB and CD Demo Q: Either or:

Demo Q: Either or: derailed/late train (CAT’97)

Given statement: either the train is late (1) or it has derailed (2)

Four statements

A. Train is late = 1

B. Train is not late = ~1

C. Train is derailed =2

D. Train is not derailed =~2

(^note: I’ve classified the statements in advance)

Answer choice

I.

AB

II.

DB

III.

CA

IV.

BC

Approach

As per our table, the valid inferences for either or are

~2=>1

If the train is not derailed, it is late.

DA

~1=>2

If the train is not late, it is derailed

BC

Correct answer is (III): BC For more articles on reasoning and aptitude, visit Mrunal.org/aptitude

6/13/2014

Mrunal [Reasoning] Logical Connectives (if, unless, either or) for CSAT, CAT shortcuts formulas approach explained » Mrunal

URL to article: http://mrunal.org/2013/04/reasoning-logical-connectives-if- unless-either-or-for-csat-cat-shortcuts-formulas-approach-explained.html

Posted By Mrunal On 30/04/2013 @ 13:47 In the category Aptitude