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Index

A
ABCD matrix 271,401,410
Accumulate-and-dump 57
Autocorrelation function 383
B
Bandpass ADC 141,326
Bandpass modulator 13
center frequency selection 145
NTF 142,145
OSR definition 142
spectrum 147
topology 151
c
C model, modulator 343
Capacittve T 307
Cascade 10
Chaotic modulator 53
Chopper stabi lization 419
Circuits
clock generator 297
comparator 297
current-mode DAC 323
DAC latch 323
low-power comparator 326
op amp 294
two-stage amplifier 325
Clock generator 297
Comb filter 55
Comparator 297
Conditional stability 101
Continued fraction expansion 47
Continuous-time modulator 161, 205
comparator delay in 214
Jitter 215
STF 211
feedback delay 318
Correlated double sampling (CDS) 419
o
DAC
based on MODI 34
calibrated 237
delta-sigma 16, 220
digitally-corrected 237
dual-truncation 230
example 252, 253
multi-bit 229
segmented 234
segmented and scrambled 235
single-stage 223
443
Index
Data-weighted averaging 189
Dead band 51
Dead zones, MODI 51
Decimationfilter 54
Decimation, MOD2 86
Delta modulation 4
Digital correction 199
Direct charge transfer stage 251
Discrete Fourier transform 365
Dither 45
Dynamic element matching 184, 404
Dynamic range scaling 266, 268, 300, 402
E
Effective number of bits (ENOB) 3,9, JO
Element rotation 189
Error-feedbackstructure 35, 81, 224
Excess loop delay 215
F
Fast Founer Transform, see FFT 365
Feedback delay 318
Feedforward topology 309
FFT
averaging 377
bins 365
noise leakage 370
required length 372
scaling 373
signal leakage 371
smoothing 377
Figure of merit, ADC 357
Filter
architectures 247
Bessel 248, 249
half-band 242
interpolation 239
reconstruction 243
Finite op-amp gain In MODI 50
Flicker noise 418
Folded-cascodeop amp 294
Fourier transform, definition 365
Full scale 24
G
General modulator structure 92
H
Halfbandfilter 87
design 405
444
Halfband filter simulation 408
History of delta-sigma 17
Hogcnauer structure 88
I
Image gain 345
Image rejection ratio (IRR) 168
Image rejection, function of amplitude and phase
error 168
Image transfer function 171
Impulse response check 277, 290, 310
Individual-level averaging 191
Infinitynorm 99
Inherent anti-aliasing 206, 212, 319, 333
rnherent linearity 7
Instability detection 311
Integrator, noise 425
Integrator, SC 245,274,300,316
Interpolation filter 220, 239, 344
K
kT/C noise 280
L
Least significant bit (LSB) 23
Lee criterion 98
Leslie-Singh structure 123
LInear interpolator 347
Loop filter
arbitrary NTF and STF 92
differentiating NTF 93
Lossless discrete integrator (LDI) 155
M
MASH 10,17,127,182,226,311
2-stage 127
3-stage 131
noise leakage 132
MIsmatchshaping 15, 186,232
second order 195, 198
first order 189, 198
individual-level averaging 191
tree structure 196
vector-based 192
Mixer 328
MODI
ADC 29
DAC 34
de input 41
dead zones 51
MODI (cont'd)
finite op-amp gain 50
geometric interpretation 45
irrational input 44
linear model 36
NTF 37
rational input 43
robustness 32
simulation 38
SQNR 38
SQNR vs, input amplitude 40
stabihty 49
STF 37
tones 42,48
MOD2 from MODI 64
MOD2
Boser-Wooley structure 79
dead zones 77
decimation 86
distortion 71
error- feedback structure 81
harmonic distortion 71
in-band noise power vs. de input 73
linear model 64
NTF 64
NTF zero optimization 84
optimal 84
output spectrum 68
quantizer gain 68, 71
SCreahzation 283
Srlva-Steensgaard structure 80
SQNR 65
SQNR vs input amplitude 70
SQNR vs. OSR 66
stability 74
MOOn
NTF pole optimization 111
NTF zero optimization 107
SQNR vs. OSR 112
stability 97
Modulator, ADC or DAC 30
Modulator, dual-quantizer 182
Modulator, simulation 396
Multi-bit modulator 179
Multi-stage modulator, see MASH
N
NBW, arbitrary window function 386
Noise bandwidth (NBW) 39, 376, 386
Noise budget 437
Noise leakage 132
Noise shaping 6
Noise transfer function (NTF) 8
Noise, kT/C 8 ~ 9 ~ 30 I, 427
Noise, op amp 4J9
N-path transformation 149
NTF zero optimization
NTF
as a function of quantizer gain 69
cookbook procedure 113
function of quantizer gain 100
pole optimization III
realization 266
realizability constraint 97
realization 400
stability constraint 97
synthesis 257, 393
zero optimization 85, 107
o
Op amp, finite gain 50, 77, 315
Op amp, folded cascode 294
OSR 8
OSR, bandpass modulator 142
OSR, quadrature modulator 144
Overload 10
Oversampling ratio 8
p
Positively invariant set 409
Post-filter, DAC 243
Power spectral density (PSD) 7, 38, 266, 383
Q
Quadrature ADC 144
Quadrature filter 169
Quadrature filter, mismatch I 70
Quadrature mixing 166
Quadrature modulator 172
definition of OSR 144
NTF 172
spectrum 174
Quadrature resonator 172
Quadrature signal 166
Quantization 21
Quantization error 23
Quantization noise 21
FFTof25
Quantizer gain 22
Quantizer gain, binary 29
445
Index
Quantizer transfer curve (QTC) 71
Quantizer,
binary 28
bipolar 23
mid-rise 22
mid-tread 22
overload 10
unipolar 22
R
Rational of best approximation 47
Realizability constraint 96
Realization 400
Receiver 140,326
Reconstruction filter 243
Reset 98, 311
Resonator
2"path 156
active-RC 159
delaying integrators 119
Gm-C 159
LC 160
LDI 119,155
SC 275
Root locus 100
S
Scaling 288
Sigma delta vs. delta sigma 7
Signal leakage 371
Signal to quantization noise ration (SQNR) 38
Sinc filter 55
Hogenauer structure 88
image attenuation 346, 350
two-stage 58
Single-bit quantization 7
Slewing 294
446
SQNR limits
I-bit modulators 112
2-bit modulators 113
3-bit modulators 113
SQNR simulation 299
SQNR prediction 395
Stability 409
invariant set method 409
Lee criterion 98
Stability, multi-bit modulator 104
Stable input range 97
STF
continuous-time modulator 2) 1
example continuous-time bandpass 333
maximally-flat, all-pole 261
Superheterodyne 326
T
Thermal noise, MOSFET 418
Thermal noise, resistor 418
Timing 276, 286
Timing check 304
Topology
feedback 115
feedforward 121, 303
Two-pathtransformation 149
V
Verification 289
W
White noise approximation 8
Window
Hann 368
rectangular 366
Windowing 265, 366