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CONSOLE RECORDING CAPABILITIES


MILESTONES IN MICROPHONE DESIGN
REAL WORLD GEAR: LOUDSPEAKER DRIVERS
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Live Sound International (ISSN 1079-0888) (USPS 011-619), Vol. 22 No.12, is published monthly by EH Publishing, 111 Speen Street, Suite 200, Framingham, MA 01701 USA. US/Canada/Mexico subscriptions are $60 per year. For all other
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is prohibited. Live Sound International is a registered trademark of EH Publishing Inc. All rights reserved. 2013 EH Publishing. Check us out on the web at http://www.prosoundweb.com.
IN THIS ISSUE
FEATURES
8
|
A Useful Tool
Creating and applying FIR lters. by Pat Brown
14
|
Through The Years
A look a notable microphone developments.
by Craig Leerman
24
|
Artistic Flair
Loudspeakers for performing arts centers.
by Gary Parks
52
|
In & Out
New technology for a dynamic multi-stage venue.
by R. Mawell
24
DECEMBER 2013
6
|
Loading Dock
EQUIPMENT New software, processors,
microphones and more.
20
|
Front Lines
Stewart Independent Productions puts it all
together. by Live Sound staff
36
|
Showcase
Console capabilities for basic live recording.
by Craig Leerman
40
|
In Prole
Inside the R&D approach at JBL
Professional. by Ken DeLoria
46
|
Real World Gear
EQUIPMENT The latest on cone and
compression drivers. by Live Sound staff
54
|
Road Test
Evaluating the Soundcraft Si Expression 3
console. by Craig Leerman
58
|
Show Report
Detailing the compact system demo at
WFX Dallas. by Live Sound staff
4
|
From the Editors Desk
60
|
NewsBytes
63
|
Advertiser Index
64
|
Back Page
DEPARTMENTS
20
40 58
www.GAMBLEBOARDS.com
E-mail Jim Gamble for details, gamble@cebridge.net
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The Gamble DCX-60 FUSION Console gives you the very Best of Both Worlds; the astonish-
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With features Iike AutoSave, which saves your Mix FiIe automaticaIIy every three minutes, 8
Stereo Subgroups, 16 Stereo Aux, 8 Stereo Matrix w/ Stereo EQ, and a Frequency Response
from 1Hz to 200kHz, your mix wiII sound better than anything you've ever heard before.
The 2014 DCX-60 FUSION I and DCX-60 FUSION II are identical consoles and available for
purchase separateIy or together for $480,000 each.
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
VOLUME 22 | NUMBER 12
.
c
o
m
Publisher | Kevin McPherson | kmcpherson@ehpub.com
Editor-In-Chief | Keith Clark | kclark@livesoundint.com
Senior Contributing Editor | Craig Leerman | cleerman@livesoundint.com
Senior Technical Editor | Ken DeLoria | kdeloria@livesoundint.com
Church Sound Editor | Mike Sessler | msessler@livesoundint.com
Europe Editor | Paul Watson | pwatson@livesoundint.com
Technical Consultant | Pat Brown | pbrown@synaudcon.com
Art Director | Katie Stockham | kstockham@ehpub.com
Associate Art Director | Dorian Gittlitz | dgittlitz@ehpub.com
ProSoundWeb.com
Editor-In-Chief | Keith Clark | kclark@prosoundweb.com
Product Specialist | Craig Leerman | cleerman@prosoundweb.com
Webmaster | Guy Caiola | gcaiola@ehpub.com
Gary Parks | R. Maxwell
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EDITORIAL AND READER SERVICE RELATED EMAIL ADDRESSES
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REPRINTS: Erica Halloran
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From the Editors Desk
A couple of months ago I had the pleasure of meeting Shannon Stewart
as he and his team were handling a wide range of production duties
tied into kickoff week at the University of Notre
Dame, which is located just down the road from
my home base in Michigan.
The pace was hectic but not frantic as
the Stewart Independent Productions staff went
about the business of cinching last-minute details
for the huge Block Party concert slated for that
evening. Getting the opportunity to see rst-hand
the work of audio professionals in the eld is eas-
ily one of the coolest parts of this job, and then we
get to share it with you in these pages, specically
this time beginning on page 20 of this issue.
As we were going to press, we learned of the passing of industry
icon Gene Clair. He and brother Roy left an indelible, and truly lasting,
imprint of our industry, and helped pave the way for where we are today.
The coverage of Gene in the News Bytes section includes a wonderful
write-up from the company he co-founded, and I also see the focus on
the achievements of thriving organizations like Stewart Independent as
a tting tribute to his legacy.
Pat Brown is back to continue his discussion of FIR lters, specically
looking at their application and related issues. Ken DeLoria recently
stopped by JBL Professional to catch up with Paul Bauman and his team
about ongoing research and development work, and his report contains
several interesting insights.
Craig Leerman contributed several pieces, including a fun look at
some of the milestones in the advancement of modern microphones.
In Real World Gear, we highlight loudspeaker drivers, where notable
developments are constantly ongoing.
And, as always, theres more. Enjoy the issue.
Keith Clark
Editor In Chief, Live Sound International/ProSoundWeb
kclark@livesoundint.com

ON THE COVER: An L-Acoustics
line array ying at the historic
Civic Theatre in New Orleans.
(Photo credit: Matt Foucheaux/
Solomon Group)
LOADINGDOCK
: : Products Fresh Off the Truck: :
6 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com

Yamaha Commercial Audio CL Version 1.7


The latest software version for CL Series consoles, available via free download,
includes upgrades for engineers in festival and other complex event applications. It
offers selective load/save for set up data such as scene memory, libraries, etc., and
this can now be individually loaded
from or saved to USB memory.
The HA Option for changing input
patches now makes it possible to
select whether the end user wants
to use the HA settings from the
patched port as is, or copy the
channel HA settings to the patched
port in order to quickly change
input patches when mixing in a
fast-paced environment without having to copy HA settings. Also with the upgrade,
in the sends on fader mode, the assignable encoders (gain/pan/assign knobs) can
now be used to adjust channel level and panning for sends to stereo buses. Cus-
tom fader bank setups can be stored to, and recalled from, individual scenes. And,
the sends from input channels to buses on which the send point is set to PRE can
now be assigned to DCA groups for muting via a DCA mute option for PRE sends.
Several additional new features are also offered. www.yamahaca.com
dbx Professional DriveRack PA2
D
A loudspeaker management system incorporating a new Wizard that allows
for faster and easier setup, new AutoEQ, and accurate Advanced Feedback
Suppression (AFS). It can be controlled on the y with mobile devices or laptop
using Ethernet control via an Android, iOS, Mac, or Windows device. The Wiz-
ard utility provides users with access to a host of conguration menus and on
their mobile device, with full-color graphical displays that give visual indications
of the parameters being adjusted. The DriveRack PA2 can also be operated via
its front-panel controls and display. The upgraded AutoEQ enables automatic
and precise equalization of the loudspeakers to the venue in which theyre being
used in order to achieve smoother, more accurate in-room frequency response.
The AFS function automatically nds and dials out any problematic feedback-
producing frequencies. The PA2 also offers additional system-tuning and sonic
optimization capabilities, including dbx compression, graphic and 8-band para-
metric EQ, dbx Subharmonic Synthesis for enhanced low-frequency response,
a loudspeaker crossover (for full-range, 2-way and 3-way systems), limiting,
loudspeaker time alignment and time delay, and more. www.dbxpro.com
Soundcraft ViSi
Remote Version 2.0

An upgraded
version of
the ViSi
Remote iPad
app, avail-
able for free
download,
that provides
remote control of Vi, Si Compact, Si Performer
and Si Expression consoles wirelessly from an
iPad device. It offers the ability for Si Compact,
Performer and Expression users to adjust chan-
nel strip settings per channel, including settings
such as gate, compressor and EQ along with
pan, LR/mono routing and phase invert switches.
(This functionality will be added to Vi consoles in
a future update.) It can also be used in stand-
alone mode for familiarization with console
functions, control a network of consoles (i.e.,
FOH and monitor), provide a separate surface for
DMX functionality (Si Performer only), and allow
multiple users on the same console to control
their own mixes. ViSi Remote 2.0 requires no
additional hardware other than a wireless access
router connected to the Harman HiQnet Ethernet
port of the console. www.soundcraft.com
Peavey
Electronics
PVM 44 &
PVM 50
d
Two microphones joining
the PVM Series, both offer-
ing neodymium capsules
and built to withstand the
rigors of tour use. The PVM
44 is a dynamic cardioid
model with a stated frequency response of
50 Hz 16 kHz and a sensitivity rating of -54
+/- 2dBV/Pa (Pa=94 dB SPL). The PVM 50, a
dynamic supercardioid model, also has a stated
frequency response of 50 Hz 16 kHz. Weight
for each model is 1.5 pounds, and they ship with
a mic clip and hardshell case. www.peavey.com
>> FEATURED PRODUCT
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 7
D
Mackie Master
Fader Version 2.0
An upgraded version of the primary control app
for DL Series mixers, available as a free down-
load, providing increased control and workow
improvement. Input channel and aux send
linking are designed for controlling stereo input
sources such as keyboards or when using in-
ear monitors. The addition of mute groups and
view groups provides customizable control of
the work surface. A new Quick Access Panel
offers instant access to important controls
without taking up screen real estate. Further
upgrades include an improved compressor/lim-
iter graph UI, an option for independent chan-
nel aux mute for each aux send, a main mute,
and iOS7 support. Workow updates such as
channel/aux linking and access to mute/view
groups also apply to a new version of Mackies
My Fader control app for iPhone and iPod
touch. Master Fader v2.0 is compatible with
iOS 5.1 or later, while My Fader v2.0 is compat-
ible with iOS 6 or later. www.mackie.com
Harman JBL HiQnet Performance Manager Version 1.6


The latest version of the software program that enhances sound system design,
networking and control. It provides improved group muting controls and a new library
cleanup tool, as well as the ability to save les with EQ in line array calculator taper-
ing/shading mode and open them in multiple arrays. Also offered is the new I-Tech
4x3500 HD rmware version 1042, an update for front display operation, along with
a new array and ground stack auto amplify button to help guide automatic ampli-
cation of loudspeakers, and group muting and signal generator controls available
in test system mode. In addition, each array or ground stack now has its own mute
button to facilitate left/right testing, time alignment and tuning, as well as the ability
to amplify speaker groups from the congure array dialog. And, overall subwoofer
array delay is now separate from individual sub electronic delay steering
(EDS) delays, and the delay panels now show these as two separate
values. This allows for sophisticated
low-frequency steering for either
cardioid or front-ring sub arrays.
Performance Manager is available
for purchase via license key on the
HiQnet website. www.jblpro.com,
http://hiqnet.harmanpro.com

Waves Audio DiGiGrid MGB & MGO


DiGiGrid MGB coaxial and MGO optical MADI
interfaces foster plugging in (via Ethernet) any MADI-
enabled device to the Waves SoundGrid networking
and processing platform. Users can record, process
and play back up to 128 audio channels, using
hundreds of Waves and third-party plug-ins, with low
latency and clocking in at 0.8 milliseconds. Recording
to two computers can be done simultaneously; for
example, one for virtual sound check and the other
for backup. www.waves.com, www.digigrid.net

Meyer Sound MJF-210


A light-weight, self-powered stage monitor offering a low-prole, dual 10-inch
woofer design, measuring less than 14 inches high and weighing 67 pounds. It
is rated to deliver up to 136 dB SPL peak (at 1 meter) with low distortion. The
front of the monitor slopes at 40 degrees from the stage, while the constant
directivity horn (50 x 70 degrees, h x v) offers performers more freedom to move
on stage while staying within the vertical coverage. The drivers are powered by
a 3-channel class D amplier that delivers 1,175 watts burst output or 2,350
watts total peak output. The MJF-210 can be integrated into the Compass RMS
remote monitoring system using the optional RMS module. Compass RMS offers the RMServer and can be controlled in Compass
software. For applications with higher power requirements, the model MJF-212A stage monitor is available, rated to deliver up to
139 dB SPL peak (at 1 meter) and weighing 108 pounds. www.meyersound.com
>>>>
8 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
IN PART 1 of this article series (LSI
November 2013), I laid out a few guid-
ing principles regarding Finite Impulse
Response (FIR) lters. Heres a quick
review:
1) With FIR lters I can have very
steep low-pass (LP) and high-pass (HP)
lters, such as might be used in a cross-
over network, that have linear group
delay (same delay for all frequencies).
2) The magnitude and phase
response of a FIR lter can be adjusted
independently. In an Innite Impulse
Response (IIR) lter they are interde-
pendent you cant change one without
changing the other.
3) WAV impulse responses by deni-
tion are FIR lters, since they are xed
in length and cannot (theoretically)
decay for innity. Any IR you measured
can potentially be used as a lter.
So, lets create some FIRs.
CREATING THE FIR FILTER
I created my FIR filters in software,
using the freeware rePhase to dene a
HP lter and LP lter based on a few
input variables (Figure 1). Youll want to
add rePhase to your toy box for investi-
gating FIRs. (Ill show some other FIR-
creation tools in future installments of
this series.)
Ill create a 1 kHz brickwall HP l-
ter. FIR lters are dened by the num-
ber of taps. This is a way of specifying
the length of the impulse response. The
number of taps is equal to the number
of samples. Basically, the more taps, the
more samples, the longer the time length,
and the greater the precision. The greater
the precision, the greater the sharpness
that can be attained in the frequency
domain. Just as you need a long time
window to resolve low frequencies when
performing acoustical measurements, you
Figure 1 FIR lters generated with rePhase.
Figure 2 At the top we see a 60 tap FIR HPF. Note the lack of sharpness due to
the small tap size. Next, adding more taps (more samples or a longer time length)
creates a sharper lter, and then at the bottom, we have a 6000 tap lter that is
136 ms in time duration, with latency of 1/2 of the length (68 ms).
TECH
TOPIC
Creating and applying FIR lters.
by Pat Brown
A Useful Tool
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 9
need a lot of taps (long IRs) for detailed
low frequency FIR lters.
Let me demonstrate. From top to
bottom, Figure 2 shows the response of a
60 tap, 1 kHz HPF, the response of a 600
tap HPF, and the response of a 6000 tap
HPF. Clearly, the 6000 tap lter can be
described as brickwall. Thats the one
we want, right? This is audio, and you
never get something for nothing.
The latency through an FIR is one-
half the number of taps, so the signal
through this filter will be delayed by
3000 samples. At 44.1 kHz, thats a bit
over 60 milliseconds (ms). While that
might be acceptable in a home playback
system, it might as well be next week
for live sound. Im going to stay with
this to illustrate the concept, but in the
real world wed have to give back some
of the precision to reduce the latency.
I created a 1 kHz LP filter in the
same manner. Since these brickwall l-
ters essentially do not overlap, I dont
have to worry about how they interact.
Filter interaction is a main concern for
analog and IIR digital lters.
These are brickwall lters that pro-
duce no frequency-dependent delay. Note
how wacky the phase response gets in the
stop band. Thats because the magnitude
response is down about 80 dB. If there
is no magnitude response (i.e., no signal
output from the lter), then the phase is
meaningless and looks like garbage.
rePhase allows the lters to be saved
in multiple formats, including WAV
les (Figure 3). They can be convolved
with any audio signal in real time or
as a post process. We ll need some
hardware to do the convolution in real
time. I saved them as 32-bit IEEE-754
mono .bin les, and dropped them into
a miniDSP OpenDRC 22 to allow
measurement and listening (Figure 4).
This DSP can handle FIRs up to 6144
taps, so the 6k tap lter just makes it.
This is a very simple FIR, for illus-
trative purposes. It can actually have a
very detailed shape, including corrective
equalization lters. One FIR lter can
replace a whole bank of parametric EQ
lters along with HP and LP lters. Its
like having one super-duper lter rather
than a bunch of simple ones.
ANALOG FILTER COMPARISON
For comparison, I also generated a 1 kHz,
4th-order Linkwitz-Riley lter pair. These
are typical of the crossover lters imple-
mented by most DSPs. These are IIR
filters similar to what are produced by
analog processors. I showed the transfer
functions of these lters (and their sum)
in part 1, so I wont include them here.
While the magnitude response of the
summed lters is at, the phase response
is not linear. The lters have produced a
frequency-dependent phase shift in the
response.
APPLIED TO A
LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEM
What good is a lter unless you use it to
lter something? An interesting way to
experiment with crossover networks is
to use two identical loudspeakers. Since
theyre the same, the response of the l-
ters can be easily observed.
One will be the LF device and
one will be the HF device (Figure 5).
These are small cube loudspeakers that
I built to use for classroom demos. The
responses of these two devices have
been matched using the parametric EQ
filter blocks in the OpenDRC DSP.
The parametric equalizer settings were
determined using the EQ module of
Room EQ Wizard (REW), a freeware
measurement program.
Figure 3 The FIR generation and
export settings in rePhase.
Figure 4 The software GUI for the miniDSP OpenDRC 22.
:: Tech Topic::
10 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
REW calculates the lters required
to correct the loudspeakers response,
and saves them in a format that can be
directly imported by the DSP. This saves
the grunt work required to manually
adjust the lters until the response is
at. Note that this is not auto EQ. I
properly collected and windowed the
axial response of each loudspeaker, using
1/12th-octave smoothing to get ride
of some of the detail. I then let REW
do a curve-t between 100 Hz and 10
kHz, and give me the list of the lters
required to atten it.
When satised, I imported this list
into the DSP. The responses are shown
in Figure 6. Note that they are different,
because the loudspeakers are unavoid-
ably different. Theres a good lesson
there for those that think they can do
high resolution equalization on multiple
devices by measuring one of them, but
thats a different article.
Figure 7 shows the full-range
overlaid responses of the two loud-
speakers with the IIR parametric l-
ters applied, followed by the overlaid
Figure 5 My little traveling cubes.
Figure 6 The correction curve (IIR parametric lter set) for each cube loudspeaker.
Figure 7 At the top (1), we see the frequency response magnitude of each cube loudspeaker, post equalization. Next (2), a FIR
lter is applied to each box. Note the minimal overlap of their responses due to the steep slopes. Following that (3), we see the
transfer function of the summed axial response as measured in the far-eld. At the bottom (4), we see the summed response using
a Linkwitz-Riley 24 dB/oct crossover network. The magnitude is exactly the same as the FIR response, but the phase response
shows the expected phase shift caused by the IIR lters.
1. 3.
2. 4.
30 years
of fun,
obstinacy
and neutral
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W
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They say that d&b have built a selection of remarkable sound
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:: Tech Topic::
12 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
responses of the two loudspeakers with
the FIR crossover lters applied, and
then the measured full-range response
(both magnitude and phase) with all
filters applied, and finally, the mea-
sured response LP, HP and summed
responses using the LR24 crossover.
Note that the magnitude responses
are the same for the LR24 and brickwall
crossovers. The difference will be in the
phase response, and the polar response
of the pair.
PROOF IN THE POLARS
I spaced the two loudspeakers 1 wave-
length at 1 kHz (about 1.1 feet), shown
in Figure 8. This conguration should
produce a polar that looks like a sham-
rock on St. Patricks day, since the
loudspeakers will be 180 degrees out-of-
phase at 1 kHz at several angles around
the polar, and in-phase at other angles.
I used this configuration to evaluate
the polar response at the crossover fre-
quency of 1 kHz.
On the left in Figure 9, we see the
polar response at crossover for the
Linkwitz-Riley crossover network. The
response lobes, because both transduc-
ers are talking in the crossover region.
Since they are offset physically, lobing is
unavoidable. As expected, the response
resembles a four-leaf clover. On the right
is the polar response at crossover for the
FIR crossover network. The lobing is
eliminated because the offset transduc-
ers are not overlapping in frequency.
The transducers in multi-way loud-
speakers have always been interdepen-
dent, and lobing has always been a big
issue. The use of linear phase brickwall
lters can eliminate lobing by allowing
the passbands to behave independently.
Given the axial transfer function and
polar response, it is impossible to deter-
mine that this is a two-way system with
offset transducers pretty amazing.
THE WHOLE STORY
While it sounds like FIRs have brought
us to a new level of loudspeaker perfor-
mance, I must point out that multi-way
loudspeakers that do not exhibit lob-
ing through their crossover region have
existed for decades and can be created
without brickwall linear phase FIR
lters. Coaxial and co-entrant designs
accomplish this by the physical place-
ment of the transducers. Yes, FIRs can
provide steep slopes at crossover, but if
the loudspeaker produces sufcient SPL
without them, there may be no benet.
My point? Dont be a FIR snob and
turn up your nose at loudspeaker designs
that use IIR and analog lters. Id always
take a well-designed multi-way loud-
speaker with passive crossover over a
complicated FIR-driven active system,
if the passive system met the needs of
the application. Less can be better.
Its often true that the major benet
of advancements in digital technology
is that it gives us more ways to salvage
bad designs and practices. FIR lters
can often improve the performance of
marginal loudspeaker designs. But when
FIR technology is combined with excel-
lent electro-acoustic design practices,
there is indeed the potential to reach
new levels of performance. While not
a panacea, FIR lters are a nice tool to
have in the toolbox.
PAT & BRENDA BROWN lead
SynAudCon, conducting audio seminars
and workshops online and around the
world. For more information go to www.
synaudcon.com.
Figure 8 A horizontal polar was measured on the two devices. They were offset
1 wavelength at 1 kHz.
Figure 9 The polar response at 1 kHz (1/3-oct, 5-degree angular resolution) using
the LR24 crossover (A) and the linear phase brickwall crossover (B).
RACKMOUNTABLE DIGITAL MIXER
FOR LIVE, STUDIO AND INSTALLATION
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A division of Jam Industries Ltd
For more information email or call:
info@AmericanMusicAndSound.com | 800.431.2609
14 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
MILESTONES
:: The heritage of professional audio:: by Craig Leerman
MICROPHONES AS WE KNOW THEM date back to
about the mid-1800s, when many different inventors were
trying to electronically transmit sounds from one place to
another. Before then, the term microphone was used to
describe an acoustical device (like an ear trumpet or stetho-
scope) that helped amplify sounds.
One of those inventors was German physicist Johann
Philipp Reis (1834-1874), who designed a sound transmitter
consisting of a metallic strip resting on a membrane with a
metal point contact that would complete the electrical circuit
when sound waves moved the membrane (a.k.a., diaphragm).
A bit later, American Elisha Gray, an inventor and one of the
founders of Western Electric, formulated a liquid transmitter
that immersed a rod connected to a diaphragm into an acid
solution. A second xed rod was also immersed in the liq-
uid, and a battery connected the two rods. As the sound waves
moved the rst rod, the distance between it and the second rod
varied in proportion to the sound, producing corresponding
changes in the electrical resistance owing through the cell.
While Gray may have actually invented the liquid micro-
phone rst, history recognizes Alexander Graham Bell as the
inventor of the telephone because he led for a patent a few
hours before Gray. As children, we were told the story of Bell
accidentally spilling some acid and calling for his assistant,
saying Watson, come here, I need you. Watson heard Bells
voice over the system, and its noted as the rst phone call.
Other inventors who contributed signicantly to early micro-
phone technology include Emile Berliner, David Edward
Hughes and Thomas Edison.
As a self-confessed mic geek, I
nd the history of these devices fasci-
nating, and thought it would be inter-
esting to share some of the highlights
of mic development. Note that this
is by no means intended to be com-
prehensive, but focuses on what I see
as many of the notable design break-
throughs through the years.

EARLY PIONEERS
By the late 1920s, Western Electric
developed the rst practical dynamic
microphone, the 618A, which became
a very popular with broadcasters.
According to the companys instruc-
tions for use, the 618A sported a thin
duralumin diaphragm of low mechan-
ical stiffness and a magnet made from
high-grade cobalt steel.
The document goes on to state that
a number of air chambers and slot openings connecting them
have been associated with the diaphragm in order to obtain sub-
stantially uniform response over a frequency range from 35 to
9,500 cycles per second. One of these acoustic elements, in addi-
tion to exerting a control on the motion of the diaphragm, allows
air to be transferred from the front to the back of the diaphragm.
This eliminates effects due to changes in barometric pressure.
beyerdynamic was founded in Germany in the mid-1920s,
initially developing loudspeakers for the motion picture
industry. By 1939 the company introduced its rst dynamic
microphone for studio use, the M19, which also became a
favorite of broadcasters.
In 1932, RCA introduced the massive 77A. Designed by
Dr. Harry F. Olson, it featured two vertical in-line ribbons
and an acoustic labyrinth inside the case which enabled it to
be unidirectional. According to the manual, The gure 8
pattern of the velocity-actuated part of the ribbon combines
with the circular pattern of the pressure-actuated half to pro-
vide an overall cardioid pattern. The 77A was no handheld
model at 11.5 x 3.75 inches and weighing in at 4.5 pounds,
and it used a 1/2-inch pipe thread for mounting.
In the 1940s, RCA would introduce the classic model 77D,
an Art Deco beauty with adjustable pattern control. A tube
connected the ribbon to the labyrinth in the mics body and the
tube had an adjustable shutter that could be adjusted by the user
that closed off portions of the tube openings, allowing patterns
A look a notable microphone developments.
Through The Years
A replica of the Bell liquid tele-
phone circa 1876. Looks similar
to a microphone...
RCA 77D
16 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: Milestones::
control from omnidirectional to bidirectional (gure 8).
In the mid-1920s, Sidney N. Shure founded a radio parts
supplier in Chicago named the Shure Radio Company, later
changed to Shure Brothers Company when Sidneys brother
Samuel came on board. By 1932, the company was produc-
ing microphones to ll a rapidly growing market, and debuted
the model 33N, a 2-button carbon
microphone model that was the
rst lightweight, high-performance
product in a eld largely dominated
by bulky units.
Shure went on to release the iconic
model 55 in 1939, the rst single-ele-
ment unidirectional mic. The design
is called Unidyne (short for unidirec-
tional dynamic) and it revolutionized
the eld. Before the 55, attaining any-
thing other than an omnidirectional
pattern meant using more than one
diaphragm and combining their outputs, which resulted in a
large mic head that usually didnt sound all that good because the
elements were spaced apart and usually had different frequency
responses. Shure solved this by using small ports that allowed
sound waves to reach both sides of the diaphragm at different
times, resulting in a more linear frequency response compared
to using different diaphragms.
And to reduce handling noise, the capsule was suspended
on springs dampened with foam to isolate the diaphragm
from vibrations. Because the design only required a single dia-
phragm, the mic became smaller and less expensive. Factor in
the timeless aesthetic design of the housing, and its no wonder
that the 55 is still a popular model after all these years, with the
current Shure catalog offering two updated models.
About 100 miles to the
east in South Bend, Indi-
ana, Al Kahn and Lou
Burroughs converted their
business from servicing
radios to developing mics,
and in 1930 incorporated
under the name Electro-
Voice. By the mid-1930s
the company was up and
rolling, producing a steady stream of innovations. In 1934,
while going through some old technical journals, Kahn came
upon what he called an ancient watt meter patented in 1892
or thereabouts which had a balanced winding to cancel hum
from the stray 60 Hz elds that the watt meter might pick up.
As Kahn described it, A little light bulb went off above
my head, and I rushed back got some tin snips, cut some
laminations out, and I
made a transformer and
put it in and it worked.
Thus, the humbucking
coil was born, and solved
a major problem for mic users.
According to an early EV catalog,
the V-1 velocity microphone can be
used within 18 inches of a power supply or
within two inches of an AC line. No other
velocity mic in its price eld has this feature at the present time.
The company moved to larger facilities in nearby
Buchanan, MI, and also diversif ied its product offerings
into loudspeakers, phono cartridges, and consumer electron-
ics. Still, mic work continued, with the model 664, a.k.a.,
The Buchanan Hammer, hitting the market in the mid-
1950s. The nickname derived from legendary durability, but
the single-element cardioid, dynamic type mic was also the
rst model to incorporate the companys patented Variable-
D (Variable Distance) design still found in several EV mics
to this day, including the RE20 and the recently introduced
RE320. Variable-D uses multiple rear and side ports to
achieve pattern control.
In addition, EV received an Academy Award for the 642
Cardiline shotgun microphone in 1963, the rst ever given for
an audio product, and in the late 1970s, the company became
the rst manufacturer to use neodymium magnets in its mics.
FURTHER CHOICES
Dr. Fritz Sennheiser founded Laboratorium Wennebostel in
Germany in 1945 and started producing mics the next year.
Later the company would change its name to Sennheiser, and
by 1960 produced one of the most enduring models in pro
audio, the MD-421. While it currently sports a glass compos-
ite body, the original 421 body was made of DuPonts Delrin
polymer resin, one of the rst mics to feature a molded body.
The MD-421 also offers a user-adjustable bass roll-off lter,
and is still extremely
popular with live and
studio engineers.
Ne x t door i n
Austria in 1947, Dr.
Rudolf Grike and
Ernst Pless started
AKG, s uppl y i ng
movie equipment to
theaters in post World War II Vienna. Just a few short years
later, AKG had introduced new mic technologies that include
an early (and perhaps the rst) high-quality condenser, the rst
remote-controlled multi-pattern capacitor mic, and one of the
Shure 55S
Sennheiser
MD-421
Electro-Voice 664
AKG D12
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www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 17
first dynamic cardioid models. The D12 was
highly coveted by sound engineers for its great
sound and cardioid characteristics, and 1971 saw
the introduction of the 414 series, a large dia-
phragm condenser with multiple variable
pickup patterns that is still a staple of stu-
dio and stage work.
Shure stepped up again in 1959 with Unidyne
III, the rst high-quality unidirectional design that
is used by speaking into the end rather than the side
of the microphone. It was the predecessor to the SM57
and paved the way for modern handheld designs.
By the mid-1960s, the SM58 (for studio micro-
phone bet you didnt know that!) launched,
delivering a combination of sound quality
and rugged reliability thats made it the
standard for live vocal use to this day.
Hideo Matsushita founded Audio-Technica Corporation in
Tokyo in 1962 and since that time the company has developed
a wide range of designs. My favorite comes from 1985 with the
UniPoint Series of ultra-compact condenser mics. Over the years
the line has grown to include more than 30 models, including
hanging, boundary, gooseneck and even
handheld microphones. The UniPoint
Series continues going strong
as a contractor and sound
operator favorite.
About t he same
time, beyerdynamic
introduced the M88,
incorporating a new low-
mass diaphragm element that offered fast transient response
coupled with the ability to handle high SPL levels. It caught
on with engineers around the world, and a version of the M88
is still a current item in the catalog more than 50 years later.
In 1964, Bell Labs received a patent for the electroacous-
tic transducer, an electret microphone. Electret condensers
offered greater reliability, higher precision, lower cost, and a
smaller size that anything available at the time.
In this period, AKG launched the worlds rst 2-way car-
dioid microphones. One of these was the D202, a handheld
model that with two diaphragms, one for the lows (20 Hz -
800 Hz) and a second one for the highs (800 Hz - 20 kHz).
The mic sported a sintered bronze grill on the front, rear
Audio-Technica
UniPoint U853A
beyerdynamic
M88
18 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: Milestones::
ports at the cable end and a 3-position
bass cut switch. Another model, the
D202ES, moved the crossover point
to 500 Hz.
NEW DIRECTIONS
Carl Countryman incorporated the
family business in 1978 and since that
time the company has been making
innovative miniature mics for people
and podiums. In the 2000s, the E6 ear-
set mic was developed and has become a
favorite earworn miniature model. And,
introduced a few years ago, the model
B2D is the smallest directional lavalier
available, with a capsule diameter of
only 0.1 inch (2.5 mm).
Sennheiser decided to go small in
1983 and came out with two signi-
cant advances. The rst was the devel-
opment of the rst directional clip-on
microphone, the MKE 40, followed by
the smallest studio clip-on microphone
available at the time, the MKE 2. More
than 25 years later, the MKE 2 is still
extremely popular with broadcasters
and corporate audio folks.
With VLM technology rst deployed
in the OM Series that debuted in 1986,
Audix put itself on the map just a couple
of years after its founding. VLM (very
low mass) is based on using a lightweight
diaphragm that allows for extremely fast,
accurate processing of incoming signals,
while still offering extended frequency
response and high SPL handling.
In the late 1980s, David Blackmer
founded Earthworks Audio in New
Hampshire with an initial goal of
designing and manufacturing audiophile
loudspeakers. He was dissatised with
the measurement tools of the day, and
AKG D202, nicknamed the rocket
for obvious reasons.
Countryman E6
Sennheiser
MKE 40
Earthworks OM1
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 19
set about to improve the situation. The
rst tool he designed was an omnidirec-
tional mic, which led to the manufacture
of the OM1. He wanted to get back to
designing loudspeakers, but his col-
leagues begged to differ, persuading him
to design other mics as well as preamps.
The overall design philosophy is
extended frequency response, very fast
impulse response, near perfect polar
pattern and pure signal path, with the
goal of better emulating the time reso-
lution of human hearing (10 microsec-
onds or better). This is now provided
in a wide range of condenser models for
vocals, instruments and measurement.
Speaking of precision, DPA Micro-
phones (original ly Danish Profes-
sional Audio) was founded in the early
1990s by two former employees from
high-end measurement tool manufac-
turer Brel & Kjr. Headquartered in
Allerd, Denmark, DPA was rst rec-
ognized for the 4011 cardioid followed
by two headset designs the 4066
cardioid and 4088 directional that
have helped shape the popular market
genre we enjoy today.
As we moved along to a new mil-
lennium, Milab went digital with the
DM-1001, a microphone with AES/
EBU and S/ PDIF out puts. The
DM-1001 uses two large diaphragms,
each with its own AD converters, with
the polar pattern calculated in the
DSP from a mix of the front and back
signals from the elements. A separate
programmable control offers a choice of
standard or user congurable patterns.
Neumann also entered the digital realm
with the Solution-D, a studio-oriented
design with integrated DSP processing
and an A/D converter that allows for
gain adjustments to be made digitally
inside the mic.
CRAIG LEERMAN is senior con-
tributing editor for Live Sound Inter-
national and is an avid collector of
vintage microphones. Read about more
of his mics on ProSoundWeb by searching
Microfiles.
DPA 4011
Milab DM-1001
20 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
>>>>
Consistently
Exceeding Standards
Stewart Independent Productions puts it all together.
by Live Sound Staff
honors of my lifetime to be the produc-
tion manager for student activities at the
university.
LEARNING IS KEY
At the outset of each school year in late
August, and before the craziness of stu-
dent kick-off week, Stewart provides a
full training session for Notre Dame stu-
dent sound techs who will be working
with the varied and many sound rein-
forcement systems installed throughout
campus. These same techs also join the
Stewart Independent crew when theyre
onsite for larger productions.
We provide an introduction to pro
audio that we call Practical Application
of Live Sound Reinforcement, Stew-
art says. Its one of my jobs to insure
that the university has qualied student
audio techs available to handle smaller
events. We also offer Practical Appli-
cations of Live Concert Production for
those interested in lighting, staging and
video. And, students continue to receive
hands-on training throughout the year.
In the training courses, Stewart
details the basics of audio and ultimately
how to use and troubleshoot a system.
Another key aspect focuses on how to
interact with visiting production crew as
well as working in a professional manner
and maintaining a positive attitude.
Its great to get the opportunity to
train people the right way, long before
theyve had the chance to develop what we
consider to be bad habits, he notes. Im
pleased to say that many weve interfaced
with have been asked to work for us on the
road, and some of them are still with us.
KICKING OFF
In addition to the educational efforts,
that first week marks the beginning
of nine very busy months for Stew-
art Independent at the university. Its
always a little crazy but we keep it well
organized, Stewart notes with a laugh.
There are tons of activities designed to
WORKING SOUND AND LIGHTING GIGS together in high school, Shannon
Stewart and Dan DeVisser didnt really know where they were headed. But one thing
was certain: they were already hooked on the production business.
Fast-forward 20 years to nd the long-time friends heading up Stewart Indepen-
dent Productions, a full-service national production company located in Southwest
Michigan, that encompasses everything theyve learned in their collective 40-plus
years in the business.
We just decided to pull together everything wed learned, the best people wed
worked with and the best gear we know of, explains Stewart. And we succeeded.
Twenty years later, were exactly what we wanted to be a smaller service-oriented
company with standards and ethics that emulate the big players in the industry.
Stewart Independent has worked with dozens of national acts as a top regional
supplier, including 10,000 Maniacs, Barenaked Ladies, Black Eyed Peas, Blues Trav-
eler and many others. One area of particular focus is providing full-service production
services to several well-known institutes of higher learning in the area, the most
signicant being the University of Notre Dame just across the state line in Indiana.
Long-time working relationships that both company principals had with the univer-
sity led to it becoming one of their rst clients, and it remains a staple of their business
to this day. Its also an experience that has help shape what their company represents.
We really cut our teeth as production managers and as a full-service production
management company at the University of Notre Dame, Stewart explains. Their
pursuit of excellence and our drive for the same made us a perfect match from the
beginning. During the last 17 years we have grown up together its been one of the
FRONTLINES
Shannon Stewart (left)
and Dan DeVisser.
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22 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: Front Lines::
welcome the new and returning students
and many of them require sound sys-
tems, stages, lighting and even video. Its
exciting, but a lot of work.
He and his team set up temporary
ofce space near the universitys world-
famous football stadium, making sure
they have boots on the ground to meet
any special requests while also mapping
out and refining the approach for a
range of highly trafcked events.
The company plays it smart, deploy-
ing variations of the same sound rein-
forcement elements for the majority of
live events held during kick-off week.
Go-to components include RCF line
arrays, subwoofers and monitors, as well
as Avid VENUE SC48 digital consoles.
We started using RCF a few years
ago when we were looking for a self-
powered and processed single 18-inch
subwoofer for monitor applications,
Stewart says. Our goal was to be able
to create multiple subwoofer congura-
tions. We ended up astounded with the
sheer output and punch of the TTS18-
A subs, so we added a few for monitor
applications and a few more for PA.
That led to TT25-SMA oor moni-
tors, providing a tight 40-degree by
40-degree coverage pattern thats desir-
able in several applications, followed by
TT45-SMA monitors loaded with dou-
ble 12-inch woofers that handle wider
coverage needs. Staying on stage, next
up were HDL 20-A line array modules
for side ll applications.
They sounded so great out of the
box, horn are loaded, almost 100 per-
cent weatherproof, and so easy to fly
that we ended up getting enough so that
we would have a great powered PA line
array in house as well as killer side lls,
he explains. It sounds terric and pro-
vides exceptionally long throw, with the
reviews from those whove used being
stellar. Its now our go-to system for just
about everything.
The SC48 digital consoles see constant
use, cited for ease of use, familiarity among
a wide range of engineers, and the assort-
ment of available plug-ins. It is amazing
that we can have all of the effects from
our analog days in our digital consoles,
Steward says. I just love these boards.
BLOWING THE ROOF OFF
Lets take a look at how the Steward Inde-
pendent team deploys that gear, starting
with Domer Fest, an event for rst year
students that features a mixer and dance
in a eld house with free standing tents
and activities just outside. The main stage
is outtted with four individual DJ pack-
ages, accompanied by a lighting rig that
could be found at higher end night clubs.
The four DJ rigs are mixed down to
an SC48 at stage left, and from there,
signal goes to HDL 20-A main arrays.
Add TT25-SMA monitors for in ll and
eight TTS18-A subwoofers to deliver
the serious low end that the applications
requires, and as Stewart notes, were
ready to blow the roof off the place.
Next up, the team and many of these
components move along to the opening
of the Academic Year Mass Picnic, an
evening event for 7,000 that takes place
on a large campus quad, featuring live
music. This is followed by a large outdoor
Above: Charlie Mammoser
of Stewart Indepen dent
helping guest engineer Mat
Criddle (right) with an Avid
SC48 deployed at front of
house at this years Notre
Dame Block Party concert.
Right: Sound check for the
Block Party, with RCF moni-
tors, a Steward Independent
staple, deployed on stage.
The Block Party by day during setup, and
later at full throttle.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 23
comedy show as well as starting load-in
for the culmination of kick-off week,
the B1 Block Party. The student techs
receive a true taste of live event produc-
tion during that rst week. Its almost a
baptism by re, Stewart chuckles.
The comedy show requires setting up
a hydraulic Stageline SL100 stage, as well
as a Barco B10 video wall and a signi-
cant complement of RCF loudspeakers
joined by an SC48 console. At the same
time, another Stageline stage, this time a
SL320, and two Barco video walls for the
B1 Block Party need to be put together
outside the football stadium.
MEETING EXPECTATIONS
This years Block Party reinforcement
system, serving up a national artist as
well as a variety of top regional artists
for several thousand in attendance, was
signicant in scale. As a result, Edge
ShowTek of Chicago was contracted
to fulll Stewart Independents design
calling for 12-deep NEXO GEO D line
arrays for mains, own left and right,
and joined by NEXO RS18 subwoofers
in mono blocks on the deck.
Several HDL 20-A array modules
were posted on stage to provide stage ll,
with performers served by several TT25
and TT45 wedges positioned as needed.
The national act had Yamaha consoles at
its disposal, including PM5DRH at front
of house and an M7CL for monitors.
SC48s did the same for the regional acts.
This system worked really well. Par-
ticularly for national acts, the audience
expects it to be loud, Stewart notes. But
because it was held outside and there are
residential areas nearby, the sound also
needed to be contained. What we were
able to attain were the expected concert
levels volume and punch that dropped off
where we needed it to.
The Block Party marks the culmi-
nation of a very hectic, concentrated
period of activity for professional and
student tech teams alike, but the time
for breathing room is brief, with the uni-
versity launching into a steady stream of
events, programs and more for the next
several months.
Its vital that our systems, as well as
the way we implement them, be done
with the right combination of quality and
efciency, Stewart concludes. We must
allow enough time to insure a high level
of service- and face-time with the client
and its constituents. They have very high
standards, and exceeding those standards
is something were very proud of.
Members of the Stewart Independent team onsite at a project, including (left to right)
Christian Chambers, Sam Skalbeck, Shannon Stewart, Dan DeVisser, Austin Lanning,
Joe Watrac, Ross Labardee. Long-time team members Mati Johnson and Scott Frost
were also working the event but were not available for the photo opp.
24 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
>>>>
INFOCUS
Artistic Flair
Loudspeakers for performing arts centers. by Gary Parks
between adjacent cabinets.
Alternately, additional distributed
and delayed loudspeakers can be uti-
lized to cover seating areas shadowed
from the main array, or for venues that
are so deep that the throw from the
mains must be supplemented. Unobtru-
sive front ll loudspeakers often cover
the very front rows. Venues that present
primarily acoustic music may want the
loudspeakers to be especially unobtru-
sive, retractable, or portable. This implies
that it needs to be easily deployed, set up
and removed from the stage area. Some
venues impose strict aesthetic guidelines,
requiring loudspeakers to be concealed
in some manner covered by a scrim
and/or built into softs.
CONSULTANT PERSPECTIVES
David W. Robb, senior associate at
Acoustic Dimensions (Dallas, San Diego,
New York), often has the opportunity
to become involved in the early design
stages of performing arts centers, con-
sulting with architects on new builds and
major renovations. He states that there
is no such thing as perfect acoustics for
all purposes since performing arts cen-
ters are almost always multi-purpose, so
it becomes a compromise that hopefully
favors the dominant use of the space,
with the exibility to make adjustments.
Key questions: what is the maximum
SPL required in the space based on audi-
ence size and placement, and the types
of performances expected; how visible
or concealed will the audio systems and
rigging need to be; where are structurally
sound rigging points located; where will
all of the various systems electronics be
located, and the signals distributed?
Robbs ideal performance parameter
is audio output that reaches the ear of
the listener and then goes away, rather
THE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER has a theatrical performance on Tuesday,
a rock show Thursday, symphonies Friday and Saturday, and a jazz quintet Sunday
with ballet and opera the following week. Everything from spoken word to recorded
accompaniment to live music is reproduced by the loudspeaker system(s), and with
the price of tickets, the sound has to be clear, full, and intelligible.
The quality of what the audience hears is critical to their experience of the artistic
performance, with focus on seeing and hearing rather than eating, drinking, danc-
ing, and socializing. In addition, touring artists want to sound their best, and part of
the decision on where they play is based on the quality of the audio system and the
reputation of the venue.
REQUIREMENT SET
These facilities may be purpose-built, with acoustical properties considered in the
architectural design, or it may be an historical building converted into a performance
venue such as a church, armory, cinema, or courthouse. In all cases, the end result
of the audio installation must accomplish specic goals.
All of the seating areas should have decent sight lines to the stage, and the audio
reproduction at each seat should have a minimal variance in level and frequency
response always a challenge. Depending on the type of performance, sound levels
have to vary from intimate for spoken word or a theatrical performance to powerful
with plenty of low-frequency energy for contemporary music.
In many installations, a main left/right system is own which can be run in either
stereo or mono; a center cluster or array may also be involved in larger halls, with an
additional central system for announcements. To project with relatively even level to
the back of the venue, and to balcony and underbalcony seating, the delay settings
and levels of various elements of the loudspeakers can be adjusted to provide longer
throw to the more distant seats, with careful consideration of the coverage overlap
A look at the challenging coverage envi-
ronment presented by Opera Hall at the
Segerstrom Center for the Arts in Costa
Mesa, CA.
' ,'_
' '' ' ''
From sma|| c|ubs to major fest|va|s, we prov|de powerfu| and |ntu|t|ve d|g|ta| m|x|ng so|ut|ons that
he|p to create the memorab|e events |n ||ve performance.
2013 Harman International Industries, Incorporated
Soundcraft T: +44 (0)1707 665000 E: soundcraft@harman.com
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26 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Focus::
than bouncing off side walls and ceil-
ings to feed the reverberant eld. He
says that it all comes down to pattern
control, for which he favors high-power
coaxial and other point-and-shoot sys-
tems with narrower horizontal coverage.
Another primary design goal he
has is localization, so that the acous-
tic environment of the hall, including
the reinforcement coming from the
loudspeakers, helps the audience focus
attention on the performance rather
than a particular nearby loudspeaker.
He does this by utilizing digital process-
ing to enact subtle changes in level and
frequency shading toward the back of
the hall to suggest what would happen
acoustically without amplication.
Domonic Sack of Sound Associates
(New York) has shepherded dozens of
performing arts center installations, and
he typically favors treating the prob-
lem areas in the room rst shadowed
underbalcony areas, acoustic anomalies,
inadequate rigging points, power distri-
bution, other existing systems such as
hearing assistance and then focusing
on sound reinforcement. In his experi-
ence, many larger acts bring in their own
production, and what helps them most
is ease of rigging, effectively powering
their equipment, and efciently tying
into existing house systems.
The worst thing you can do is put in
the perfect sound system, since perfec-
tion is a matter of opinion, he states,
adding that what is best for a symphony
orchestra or theatrical performance may
not be adequate for a mid-week rock
show. He suggests utilizing sub-systems
that can be individually used, such as a
center cluster, underbalcony, other dis-
tributed units, and left/right arrays, so
that the best combination can be used
for a particular production.
TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE
Manufacturers keep pushing the
design envelope, integrating electron-
ics, advanced acoustic modeling and
measurement, and new transducer and
structural materials into loudspeakers
in making them more of a total solu-
tion. Innovations such as beam steer-
ing, component-specic processing and
amplification, comprehensive system
monitoring, coverage pattern control,
and digital audio inputs have come from
these efforts.
DSP is an integral part of the majority
of loudspeaker designs now, an element as
essential to its performance as the com-
pression driver, loudspeaker suspension,
horn geometry, and enclosure materials
and tuning. Loudspeaker designer Dave
Gunness has long been devoted this quest,
with results seen more than a decade ago
in the KF900 system when he worked
with EAW, and now recently from Ful-
crum Acoustic, his current enterprise,
where proprietary TQ temporal equal-
ization is used to help overcome the
time smear effects of reections gener-
ated within the HF horns of its compact
coaxial systems, resulting in smoother and
more accurate high-frequency response.
Meyer Sound pioneered the integra-
tion of processing and amplication into
its enclosures, with each transducer cou-
pled to a precisely controlled amplier
channel, matched to its response char-
acteristics. The ve models of M-Series
line arrays as well as a variety of stand-
alone enclosures and subwoofers adhere
to this design philosophy. The company
continues to move strongly forward with
a total system approach with integrated
power, processing, and predictive and
optimization software. Both in terms
of transducer design as well as leverag-
ing the strength of its sister companies,
JBL has developed a range of integrated
solutions. (Read more about them start-
ing on page 42 of this issue.)
An Electro-Voice
XLD array at the
Pantages Theatre
in Minneapolis.
Montarbo Palco Plus RA16 arrays
elements, own four per side, recently
implemented at the new Quang Ninh
Museum and Library in Vietnam.
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28 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Focus::
Another strong contributor is Mar-
tin Audio with MLA (Multi-Cellular
Loudspeaker Array), where the user
specifies exactly what SPL and fre-
quency response is required at various
points throughout the venue and intel-
ligent software automatically determines
the array configuration and controls
each of the individual cells in the array
to produce that result. Meanwhile. the
new EAW Anya system integrates
multiple LF, MF, and HF transducers
in a single enclosure with an onboard
22-channel amplifier and Resolution
software; from single systems to multi-
unit arrays, proprietary Adaptive Perfor-
mance algorithms optimize directivity,
output levels, and frequency response
for the particular space in which they
are installed.
Several manufacturers have devel-
oped dedicated amplier-controllers
matched to their loudspeakers. For
example, L-Acoustics LA4 and LA8
processor amplifiers perform similar
functions for the companys coaxial and
line array systems, with the LA Net-
work Manager allowing remote full-
system control from a computer, AMX
or Crestron panel. For the Ci-Series
coaxial installation systems, d&b audio-
technik offers the D6 and D12 ampli-
fiers that provide remote control and
monitoring, analog and digital inputs,
loudspeaker-specific configurations,
and user-configurable delay and EQ.
(The D12 also powers their J-Series
line arrays.)
The NEXO concept of STM (Scale
Through Modularity) provides excep-
tional versatility, enabling the design a
wide range of systems from four core
loudspeaker modules (main, bass, sub,
and omni) that can be own or stacked
one-, two-, or three-wide. These can be
integrated with the NEXAMP power/
control package for further optimiza-
tion. Recently, Renkus-Heinz unveiled
VARIA, a modular approach that
enables cabinets to be configured as
own vertical arrays, horizontal arrays,
or ground stacked systems. With a
range of vertical and horizontal disper-
sion angles and proprietary transitional
waveguide technology, the result is a set
of highly congurable enclosures, and
again, it can be further tailored with
digital amplification with integrated
RHAON (Renkus-Heinz Audio Oper-
ation Network) electronics.
Renkus-Heinz has also been a leader
in more compact solutions offering digi-
tal steering of output, found in models
such as Iconyx and IC Live with a col-
umn prole. In essence, multiple sonic
beams can be independently aimed and
contoured using the software-controlled
DSP. Tannoy is also noted for its work
in this regard, exemplified by QFlex
beam-steering loudspeakers that offer
precise control directivity in the verti-
cal axis, resulting in optimal coverage
and high direct-to-reverberant ratio.
Another example is the Community
Professional ENTASYS single-enclo-
sure arrays with HF vertical coverage
adjustable between 6 and 12 degrees,
and HF ribbon-emulation.
C
R
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T
:

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I
R
K
Meyer Sound Melodie
arrays and Galileo loud-
speaker management
and processing at the
Temple Performing Arts
Center in Philadelphia.
Arrays of
L-Acoustics KIVA
own beneath
KILO at the his-
toric Civic Theater
in New Orleans.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 29
CIVIC THEATRE, NEW ORLEANS
Now lets turn attention to some recent
applications, starting with a project at
the Civic Theatre. Following a 9-month,
$10.5-million renovation project the old-
est surviving theatre building in New
Orleans has ofcially reopened its doors
after sitting dormant for more than
three decades. Solomon Group of New
Orleans conceived the new system to
bring modern production standards to
the 107-year-old, 1,150-capacity per-
formance venue.
The new house sound system is
headed by 11 L-Acoustics KIVA enclo-
sures flown beneath three KILO low-
frequency extension cabinets per side, all
custom-nished in white to match the
rooms bright Beaux Arts-style interior.
Ground-stacked below each array are two
SB18 subs topped with a single coaxial
8XT enclosure for ll. The entire system
is powered and processed by four ampli-
ed controllers, three LA8 and one LA4.
L-Acoustics KIVA-KILO was
one of the very few systems that could
accommodate the Civics rigging weight
limits yet still provide the broad verti-
cal splay that the rooms geometry
required, says Solomon Group partner
Stephen Fink. Beyond that, the stun-
ning presence of these compact white
arrays on either side of the stage per-
fectly complements the visual aesthetic
of the venue. They almost look like part
of the architecture, as if they were made
specically for the space. KIVA-KILO
was the best t for the Civic physically,
sonically and nancially.
GRAND THTRE DE QUBEC
The Grand Thtre de Qubec in Que-
bec City, Canada, a 2,000-seat venue
that hosts a wide range of shows from
dance, to rock concerts, to orchestral.
Robert Charbonneau, head of sound
at the theatre, assisted by Robert Caux,
helped conduct more than two years
of testing on various loudspeakers to
ensure the new system would cover the
diverse needs.
We had very strict parameters,
and wanted to make sure we saw all of
our options. Different systems would
come in for gain tests, vocal tests and
instrumental tests; we would record the
results. Then wed move all around, so
we compared the quality of the systems
from every seat in the house, Charbon-
neau explains.
The final selection following this
exhaustive process is d&b audiotechnik
J-Series, with elements of the T-Series
for ll needs. Michel Desbiens, tech-
nical director at Grand Thtre de
Qubec, state, In order to keep views
unobstructed in the balcony and private
boxes, we were forced to position the
loudspeakers in close proximity to the
side walls. We needed a loudspeaker
30 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Focus::
with a narrow angle of horizontal dif-
fusion, to prevent reflections on the
side walls and the sound returning to
the stage. The 80-degree horizontal pat-
tern of the J8 catered to this perfectly.
The actual efciency of a sound sys-
tem is related to the usable level before
feedback, he continues. Improving this
aspect gave us a bit of versatility for some
tricky show setups. The natural sound of
the J-Series, and its well-controlled side
dispersion, made it a great solution for
our needs. We are very pleased with the
results and the feedback from visiting
artists and sound experts.
DE GROTE POST,
OOSTENDE, BELGIUM
The Oostende Post Ofce, the only public
building designed by famed Ghent archi-
tect Gaston Eysselinck, was granted status
as a protected monument in 1981. When
the post office moved out in 1999, the
venue was converted to multiple modern
theaters and performance spaces inside,
resulting in De Grote Post, a unique
multi-purpose performing arts center.
The main hall seats 431, and is
designed for music, dance or traditional
theatre performances. Designed by
Marc Lambert of Gent-based theatre
design group TTAS, the audio system
for De Grote Post marks the rst Euro-
pean installation of the new Renkus-
Heinz VARIA modular point-source
arrays. Four VARIA VA101 cabinets
are hung per side, each array consisting
of two VA101-7 7.5-degree cabinets,
one VA101-15 15-degree box, and one
VA101-22 22.5-degree box. A center
cluster of two 22.5-degree cabinets
augments coverage, along with a third
cabinet ground stacked atop two VA15S
subwoofers. Four TRX61 loudspeakers
provide front ll for the rst few rows.
As Steven Kemland, sales and project
manager of Foundation for Audiovisual
Commerce and Engineering (FACE),
explains, VARIA met the venues chal-
lenging spaces. Most of the systems we
looked into would have required many
more cabinets to provide even coverage
across the entire seating area, he says.
VARIAs variable coverage patterns
enabled us to congure a system with
fewer boxes than a traditional line array.
Its very compact and yet it sounds like
a much larger system.
BRIGHAM YOUNG
UNIVERSITY, IDAHO
A new sound reinforcement system for
the Barrus Auditorium Concert Hall at
BYUs Idaho campus in Rexburg needed
to provide higher quality audio without
being visually intrusive. Jon Perdue,
A/V Production & Broadcast manager
for the university, notes Barrus Audito-
rium also functioned as a chapel and the
original sound system lacked clarity and
wasnt up to todays standards in terms
of quality for vocals and instrument
reproduction.
The university had authorized us to
upgrade but the music department was
very concerned about hanging a con-
ventional system in the room or having
groundstacked speakers alongside the
stage for fear it would look intrusive,
Perdue adds.
A demo of the compact OmniLine
array from Martin Audio, arranged
with RMB Audio (Selma, NC), led to
it being chosen for the 682-seat venue
that hosts more than 110 events a year.
Specically, Perdue and his crew hung
16 OmniLine modules per side, each
with an AQ210 sub own alongside to
support the low frequency requirements
for the program material without losing
any clarity.
Because its such an acoustically live
space, they wanted a natural-sound-
ing system. It had to be accurate and
lend itself architecturally to the rooms
design. That was a huge challenge, but
the fact that the OmniLine boxes sound
Grand Thtre
de Qubec out-
tted with d&b
audiotechnik
J-Series arrays.
Renkus-Heinz
VARIA arrays at
the striking De
Grote Post in
Belgium.
RockNet
Performance Audio Networks
ntuitive Set-up: No Ethernet, no P.
Easy front panel operation
160 channels
Up to 99 devices in one network
CAT-5 redundant network interface
ndependent Cain
48kHz or 96kHz sample rate
Remote Control
www.riedel.net
SOUNDCRAFT Si
INTEGRATION
SSL CONSOLE
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32 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Focus::
so musically and acoustically transparent
was a major plus, Perdue states.
HAWTHORN TOWN HALL,
AUSTRALIA
Opening way back in 1890, Hawthorn
Town Hall, located in a suburb of Mel-
bourne, Australia, has taken on new life as
a venue deemed integral to the artistic and
cultural life of the community. The venues
main hall presents very high ornate ceil-
ings and long reverberation times (RT60
times are greater than 2 seconds).
Hanson and Associates, the consul-
tant on the project, set a very stringent
set of criteria for the new system, includ-
ing a minimum STI (Speech Transfer
Index) of 0.6 coupled with a +/-3 dB
variance between 80 Hz and 15 kHz
across the entire listening area. Installa-
tion of delay zones was not feasible for
aesthetic reasons, therefore the entire
throw in the room (approximately 100
feet) had to be accomplished using only
the front arrays.
It was determined that Adamson
Metrix line arrays would meet these
challenges, with main arrays (installed
by Rutledge AV) each comprised of
eight Metrix-I modules own left and
right, with Metrix-Sub-I subwoofers
also provided for applications requiring
enhanced low end. The only additional
loudspeakers in the system are attached
to the face of the stage to bolster cover-
age to the front seating rows. The nal
Very compact
Martin Audio Omni-
Line arrays for the
Barrus Auditorium
Concert Hall at
BYU in Idaho.
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34 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Focus::
Hawthorn Hall in Australia, dating back
to 1890, with a modern system headed
by Adamson Metrix arrays.
array design was created and optimized
by Simon Tait of CMI, who also com-
missioned and tuned the system.
The system delivers excellent speech
intelligibility, consistency of coverage
and tons of headroom, says Tait. Sub-
jectively, it sounds superb at every seat
and is eminently suited for applications
as diverse as spoken word, musical the-
atre and full-blown rock.
THE CHALLENGE REMAINS
The importance of acoustic model-
ing, coverage prediction, and system
measurement and tuning for projects
of this scope cant be understated, but
its such an involved topic that well be
focusing on it in-depth in an upcoming
issue. Sufce to say that tools such as
AFMG EASE predictive modeling is
vital in helping to guide the design to
an optimum result.
Also helpful are software programs
provided by numerous loudspeaker
manufacturers that enable the mod-
eling of specific loudspeakers within
a venue, so that coverage, overlaps
between enclosures, expected SPL, and
other aspects of system performance
can be approximated before installa-
tion. Finally, real-time audio measure-
ment tools such as Rational Acoustics
Smaart can provide a major assist in
tuning systems and rening their cov-
erage to achieve the best possible fre-
quency response and coverage without
unwanted attenuations and destructive
overlaps between loudspeakers.
In the end, it all comes down to
balancing audio fidelity and coverage
with performance styles, architecture,
aesthetics, and audience sight lines. A
wide variety of loudspeaker designs are
available to meet the challenge of sound
reinforcement in performing arts centers,
with even more in the works to further
improve upon the exibility, directivity
control, output, and aesthetic factors that
bring these performances to life.
GARY PARKS is a pro audio writer and
has worked in the industry for more than
25 years, including serving as marketing
manager and wireless product manager
for Clear-Com, handling RF planning
software sales with EDX Wireless, and
managing loudspeaker and wireless prod-
uct management at Electro-Voice.
Simply Awesome.
Scan here and Raise Your Wireless Standards.
www.lectrosonics.com or 1-800-821-1121
In Canada, call 877-753-2876
Made in the USA by a Bunch of Fanatics.
Lectrosonics
gear is built like a
Mac truck. We travel
the world and in all the
time weve been using this
gear, Ive never, ever had any
issues. Lectrosonics durability
is, in my opinion, unsurpassed.
- Lorenzo Banda,
Monitor Engineer, Foreigner
Pictured: Kelly Hansen, Foreigner lead
vocalist with the HH transmitter.
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36 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
>>>>
Simple Capture
Console capabilities for basic live recording.
by Craig Leerman
RECORDING A LIVE EVENT is pretty much the norm
today, particularly with the emergence of digital technology
making it a relatively simple endeavor. Basic show recordings
(often in the form of a 2-track capture taken off the main mix
bus thats commonly called a board tape) are a handy learning
tool, allowing engineers to evaluate their mixes and musicians
to critique their performances.
While recordings taken from the main outputs can be quite
good from a quality standpoint, there are sometimes issues. For
example, instruments that are very loud in the room sometimes
arent as loud in the PA, and since the recording is a copy of
what was in the PA, the recording might not be as balanced as
desired. Further, instruments that are EQd for the PA might
not sound their best on the recording.
Another handy aspect are multi-track recordings used for
virtual sound checks. These are pre-EQ and pre-FX record-
ings of each instrument and vocal that can then be played back
through a system, fostering tuning and optimization without
needing the band onstage.
In the corporate gig world, recordings of meetings and
events may be required by law (as in the case of a shareholders
meeting) or as a matter of company policy. More often than
not, recordings are done so that co-workers not at the meeting
have access to the material. Many corporate audio providers
also make a safety recording of the event just in case its needed
later by the client, or more likely, the video company.
DOUBLE DUTY
While mixing consoles offer, at the
very least, a few outputs that can
be used to connect to a hard-
ware recording device, todays
analog-digital hybrid and
digital consoles offer a
host of ways to inte-
grate recording eas-
ily into any setup.
Hybrid designs (ana-
log units with digital fea-
tures like onboard effects and
computer interfaces) may offer a USB
or FireWire connection to link to a com-
puter. These consoles can do double duty, acting as a live mixer
at a show while simultaneously sending audio to recording
software in the computer.
The MG166CX-USB mixer from Yamaha Corporation of
America is a USB-enabled hybrid. It includes built-in digital
SPX effects processing and can connect via USB to a computer
running the included CUBASE AI4 multi-track recording
software. Another example is the VeniceU from Midas that
provides 6 aux buses, 4 audio subgroups and a 7 x 2 matrix
that can all route to USB, allowing the user to easily set up
recording feeds.
In the all-digital realm, the PreSonus StudioLive 24.4.2
console is outtted with a FireWire port and can record each
channel pre or post signal processing to a DAW. While not
every digital console has an onboard FireWire port, some, like
the CADAC CDC Four, are available with optional 32 x 32
FireWire interface that fosters connection to a DAW.
Many digital consoles now offer direct 2-track recording to
a USB stick or an externally connected hard drive, making it
easy to create a board tape or safety recording. The
Behringer X32 not only ships with a 32
x 32 channel audio interface for
FireWire and USB 2.0 that
allow connection to a DAW,
but it also offers uncompressed
2-track recording to a thumb
drive via a USB port.
Dont have a thumb
dr i ve handy? Wi t h
the Mackie DL806 and
DL1608 iPad-based mixers,
SHOWCASE
Record directly to iPad with
Mackie DL Series mixers.
VTX F Series delivers uncompromised studio monitor sound quality in a line of premium two-way multipurpose cabinets featuring
proprietary JBL Differential Drive
TM
transducers and the patented D2 Dual Diaphragm Dual Driver used in VTX V25 and the
M2 Studio Reference Monitor. Ideal for point-and-shoot fll, F12 and F15 are a perfect sound design complement to VTX V25 due
to the sonic consistency provided by common large format D2 driver technology. When paired with the F18S subwoofer, F12
and F15 provide a premium-quality, compact FOH or sidefll monitoring solution and with their clean lines, F Series is perfectly
suited for demanding tour sound stage monitoring requirements. You name it VTX F Series is a versatile sound design tool.
Learn more at jblpro.com/ VTX
2013 Harman International Industries, Incorporated
THE REVOLUTION CONTINUES
STUDI O DETAI L, CONCERT POWER I N A COMPACT MULTI PURPOSE FORMAT
S Y S T E M S O L U T I O N S
VTX F12 VTX F15 VTX F18S
V25
FEATURING
D2
DUAL DI APHRAGM
DUAL VOI CE COI L
COMPRESSI ON DRI VER
Crown Poweredby HiQnet
VRACK CROWNAPP PERFORMANCEMANAGER
38 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: Showcase::
you dont even need one 2 tracks can
be directly recorded to a docked iPad.
FURTHER TAILORING
Another way to make a basic recording
is to set up a mix either from aux buses
or a matrix out. This can be a better
option because it provides the ability
to have a separate mix tailored speci-
cally for the recording. Many digital
consoles offer AES and SPDIF digi-
tal 2-channel outputs that allow easy
interfacing to stand-alone hardware
recording devices while keeping the
signal in the digital domain.
For example, with 6 stereo mixes and
4 stereo matrix buses available (plus 8
mono auxes), its a straightforward mat-
ter to set up a 2-track mix for recording
on Soundcraft Si Series digital consoles,
routed to the AES output for easy inter-
facing of stand-alone hardware recording
devices. Another example is the Allen &
Heath GLD 80, which offers 2-track
recording to USB that is available from
a variety of sources or the mix master, as
well as a SPDIF digital output.
If you need more than two tracks
but dont have a multi-track recorder
or DAW available, the Eclipe GT from
Innovason offers a solution in the form
of the M.A.R.S. option. It provides a
built-in 64-track recorder that records
directly onto a hard disk plugged into
the back of the console.
Many digital consoles offer the
ability to connect to a digital network.
Some have their own proprietary net-
work and others use open standard
protocols. MADI protocol, which
offers up to 64 channels, is a popu-
lar format used to transport audio to
recording devices as well as in snake
systems. Many digital systems offer
MADI snakes and stand-alone record-
ing devices like the Blackbox BBR64-
MADI recorder from JoeCo that is
designed to record and play back up to
64 channels of MADI data.
While the V-Mixer Series from
Roland Systems Group uses propri-
etary REAC protocol for interconnec-
tion of mixers and stage boxes, theres
also the S-MADI REAC Bridge, a bi-
directional signal converter between
REAC and MADI that allows inte-
gration of recorders and other consoles
into the network. In fact, you dont
even have to go to MADI to record
on the REAC network because Roland
also offers the R-1000, a stand-alone
48-track recorder/player designed to
operate on REAC.
And, for an easy way to get MADI
into and out of a computer, the UB
MADI interface from DiGiCo can be
used with any computer with a USB
2.0 port.
TALKING THE TALK
Another popular network format is
Dante (from Audinate), and many con-
soles use it as a transport network and/
or to provide interface options. Yamaha
digital consoles are a good example
of both. The newest consoles from
Yamaha Commercial Audio Systems,
the CL Series, provide Dante connec-
tions as standard, and all of the com-
panys digital consoles can be outtted
with option cards that enable them to
connect to a Dante network. (By the
way, CL consoles offer 2-track record-
ing by simply plugging a USB memory
stick into the USB connector on the
front panel of the console. No other
equipment is required. Playback from
the USB memory is possible as well in
MP3, AAC, and WMA formats.)
Dante can also talk directly to many
computer-based DAW programs as well
as a stand-alone recorder like the JoeCo
BBR64-DANTE. The new Avid S3L
console uses the Ethernet AVB stan-
dard (by the way, Dante is AVB stan-
dard compliant) and can link directly to
a computer running ProTools software
or any other DAW, making connection
for multi-track recording quick and easy.
What Ive presented here is just
the tip of the iceberg when it comes
to recording options available with
consoles primarily designed for live
applications, and is intended to serve as
a starting point to your own research.
Sufce to say that we have a multitude
of options available, and its only getting
better on a regular basis.
Senior contributing editor CRAIG
LEERMAN is the owner of Tech Works,
a production company based in Las Vegas.
Plenty of I/O capability on Yamaha Commercial Audio CL Series consoles foster record-
ing, from simple to more complex.
40 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
Inside the R&D approach at JBL Professional. by Ken DeLoria
THERES A LOT GOING ON at JBL Professional these days, which I recently
witnessed rst-hand in spending a day at the companys headquarters on the Harman
Professional campus in Northridge, CA. My host was Paul Bauman, a delightfully
unassuming man who was recently promoted to the post of associate director of tour
sound based upon the success hes fostered over the past seven years.
To say that Bauman came to his current role with signicant experience is an
understatement. Working in pro audio for more than 30 years, hes held key posi-
tions at Maryland Sound, Adamson, and L-Acoustics, where he served as head of
research & development in France for several years. On the academic side, he has a
B.Sc. in Physics and a Masters Degree in Electrical Engineering from McMaster
University in Canada, along with a Masters Degree in Physics from the University
of Waterloo (also in Canada), and Ph.D. candidate studies at Chalmers University
of Applied Acoustics in Sweden. His time in academia included mentoring by the
famous duo of John Vanderkooy and Stanley Lipshitz at Waterloo.
Bauman provided with me with an extensive tour of the facilities, choosing to
highlight some of the seemingly small but critically important components that make
a world of difference in sonic quality. We also spent plenty of time listening, which
of course is the proof of the pudding, as the saying goes.
We were joined by Henry Goldansky, named director of engineering earlier this
year, who brings a passion rarely seen in a corporate environment. Besides being
extensively experienced in loudspeaker design and holding a Masters of Science
degree in Electrical Engineering, hes clearly a lover of music. This was on display as
he served as DJ in a nicely equipped demo room, selecting outstanding material that
admirably revealed the fruits of the effort that went into creating a pivotal engineering
advancement that bridges live sound reinforcement to studio monitoring in a new
way. (Ill describe the details shortly.)
Pro audio regulars know that parent
organization Harman also plays a key
role in fostering engineering synergies,
product compatibilities, and compre-
hensive solutions. This cooperative side
of the venture includes leading entities
Crown, BSS, Studer, Soundcraft, dbx,
Lexicon, AKG, and even high-end
audiophile manufacturer Mark Levinson.
Complementing JBL Professionals
Tour Sound team consisting of Eric
Friedlander (product manager) and
George Georgallis (technical support
lead), on the Harman Pro side Brian
Pickowitz was recently promoted to
associate director, Global Live Sound
and Rental Systems with tour sound
veterans Raul Gonzalez and Vincent
Vinnie Perreux providing application
engineering support for domestic and
international territories. According to
Pickowitz, the group is extending the
depth of the relationship between Har-
man and its customers.
We recognize that partnership
requires a considerable commitment
before, during and after the sale, he told
me. Our strengthened commitment to
>>>>
In Profile:
THE TOTAL EXPERIENCE
Paul Bauman anked by new Tour Sound team members Eric Friedlander (product
manager) and George Georgallis (technical support lead).
Director of engineering Henry Goldansky
with the M2 Master reference monitor.
42 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Prole::
training and support will ensure that
customers in the live sound and rental
communities extract optimal return
from their investment in our platform.
If we can provide customers with greater
consistency in terms of system perfor-
mance and setup efciency, then well
help improve their businesses.
DRIVING FORCE
The extent to which the development
team integrates their collective talents
demonstrates the benefit of fostering
synergism among a brain trust of engi-
neers. High-frequency drivers need
waveguides; cone drivers need enclo-
sures; enclosures need rigging and trans-
port accessories; loudspeaker systems
need ampliers and signal processing.
By roping in the skill set of dbx and BSS
signal processing experts, mated with
Crown amplication and onboard DSP,
the product offerings represent genuine
systems technology. The approach is
to integrate diverse technologies into
a cross-functional support system in
which each piece supports and enhances
the others in a complementary manner.
An example: rather than sourcing
low-, mid-, and high-frequency drivers
from a pool of manufacturers, JBL does
the opposite: they identify a need or see
an opportunity to improve and focus
their efforts into designing and manu-
facturing appropriate drivers in-house.
Case in point is the D2 dual diaphragm,
dual voice coil high-frequency driver
thats the work of Alexander Voishvillo,
Ph.D, who serves as senior manager of
Transducer Engineering.
Being a proponent of composite mate-
rials in my own loudspeaker development
work (some readers may remember the
Apogee AE-5), it was not difficult to
quickly get the importance of the D2
in its signicant deviation from former
design methodologies. Compression driv-
ers are normally reserved for high-power
systems only; the old days in which studio
monitors used compression drivers such
as the Altec Lansing 604 and JBLs own
4320 ended a time ago. Or did it? Lets
rst take a look at the D2.
Instead of employing a typical dome-
shaped diaphragm commonly made of
aluminum, titanium, or occasionally
beryllium, the D2 uses two separate
annular diaphragms, each constructed
of a low-mass polymer, and each driven
by separate voice coils working against
separate neodymium magnets. Together,
the dual annular diaphragms produce a
single acoustical output with a radiat-
ing area equaling that of a typical 3-inch
dome diaphragm, but with twice the
usual power handling.
The advantages are many. First is
control of the breakup mode. Breakup
is essentially unavoidable in conventional
designs and occurs as the metallic dome
diaphragm transitions from pistonic
motion to vibratory motion in the upper
frequencies. While some designs and
materials are better than others, breakup
occurs in the upper audible octave in
almost all HF compressions drivers.
This is important because when a radi-
ating surface enters into breakup mode,
the byproduct is non-linear distortion,
discontinuity in frequency and phase
response, and other forms of signicant
sonic coloration.
Next, sub harmonics, which are
mechanically generated distortion
products that fall below the fundamen-
tal frequency, are virtually non-existent.
The resultant sonic purity was imme-
diately evident a few seconds into the
rst track that I heard. Heat dissipation,
which governs ultimate power handling,
is shared by the dual voice coils and dual
magnetic structures which act as heat
sinks, providing a substantial improve-
ment in thermal management over con-
ventional designs. Lower temperatures
not only lead to longer life, but notice-
ably less power compression.
Power compression is the enemy of
accurate dynamics because as a voice coil
heats up even for very short periods of
time during high level transients its
impedance rises causing less power to be
developed. This same principal is inten-
tionally used in program limiters such
as vintage UREI models that employed
a light bulb next to a photocell, but is
absolutely undesirable in a driver.
THE BIG PICTURE
Complementing the talent pool are
some sophisticated tools and equip-
ment. Four anechoic chambers of vary-
A look at the composition of a D2
compression driver and Dual Differen-
tial woofer.
Brothers in arms in driver complement, a V25 line
array module and an M2 studio monitor.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 43
ing sizes and an outdoor ground-plane
measurement facility allow engineers to
accurately test products that are under
development. A sealed room for power
testing raw drivers and completed sys-
tems alike, for lengthy periods, allows
the engineering team to prove their
designs under extreme conditions.
A large rapid prototyping machine
essentially a 3D printer provides
prototypes of waveguides, driver bas-
kets, phase plugs, and many other parts.
Having the ability to generate and test
prototype iterations within a day or so
means more than just quickening the
time to market. It means that projects
dont lose momentum, and the quality
of the end product will not be compro-
mised by long waiting periods.
When you can readily run new itera-
tions to improve a design, the result is a
level of renement that would otherwise
be very difcult to achieve by conven-
tional means. This is especially true with
components such as the highly complex
waveguides used in VTX Series line
arrays and the unusually shaped wave-
guide in the agship M2 studio monitor.
And this brings us to how JBL is working
to bridge the recording studio experience
to that of the live performance venue.
BRIDGING THE GAP
The D2 driver described earlier is not just
utilized in V25 modules in the agship
VTX Series line array, its also a key to the
new M2 Master studio reference monitor.
This is not a misprint. The identical driver
is used in two widely varying product
types, but of course coupled to different
waveguides, which is to be expected since
the applications are vastly different from
one another. Also, each V25 uses three
D2s, while there is one in an M2.
But what makes this so interesting is
that the basic nature of the sonic quality,
principally affected by the driver itself, is
intended from inception to translate from
the artists studio work to their stage per-
formances. I heard both products and can
attest to the obvious sonic commonality.
Moreover, the 15-inch cone drivers in
the M2 and V25 are very similar, both
being of the proprietary Differential
Drive type, as JBL calls them, and which
carry ve patents. The woofer in the M2
is optimized for extended LF response,
down to 20 Hz which means no subwoof-
ers are needed, while the dual woofers in
the V25 are engineered for extreme power
output for use in large venues. Differen-
tial Drive woofers utilize dual voice coils
and dual magnets, similar to the D2 but
congured quite differently. The benets
are low distortion, low power compres-
sion, and the ability to handle high power
while generating high SPL.
MORE BRIDGES
The newest development is three new
premium loudspeakers forming the
compact F Series, made up of the F12
and F15 full-range models and the F18S
tonym@carvin.com CARVINAUDIO.COM 800-854-2235 ext 234
M
ADE IN
U
S
A
THE SYSTEM THAT WILL FOREVER CHANGE
THE WAY YOU DO SOUND
TRx3903 Column Array
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44 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: In Prole::
subwoofer. Theyre so new, in fact, that
they were not available at the time of
this writing, slated to enter production
in December 2013 and to be officially
introduced in early 2014. The 2-way F12
and F15 both incorporate the D2 as well
as Differential Drive cone drivers, just as
the V25 does. Further, the F18S offers the
identical differential drive 18-inch trans-
ducer also found in the S28 and G28 subs
that support V25 arrays.
The F12 and F15 can be flown,
mounted on poles, placed on stage for ll,
or serve as oor monitors due to a multi-
purpose enclosure shape. Again, the point
here is to keep the principal sonic genera-
tors the drivers identical from the stu-
dio, to the line array, to the stage monitors,
to the supporting ll loudspeakers.
During my visit I had the oppor-
tunity to hear a VTX system in a large
room and found it to provide very good
detail and a smooth, accurate response.
It clearly represents a considerable step
forward for the company. Next up was
45 minutes listening to a pair of M2 ref-
erence monitors with a wide variety of
program material. These loudspeakers are
a pure delight. In no way do they sound
like they use a high-power, 2-inch-throat
compression driver, offering very detailed
mids and highs as well as deep, powerful
bass that was well dened.
And just as this article was going to
press, Harman announced the acquisition
of Duran Audio, a long-established Dutch
company that is a pioneer and manufac-
turer of steerable line arrays. It will be
interesting to see how Durans mature
technology in this advanced eld will be
integrated into future JBL products.
COLLECTIVE STRENGTH
Before concluding my tour, Bauman also
demonstrated the JBL Line Array Cal-
culator and JBL HiQnet Performance
Manager, two software applications that
further highlight the collaborative Har-
man approach. The calculator
appears intuitive and simple to
use for planning line array size,
location, coupling angles, as well
as the overall focus of a system.
It took only seconds to call up
room templates with various
seating configurations, predict
the coverage, then to further
adjust angles and positioning in
order to optimize the results.
Performance Manager pro-
vides an easier way to design
and circuit a line array sys-
tem with pictorial diagrams of
array modules, subwoofers, and amp
racks. Once the system has been laid
out, the software automatically gener-
ates optimal DSP settings that are sent
via a HiQnet networking backbone to
either the self-powered version of the
loudspeakers or to stand alone Crown
I-Tech HD amplier racks. Networking
has been reduced to a simple drag and
drop function, and all test, tuning, and
calibration control interfaces are embed-
ded, so there is no need to spend time
creating control panels.
Wrapping up for the day, Bauman
notes that these tools reflect the col-
lective strength of the various Har-
man entities, commenting that JBL
has always been an engineering-based,
innovation-driven company but it cant
just be about speakers anymore con-
trol/modeling software and amplica-
tion/signal processing are key system
elements, and JBL has a unique oppor-
tunity as part of the Harman Profes-
sional group to develop a higher degree
of system integration than what was
previously possible. As we leverage the
signicant advantages of D2 technol-
ogy and expand the VTX family, well
be working closely with sister brands to
develop complete system solutions, and
there is an exciting product develop-
ment roadmap that lies ahead.
KEN DELORIA is senior technical
editor for Live Sound International,
and has had a diverse career in pro audio
over more than 30 years, including being
the founder and owner of Apogee Sound.
Scenes from R&D, left to right: one of the companys four anachoic chambers, rapid prototyping, and a driver torture chamber to test durability.
The brand-new F Series, specically designed to
complement the sonic signature of VTX arrays.
set the
STAGE
Full Compass has
the gear you need
at a price thats right.
PA SPAkRS - POWR AMPS - OU78OARD GAR - MIXRS - MICROPHONS - WIRLSS SYS7MS

46 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
REALW RLDGEAR
Cones & Compression
The latest on loudspeaker drivers. by Live Sound Staff
DESIGNING A LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEM is a lot easier
today than it was in the past. It used to be that only a limited
number of drivers were available, and there was a lot of trial
and error involved in making the boxes. Now were blessed
with two major improvements.
First, we have computers to help us, and programs like
Bass Box Pro and Hornresp make it easy to design and make
changes to the design without ever having to cut a single piece
of wood. Further, measurement software programs allow us
to quickly verify that the nished cabinet has achieved the
intended design goals.
The second improvement is that there are a wide variety of
great performing transducers to choose from. In this months
Real World Gear, we look at both woofers and compression
drivers. When choosing these devices for your loudspeaker
project, be aware of a few parameters.
The power rating tells us how many watts of power a trans-
ducer is designed to work with. However, it does not inform us
as to how loud a device will go this is the job of the sensitivity
specication, which states in decibels (dB) how loud a particular
transducer will play given a particular input, usually referenced to 1
watt of input signal measured at 1 meter distance from the driver.
The higher the number, the louder the output of the driver.
A transducer with a lower wattage rating but a higher sensitivity
rating can have a louder output than one with a higher wattage
rating but lower sensitivity. The frequency response states the
range that the unit is designed to reproduce, which is relatively
self-explanatory. But, as youll see in the listings that follow,
these do vary between what appear to be similar devices.
For compression drivers, two additional things to look for are
throat size and mounting conguration. Drivers normally fall
into these throat-size groups: 1-, 1.4- (or 1.5-) and 2-inch. Gen-
erally speaking, the larger the throat, the larger the diaphragm
and the lower in frequency range the driver can operate in.
Diaphragms can be made of many materials, with alumi-
num and titanium being the most popular. For mounting to a
horn, compression drivers use a variety of bolt hole congu-
rations, and smaller sized drivers can also be designed with
threads to screw on to the horn, so make sure your driver and
horn use the same mounting system or hole pattern.
Enjoy this Real World Gear tour of a variety of recently
developed cone and compression drivers.
>>>>
Beyma Professional | http://profesional.beyma.com B&C Speakers | www.bcspeakers.com
CD1014Nd
Voice Coil: 1.75 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 70 watts (AES)
Frequency Response:
700 Hz - 19.7 kHz
Sensitivity: 110 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Polymer
Weight: 3.32 pounds
DE90TN
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ceramic
Power Rating: 110 watts (nominal)
Frequency Response: 1 - 18 kHz
Sensitivity: 107.5 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 9.9 pounds
12MC500
Size: 12 inches
Voice Coil: 2.5 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ceramic
Power Rating: 500 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 50 Hz - 5.5 kHz
Sensitivity: 97.8 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 12.92 pounds
15FW76
Size: 15 inches
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ceramic
Power Rating: 500 watts (nominal)
Frequency Response: 40 Hz - 2 kHz
Sensitivity: 100 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 20.2 pounds
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 47
Eighteen Sound ND4015BE & 18TLW3000 www.eighteensound.com
ND4015BE
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 1.5-inch exit
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 140 watts
(continuous)
Frequency Response:
900 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 113 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: 4-inch beryllium
Weight: 7 pounds
18TLW3000
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 2 x 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1800 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 30 - 300 Hz
Sensitivity: 95 dB
Impedance: 4/8 ohms
Weight: 29.1 pounds
:: Real W rld Gear: Spotlight Listings::
Ciare | www.ciare.com Electro-Voice | www.electrovoice.com
FMJ - 60 Daisy
Voice Coil: 2.4 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 90 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 1 kHz - 40 kHz
Sensitivity: 111 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 4.2 pounds
DH7-8
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 75 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 1 kHz 20 kHz
Sensitivity:109 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Aluminum
Weight: 10 pounds
NDK 15-3
Size: 15 inches
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 600 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 40 - 3000 Hz
Sensitivity: 99 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 12.1 pounds
EVX-155
Size: 15 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Barium ferrite
Power Rating: 1000 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 30 Hz - 1.8 kHz
Sensitivity: 98 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 27 pounds
The 18TLW3000 is specically
designed for high SPL, high-
quality subwoofer applications
in either a reex, band-pass or
horn-loaded conguration.
Tetracoil technology uses two
axially separated magnetic gaps,
while two inside-outside 4-inch diameter voice coils wound on
the same former and suspended evenly in the two magnetic gaps
provide the equivalent voice coil diameter of greater than 6 inches
as well as driving AES power handling up to 1800 watts.
The low value and symmetrical characteristic of the inductance,
together with a very low DC
component that is minimized
by the differential motor cong-
uration, give the 18TLW3000 a
round and dened sound char-
acter that never loses control at
high levels, and does not show
unwanted distortion noise, even
with very high dynamic signals
like kick drum.
The ND4015BE is a 1.5-
inch exit, 4-inch voice
coil neodymium compres-
sion driver that has been
designed for uncompro-
mised quality sound sys-
tems application.
The 100 mm (4-inch) diameter composite material dia-
phragm is made with a beryllium dome positioned on a poly-
mer surround. The use of pure beryllium gives great benets
in transient response and
reduced distortion.
The piston frequency
range motion extends
frequency by 25 percent,
showing a predictable,
ideal frequency response
decay avoiding high fre-
quency spurious reso-
nances. Its also available
with titanium diaphragm
(model ND4015T).
48 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
Celestion CDX14-3060 & CF1840JD LF www.celestion.com
:: Real W rld Gear: Spotlight Listings::
The CF1840JD cast aluminum frame,
ferrite magnet LF driver is designed
for exceptional performance in reex
subwoofer applications. It features a
4-inch (100 mm) multi-layer voice
coil and delivers 1000 watts (RMS,
AES standard) and 96 dB sensitivity.
Twin demodulation rings reduce ux
modulation, further lowering electromagnetic distortion.
In-depth research has produced a much better understanding
of heat management, resulting in the Balanced Airow Venting
(BAV) system, which ensures the cooling of the magnet assembly
is more effective, minimizing thermal compression without caus-
ing unwanted chufng.
The multi-roll surround and suspension have been shaped
to obtain maximum range of
movement, while maintaining
linear pistonic motion for as
long as possible, progressively
applying a restoring force at
extremes of movement to limit
any over-excursion. This pro-
vides maximum symmetrical
cone movement, thereby con-
tributing to the low distortion
performance.
The CDX14-3060 is a 1.4-inch
exit, high-performance ferrite
magnet compression driver.
With a 3-inch copper clad alu-
minum voice coil driving a tita-
nium diaphragm, it delivers 75
watts (RMS) power handling
and 106.5 dB sensitivity.
It also incorporates a number of advanced features to mini-
mize distortion and enhance overall performance, including
Celestions patented new phase plug design for ultra-low dis-
tortion. The diaphragm itself is deep-drawn (its shape is deeper
than those of conventional compression drivers) to increase
stiffness, and a rolled polyimide diaphragm surround improves
stiffness control; both features effectively lowering distortion.
All of Celestions pro audio
loudspeakers are designed
using specialist FEA (Finite
Element Analysis) techniques.
This mathematical modeling
process enables the develop-
ment team to predict how dif-
ferent approaches to a design
might behave, which rapidly
enables genuine increases in
driver performance.
CDX14-3060
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch exit
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 75 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response:
500 Hz - 18 kHz
Sensitivity: 106.5 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 10.75 pounds
CF1840JD
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1000 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response:
30 Hz -2.5 kHz
Sensitivity: 98 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 25.5 pounds
Eminence | www.eminence.com FaitalPRO | www.faitalpro.com
PSD:3014-8
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 100 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 800 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 108.4 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 13.7 pounds
HF146
Voice Coil: 2.56 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch exit
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 80 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 700 Hz - 18 kHz
Sensitivity: 109 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms (nominal)
Diaphragm: Ketone polymer
Weight: 4.4 pounds
KAPPALITE 3010LF
Size: 10 inches
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 450 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 42 Hz - 1.6 kHz
Sensitivity: 92.7 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 7.6 pounds
18HW1070
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1600 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 30 - 1500 Hz
Sensitivity: 97 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms (nominal)
Weight: 26.9 pounds
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 49
:: Real W rld Gear: Spotlight Listings::
Fane | www.faneinternational.com JBL Professional | www.jblpro.com
CD 314
Voice Coil: 3.15 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 75 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 700 Hz - 18 kHz
Sensitivity: 106 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 9.7 pounds
2447H/J
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 1.5-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 100 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 500 Hz 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 112 dB
Impedance: 8/16 ohms
Diaphragm: 4-inch titanium
Weight: 23.5 pounds
COLOSSUS 18SB
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
(sandwich conguration)
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1000 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 35 Hz - 2.5 kHz
Sensitivity: 100 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 27.6 pounds
2241G/H
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Proprietary
SFG structure
Power Rating: 600 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 30 Hz - 3 kHz
Sensitivity: 98 dB
Impedance: 4/8 ohms
Weight: 22.8 pounds
RCF ND940 & LF18X401 www.rcf.it
The LF18X401 del i v-
ers very linear frequency
response characteristics
and extremely high power
handling while generat-
ing the lowest harmonic
distortion of any comparable 18-inch transducer within its
application range.
It uses a ber-loaded cone assembly along with a high excur-
sion triple roll surround. This combination provides remarkable
strength and a peak-to-peak maximum excursion of 50 mm.
The new dual forced hyper-venting system guarantees a very
efcient voice coil ventilation for minimum power compression
and incredible power handling.
The LF18X401 is ideal for use in applications where sizable
amounts of low frequency,
long excursion and low
distortion acoustic power
is desired. The robust
mechanical design and
optimized weight of the
device make it desirable for
use in both touring profes-
sional and xed installation
loudspeaker systems.
The ND940 is an ultra-
compact, high-performance,
high-power handling 4-inch
di aphragm compressi on
driver with a 1.4-inch exit
throat. A thin copper ring is
precision pressed on to the
pole piece in order to modify and lower the inductance char-
acteristics of the magnetic circuit and voice coil, providing a
controlled extension of the acoustic frequency response.
The voice coil assembly is designed using a high-strength,
high-temperature Kapton voice coil former and edge wound
copper clad aluminum wire directly joined to the diaphragm
by RCFs proprietary Direct
Drive Kapton technology.
The ND940 features a
4-slot, optimized geometry
phase plug design. Extended
computer assisted mathemat-
ical modeling and testing has
resulted in a geometry that
provides a balanced acoustic
performance controlling and
lowering air distortion and
maximizing output.
ND940
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 140 watts (AES)
Frequency Response:
500 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 110 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 6.4 pounds
LF18X401
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches (inside-outside)
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1500 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 25 Hz - 1 kHz
Sensitivity: 97.5 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 29.3 pounds
:: Real W rld Gear::
50 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
Radian | http://radianaudio.com
BMS | http://bmsspeakers.com
P Audio | www.paudiothailand.com
Selenium | www.jblselenium.com
TAD | http://tad-labs.com
Peavey Electronics | www.peavey.com
745NEOPB
Voice Coil: 3 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 105 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 500 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 115 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Aluminum
Weight: 4.6 pounds
4554
Voice Coil: 1.75 inches
Throat: 1.4-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 80 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 500 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 113 dB
Impedance: 8 or 16 ohms
Diaphragm: Polyester
Weight: 4.9 pounds
BM-D450S
Voice Coil: 1.75 inches
Throat: 1-inch
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 60 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 1.5 kHz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 110 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 6.6 pounds
D408Ti
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 2 inches
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 125 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 400 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 111 dB
Impedance: 8/16 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 18.8 pounds
TD-4003
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 2-inch
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 60 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 600 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 110 dB
Impedance: 16 ohms
Diaphragm: Beryllium
Weight: 21.8 pounds
44XT
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Throat: 2-inch (1.6-inch also available)
Power Rating: 80 watts (continuous)
Frequency Response: 500 Hz - 20 kHz
Sensitivity: 111 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Diaphragm: Titanium
Weight: 21 pounds
2218 Neo
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
(x 2)
Power Rating: 1400 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 22 Hz 2 kHz
Sensitivity: 1400 watts
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 17.1 pounds
15N850v
Size: 15 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Neodymium
Power Rating: 1200 watts (AES)
Frequency Response: 20 Hz - 200 Hz
Sensitivity: 95 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 21.6 pounds
SD12-1000EL
Size: 12 inches
Voice Coil: 3.9 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 1000 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 60 Hz - 3 kHz
Sensitivity: 97 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 26 pounds
12MG1400
Size: 12 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 700 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 150 Hz - 4 kHz
Sensitivity: 99 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 21.7 pounds
TL-1801
Size: 18 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Magnetic Structure: Ferrite
Power Rating: 800 watts (RMS)
Frequency Response: 26 Hz - 2.6 kHz
Sensitivity: 97 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 27.7 pounds
Low Rider 15
Size: 15 inches
Voice Coil: 4 inches
Power Rating: 800 watts
(continuous)
Frequency Response: 30 Hz -1 KHz
Sensitivity: 93.6 dB
Impedance: 8 ohms
Weight: 21 pounds
* Connect
* View
* Record
* Protect

HDVR 4/8
nternet G NobiIe Connectivity H.EBA nfrared Day/Might Vision
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Footage from Anywhere
in the WorId
CompatibIe with
VIEW OR RECORD TO ANY TV, VCR, DVR,
COMPUTER OR ANY CCTV/BNC TYPE DEVICE
* Connect up to A/B Cameras
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MSRP
$
1,899
MSRP
$
1,499
Monitor Not Included
WWW.GUARDIANSMARTVISION.COM
52 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
The new Gas Monkey Bar N Grille
in Dallas, developed by Richard Rawlings
and Aaron Kaufman, the hosts of Discovery
Channels car show Fast N Loud, delivers
on its promise of loud music, cold beer, and
plenty of burgers and BBQ. Live perfor-
mances are a pivotal part of the venues
attraction, with both indoor and outdoor
stages outtted with sound reinforcement
systems suitable to serve top musical artists
performing a wide genre of styles.
Already, punk group The Mists have
graced the Gas Monkey stages, as well as
alternative country band the Old 97s and
vocalist/multi-instrumentalist Hank Williams III. Plans include many additional
top-draw acts, so management recognized the necessity of having concert-level
capable sound systems, notes Jeffery McDaniel, senior account manager at GC
Pro Dallas, which handled the project.
Line Array Debut
The larger of the two stages is outdoors, and is covered. It heads up an audience
area measuring roughly 80 x 80 feet on multiple levels, capable of accommodating
more than 1,000 people. The stage has the distinction of being the rst installa-
In&Out
New technology for a dynamic multi-stage venue.
by R. Maxwell
>>>>
>>>>
All Access
tion of D.A.S. Audios new agship line
array, the Aero 40A, offering a powered
3-way design (single 12-inch woofer in
a rear-loaded bass horn, 8-inch mid-
range transducer, and dual D.A.S. neo-
dymium compression drivers).
Ten Aero 40A loudspeakers are
divided into two own arrays of ve
elements each in a left/right congu-
ration, and they deliver coverage to the
entire listening area. Six self-powered
D.A.S. LX-218CA subwoofers (dual
18-inch, bass-reflex), arranged in a
staggered center conguration under
the front of the stage, bolster the low
end and make the system true 4-way.
Although the venue is not very
deep, it was important to have plenty of
SPL and headroom, with very gradual
drop-off from front to rear, McDaniel
explains. The Aero 40A not only pro-
vides gain compensation for each box
via the onboard DASnet software, it
also enables array EQ relative to how
many boxes are own, and where each
individual enclosure is flown in the
array. This is accomplished via factory
provided preset EQ settings.
Additionally, each of the subs has
separate DSP control and different
delay times, allowing phase alignment
with the tops while also maximizing
horizontal dispersion throughout the
venue. A D.A.S. DSP-4080 4-in/8-
The rst installation
of D.A.S. Aero 40A
line arrays for the
outdoor stage at
the Gas Monkey.
A view of the stage monitoring complement
as the well as some of the coverage area at
the outdoor stage.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 53
out stereo/mono processor controls the
mains and subs, as well dual WR-6412
weatherproof loudspeakers mounted at
each end of the front stage truss, ring
upward to cover a balcony.
Engineers do their mixing on a
Midas PRO2 48-channel console that
serves both FOH and monitors. On
stage, theres a full monitoring comple-
ment, including up to six D.A.S. Road
12A 2-way wedges and two Road 15A
2-way monitors for drum ll. Side lls is
supplied by D.A.S. Compact 115 3-way
point source enclosures atop Avant 118A
powered subwoofers. An inventory of
Shure microphones is divided between
outdoor and indoor stages as required.
Models include ULX Professional Series
wireless systems with Beta 87 capsule,
Beta 52 and SM57 mics for drums, a few
SM81 condensers, and some SM58s and
SM57s for vocals and instruments.
Going Inside
The indoor stage measures 40 feet by 30
feet and faces into the venues main bar
and dining area. Here, compact D.A.S.
Audio Aero 8A powered 2-way line
arrays, flown four per side at left and
right, serve as the mains, joined by four
D.A.S. LX-215A powered band-pass
subwoofers in a left-right conguration.
For monitoring, there are four D.A.S.
Action M12A powered 2-way floor
wedges and a single Action 15A powered
compact loudspeaker for drum ll.
There really isnt much space on
the property suitable for housing racks
of ampliers, McDaniel notes. As a
result, the decision was made to focus
on powered loudspeakers to save space
and streamline the installation. And it
was just as important to have powered
monitor systems so the equipment could
easily be moved from one stage to the
other if required.
Loudspeaker control is assigned to
a D.A.S. DSP-2060 stereo/mono pro-
cessor (2-in x 6-out). It provides rout-
ing, EQ, and time alignment functions,
interfacing with DASnet software. A
Behringer X32, 32-channel console with
snake system fronts front of house. Of
particular note is that both indoor and
outdoor systems can be controlled from
either mix position, handled by house
engineer Lee Russell if a performing act
doesnt travel with its own engineer.
In the few months the Gas Monkey
has been open, its been making strong
impressions with management, artists
and patrons, McDaniel states. Weve
received nothing but rave reviews from
the production staff, the general man-
ager, the various bands that have per-
formed there, and from ownership,
he concludes. Its one very impressive
venue and Im quite condent youll be
hearing more and more about it.
R. MAXWELL is a freelance technical
audio writer.
Gas Monkey owner
Richard Rawlings
addresses the audience
via smaller D.A.S. Aero
8A arrays that t the
scale of the indoor stage.

54 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
>>>>
The Soundcraft Si Expression 3
IVE RECENTLY HAD a chance to
get to know the Si Expression 3 digital
console from Soundcraft and if forced to
sum up this review in a single word, it
would be tough to choose between fan-
tastic and awesome. Fortunately that
limitation is not in place, so read on to
nd out the particulars of this console.
Soundcraft has packed a lot of features
into a great-sounding compact desk, and
the best part is that they did it at a price
point thats affordable at relatively every
level of the business. With more than 10
years of experience in developing digital
consoles under its belt, the company has
a very good track record but has really
raised the bar in the affordable compact
category with Si Expression.
The Expression 3 is the largest of
the three models in the recently released
series. Each model is identical in terms
of feature set, with the difference being
the number of onboard mic preamps and
channel faders. The lineup includes the
Expression 1, a rack-mountable console
with 16 mic preamps and 16 faders, the
Expression 2 with 24 mic preamps and
faders, and the Expression 3 with 32 mic
preamps and 32 faders.
All offer 14 aux/group mix buses that
can be congured as 14 mono outputs
or 8 mono and 6 stereo outputs (or any
combination up to that max), 4 matrix
buses that can be congured as 4 stereo
or 4 mono, and left, right and center
main bus outputs. In addition there are
4 dedicated FX buses that are assigned
to the internal Lexicon FX processors
(based on the Lexicon MX400).
Every mix bus has a compressor,
4-band EQ, BSS graphic EQ, and delay.
FURTHER FLEXIBILITY
Further standard features include
motorized channel faders as well as a
pair of motorized L/R and center fad-
ers. Regardless of mic preamp and fader
counts, all models provide up to 66 mix
channels. Adding a Mini Stagebox
increases the number of inputs that can
be mixed, not just the number of inputs
to choose from.
In addition to onboard XLR inputs,
all provide 4 TRS line inputs, 16 balanced
XLR outputs, AES in/out and an option
card slot (more on that later). Processing
for the input channels include a high-
pass lter, input delay, gate, compressor,
and 4-band EQ. Four mute groups are
available, and Fader Glow (which Ive
written about in the past) is really cool
looking in addition to being quite useful
in illuminating the fader slots different
colors to clearly show what function each
fader is currently assigned to.
Accessing functions is easy via a color
touch screen, with dedicated control knobs
giving direct access to the most used fea-
tures
wi thout
having to navigate through screens or use
layered control knobs. The only multi-
purpose knobs on the console are a row
of rotary controls located above each fader.
The operator can globally assign all of
these as gain, HPF, or pan knobs with the
touch of a button.
Another aspect that facilitates easy
operation is called TOTEM (The One
Touch Easy Mix), which congures the
entire console for bus mixing with the
touch of a single key. Dedicated keys on
the front panel for store, recall, next, mute
1-4, tap tempo, and more negate the need
to dive into screen and context menus.
This makes it very easy for an unfamiliar
user to walk right up and mix. In fact, I
didnt crack open the manual at all until
I tried to do some unorthodox routing to
see if it was possible. (And yes, it is.)
The option card slot allows expan-
sion and interfacing the console to a
wide variety of other system compo-
nents including AES, FireWire/USB/
ADAT, CobraNet, BSS BluLink, Audi-
Soundcraft Si Expression 3
Evaluating a compact digital console. by Craig Leerman
[|~
[|~
[|~
D|g|ta| HD Sound Ready
1500 Watts Tota| System Power
Sub. 500 Watts
Sate|||te, Oenter (5x200} Watts
10" |ong-Throw Act|ve Dr|ver
Orossover S|ope Adjusted to 80Hz
Oomp|ete 6-P|ece Surround Speaker System
Frequency Response 32-20 KHz
Effc|ency: 88dB
lmpedance: 4-8 ohms
Magnet|ca||y Sh|e|ded Oenter Speaker
B|uetooth Oompat|b|e
5.1 Amp||fer, Rece|ver, Pre-Amp, FM Tuner
2000 Watts Tota| Power
Sate|||te, Oenter, 1500 Watts (5300}
Sub: 10" 500 Watts Program
D|g|ta| A/v lnput and Output
HDMl-lN-OT
MP3, MP4, B|ue-Ray, and DvD P|ayer Oompat|b|e
v|deo Game lnput
Go|d Oapped A/v Oab|es & W|res
Acoust|ca||y Enhanced Speakers
B|uetooth / HD W|re|ess Techno|ogy Oompat|b|e
5.1 Amp||fer, Rece|ver, Pre-Amp, FM Tuner
1750 Watts Tota| Power
Soundbar tota| 750 Watts
Sub: 1000 Watts Program - 1x10"
D|g|ta| A/v / HDMl lnput and Output
MP3, MP4, B|ue-Ray, and DvD P|ayer Oompat|b|e
v|deo Game lnput
Go|d Oapped A/v Oab|es & W|res
Acoust|ca||y Enhanced Speakers
M88F.
$
1, 795. 00
M88F.
$
3, 299. 00
[|~1 1
D|g|ta| HD Sound Ready
2000 Watts Tota| System Power
Sub. 1000 Watts
Sate|||te, Oenter (5x200} Watts
Two 6.5" Speaker Subs
Orossover S|ope Adjusted to 80Hz
Oomp|ete 6-P|ece Surround Speaker System
Frequency Response 32-20 KHz
Effc|ency: 88dB
lmpedance: 4-8 ohms
Magnet|ca||y Sh|e|ded Oenter Speaker
M88F.
$
1, 950. 00
New for 2014
ass oost
7.1 h|gh 0ef|n|t|on
home Theater Package
7.1 h|gh 0ef|n|t|on
home Theater Package
Flat Screen Not Included
Flat Screen Not Included
ew fer 2014
Shielded Speaker Elements for
Incresed Clarity
WWW.LEMMOxnUO|O.COM
~E|E
~E|E
CompaI/b/e
CompaI/b/e
HD Acoustic Sound
Easy to set-up Speakers
HD Acoustic Sound
Easy to set-up Speakers
Wireless HD Technology
M88F.
$
2, 599. 00
56 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: Road Test ::
nate Dante and MADI. The available
Mini Stageboxes allow inputs to be
placed remotely as well as adding to the
available number of total inputs.
In terms of footprint, the Expression
3 measures 6.7 x 36.5 x 20.5 inches (h x
w x d) and weighs 46 pounds. Height and
depth remain the same for the other two
models, with the Expression 2 coming in
at 28.2 inches wide and the Expression 1
at just 19 inches wide. Weight is 34 and
24 pounds, respectively.
FIRST IMPRESSIONS
As I do with all gear, I hooked up the
console in the shop to see what it could
do as well as to get familiar with the fea-
ture set and workow before taking it
out. My unit, provided by the company
for review purposes, came with outdated
software, so the rst order of business
was downloading the newest version
(v1.5) from the Soundcraft website. Tom,
my general manager, unzipped the le to
a thumb drive and we quickly updated
the board. This new software version
also offers support for the updated ViSi
Remote iPad app (more on that later).
We then plugged in a mic and found
that we could easily get around on the
board without any trouble. Everything
is logically laid out and all of the knobs
(except for the user selectable gain/HPF/
pan rotaries) control only one parameter,
similar to an analog console. The touch
screen, though a bit on the small side, is
easy to read and operate, and the software
is intuitive. Even an old analog guy (like
me) should have no problems operating
this console after a few minutes.
Tom and I quickly set up a few mixes.
The Lexicon processors offer a lot of
reverbs, delays, and effects, each with
its own dedicated tap tempo button. We
also liked how the FX units each have
their own dedicated bus so you dont
have to use up one of the 14 aux buses.
While we hadnt yet memorized what
Fader Glow colors went with any spe-
cic feature, we could see immediately
that the fader was in another mode.
Next, I downloaded the ViSi Remote
app on my iPad and checked out what it
could do. We connected a simple router
to the Expression 3 and I logged on to
the router. Within a few seconds the
console showed up as a device in the
app, and I connected without any fuss.
You can also pick a device manually in
the app and demo the features without
having a console connected.
After a few minutes of remotely
making the faders on the console magi-
cally move on their own, I focused on
the actual operation of the app. It offers
control of most mix functions, including
channel faders, on buttons, EQ, dynam-
ics, delay and pan, as well as control of
basic mix bus functions including main,
mix, matrix and FX bus levels and GEQ
adjustments.
On an online forum, Id read a com-
plaint about the console lacking DCAs
and subgroups. Yes, there are no DCAs
but there are 14 mix buses that can be
used as subgroups. You can assign inputs
to a mix and assign the mix to the L/R
and center, thereby using any mix bus
(mono or stereo) as a subgroup. Using
this method, Tom and I found we could
quickly congure the console with a vari-
ety of subgroups, and also could easily
map inputs, subs, returns and buses any-
where we wanted them on different layers.
IN ACTION
Condent with the Expression 3s abil-
ity to handle anything we were going
throw at it, we deployed it at a few
shows. The first was a meeting with
a male presenter. The majority of my
company events are corporates, which
means routing signal in every direction.
The Si3 is quite straightforward in get-
ting signals where it needs to go.
The 4-band channel EQ is versatile
despite only the 2 middle bands being
fully parametric, and its easy to ring out a
podium microphone as well as earset and
lavalier mics. Using the iPad, I walked the
room or just stood next to the console to
adjust parameters, while another techni-
cian was working on the console surface.
Another view of the Expression 3, including
an iPad loaded with ViSi Remote.
A look at the I/O on the rear panel, which can be expanded via Mini Stageboxes.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 57
The next event was another cor-
porate calling for a good deal of audio
playback. Again I found it comfortable
to get around on the board and get sig-
nals where I needed them. The ViSi
Remote allowed me to place the console
in a not-so-ideal FOH position while
being able to walk around and hear the
mix, adjusting accordingly.
The last gig was a large wedding in
a casino ballroom. Instead of running a
long snake around the room and setting
up FOH in the back of the ballroom, we
opted instead to place the Expression 3 at
the stage and mix the band largely on the
ViSi Remote. Setting up multiple monitor
mixes is very easy, and its great being able
to stand onstage with an iPad right next
to a musicians at sound check and adjust
wedges while actually hearing what theyre
hearing. While setting up a subgroup, we
realized that a GEQ was also now avail-
able for that group, handy for shaping the
tonality of an entire drum set, string sec-
tion, or vocal group at a show.
I have only two minor issues. The
EQ display on the ViSi remote does not
show the high-pass lter setting. Its not
a big deal but could come in handy when
doing monitors or at a festival type gig
with a lot of different acts using the same
channels. Soundcraft notes that this will
be addressed soon in ViSi version 2.1.
Also, the console doesnt have scribble
strips for labeling; again, not that big of a
deal, especially in context with all of the
other features delivered at this price point.
And, there are scribble strips on the ViSi
Remote so its easy to keep track of inputs.
Overall the Si Expression 3 is a win-
ner so much so that I just purchased a
pair for my own companys inventory.
U.S. MSRP: Expression 3, $3,499;
Expression 2, $2,999; Expression 1, $2,499.
Senior contributing editor CRAIG
LEERMAN is the owner of Tech Works,
a production company based in Las Vegas.
A wide range of option cards are avail-
able to customize Si Expression con-
soles to specic needs and applications.
58 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
>>>>
MORE THAN 650 WORSHIP pro-
duction personnel and live sound opera-
tors converged on the Dallas Convention
Center in October to check out the third
annual Live Sound Compact Systems
Demo, held in conjunction with the
WFX Conference & Expo.
The demo provides the opportu-
nity to directly listen to, evaluate, and
compare more than a dozen compact
loudspeaker systems in a controlled
listening environment. In addition, all
participating companies have represen-
tatives on hand to provide technical
details and pricing information.
The event is held in a full-size
exhibit hall of the convention center,
with a 150-foot by 150-foot demo
space draped off to dene the area and
to help eliminate reflections. Carpet
that covered the entire demo area fur-
Inside the ultimate listening experience. by Live Sound Staff
Compact System Demo
SHOWREPORT
Renkus-Heinz IC Live
PreSonus StudioLive 328AI
Martin Audio MLA Compact
Line 6 StageSource L3t
L-Acoustics KARAi
Elipsis Audio LA-205
Electro-Voice EVA-2082S
EAW QX596i
D.A.S. Audio AERO 40A
Danley Sound Labs SH96HO
Bose Professional RoomMatch
Alcons Audio LR14/90
Adamson Metrix-i & Metrix Wave-i
DEMO
PARTICIPANTS
& SYSTEMS
Yamaha, Shure, Link USA, Mega, DiColor
TECHNOLOGY
SPONSORS
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 59
thered this goal.
While the 13 participating manu-
facturers primarily chose to highlight
own compact line arrays, others took
a different approach in showing single
box solutions, providing an excellent
contrast between the types of systems
available.
In each one-hour full demo session,
all systems were played in a round-
robin, random format, supplied with
identical audio tracks until the nal
round, when manufacturers had the
opportunity to play their own select
track through their system. Listeners
move from system to system, evalu-
ating what theyre hearing and also
observing each systems scale, com-
ponents and other important details.
Each participating company also
provided 15-minute exclusive demo
sessions, further showcasing their
technologies.
As usual, Live Sound senior con-
tributing editor Craig Leerman served
as the tech director for the event,
with veteran engineer Tim Weaver
of Waco, TX, at a Yamaha CL Series
console managing audio for each
demo session.
Gary Zandstra and Josh Maichele of
Parkway Electric (Holland, MI), with
more than 40 years of system integra-
tion and church tech work between
them, served as emcees. Preston Gray
of Morris Light & Sound (Nashville)
was also on hand with a Smaart rig to
monitor levels, with SPL readings vis-
ible on a large video screen.
Plans are already underway for the
next compact system demo with even
more features for attendees to be held
in conjunction with next years WFX
Expo in Dallas, October 2014. Keep an
eye on ProSoundWeb for more details
as they become available.
NEWSBYTES
:: The latest news from ProSoundWeb.com::
60 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
s QSC Audio has
named John White
to the position of vice
president, research and
development, where he
will be providing technical and manage-
rial leadership to the development pro-
grams at the company. Previously, he
served as vice president of engineering
at THX, and prior to that, was director of
engineering at Avid, where he oversaw
multiple engineering departments,
including the VENUE live sound console
team and the ProTools plug-ins team.
White was also co-founder and direc-
tor of the Technology Development
Group at Dolby Laboratories, where he
formed and led the team that created
Dolby Digital Plus and the Dolby real-
time encoder for the Microsoft Xbox.
And, he also served as a senior member
of the technical staff in the R&D division
of Walt Disney Imagineering.
s Full Compass
Systems owners
Susan and Jonathan
Lipp have received the
2013 Lifetime Achieve-
ment Award from
THE CRYSTAL BAY CASINO (CBC) is situated on the north
shore of beautiful Lake Tahoe, and its home to two live music
venues with systems headed by Gamble consoles. The
650-capacity Crown Room is the centerpiece of the CBC,
regularly hosting national and regional touring artists from the
bluegrass, funk, and
jam-band scenes.
The vaulted ceil-
ing room is cov-
ered by six own
Meyer Sound CQ-2
loudspeakers and
four JBL subwoof-
ers under the stage,
with Meyer UM-1Ps
serving as stage
monitors. Front of
house is dened by a Gamble DCX-40 digitally controlled
analog console system that was installed almost a decade
ago as part of a multi-million dollar upgrade, and has handled
well over 1,200 shows since being installed. Artists also get
the full Gamble experience via a vintage (circa 1980) SC32
console that sits at side stage to handle monitor duties.
When things wind down in the Crown Room, the after-party
gets going across the casino oor in the Red Room. Featur-
ing up-and-coming and local acts, the 250-capacity room is
served by a scaled-down version of the larger venues system,
also incorporating a Gamble DCX-40 system for both FOH
and monitors as well as four own Meyer CQ-2s, two JBL
subs, and Meyer UM-1Ps on stage.
A recent November evening found Melvin Seals and JGB
(Jerry Garcia Band) gracing the Crown Room stage before a
packed house. FOH engineer Bo Putnam from Sound Sup-
port was in the house, along with monitor engineer Shaun
Wilson. The night was reason to celebrate, with the date
marking the 40th anniversary of Putnams rst night mixing.
On working with the DCX-40, Putnam states, The pre-
amps are astonishingly good sounding, and handle tran-
sients with ease no sonic break-up, whatsoever. The lters
are very effective and pure, and the on-board dynamics
challenge the best outboard gear. Gain structure is very vis-
ible and accessible. And, of course, the Gamble-designed TT
patch-bay is worthy of its legendary reputation. Every con-
ceivable point in the console signal path is accessible the
possibilities are literally endless and comprehensive, and you
miss it every minute youre away from one
Thanks to Charles Mallett for this report.
Gamble Consoles Support Special Night In Tahoe
Jim Gamble, Bo Putnam, Blake
Beeman, Shaun Wilson, and George
Edwards at FOH in the Crown Room.
Shaun Wilson mixing on the DCX-40 for monitors in the
Crown Room.
Bo Putnam celebrating 40 years
of mixing at the CDX-40.
www.ProSoundWeb.com December 2013 Live Sound International 61
THE PROFESSIONAL AUDIO INDUSTRY
is deeply saddened at the passing of Wal-
ter Eugene (Gene) Clair, who died Decem-
ber 3 at the age of 73. With his brother
Roy, he co-founded leading live touring
company Clair Brothers, which has blazed
numerous trails in concert sound reinforcement over several
decades. From the Clair Brothers Audio Systems website:
Walter Eugene Clair, one of the Clair Brothers Audio entrepre-
neurs, died December 3, 2013. He was 73. Gene, as everyone
knew him, was born May 6, 1940 to Roy B. Clair and Ellen Mae
(Ulrich) Clair, in the Lititz area and lived here all his life. He gradu-
ated from Warwick High School in 1958 and was awarded as
one of the top athletes of his class. He went on to get a two year
degree in Engineering from the Penn State York campus.
While working in the Foreign Language lab and general
electrician at F&M College, Gene and his brother, Roy, set up
the sound for a visiting musical group The Four Seasons. The
group was so impressed with the sound they asked the brothers
to tour with them, and so Clair Bros. began. Gene continued to
be a sound engineer/mixer for bands such as Elton John, the
Moody Blues, Michael Jackson and Peter Wolf, to name a few,
and traveled all over the world.
Gene sold his end of the business to his son Troy in 1995, and
split his time between Lititz and his mountain home in Sinnema-
honing, Pa. Gene joined the Pennsylvania Forestry Association as
the Board of Directors, and spent every Penn State home game
entertaining friends and family with tailgating extravaganzas.
He is survived by his brother Roy Clair; his partner of 23 years,
Betty Shenenberger; the mother of his children, Joan Clair; his
children Troy (Katy) Clair and Gina (Stan) Zeamer; his grand-
children Shaun (Nicole) Clair, Matt (Natalie) Clair, Gail Clair, Kyle
Keener, and Taylor Keener; and his Great Grandchildren, Bella,
Lilly and Otto, who was born on Genes birthday. Preceding him
in death were his parents and son, Cory Clair.
In lieu of owers, we ask that a donation be sent to any of the fol-
lowing: Moravian Manor, which took incredible care of Gene during
his nal days, 300 West Lemon Street, Lititz, PA 17543; Hospice of
Lancaster, 685 Good Drive, P.O. Box 4125, Lancaster PA 17604-
4125; or the Lititz RecCenter, 301 Maple Street, Lititz PA 17543.
Walter Eugene (Gene) Clair: May 6, 1940 December 3, 2013
Celebrating
40 YEARS
of Pro Audio Sales
SOUND BETTER. SAVE MONEY. SOUND PRODUCTIONS
Call a
Sound Pro
TO
D
AY!

www.SoundPro.com
Qu-16
ALLEN&HEATH
ULX-D
EXPRESSION Si
StudioLive 32.4.2 AI
ZLX-15P
K-SERIES
62 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
:: News Bytes::
ProSoundWeb provides all of the lat-
est pro audio news, and follow PSW
on Facebook and Twitter - just go to
www.prosoundweb.com and click on the icons at
the top of the page.
.
c
o
m
the Madison (Wisconsin) chapter of the
Association of Fundraising Professionals
(AFP), recognizing their contributions to
education, music, early development and
other initiatives.
The award is presented to individuals
or couples with a minimum of 20 years
of philanthropic involvement, outstand-
ing civic and charitable responsibility
and a record of exceptional generos-
ity that has also encouraged others to
take leadership roles in philanthropic
activities. The efforts of the Lipps, in
cooperation with the employees at Full
Compass, help to raise hundreds of
thousands of dollars every year through
the companys Charitable Contributions
Committee.
s Event Pro of Hastings, MN, has
added a Yamaha CL5 digital console
and Rio3224-D and 1608-D input/
output boxes to its inventory, with the
purchase facilitated by Metro Sound
and Lighting of St. Paul, MN. Event
Pro supports regional and national
productions, and is a technical services
provider for touring, corporate, civic,
and educational events. The company
began 14 years ago, and prior to that,
owner Neal Wallace (shown above at
right with Larry Fisher of Metro Sound
and Lighting) started his career in the
1980s as a touring engineer.
s An Allen & Heath GLD-80 digital
mixer was recently employed at the
National Jazz Festival in Tauranga, New
Zealand, featuring a line-up of top inter-
national jazz musicians. The GLD was
installed in the Layfayette Church, one of
the Jazz Villages boutique venues.
Im mostly a studio guy these days but
I can honestly say the GLDs sound quality
rivals some of the gear we rely on in the
studio, says engineer Damian Lunson.
Time to vote for your favorite Live Audio
products in 23 diferent categories:
ProSoundWeb.com/vote2014
CAST YOUR VOTE!
Adamson Systems Engineering Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC . . . . . . . . . . adamsonsystems.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905-982-0520
Allen & Heath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . AmericanMusicAndSound.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-431-2609
Applied Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,59 . . . . . . . . . appliednn.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-883-0008
Audio-Technica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . audio-technica.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carvin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . carvinaudio.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-854-2235
Countryman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . countryman.com/E6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
d&b audiotechnik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . www.dbaudio.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.A.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . www.dasaudio.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888-DAS-4USA
Earthworks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . . earthworksaudio.com/mseries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603-654-2433
Eighteen Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . www.eighteensound.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faital USA, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . . . . . . . . . www.faitalpro.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516-779-0649
Full Compass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . fullcompass.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-356-5844
Gamble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . www.gambleboards.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grundorf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. . . . . . . . . . . www.grundorf.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712-322-3900
Guardian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . www.guardiansmartvision.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
JBL Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . jblpro.com/VTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lectrosonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . www.lectrosonics.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-821-1121
Lennox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. . . . . . . . . . . www.lennoxaudio.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mackie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . mackie.com/SRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Martin Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . www.martin-audio.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIPRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . www.mipro.com.tw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816-581-9103
Montarbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . www.montarbo.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial Engineering Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . www.radialeng.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604-942-1001
Ramsdell Pro Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. . . . . . . . . . . www.RamsdellProAudio.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727-823-8037
Rational Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . www.rationalacoustics.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . www.rcf-usa.com. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renkus-Heinz, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . www.renkus-heinz.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Riedel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . www.riedel.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shure Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . www.shure.com/americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . . . . . . . . . www.SoundPro.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-203-5611
Soundcraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . soundcraft.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888-251-8352
Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . waves.com, waveslive.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yamaha Commercial Audio Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . IFC,IBC. . . . . . . . . www.yamahaca.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yamaha Corporation of America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . yamaha.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Live Sound International provides this index as a service to advertisers. We assume no responsibility for errors or omissions.
ADVERTISERINDEX
BACKPAGE
64 Live Sound International December 2013 www.ProSoundWeb.com
Spectrum Update
The latest from wireless world. by Live Sound Staff
IT LOOKS AS THOUGH it might be an interesting year
coming up in the world of RF and wireless systems. Well have
a full report from noted wireless consultant James Stoffo in
the January 2014 issue, but in the meantime, we received the
following release from Sennheiser just prior to going to press.
lll
Sennheiser has announced that it has recently led comments
with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in light
of the pending spectrum auction scheduled to take place in 2014.
The government auction, which jeopardizes the future use of
wireless microphones and monitors operating in the 600 MHz
range, will force many U.S. based content creators including
live production, broadcast, and lm professionals to attempt
to stage their shows using little more than half of the currently
available UHF spectrum.
In the document led on November 4, 2013, Sennheiser
argues that the winners of the spectrum auction should com-
pensate owners of wireless microphone equipment that will be
rendered obsolete as a direct result of the planned spectrum
repacking.
Currently, the FCC has not announced any plans to compen-
sate wireless microphone owners, who play a critical role in U.S.
content creation and who will have to make signicant invest-
ments in new equipment for the second time within a few years.
Wireless microphones are an essential ingredient of content
creation in the United States, states Joe Ciaudelli, spectrum
affairs, Sennheiser Electronic Corp. Currently, the United
States is the number one content creator in the world when
it comes to broadcasting, lm production and live events. The
A/V professionals that produce this content, which is enjoyed
by both domestic and international consumers, depend on the
600 MHz frequency spectrum each day.
Now they are being told that they must vacate this UHF
space, and with no contingency or recourse to recover their
equipment investments. This is grossly unfair, especially con-
sidering that this will be the second time this has occurred
within a few years.
This time mics and monitors wont be able to simply be relo-
cated into lower portions of the UHF because it is already packed
with replacement mics for ones rendered obsolete by the 700 MHz
reallocation. TV stations currently operating in 600 MHz will also
be relocated to lower channels, exacerbating the congestion.
Ciaudelli continues, Not only does the pending spectrum
repacking threaten to diminish U.S. leadership in content cre-
ation, it creates an unnecessary hardship to many thousands
of audio professionals by forcing them to reinvest in compli-
ant equipment. While adverse effects of the spectrum repack-
ing will inevitably occur, simple fairness says that the auction
winners who will derive revenue from the auctioned spectrum
should provide compensation.
Currently, the vast majority of U.S.-based major lm pro-
ductions, television broadcasts and major concert events in the
United States rely heavily on the 600 MHz frequency range.
Eliminating access to this not only significantly increases
congestion in the 500 MHz frequency range, but also places
unprecedented technical demands on both the equipment and
operators working in this space.
The FCC has also received letters of support for Sennheisers
position from industry leading companies including Shure, Audio-
Technica, Lectrosonics, and CP Communications. We encourage
others to write to the FCC as well, states Ciaudelli.
Following is an excerpt from Sennheisers recent ling that
illustrates the role wireless equipment plays in the U.S. com-
mercial, political and economic arenas:
Wireless microphones are ubiquitous in all aspects of the enter-
tainment business, in news reporting, in sports, and in U.S. com-
mercial, civic, and religious life. They are essential to the production
of virtually all non-studio broadcast events, and to nearly all stu-
dio-produced programs as well. These include team sports from local
college broadcasts to the Super Bowl, the World Series, the Final
Four, and the Stanley Cup; the Democratic and Republican politi-
cal conventions; post-election national and local coverage; the Oscar,
Emmy, and Grammy Awards shows; events such as the Olympics,
NASCAR races, the Kentucky Derby, and major golf and tennis
tournaments; and on-the-scene news reporting of all kinds, both local
and national. These broadcasts routinely attract millions of viewers.
Motion-picture production, from Hollywood blockbusters with
nine-digit budgets down to student work at the local community col-
lege, relies heavily on wireless microphones for clear, accurate audio.
Live events, from Broadway productions to stadium-sized outdoor
concerts, need wireless microphones to reach the back row. Present-
ers in auditoriums, lecture halls, and houses of worship nd them
indispensable.
>>>>>
The LS9 Digital Mixer. Easiest because of its
user friendly and familiar interface, compatibili-
ty with StageMix for iPad

and compact, lightweight


chassis. Hardest working due to its long list of
professional features. 32 or 16 input channels plus
4 stereo inputs, expandable up to 64 or 32
channels in two layers, 16 mix and 8 matrix outputs,
EQ and Dynamics on every input and output channel,
300 scene memories, virtual effects rack, built in
MP3 recorder/player and so much more. All simple
to use. All hard to beat.
w w w . y a m a h a c a . c o m
Yamaha Commercial Audio Systems, Inc. P. O. Box 6600, Buena Park, CA 90620-6600 2013 Yamaha Commercial Audio Systems, Inc.
LS9-32