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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Awam & Struktur

Fakulti Kejuruteraan dan Alam Bina


KKKH 4284





Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the control of the use of land
and design of the urban environment, including transportation networks, to guide and ensure the
orderly development of settlements and communities. It concerns itself with research and
analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy
recommendations, implementation and management.
A plan can take a variety of forms including strategic plans, comprehensive plans,
neighborhood plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, or historic preservation plans. Planners
are often also responsible for enforcing the chosen policies.
The modern origins of urban planning lie in the movement for urban reform that arose as
a reaction against the disorder of the industrial city in the mid-19th century. Urban planning can
include urban renewal, by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from
decline. In the late-20th century, the term sustainable development has come to represent an ideal
outcome in the sum of all planning goals.
Sustainable development and sustainability influence today's urban planners. Some
planners argue that modern lifestyles use too many natural resources, polluting or destroying
ecosystems, increasing social inequality, creating urban heat islands, and causing climate change.
Many urban planners, therefore, advocate sustainable cities.
However, sustainable development is a recent, controversial concept. Wheeler, in his
2004 book, defines sustainable urban development as "development that improves the long-term
social and ecological health of cities and towns." He sketches a 'sustainable' city's features:
compact, efficient land use; less automobile use, yet better access; efficient resource use; less
pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a
healthy social ecology; a sustainable economy; community participation and involvement; and
preservation of local culture and wisdom.
Because of political and governance structures in most jurisdictions, sustainable planning
measures must be widely supported before they can affect institutions and regions. Actual
implementation is often a complex compromise.
Urban planning is not only a reactionary field but also an area concerned with prediction.
A big part of urban planning is the forecasting of the future needs and requirements of a built up
area so that the population will remain happy, healthy and safe. This means that a great deal of
research needs to be done and maintained so that every aspect of each built up area is monitored.
Water levels, traffic levels, road use, population levels, health and education requirements, police
and fire coverage and new development areas all need to be closely watched.
A. Quality of Development
This concept is taken from the Oregon Shines which is very useful in order to implement
sustainable concept in Kajang. Oregons strategic plan is detailed in a series of periodically
updated publications called Oregon Shines. It is based on the assumption that the social and
economic well-being of Oregonians depends on the interconnectedness of quality jobs, a
sustainable environment, and caring communities. This Circle of Prosperity is illustrated in
figure below and states the following beliefs.
1. A clean, appealing environment, a talented workforce and responsive public services will
attract and find a base for diverse, value-adding industries that provide well-paying jobs.
2. Diverse, value-adding industries that provide well-paying jobs will:
create opportunities for Oregonians, reducing poverty and crime, and
Generate revenue for excellent schools, quality public service and public facilities.
3. Opportunities for Oregonians, reduced poverty and crime, and revenues for excellent
public schools, services and facilities will result in a clean, appealing environment, a
talented workforce and responsive government

B. Integrating Transport and Development
In Kajang, if, at peak hour, you want to get from your home into the city and vice versa by bus,
you usually can. Aside from that youre pretty stuck. Buses are infrequent, dont connect well to
other buses or trains, and sometimes routes only have minor differences to each other. Theres a
whole bunch of routes going from A to B, but the whole thing doesnt work as a network.
Using the concept of public transportation in Auckland, buses are to be treated as part of
an integrated and more grids like public transport network. The headline fact is that on key
routes from 7am till 7pm there will be a bus at least every 15 minutes. There will be a few less
routes, but there will be more interchange points, so people can link from a bus to another bus or
train. Getting into the city will still be easy, but there will also be more crosstown buses. The
image below outlines the basic theory behind the new idea. Less routes, routing through an
interchange. Less routes frees up resources for more frequency.

Integrated ticketing allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or
between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey,
modes being buses, trains, subways, ferries, etc. The purpose of integrated ticketing is to
encourage people to use public transport by simplifying switching between transport modes and
by increasing the efficiency of the services.
In most cases, integrated ticketing is made possible by electronic ticketing technologies
such as magnetic stripe cards or smart cards. Some smart card systems are also used for paying
for goods and other services. Some public transport systems also use paper cash tickets that
allow transfers within a specified area, allow unlimited travel during specified times. In
Malaysia, we can use the smart tickets such as Touch N Go for the RapidKL and KTM.
In order to achieve sustainable country, we need to promote in cycling and walking for the
citizen to mobilise. We all know the benefits of cycling and walking - which include:

Improves general health, helps to lower both blood pressure and improves heart health, as
well as improving mental health and wellbeing.
Helps with weight and stress management.
Improves fitness.
In congested areas cyclists and pedestrians breathe in less fumes than drivers.
Saves you money.
Produces no pollution so good for the environment and tackling climate change.
Often quicker to get around in towns and cities.
Fewer cars on the road and more cyclists and pedestrians means safer roads.
Have fewer days being ill each year.

A passenger information [display] system (PIS or PIDS) is an electronic information
system which provides real-time passenger information. It may include both predictions about
arrival and departure times, as well as information about the nature and causes of disruptions. It
may be used both physically within a transportation hub and remotely using a web browser or
mobile device.
Current operational information on service running is collected from automatic vehicle
location systems and from control systems, including incident capture systems. This information
can be compared by computers with the published service timetable to generate a prediction of
how services will run in the next few minutes to hours.
This may be informed by additional information: for instance, bus services will be
affected by congestion on the road network, while all services may be affected by adverse
weather conditions.
The capital and revenue costs for traveller information systems can be calculated with
reasonable accuracy. However, the derivation of tangible financial benefits is far more difficult
to establish and as a consequence, there is very little research. This directs the business model for
information systems towards the "softer" merits such as traveller confidence etc. It is worth
noting that there must be an actual value as individuals are willing to pay for systems that give
them access to real time data relating to their journey. The difficulty is establishing what this is
for each individual person and perhaps each individual piece of roadside hardware. The figure
below shows an example of application device used for public transportation in Singapore that
we can implement in Kajang.

C. Minimum Environmental Impact Due To Surge In Travel Demands
The environmental impact of transport is significant because it is a major user of energy, and
burns most of the world's petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and
particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon
dioxide, for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector. By subsector, road transport
is the largest contributor to global warming.
Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced the individual vehicles
emission; however, this has been offset by an increase in the number of vehicles, and more use
of each vehicle. Some pathways to reduce the carbon emissions of road vehicles considerably
have been studied. Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing
environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport,
and increase transport electrification and energy efficiency.
Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and
automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By
reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive
effects on Earth's air quality, acid rain, smog and climate change.

D. Development Access: Pedestrians, disabled people, cyclists, public transport, private
Accessible design is a requirement and does not depend on the number of users. Practice in
accessible design should be as advanced as vehicle usage design. When sidewalks are not
available, pedestrians are forced to share the street with motorists, access to public transportation
is restricted, and children have fewer play areas that are safe. Therefore, whenever possible,
accessible sidewalks should be provided.
Develop sidewalks as integral parts of all city streets
If landuse plans anticipate pedestrian activity, construct sidewalks as part of street
Sidewalks should connect nearby urban communities
Provide sidewalks in rural and suburban areas at schools, local businesses, and
industrial plants that result in pedestrian concentrations
Provide sidewalks whenever the roadside and land development conditions are such
that pedestrians regularly move along a main or high-speed highway
Incorporate sidewalks in rural areas with higher traffic speeds and general absence of
Construct sidewalks along any street or highway without shoulders, even if there is
light pedestrian traffic.

Installing sidewalks is critical to providing pedestrian access. However, prioritizing the needs
of pedestrians extends beyond the basic step of providing a sidewalk network. The quality of the
pedestrian experience should also be addressed during the project planning process. The first step
towards providing a quality pedestrian experience is to provide a buffer zone that separates the
pedestrian from the motorist. This can be accomplished by providing a wide sidewalk or a
sidewalk setback, such as a planting strip.
Attractive building facades (e.g., pedestrian scale, street oriented windows and building
Street trees and landscaping
Pedestrian oriented signs and traffic control devices
Designated for the disabled
Public art

E. Parking

Limit car parking standard
Provides parking for disabled persons
Secure cycle parking
lorry and motor cycle parking
Below are some sustainable design for parking which suggest to be apply in Kajang Local Plan
for Sustainable for Development.

Interlocking parking design

Figure: Interlocking parking
Parking lots are a primary contributor to stormwater runoff in our cities due to their scale and
impervious character. Parking lots, unless they are low-frequency use parking lots, must have a
certain level of imperviousness to them for the functional aspect of vehicle movement.

In the sketch above, you will notice that the areas of the parking lot where vehicles are
parked are semi-porous brick. The brick utilized for these areas is designed and constructed to
maximize the size of openings at the surface to maximize infiltration. Another feature that you
may see are the trees and tree grates within the parking lot. There are trees located in islands as
there are in many parking lots, however additional trees are incorporated in tree grates, rotated
45 degrees. These trees are able to gather rainwater at the grates.

Parking controls, raising parking prices or reducing the amount of parking areas, can be
used to deter the use of privately owned vehicles in areas of highest demand by raising the price
of commuting to high density areas. By use multi center strategy we can reduce the traffic jam in
the city center and solve the parking problem and by construct Kajang Central in Kajang station
location, all the parking problem will be solved.

Figure: Vegetated permeable pavement

Automated parking facilities

Figure: Automated parking facilities
Automated parking facilities are parking structures where drivers leave their cars and robotic
controls store and retrieve the vehicles. If the layout of the storage racks, transfer cabins and
transfer isle is done properly, automated parking facilities can have about 75 percent of the
footprint than a conventional parking structure.
Another environmental benefit of automated parking facilities is the reduced use of vehicles
within the parking facility. In a conventional parking lot or structure, the user has to circle at low
speeds until they find a space. This process is performed again in reverse when the user leaves.
All of this circling and idling creates carbon emissions. In automated parking facilities, the user
drives a short distance to the entry/exit vestibule and turns off the engine. The storage
mechanisms do the rest. Therefore a significant amount of emissions are eliminated.
Other green aspects of automated parking structures:
Reduced height, approximately 75 percent less height than conventional parking structure,
requires less faade. Less faade means less energy to produce, transport and install the
Only minimal energy lighting is needed inside the storage compartment, which reduces
energy consumption.
If the entry/exit vestibules are on the ground floor, elevators can be eliminated which
reduces energy consumption and materials use.
The superstructure for automated parking structures is structural steel which has a high
recycled materials content.
However, automated parking structures have the following green drawbacks:
The storage and retrieval machines require substantial energy to fabricate and operate, so
a full energy analysis should be performed.
There are only a few manufacturers in the U.S., most are in Europe. Therefore, the 500-
mile limit on sourcing materials is impacted.
Consideration should be given to the use, as automated parking may create a natural
deterrent to parkers. Automated parking is more favorable for return and long term users.

Figure: Parking for disabled.

Figure: Motorcycle parking.

Green roof parking system
Since the roofs of most parking facilities are used for parking, the opportunity to install a green
roof without adding a level of structure is limited to stair and elevator tower roofs. The costs of
adding structure for a full green roof should be compared against the reduced storm water control
measures, elimination of snow plowing on the upper deck, decreased maintenance/restoration
costs and the opportunity for additional uses. A good application of a green roof on a parking
structure is the Blue Cross/Blue Shield Parking Structure in Detroit7. A level of precast structure
was added to the building for a green roof and running track for the adjacent office building.

Figure: Green roof parking design.
F. Urban Design Principles

Urban design should create green, sustainable places. Compact, walkable places are the most
sustainable form of living. The combination of human scale urbanism, with a mix of uses
and services, a range of housing options, extensive train systems, and the ability to walk and
bicycle as part of daily life all make for sustainable, green living. Add safe, clean, renewable
energy, and true sustainability results.
In the era of dwindling oil supplies and rising energy costs, the need for low energy lifestyles
has never been greater. Urban design principles and practices bring together the ideas and
plans to create enjoyable places to live, work and play while greatly reducing energy use.
Designing away the need for cars is the most important step in creating sustainable
places. This has the triple effect of lowering our energy use (especially imported oil),
reducing global warming emissions, and raising our quality of life in cities by increasing
mobility and convenience.

Figure: Statistics of relationship between CO2 emission per household in Chicago.
Sustainable and Green Not sustainable or green

Figure: The sustainble or not sustainable in relating transport in urban design.

Figure: Links through spaces
New development should respect the historic street patterns, intricate grain and vertical and
horizontal rhythms (e.g. the building widths, the proportion and scale of windows and doors etc.)
of the Town Centre. Opportunities to repair street pattern and grain where this has been lost
should be exploited.

Figure: Wrapping the box
Relationships between developments of different scales may be resolved by wrapping large
spaces with smaller buildings; stepping a large mass down to its neighbour; and ensuring that
the ground level is as active and interesting as possible. Where stepping down is adopted the
change in height should arise out of the requirements of the designers brief and should avoid a
lop-sided appearance in the new building which merely emphasises the difference in height
between it and the neighbouring building.

Figure: Mixed building uses and car parking

Developments including large stores and other big box units, such as multi-storey car parks,
can create exposed dead frontages (the Bridge Street frontage to the Rushes is a local example).
Careful design will be required in any future developments of this nature to ensure the
retention/creation of active and attractive street frontages which are compatible with the fine-
grain of the Town Centre.

Figure: Public and private space.
Legibility A place that has a clear image and is easy to understand. The main entrances to
public and other major buildings should be emphasised through carefully designed streets,
lighting, signage and paving.

G. Context: compatible with existing landforms and natural features, retain, and where
possible enhance important existing urban spaces, townscape, parkland, natural or
historical features; respect the existing layout of buildings within the street space,
integrate into the local community

The design, location and function of buildings can help reinforce the identity of routes
and spaces within the public realm.
Well-designed public spaces such as paths, streets, squares, parks and plazas can help
people find their way around the city and provide informal, civic, or recreational space.
Where there is the opportunity to provide new or improved public spaces as part of a
development scheme, these spaces should be well-designed, connected to pedestrian
routeways and provide for the needs of all users.
The layout and form of new development should enhance the comfort and usefulness of
Kajangs open spaces contribute to the quality of the urban environment. They create the
character which makes Kajang the Green City. These spaces offer the opportunity for recreation
and social interaction. The open spaces perform a variety of functions. They provide for formal
sporting activities; they provide for informal recreation and relaxation; and they provide space
for events and entertainment. The protection and enhancement is vital to make the city a
desirable place to live, work and relax in. This section of the plan deals with recreational open
space. The citys greenways are both an important nature conservation and recreation resource.

Figure: Open spaces parks design
The Structure Plan recommends that local plans should establish open space standards based
upon the National Playing Fields Association (NPFA) minimum standard. This standard requires
the provision of 2.4 hectares of open space per 1,000 populations. Of this 1.6 hectares should be
for sport and 0.8 hectares for childrens.

Figure: Residential open space (top), park design open space (middle), central business district
green open spaces (bottom)

Figure: Man built lake

Figure: Large garden
H. Safety and Security
Security and safety in Kajang shall provide sufficient police stations, police posts, police patrols.
Place the closed-circuit television (CCTV) at the place that always happen crime activities.
Awakened the important of residents cooperation to help people when they are in difficult

Figure: Place CCTV at place crime is frequent occurs.

Figure: Police station Kajang

Figure: Fire station Kajang
CPTED: crime prevention through environmental design. Planning and design must conceive
urban spaces so that they create and encourage a sense of territory, and be aware of which
physical characteristics (such as being open or closed, visible or hidden, light or dark, accessible
or inaccessible, public or private) allow or prevent the opportunity for a criminal act.
Employing these principles in the design or redesign of a public space can contribute to the
safety of that space as part of a comprehensive crime prevention strategy. These principles also
can be applied to multi-unit residential sites, retirement village.
i. Lighting;
To ensure the appropriate placement of lighting to avoid shadows and glare which might
put pedestrians at risk

ii. Natural surveillance and sightlines;

To provide unimpeded sightlines, particularly along pedestrian pathways.
To encourage natural surveillance from surrounding buildings and land uses.
Encourage mixed use developments to facilitate day and night use of public spaces, taking into
account compatible uses and avoiding potentially conflicting uses.

Figure: Land use mix, facilitating casual surveillance
iii. Signage;
To provide adequate, easily legible signage to assist pedestrians, particularly older people
and people with disabilities, to find their way safely.

Figure: Signage

Figure: The signage design suggest for Kajang.
iv. Building design;
To reduce the risk of public buildings contributing to crime or safety problems.
Consider crime reduction measures in the early design stages of public buildings and
ensure that measures are compatible with other design criteria. For example, provide
windows overlooking public areas, avoid locating toilets, service areas and ramps in
isolated areas and avoid designing features that create entrapment spaces.

v. Land use mix;
To create a mix of uses (such as restaurants, businesses and shops which open at night
and after hours) which promote round-the-clock surveillance and are compatible with
neighbouring uses such as residential areasTo create a mix of uses (such as restaurants,
businesses and shops which open at night and after hours) which promote round-the-
clock surveillance and are compatible with neighbouring uses such as residential areas

vi. Management and maintenance.
Promptly repair damage to public spaces to ensure safety for all users and to reduce the
risk of crime. Use imaginative solutions to overcome vandalism problems, such as
wallmurals painted by local street artists and formalising informal pathways subject to

I. Landscape and Biodiversity
Currently Kajang is under development to a bigger town, so the landscape is more to commercial
area. Thus, our suggestion to improve the landscape of Kajang is do not develop the reserved
forests like area in UKM, reforest, plantation in city and do a green landscape in houses.

Nowadays, a rapid development is around us. While in developing, we also ignore the
impacts brought to the environment. Thus, at here our group is emphasizing a green environment
rather than commercial environment. Local authority should not approve any apply from
developer who wish to develop a reserved forest area. This is because forest can reduce the effect
of global warming and also can provide a living area to wild animals.
Other than that, activities replant should be organized and taken part by public. Replant
can recover destroyed forest can get back our green landscape. Below is a poster of a replant

As we known, city is a representation of a developed area. In this developed area is full
of commercial area, buildings. Thus, plantation in city will make a greener landscape in Kajang.

Besides that, residents in Kajang also have to take effort to create a green landscape in Kajang.
Residents can build a garden for those have big yard at home.

With a green landscape sure will have a good biodiversity.
Trees offer many environmental benefits.
Trees reduce the urban heat island effect through evaporative cooling and reducing the
amount of sunlight that reaches parking lots and buildings.
This is especially true in areas with large impervious surfaces, such as parking lots of
stores and industrial complexes.
Trees improve our air quality by filtering harmful dust and pollutants such as ozone,
carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide from the air we breathe.
Trees give off oxygen that we need to breathe.
Trees reduce the amount of storm water runoff, which reduces erosion and pollution in
our waterways and may reduce the effects of flooding. Many species of wildlife depend
on trees for habitat.
Trees provide food, protection, and homes for many birds and mammals.

J. Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally
replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.
Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot
water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
About 16% of global final energy consumption presently comes from renewable
resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4%
from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal,
and biofuels) account for another 3% and are growing rapidly. At the national level, at least 30
nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy
supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the
coming decade and beyond. Wind power, for example, is growing at the rate of 30% annually,
with a worldwide installed capacity of 282,482 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2012.
Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other
energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of
renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate
change mitigation, and economic benefits. In international public opinion surveys there is strong
support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power.

At here, our group suggest that in Kajang city, we can conduct few renewable energy like wind
power, solar power and hydropower. As we know, Malaysia is geographically located at the
equator and we receive sun 12 hours a day. Thus solar power as a renewable energy in our city is
not a big deal.
Local authority had to strictly request developer or any building project to install a solar
system in their building. In the future, all housings will be having a solar system and the usage of
electricity from TNB can be reduced.

On the other hand, we also like to suggest wind power energy to be executed. In Kajang city, still
have many forest and hilly area, so we suggest that we can collect wind energy from there. As
we known, the speed of wind at hilly area is bigger compared to lower level area. Besides that,
the collectors of wind energy also can be built in the middle of city as long as its look like a

And lastly, hydro power also can be conducted in our city since there are few rivers in Kajang.
What we suggest is conducted in small stream because the river in Kajang is not very big.

K. Air Quality
Air quality is very important to us because we could go days without food and hours without
water, but you would last only a few minutes without air. On average, each of us breathes over
3,000 gallons of air each day. We must have air to live.
Air pollution can damage trees, crops, other plants, lakes, and animals. In addition to
damaging the natural environment, air pollution also damages buildings, monuments, and
statues. It not only reduces how far you can see in national parks and cities, it even interferes
with aviation.
Breathing polluted air can make our eyes and nose burn. It can irritate our throat and
make breathing difficult. In fact, pollutants like tiny airborne particles and ground level ozone
can trigger respiratory problems, especially for people with asthma. Asthma sufferers can be
severely affected by air pollution. Air pollution can also aggravate health problems for the
elderly and others with heart or respiratory diseases.

Some toxic chemicals released in the air such as benzene or vinyl chloride are highly
toxic and can cause cancer, birth defects, long term injury to the lungs, as well as brain and nerve
damage. And in some cases, breathing these chemicals can even cause death.
Other pollutants make their way up into the upper atmosphere, causing a thinning of the
protective ozone layer. This has led to changes in the environment and dramatic increases in skin
cancers and cataracts (eye damage).
Air pollution isnt just a threat to our health, it also damages our environment. Toxic air
pollutants and the chemicals that form acid rain and ground-level ozone can damage trees, crops,
wildlife, lakes and other bodies of water. Those pollutants can also harm fish and other aquatic
The health, environmental, and economic impacts of air pollution are significant. Each
day, air pollution causes thousands of illnesses leading to lost days at work and school. Air
pollution also reduces agricultural crop and commercial forest yields by billions of dollars each

Thus, a good planning to get rid of air pollution also is definite in our urban planning. Here is
some ways to improve our air quality, and this needs to get awareness from public and co-
operation from local authorities.
Keep car well-serviced and tyres properly inflated.
This will reduce exhaust emissions, increases fuel efficiency and saves you money.
Only fill the petrol tank to the first click.
This will avoid spillage and reduces the release of petrol fumes into the air.
Switch to unleaded petrol.
This will reduce atmospheric lead levels. Unleaded petrol can be used in some pre-1986
vehicles. Check with the manufacturer.
Drive smoothly
Avoiding excessive acceleration and braking reduces exhaust emissions and helps save
money on petrol.
Combine car trips.
Cold engines produce much more emissions than if the car is already warm, so
combining all of your errands into a longer journey reduces the level of emissions
Carpool with friends or co-workers.
This reduces the number of vehicles on the road and emissions. It also helps save money
by sharing petrol and toll expenses.
Walk or cycle.
This is a cheap, healthy alternative for short trips.
Catch public transport.
By catching the bus, train or ferry once a week you can reduce your contribution to
weekday air pollution by up to 20 per cent.
So from above, the planning can be conducted in urban planning is designing more
convenient and accessible public transport in Kajang, so that public will take public transport
rather than driving a car.

In other way is planting in middle of city. As we known, plants is a cleaner in our environment,
thus planting in city sure can improve air quality and also can build out a green environment.

L. Water Quality and Drainage
Every living thing on earth needs water to survive. Human bodies are made up of more
than 60 percent water. We use clean water to drink, grow crops for food, operate factories, and
for swimming, surfing, fishing and sailing. Water is vitally important to every aspect of our lives.
Monitoring the quality of surface water will help protect our waterways from pollution. Farmers
can use the information to help better manage their land and crops. Our local, state and national
governments use monitoring information to help control pollution levels. We can use this
information to understand exactly how we impact our water supply and to help us understand the
important role we all play in water conservation.
Water quality can be difficult to measure. Water is a vast network of branching rivers,
springs, creeks, swamps, estuaries, wetlands, lakes, bays, etc. Each water body can contain
dramatically different levels of pollution. Water quality issues influence human and
environmental health, so the more we monitor our water the better we will be able to recognize
and prevent contamination problems.
A good water quality will increase our life quality, thus improvement of water quality
and drainage should be executed in Kajang city.
Keep paved surfaces clean
Sweep grass clippings and rake leaves from the street and storm drain. Clean up spilled
fertilizer, oil, and other chemicals and dispose of properly.
Turn downspout onto lawn
Runoff directed down driveway can pick up oil, yard waste, and other debris. Be a good
neighbor and be careful not to redirect the water towards neighbors property or a highly
erodible area.
Reduce fertilizer use
Have soil tested before applying fertilizer to lawn. Excess fertilizer can runoff or leach
from the soil and impacts our lakes, creeks, and wetlands. Using a mulching mower can
be roughly equivalent to one free fertilizer application per year.
Wash vehicles on the lawn
Many soaps and detergents can contain phosphorus or other nutrients which may benefit
lawn but run off readily from paved surfaces where they can negatively impact our water
Capture and infiltrate your runoff
Install a rain garden or rain barrel. Reduce unnecessary impervious surfaces or replace
failing surfaces with pervious pavers to help increase the amount of runoff absorbed into
the ground.

In our opinion, the most important to supply a good water quality is have a good water treatment
plant. As we know, almost all residents are getting water from pipe. And water from pipe is
come after from water treatment plant. The function of water treatment plant is the most
important to supply clean water.

This is a planning to build a treatment plant in a green environment. Besides that, the rainwater
harvesting also can be applied to new housing area or building project. The water from rainwater
is clean enough.

Lastly, we suggest that using underground tunnel as Kajangs drainage system. A good drainage
system can avoid flooding and protect public from danger.

Strategic urban planning is very important in ensuring sustainable utilization of land
available in urban areas. Authorities need to come up with sustainable plans to make use of the
resources available in the highly populated areas. A good urban planning plan can help to
promote development in an area as well as solve some of the problems that face urban areas such
as high population and sanitation problems.
One of the importance of urban planning is to enable correction of mistakes that had
earlier being made in the design of urban areas. Some of these problems include sanitation
problems that have rendered some of the major cities in the world unhealthy for human
occupation. Effective urban planning takes into consideration all the demographic factors in the
area to ensure that the population has access to clean water and other basic necessities of life.
Environmental protection is also one of the reasons why companies offer urban planning
services. It aims at protecting and conserving the natural resources available in the urban areas.
Global warming and environmental degradation has destroyed the environment leading to
reduction of resources that are offered by the environment. Pollution of the environment by the
various human activities such as agricultural projects has led to degradation of the environment.
Hence urban planning aims at minimizing degradation of the environment and sustainable use of
resources available in the urban areas.
Sustainable infrastructure is one of the reasons why most of the urban areas are seeking
the services of urban planning companies. The high rate of increase in population has led to the
need to develop good infrastructure to serve the large population. This helps in easing congestion
in the cities that in most cases causes traffic jams and even rise in the number of accidents per
Health of a population is very important in promoting development and economic
advancements. There is need for urban areas to implement effective plans that aim to make the
urban areas more conducive for human occupation. Urban planning aims at reducing some of the
problems such as pollution that is usually caused by human activities. Air pollution has led to
deterioration of the air quality leading to health complications that are caused by high
concentration of gases in the atmosphere. This can be reduced by putting in place regulations and
effective industrial plans that do not pollute the environment.
Buildings are being erected in urban areas at a very high rate. This has resulted in a
reduction land available for other purposes such as agricultural activities. In the developing
countries, agriculture is the backbone of the economy. Lack of enough space to cultivate can lead
to low production of agricultural products that contribute to the economy. Urban planning helps
to solve this problem by putting in place plans that ensure that land is used in a way that there is
enough land to carry out agricultural activities. Hence urban planning is very important in
development of sustainable urban areas. It can help in promoting development and prevent
occurrence of disaster through implementation of strategic risk management plans in urban