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Nickel and Copper

Introduction:
Copper is derived from the Latin word cuprum, which means
from the island of Cyprus. Copper has been put to use for at least
11,000 years according to archaeologists. Ancient people found copper
in nuggets and masses on the surface of the arth, ad!acent to
streams, in the walls of canyons "Lugas#i, 1$$%, n.p.&. 'hroughout
the years copper has been used to ma#e such things as pots, pans and
even some crowns and headdresses in ancient times. 'he use of
copper spread to Asia where cultures and religions, such as (uddhism
and )induism, used copper in the creation of fantastic inlays,
embossed facades on palaces and temples, and ceremonial vessels
"*ewellery +upplier, 1$$$, n.p.&. ,n recent times copper has been
used to ma#e armour, weapons, bells, and ornaments.
-ic#el.s name comes from the /erman word for the mineral
niccolite "#upfernic#el& which means 0ld -ic#.s copper. A +wedish
Chemist named A1el 2redri# is credited for the discovery of -ic#el in
1%31. ,n today.s world nic#el is obtained from the mineral
pentlandite "'homas *efferson -ational Accelerator 2acility 4 0ffice of
+cience ducation, n.d., n.p.&. 0ntario, Canada is the world.s leading
supplier of nic#el. ,t is mined from the +udbury region where it is
believed that a meteor struc# there along time ago.
Chemical Properties
Copper.s atomic number is 5$ and its chemical symbol is Cu.
Copper.s natural state is a solid. 'he heat of fusion is 16 #* mol4
1, heat of vapori7ation is 608.9 #* mol41, and the heat of
atomi7ation is 66: #* mol41.
-ic#el.s atomic number is
Physical Properties
Copper is a mineral that is both malleable and ductile. 'his
means that it can be bent and shaped, whether hot or cold, without
crac#ing and that it can be drawn out into thin wire. Copper has a
metallic lustre and is opa;ue. Copper has no cleavage it only
fractures. <ure copper is the most efficient conductor of electricity
since it is second only to silver which is too e1pensive for this sort of
use. Copper is also a good conductor of heat that ma#es it useful for
coo#ware, refrigerators, and radiators. ,t is resistant to corrosion=
however, if the air around it is often damp it will eventually become
coded with patina which is a green film that stops all further
corrosion. 'he melting point of copper is 10:6.8 degrees Centigrade
and it boils at 539% degrees Centigrade.
-ic#el has a metallic, lustrous, silvery tinge to it. ,t is a silvery
with metal with a nice polish to it. -ic#el can come in a variety of
forms including foil, powder, fla#es, sheet, wire, mesh, and rods.
-ic#el has a melting point of 1836 degrees centigrade and a boiling
point of 5%65 degrees centigrade. -ic#el is a hard mineral, it is also
ductile, malleable, and is to some e1tent ferromagnetic. -ic#el, li#e
copper, is also a decent conductor of heat and electrical current.
-ic#el is a member of the transitional elements, which is made up of
iron and cobalt metals. ,n some cases nic#el compounds are
considered to be dangerously to1ic or carcinogenic.
<icture of chateau
Conditions in which the mineral/rock will occur
Processes by which the mineral/rock forms and where it occurs
geographically, (use the specific area on the sheet)
ow we use it, how it affects our en!ironment and how it
effects our economy, industrial uses also
"eferences:
2ord, >.. "1$65&. Danas Textbook of Mineralogy "8
th
ed.&.
London? Chapman @ )all.
)unt, Araus @ Bamsdell. "1$69&. Mineralogy "6
rd
ed.&. Cor#? 'he
Daple <ress Company.
*ewellery +upplier. "1$$$&. Betrieved Darch $, 5008, from
http?EEwww.!ewelrysupplier.comE5FcopperEcopperF)istory.htm.
Lugas#i, 'om. "1$$%&. Betrieved Darch 11, 5008, from
http?EEwww.unr.eduEsb508EgeologyEcopper5.html.
Da1well, *ohn A. "1$9:& Rock and Mineral Analysis. 0ttawa?
,nterscience <ublishers.
'homas *efferson -ational Accelerator 2acility 4 0ffice of +cience
ducation. "n.d.&. Betrieved Darch $, 5008 from
http?EEeducation.!lab.orgEitselementalEele05:.html.
>inter, Dar#. "5006&. Nickel. Betrieved Darch 11, 5008, from
http?EEwww.webelements.comEwebelementsEelementsEte1tE-iE#ey.htm
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