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S

TPS
Transaction processing systems
Types of transaction
processing systems

S web-based : Transaction Processing systems which exist on
the web; for example airline booking systems
S non web-based: Transaction Processing systems which are not
on the web for example how many people attend a football
game
S on-line real time- the immediate processing of data an example
of this would be online banking.
S Batch: processing is the collection and storage of data for
processing at a scheduled time or when there is sufficient data
and example of this would be the use of cheques




S
Storing and retrieving
in transaction
processing systems
S
Characteristics of TPS
Rapid response: the turnaround time from the input of a transaction to the pr
oduction of the output must be a few seconds or less. Time is critical.
Reliability: TPS failure rate must be low. Quick & accurate recovery must be
possible due to well designed backup & recovery procedures.
Inflexibility: a TPS wants every transaction to be processed the same way. e
g. commercial airlines accept bookings from a number of travel agents. Their
data must be identical from agent to agent.
controlled processing: TPS processing must support an organisations opera
tions. eg. allocation of roles & responsibilities to particular employees should
be enforced, maintained by the TPS.


Storing and retrieving in
transaction processing
systems

S storage of digital data in databases and files- Digital data can
be stored in a sequential, indexed sequential or a hashed file
structure.
S data backup and recovery, including
S Grandfather, father, and son -is three generations of the kept
files for successive backups.
S Off-site storage - Is used in case of vandalism or a natural
disaster that might destroy the premises and all the files stored
here. It is a location physical separated from the main system.
S Secure on-site storage- generally in a different location or
preferably a different building to the operation files. It refers to a
location that is physically close to the system and gives fast access
to the backup data but requires extra precautions.
S Full and partial backups- Full backups take the longest time to
perform but contain all of the files needed. Partial backups can
either contain a copy of files that contain changes since the last
backup or can contain just small parts of the required backup data.
S Mirroring- creating a copy or mirror image on a different media
form
S Rollback- previously rolling back to the previous known transaction
before the crash or interruption.
S retrieval of stored data to conduct further transaction
processing such as printing invoices- are warehoused
S Sequential data storage are the data records one after the
other in entry or key field order.
S Indexed sequential data storage- are records stored in any
order and with a separate index file.
S Hashed file storage will divide the disk space into numbered
locations with key fields.

S Real time updating-
Is suited to the direct access to the
storage system. This system usually
has hard drives which the business
can rely on. Data entry is updated
onto a daily transaction file and a
master file which are kept online on a
master file.
There is user interface with validation
fields used such as radio buttons and
pull down menus.

S Batch updating
Is suited to the use of sequential
tape-based storage systems. This is
used with paper records, magnetic
tape and punch cards.
Record deletion is required and a
new copy was made onto another
tape.
There may be use of user interface
but its not essential. The storage
system rarely have its own display.
S
Other information
processes in
transaction
processing systems

Collecting in transaction
processing systems
S Hardware - This is more commonly known as the
physical component of the system, e.g. keyboard,
mouse, monitor.
S collection from forms -
involves generating transaction data.
Involves the use of hardware & a variety of paper forms.
S screen design for on-line data collection
S web forms for transaction processing - Real time refers to
transactions that happen immediately (real-time), whilst
batch processing refers to transactions that are not real
time thus are delayed transactions, this is due to the
transaction being built up of many little transactions
batched into a big single transaction.
(real time and batch)

analysing data, in which output from
transaction processing is input to
different types of information systems

S decision support - A set of related computer programs
and the data required to assist with analysis and
decision-making within an organisation.
S management information systems - Management
information system, or MIS, broadly refers to a computer-
based system that provides managers with the tools to
organise, evaluate and efficiently manage departments
within an organisation.

S data warehousing systems (for data mining) - A copy of
transaction data specifically structured for query and
analysis.
S enterprise systems - (ES) are large-scale application
software packages that support business processes,
information flows, reporting, and data analytics in
complex organisations.