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OE Literature
(6th cent. 1066)
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROU! A! THE GER"AIC CO#UEST O$ BRITAI
a. In the 5th, 6th cent. after the decline of the Roman Empire the Jutes, the Saxons, and the
Anles in!aded and settled in "ritain. #he$ came from Scandina!ia %&enmar', (or)a$,
and northern *erman$+.
,. #he -elts, )ho )ere -hristiani.ed ,$ the Romans, had ,een dri!en to remote areas of
/ales, Scotland, and Ireland. 0issionaries came from these places to -hristiani.e the
Anlo1Saxons in the 6
th
cent. %-hristiani.ed in the 2
th
, 8
th
cent. from paan to -hristian+.
c. In the 2
th
and 8
th
cent. Enland )as di!ided into 'indoms3 (orthum,ria, 0ercia, East
Anlia, 4ent, Essex, Sussex, and /essex. #hese 'indoms )ere united, ,ecause of 5i'in
raids, the capital )as /inchester.
%. THE CULTURE& ICLU!IG THE LAGUAGE& A! CI'ILISATIO O$ THE OL!
EGLISH (ERIO!
a. #he 6E dialect ,ecame standardi.ed )ith the /essex dialect 7 4in8s Enlish. #he
/essex dialect )as standardi.ed as the Anlo1Saxon dialect.
,. 9iterature is the mixture of paan and -hristian ,elief.
c. #he /essex dialect had man$ inflections, case endins, con:uations, ender forms... #he
spellin and the pronunciation did not differ.
d. #he main approach in the 6E literature is the alleorical approach 7 metaphors )ere used.
e. #he literature a,ounds in the imaes of e!il/dar'ness !s. oodness/liht 7 "ipolar !ie) 7
order !s. chaos %la)less paan societ$ and -hristianit$+, apocal$ptic !ie).
f. #he literature )as primaril$ oral, later shorter text )ere hammered out in stones
%inscriptions+ 7 rune alpha,et. At the time the first manuscripts appeared.
. #he characteri.ation ,$ the feudal societ$ is reflected in literature.
h. #he social, hierarchical p$ramid3 1. the 'in, ;. !assals, <. su,:ects.
i. Se!eral important features )ere hihl$ !alued3 lo$alt$, courae, heroism, preparedness to
die for 'in and countr$.
:. 0ain literar$ enres3 reliious poetr$ and heroic epic, semi1reliious poetr$, l$rical
%secular+ poetr$, sermons, annals %historical )or's+.
'. =rior to 1>66 the situation )as ,ilinual3 6E !ernacular, 9atin.
l. 0onasteries )ere esta,lished and made centers of cultural acti!ities %/inchester, ?or'+.
). KIG AL$RE! A! HIS LITERAR* (ROGRA""E
a. @e esta,lished the lanuae 7 4in8s Enlish.
,. @e had a proramme of chanin the ,ilinual situation ,$ translatin )or's from 9atin
into 6E and ,rouht man$ people from Europe to )or' on translatin. #he reason )as to
educate people.
c. #hese translations )ere paraphrases 7 not literal ,ut !er$ descriptional. #he oriinal text in
9atin )as :ust a pretext, the translation )as a metatext.
d. Alfred8s first translation )as A=astoral -areB %,$ =ope *reor$+ 7 in the prefix he )rites
a,out the le!el of learnin, a!aila,ilit$ of 6E )or's, and a,out the importance of not onl$
reliious ,ut also non1reliious, secular su,:ects %li,eral education+. @e introduced the
stud$ of li,eral arts %artes li,erales+.
e. @is second translation )as ACni!ersal @istor$B %,$ 6rosius+ 7 it is a historical )or',
enc$clopaedia of texts descri,in the ro)th of -hristianit$ in Enland. #he tendenc$ )as
to record ho) "ritain )as chaned from a paan to a -hristian countr$.
f. #he third translation )as A#he -onsolation of =hilosoph$B %,$ "oethius+ 7 philosoph$ as a
ood su,stitute for man8s existential drama.
. #he fourth translation )as ASt Auustine8s SoliloDuiesB translated as internal monoloues 7
Alfred8s memories.
h. #he fifth translation )as AEcclesiastical @istor$ of the Enlish =eopleB %8
th
cent. ,$ "ede
the 5enera,le+ 7 containin descriptions of historical facts, some also fictional.
; / 8
+. THE $IL" !ISCUSSIO BASE! O KIG AL$RE!,S LI$E AS A "ILITAR*
REA!ER
a. /hen Alfred ,ecame 'in of the /est Saxons in 821, he )as alread$ an experienced
militar$ leader, as he had participated in se!eral campains aainst the in!adin &anes.
#he &anes had ,een present in the "ritish Isles since at least 28E, ,ut until the time of
Alfred the$ had concentrated their efforts on su,:uatin the eastern lands of "ritain.
@o)e!er, in 865 a reat arm$ of &anes hunr$ for land and )ealth mo!ed Duic'l$ throuh
the 'indoms of East Anlia and (orthum,ria. After these t)o 'indoms capitulated and
paid tri,ute to the in!aders, the &anes turned to 0ercia. #here, in 868, the$ met ,oth
0ercians and /est SaxonsF the t)o nations had formed an alliance that had ,een
strenthened that !er$ $ear ,$ the marriae of Alfred and Ealhs)ith, dauhter of a 0ercian
ealdorman. Alfred and his elder ,rother 4in Aethelred personall$ led the /essex
continent, $et not e!en the com,ined forces of the 0ercians and the /est Saxons could
'eep the &anes at ,a$. #he 0ercians, li'e the East Anlians and (orthum,rians, had to
Gma'e peaceG 1 that is, pa$ tri,ute. In 821 AlfredHs ,rother Aethelred died, ma'in Alfred,
last son of 4in Aethel)ulf, the ne) 'in of the /est Saxons. In that $ear as )ell the
&anes turned their attention to AlfredHs 'indom, and for the next four $ears, until 825,
Alfred ,ouht peace for his people ,$ pa$in tri,ute to the &anes. At first the in!aders
seemed satisfied, ,ut in 825 the$ ,ean alterin the terms of the peace. #hat $ear, after
collectin their tri,ute, the &anes did not lea!e /essex as the$ had ,efore, ,ut li!ed there,
peacefull$ ,ut at the expense of the /est Saxons, until 828. #hen, in their desire to
su,:uate completel$ the people of /essex, the &anes )ent on the offensi!e. Alfred fouht
,ac', $et in 0arch of that $ear he and his follo)ers )ere forced into hidin, and the hope
of the /est Saxons )as fadin. "ut that 0a$ Alfred met the &anish force at EdintonF
Gthere he fouht aainst the entire host, and put it to fliht, and pursued it up to the
fortification and laid siee there a fortnihtF and then the host a!e him preliminar$
hostaes and solemn oaths that the$ )ould lea!e his 'indom, and promised him in
addition that their 'in )ould recei!e ,aptismF and the$ fulfilled this promiseG %After the
!ictor$ he allo)ed the &anes to 'eep their conDuests in East Anlia I 0ercia pro!ided that
*uthrum, their 'in, )as con!erted to -hristianit$ 7 AI ,o) $our *ods.B+. Alfred had
defeated the in!adin &anes, forcin them to su,mit to his terms. #he$ su,seDuentl$ left
Alfred and /essex, turnin to the continent for ne) lands to plunder. ?et thouh this
particular force left, &anes still inha,ited "ritainF (orthum,ria, East Anlia, and parts of
0ercia )ere all still under the &anela). Alfred felt constantl$ threatened, and had to fiht
s'irmishes )ith the &anes for man$ $ears. #o help preser!e his hard1earned peace Alfred
de!eloped stroner defenses for his land of /essex. In the southern part of "ritain he
esta,lished se!eral ne) fortified cities, ,etter than the smaller forts, )here reat roups of
people could ather for protection. @e reorani.ed his arm$ so that at an$ one time half of
it )as prepared for )ar. Jinall$, in 886, Alfred too' the initiati!e himself and attac'ed the
&anish1held cit$ of 9ondon in an attempt to diminish the lands ruled under the &anela).
@e succeeded, and for his efforts all the GAnles and Saxons 1 those )ho had formerl$ ,een
scattered e!er$)here and )ere not in capti!it$ )ith the &anes 1 turned )illinl$ to 4in
Alfred and su,mitted themsel!es to his lordshipG. At this point Alfred seems to ha!e come
closest to rihtl$ earnin the title G4in of Enland,G thouh in realit$ he o!erned perhaps
a Duarter of the land no) 'no)n as Enland. In 8E;1< AlfredHs peace )as distur,ed ,$ the
!iolent return of the &anes. #hese in!aders, dri!en off the continent, seemed intent upon
Gthe final conDuest and settlement of EnlandG. @is standin arm$ )as a,le to fiht off the
in!aders )hile the people remained safe in his fortified cities. Alfred also emplo$ed ne)
tacticsF he scouted out the enem$ and destro$ed those at sea usin larer )ar1ships of his
o)n desin. #he &anes )ere th)arted at e!er$ turn, and )ere forced to retreat, unfulfilled,
from the island of "ritain.
< / 8
-. OE (ROSE OTHER THA KIG AL$RE!,S TRASLATIOS
6. OE RELIGIOUS (OETR* (CAE!"O& C*E.UL$)
a. -aedmon )as a mon'. @e )rote a short poem A#he @$mnB to *od. It has nine lines and is
a t$pical reliious poem. It uses ,oth paan and -hristian themes. It cele,rates *od, an
earthl$ lord 7 he8s not a supernatural ,ein ,ut a paan hero. In the h$mn a narrator is the
poet himself and is as'ed to compose a son. @e oes to the sta,le to et an inspiration. @e
ets a !ision a,out *od and returns and tells the poem of randeur.
,. -aedmun is also said to ,e the author of A*enesisB
c. -$ne)ulf )as also a mon', ,etter in techniDue than -aedmon. @is reliious poems are
preser!ed in runes on parchment paper. @e )rote "i,lical paraphrases, paraphrased stories
from the "i,le i.e. A#he AscensionB, A#he Jate of the ApostlesB, AEleneB,... #hus also
)omen are ,rouht into literature. @e ma'es references to the classical, Ancient tradition.
@is poems are complex, meditati!e, and philosophical.
/. THE !REA" O$ THE ROO!
a. #he rood stands for the cross. #his poem is of a ne) enre 7 a dream !ision enre. In this
enre, there8s al)a$s the spea'er8s dream. #he poem is di!ided into < parts3
1 the spea'er has a dream, spea's a,out it. #he personified cross tal's a,out
itself from the time it )as a tree and a,out carr$in Jesus.
1 the cross addresses the spea'er, ures him to o around the )orld to spread
the cult of the cross.
1 the spea'er )a'es up and decides to follo) the dream.
#he cross ,ecomes an icon, a reliious s$m,ol, an icon not necessaril$ connected to
-hristianit$ ,ut as an instrument of findin the meanin of man8s life.
0. THE .A!ERER & THE SEA$ARER (1e2i3re4i5i6u1 76e21)
a. #@E /A(&ERER %an existential, secular poem+ 1 #he feudal lord descri,es his sufferin
)hen he )anders the )orld )ithout aim. @e suffers ,ecause he8s )ithout his 'in. @e is
not a ,elie!er in *od. @e totall$ accepts his fate )ithout desire to chane it. @e feels
lonel$, isolated. @e has to tra!el throuh cold, ,ad )eather.
,. #@E SEAJARER 7 a lon description of life on the sea contrasts the life of the seaman to
someone on the land. An important feature is the spirit of ad!entures, )hich are
s$m,olical. #he seafarer descri,es his life ,ac' in the mainland he doesn8t li'e.
c. #hemes in common3 1 exile %forced, !oluntar$+
1 isolation %ps$chical !s. ph$sical+
1 last sur!i!or
1 transience
1 stoicism, faith
8. OE O3RELIGIOUS& SECULAR (OETR*
a. A/idsithB 7 spea'in a,out ro)th in societ$. It8s important to praise ood and critici.e
,ad 'ins, preser!e the heroic deeds of a nation. =oems are important for transmittin
'no)lede from one eneration to another.
,. A#he Ruin and the RiddlesB 7 apocal$ptic attitude.
c. A#he /ife8s 9amentB K A#he @us,ands 0essaeB 7 she complains a,out her life in
marriae and her role in societ$ 7 a de,ate %the sons are complementar$+.
d. A#he /hale and JenixB 7 the$ represent icons representin transcendence %spiritual
presence in nature+. (ature is s$m,oli.ed in animals.
e. Eleies 7 to a 'ind )ho died, the$ examine the purpose of man8s lifeF stoc' metaphor Athe
sparro) flihtB
L / 8
10. OE HEROIC 'ERSE& TRA!ITIO
a. #he hero is the main protaonist.
,. #he epic tends to ,e !er$ narrati!e and lon, there are man$ e!ents
c. #he Scandina!ian tri,es ,rouht alliteration to Enland %an alliteratin sound 7 a sta!e+
d. #he ,asic unit )as a relati!el$ short !erse consistin of !ar$in num,er of s$lla,les at least
one of )hich )as accented. #he accents )ere rammatical. #he t$pical 6E !erse consisted
of t)o half1lines called heme stiches %half lines )ith a caesura+. #he first part )as called
the 6(1!erse, the second the 6JJ1!erse. #he$ )ere lin'ed toether ,$ the alliteration.
e. @eitis )ere used as su,stitutions of one noun for another. Instead of sa$in the spear,
the$8d sa$ )ood or ashes.
f. 4ennins are the descripti!e compounds of the heroic !erse.
11. BEO.UL$ STRUCTURE& RE$ERECE TO THE SOCIAL COTE9T& CRITICAL
A((ROACHES& ST*LISTIC !E'ICES& I"AGER*
a. Structure3 1 a lon narrati!e poem
1 <>>> lines of !erse rouped into L< AfitsB
1 ; different parts %se!eral authorsM+
,. Reference3 1 #he external daner is o,:ecti!i.ed in the monster *rendel. It
o,:ecti!i.es the internal )ea'ness of the &anish societ$. #he reasons
for destruction are ina,ilit$ to preser!e t$pical feudal relationships,
a,sence of lo$alt$ ,et)een &anes is present.
c. -ritics3 1 &escri,in !alues i.e. courae, lo$alt$, fame throuh heroic deeds,
no,ilit$, enealo$.
1 a strule ,et)een the forces of oodness !s. e!il 7 imaes of liht
!s. dar'ness.
1 clash ,et)een chaos and reason
1 "eo)ulf is a paan hero
d. St$listic de!ices3 1 the sea is referred to as the path of )hales, a couh of )a!es
1 !ariation in the description repeats the information from the
first line in the second line, ,ut no su,stantial information is
added 7 'ennin %seaoer, rin1dispenser+. 4ennins )ere
addin ne), sinificant information
1 understatement, a description of a person, o,:ect ,$ statin its
neati!e, opposite, )as freDuentl$ used.
e. Imaer$3 1 exchane of liht I dar'ness
1 thesis I antithesis
1 some e!ents, names trul$ existed
1 the elements of doom, destin$
1 the daner does not lie in the external realit$ ,ut also in the unit$ of
the 'indom.
f. #hemes3 1 ood 'in
1 oodness pre!ails
1 ,lood relationship %fratricide, patricide+
1 re!ene, compensation
1 transience of life %-hristian addition+ 7 do ood in this )orld and
$ou8ll ,e repaid.
"E Literature
5 / 8
(1066 1+0-)
1. THE OR"A CO#UEST (LAGUAGE& LITERATURE !E'ELEO("ET)
a. #he (ormans in!aded and conDuered "ritain %the$ )ere the aristocrac$+.
,. A radual disappearance of the 6E lanuae.
c. 1>N of the population )as the (ormans, )ho spo'e a particular (orman1Jrench dialect.
d. "ilinual, ,icultural situation 7 amalamation of the t)o in the 1;
th
cent.
e. #he (ormans )ere the superstratum, the Anlo1Saxons )ere the stratum.
f. Enlish esta,lished itself as a national lanuae and )as reatl$ enriched 7 there )ere
man$ )ords ta'en from Jrench. "ecause of reat difficulties the (ormans simplified the
lanuae, rammar, !oca,ular$, pronunciation.
. #he Jrench influences also resulted in ne) literar$ themes 7 no loner heroic reliious
themes ,ut medie!al themes i.e. courtl$ lo!e, chi!alr$, the -hurch.
h. Enland ,ecame part of the European tradition.
i. #he ne) Enlish a,sor,ed not onl$ Jrench ,ut also other Roman lanuae features...
:. 5 dialects3 (orthum,rian, Eastmidland %9ondon+, /estmindland, Southern 4entish,
(orthern.
'. -anter,ur$ ,ecomes the ne) monastic centre.
%. THE BEE!ICTIE RE'I'AL (.UL$STA)
a. Soon after the (orman -onDuest, the "enedictines tried to preser!e the 6E tradition.
,. #he re!i!al lasted onl$ a short time.
c. #he feudal s$stem )as ,rouht to perfection.
). EURO(EA I$LUECES O "E LITERATURE
a. #he literature seemed to reflect the dilemma ,et)een personal feelins and social demands.
#his clash is often the theme of literar$ )or's of that period.
,. Alliterati!e line )as replaced ,$ s$lla,ic lines %accentual+.
c. Alleorical presentation ,ecomes the main presentation of realit$.
d. #he ideal trades of a 'niht3 1 courtes$
1 enerosit$
1 courae
1 lo$alt$
1 piet$
e. "ecause of the -rusades 'nihts ,ecame reed$, materialistic, and !iolent 7 chi!alr$ ideal
)as in decline.
f. #he literature )as multilinual 7 Jrench, 0iddle Enlish, 9atin.
+. "E SCHOLARSHI(
a. In the @ih 0iddle Aes learnin de!eloped and )as orani.ed into t)o parts in
uni!ersities3 1 tri!ium %rammar, rhetoric, loic+
1 Duadrium %astronom$, music, arithmetic, eometr$+
,. /hat )as of sole importance )as ho) thins )ere presented not their actual content.
c. All the < su,:ects contri,uted to articulation and presentation.
d. 9iterar$ oriinalit$ )as of minor importance, since prescri,ed rules of expression had to ,e
follo)ed.
e. E!er$thin depended on the art of communication and on the relationship ,et)een the
reader and the )riter.
f. #he )riter )as a)are of the taret audience.
. Scholastic matters )ere internationali.ed.
6 / 8
-. COURTL* LO'E A! ITS I$LUECE (RO"ATIC LO'E)
a. #he influence came from the southern Jrance and Ital$ %"occaccio, &ante+
,. #his ideal )as ,ased on a t)o1fold concept3
1 #he medie!al 'niht had to ,e couraeous, a,le to pro!e himself in lo!e,
ainin a )oman ,$ o,e$in her. #his attitude )as an ideali.ation. @e )as
in a !assal position.
1 -onsummation and sensualit$. Adulter$ )as permitted. i.e. *uene!er K
9ancelot !s. Arthur
c. *eoffre$ -haucer )as the ,est author )ho used courtl$ lo!e in Enlish literature. @e is
!er$ ironical and critical a,out this concept. @e added that this lo!e is also destructi!e.
d. In 5ictorian period courtl$ lo!e )as tri!iali.ed and made fun of.
e. -ourtl$ lo!e postulated lo!e as the main principle and the main aim. It reDuired discretion.
f. 0arriaes )ere prearraned, there )as no freedom for true feelins and the adulter$ )as
allo)ed. =rocreation )as seen as the main o,:ecti!e.
. #his concept found the ,est expression in3 1 complaints
1 da)n sons
1 sons
h. #here )ere prescri,ed )a$s of descri,in lo!e %codification+1 Andreas -apellanus 7 #he
Art of 9o!in
6. "E LITERAR* : CRITICAL ITER(RETATIO A! THE TECHI#UES O$
.RITIG
a. It )as usuall$ carried out on < le!els3 1 littera 7 literal le!el
1 sensus 7 no metaphirs %meanin+
1 sententia 7 s$m,olic, metaphorical
interpretation %sentence+
,. Jrench and 9atin authors 6!id, @orace, -icero,5eril,... affected the techniDues of )ritin.
c. Rhetorical aspects are hihl$ !alued.
d. Arranin the material )as of hih importance. #he author )ith a reat deal of authorit$
%auctoritee+ )as hihl$ !alued.
e. /riters )ere limited in their treatment of certain su,:ect or theme. #he$ had to follo) the
rules. #he$ had to use ps$choloicall$ credi,le characters, ,ut the plot and its oriinalit$
)ere of minor importance.
f. #he stor$ could ,e ,eun in t)o )a$s3 1 a natural )a$ %chronoloical order+
1 an artificial )a$ %sophisticated+
. A text could ,ein )ith a pro!er, or exemplum, )ith a fa,le, Ain medias resB, or a
flash,ac' could ,e used.
h. #he material could ,e arraned in t)o )a$s3 1 amplification %a comparison,
apostrophe, diression, lon
description %leapin1and1linerin
narration+
1 a,,re!iation
2. 0E LITERAR* GERES
a. A dream !ision 7 %Roman de la Rose+ 7 #he narrator ,eins the stor$ ,$ complainin a,out
his a,ilit$ to sleep. Ina,ilit$ to sleep is the frame)or' of the stor$. #hen he falls asleep and
)a'es up in a dream and has a !ision. It usuall$ ta'es place in sprin a arden. #here the
narrator is ta'en ,$ a uide to a place )here se!eral people are in!ol!ed in a de,ate. #hen
the narrator )a'es up and recalls his dream !ision, de,ates a,out it and tra!els into the
)orld to tell others a,out it. It can ,e of reliious and secular nature.
,. A de,ate 7 an exchane of !ie)s ,et)een t)o people, animals, or !oices %soul I ,od$+ 7
#he 6)l and the (ihtinale.
c. A ,east fa,le 7 ta'en from an animal )orld and modelled on Aesop8s animal fa,les
%applied to a human )orld+. Ja,liaux )ere !er$ humorous, satirical.
d. A ,allad 7 a lon narrati!e poem usin refrains, dialoues, !ernacular lanuae.
2 / 8
e. An exemplum 7 a short tale pointin to a certain moral or illustratin a certain doctrine.
f. A la$ 7 a short narrati!e poem %a contrast to a ,allad+.
. A chronicle 7 containin historical facts, can also ,e fictional.
h. #he life of a saint 7 the life of a man/ )oman )ho later ,ecame a saint is descri,ed.
i. A romance 7 oriinall$ meant onl$ )or's )ritten in Jrench, ,ut later in all Roman
lanuaes. It )as later applied to a medie!al stor$ descri,in the deeds of 'nihts.
0. RO"ACE A! ITS !E'ELO("ET
a. It dealt )ith the deeds of 'nihts.
,. It )as an aristocratic literar$ enre.
c. #he plot )as !er$ important, ,ecause the ideals of the 'nihthood )ere expressed in it.
d. /ith the decline of 0E !alues romances descri,ed the decline of these !alues and of
'nihtl$ moralit$.
e. It )as called an escapist literature of the period.
f. #he romance features an ideal 'niht )ho sho)s his courae in the ,attles )ith
supernatural ,eins as )ell as natural soldiers %a mixture of natural and supernatural
elements+.
. #he courae of an ideal 'niht is tested in spiritual and ph$sical )a$.
h. Jrom toda$8s point of !ie) romances )ere exaerated and romantic.
i. Romances ,$ -hrOtien de #ro$es dealt )ith the m$thical 'in Arthur and expressed the
ideals of Jrench chi!alr$.
:. Jean "odel di!ided all romances into three su,:ect1matters3
1 the matter of Jrance3 Jrench 'in -harles the *reat and his 'nihts
%Roland+
1 the matter of "ritain3 'in Arthur and his 'nihts of the Round #a,le K non1
Arthurian romance %4in @orn, @a!eloc'+
1 the matter of Rome3 Julius -aesar, Alexander the *reatF Rome, #he,es,
#ro$
8. THE ARTHURIA RO"ACE (THE STA;AIC A! THE ALLITERATI'E
'ERSIO& THO"AS "ALOR*)
a. /e ha!e 4in Arthur, his 'nihts, his )ife *uene!ere, 0erlin li!in in A!alon.
,. #he first romance a,out 4in Arthur )as )ritten ,$ Ro,ert /ace of Jerse$ 7 Roman de
"rut, later translated ,$ 9a$amon 7 A"rutB. It )as )ritten in an alliterati!e !erse.
c. #he alliterati!e !ersion of the romance is called 0orte Arthure %1L
th
cent.+. It consists of 6
parts. In this !ersion a stron patriotic feelin is expressed. Alfred is descri,ed as arroant,
couraeous, and thirst$ for ,lood. @e dies in the end ,ecause of his nephe) 0ordred8s
treason. @e is ,uried in /inchester. #he main pro,lems of his 'indom )ere the d$nastic
strules.
d. #he stan.aic !ersion is )ritten in stan.as consistin of 8 lines %t$pical of Jrench romance+
and is entitled 0orte Arthur. #his !ersion is more compressed, ,ecause it is a reminiscent
of a ,allad %the leapin1and1linerin narration+. 4nihts are not lo$al to their 'in.
e. Sir #homas 0alor$ )rote the most important )or' on Arthurian romance 9e 0orte
&8Arthur in 1L2>. It )as pu,lished ,$ /illiam -axton )ho also added his o)n preface.
#his )as an extensi!e !ersion of an Arthurian romance. 0alor$ considered the stor$ more
important than the structure or the ,ac'round. #he stor$ consists of 8 parts and throuhout
the stress is on courtl$ lo!e ,et)een *uene!ere and 9ancelot.
10. COURTL* O'ELS
11. SIR GA.AI A! THE GREE KIGHT (1tructure& inter7retati6n1)
a. #his romance is )ritten in the ne), de!eloped alliterati!e !erse, ,ut not in the 6E
alliterati!e line. #he alliterati!e re!i!al )as reatl$ influenced ,$ the Jrench poetr$ and
!ersification 7 e!er$ line contained one thouht. #here is also no caesura. #his romance is
,ased on a -eltic leend, namel$ the sacrifice of )inter to assure the return of sprin. #he
sacrifice is ained throuh the ,eheadin of the *reen 4niht, a supernatural creature,
)hose miraculous appearance in the castle represents a challene to the 4nihts of the
8 / 8
Round #a,le. #he romance consists of t)o plots, #he "eheadin *ame and #he
temptations of the 9ad$.It is )ritten in the tradition of courtl$ lo!e, cele,ratin chi!alr$,
truth, lo$alt$, piet$, sexual chastit$, restrain. #he frame )or' techniDues is used toether
)ith man$ Arthurian elements, characters. Also supernatural elements are present. Animals
ha!e a s$m,olic !alue. #here are also man$ dramatic scenes i.e. lo!e scenes etc.
1%. GEO$$RE* CHAUCER (I$LUECES& "AI .ORKS& THE CATERBUR* TALES&
THE GEERAL (ROLOGUE)
a. @is lanuae esta,lished the 9ondon dialect as a linuistic norm 7 0odern Enlish.
,. @e )as a diplomat, tra!eller, courtier, translator, and poet.
c. @e emplo$ed the frame)or' of a dream1!ision.
d. @e translated the alleorical )or' #he Romaunt of the Rose.
e. @e )rote3 1 #he "oo' of the &uchess.
1 #he @ouse of Jame, ,ased on classical m$tholo$.
1 #he =arlement of Jouls %a dream1!ision+ 7 criticism of the concept of
courtl$ lo!e.
1 #he -anter,ur$ #ales %1<8811L>>+.
1 #he siee of #ro$, #roilus and -rise$de.
f. @e )as influenced ,$ an earlier medie!al philosopher "oethius 7 -onsolation of
=hilosoph$.
. #he -anter,ur$ #ales consist of ;L tales in !arious enres. #he$ are introduced ,$ #he
*eneral =roloue 7 pilrimae 1 a competition in tale tellin. Some important tales are
A#he 4niht8s #aleB, A#he /ife of "ath8s #aleB,... @e uses realistic descriptions,
concentrates on details. =ilrims are the stereot$pes. @e uses satire and iron$.