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Travel and Tourism

What is tourism?
Tourism is temporary movement of people to destinations outside where they normally live
and work and their activites during their stay at these destinations
What are tourists?
International : people from overseas
Domestic : people from your own country
What is the travel and tourism industry ?
It is the whole mix of businesses and agencies that work together to serve the needs of
people who travel
What is a destination?
It is the places where a !ourney finally ends
Types of tourists
1- Leisure
2-Visiting friends and relatives (VFR)
4-Business (MI!)"
- Meetings
- !$%i&itions
"usiness tourism
' (%ese #an &e %eld in a variet) of venues *%i#% in#lude"-
+urpose &uilt #onferen#e #entres
,otel fa#ilities
Sports venues
ivi# &uildings
Statel) %o-es
.niversit) and a#ade-i# institution fa#ilities/
0%at #an &e done to encourage business tourists1
' (%e #%oi#e of pla#e appropriate to t%e event
' 2ffer pro-otional leaflets3 &ro#%ures
' Range of a##o--odation
' (ransport transfer (to -a4e -oving around destination easier)
' 5udio-visual and stage
' 5rrange so#ial and partners progra--es to ensure visitors en6o) t%e
destination and *ill *ant to return
#ethods of transport"
5ir (ransport
' S#%eduled flig%ts
' %arter flig%ts
' Lo* #ost airlines
0ater (ransport
' ruise s%ips
' Ferr)
Rail transport"
' 0it%in and &et*een #ountries
' !urostar #arries -ore passengers &et*een London and +aris t%an all t%e
airlines put toget%er
' +opular *it% independent travellers
' +er#eived to &e %assle free
' ,otel
' Motel
' 7uest%ouse
' ,ostel
' ,olida) village or #a-p
' ,olida) %o-e
' Visitor8s apart-ent
' Bed and Brea4fast
%atural attractions
' Mountains
' Forests
' oastline
' La4es
' 0ater*a)s
' Lands#ape features
"uilt $ttractions
' (%e-e par4s
' Museu-s
' ,eritage #entres
' Sports fa#ilities
' Fa-il) entertain-ent #entres
' ine-as
' ultural attra#tions
' 5ni-al par4s
' ,istori# #entres
S%opping #entres
What can b used as a driving force to the development of a
' Sports stadiu-s
' (%eatres
' Museu-s
Travel agencies a#t as 9prin#iples8 for t%e suppliers of travel and touris-
industries produ#ts/
1 5irlines
2 Rail #o-panies
3 ,otels
4 (our operators
: ar %ire #o-panies
; urren#) suppliers
< Insuran#e
= (ravel &oo4s
,o* -an) t)pes of Travel agents?
(%ere are t*o t)pes"-
a/ Multiples//////#%ains in various to*ns and #ities and so-eti-es t%e) are
!/g/ (%o-as oo4/
&/ Miniples/////t%ese are independent agents> t%e) are not part of a national
#%ain> t%e) are a fe* s%ops in a spe#ifi# area/
Tour operators
' (%e) are seen as produ#t &uilders
' (%e) offer a #o-plete pa#4age of flig%t> transfer and a##o--odation as an all
in#lusive pri#e/
' (%e) are designed to attra#t spe#ifi# target -ar4et
' (%e travel agents are t%e one *%o sell t%eir produ#t/
(our operators in order to stay in business and remain profitable it is
i-portant t%at t%e) do t%e follo*ing"
' Identif) #usto-ers needs and e$pe#tations
' Meet t%e #usto-ers needs and e$pe#tations
' 5sse-&le produ#ts a##ording to #usto-er re?uire-ents/
' Redu#e pri#es &) negotiating and pur#%asing touris- produ#ts in &ul4
' Monitor t%e ?ualit) of produ#ts
' Redu#e t%e ris4s for #onsu-ers
' +rovide appropriate infor-ation &) using leaflets> -aps> &ro#%ures> videos et#
' @o pre and post e$perien#e -ar4et resear#%
' +ro-otion of parti#ular produ#ts and pa#4ages
' o-plaint %andling for &ot% #usto-ers and industr) providers
What do the governments do in forming tourism policy and
(%eir ai-s and o&6e#tives are"
' !-plo)-ent #reation /
' In#reasing foreign #urren#) earnings
' Bringing in tourists to spend -one) lo#all)
' !#ono-i# develop-ent /
' @evelop t%e infrastru#ture /
' I-prove t%e lo#al area and #onditions for t%e lo#al people/
' +ro-oting understanding &et*een #ultures of tourists and t%ose of t%e lo#als
' I-proving ?ualit) of life for t%e lo#al population
' Revival ABCDE of traditional a#tivities
' Festivals and #ere-onies to #ele&rate #ulture and develop a 9sense of pride8
to one8s o*n nation and identit)
' Regeneration FGFHI and #onservation of t%e &uilt and natural environ-ent
' !nviron-ental i-prove-ents of &enefit to t%e lo#al people as *ell as t%e
' onsu-er prote#tion la*s and rules
' Fire safet) la*s in %otels
' ,ealt% and food safet) regulations
' o-peten#) standards for &us and &oat operators
' !nviron-ental prote#tion regulations
' International aviation and air travel regulation
&ow can travel and tourism create !obs?
@ire#tl) t%roug%"
' ,otels
' Restaurants
' Jig%t#lu&s
' (a$is
' Souvenir sales
Indire#tl) t%roug%"
Suppl) of goods and servi#es to t%e tourist related &usinesses
What are the 'ositive (conomic impact of tourism?
)- provide !obs
*- stimulate investment +,-./01
2- reduce poverty
3- create foreign currency
4- create employment
5- locals sell goods to the tourists
What are the %egative (conomic impact of tourism?
)- the rich countries benefit from tourism more than the poor countries
*- 678 of money comes from package tours goes to the hotels9 airlines and not to the
2- tourism development cost the government a lot of money9 this might reduce the
government investment in health and education
3- increase prices of goods 9 land and buildings
4- countries which depend on tourism for its economy might face economic crisis if tourism
was negatively affected by recession or natural disasters
5- large amount of money from tourism might leave again through leakage
What is import leakage?
Import leakage: the government has to import things for tourists costing a lot of money
What is (xport leakage?
(xport leakage: international companies invest on tourism goes take the profit back to their
What are the 'ositive environmental impact of tourism?
)- environmental protection
*- wildlife protection
What are the %egative environmental impact of tourism?
)- air pollution
*- noise pollution
2- land pollution
3- see pollution
4- endangered species
What are the 'ositive socio-cultural impact of tourism?
)- create pride in traditions
*- bring higher standard of livings
2- bring improvement to the infrastructure9 transport9 health services and recreational
3- bring historical preservation :;<,=->1
What are the %egative socio-cultural impact of tourism?
)- globali?ation : tourists look for well known hotels and food brands
*- erosion @A,B of traditions as some locals imitate CDEF tourist behavior
2- culture clash9 some tourists fail to respect locals customs and traditions
3- crimes like robbery :GH0 and drug dealing
Why does any government develop tourism?
)- to create employment
*- to increase the income
2- to develop the economy
3- to increase foreign currency
4- to improve the image of the country
What does the tourist information center provide?
)- road maps
*- information regarding shopping9 recreation places
2- information regarding making business
3- public transport schedule
4- leaflets
5- brochures
I- guide books
6-Theater booking
J-Kuided sightseeing tours
)7-Louvenirs :F+,AMB ,F1CN
What can a country do to develop its tourism? Kive example
DubaiOs location in the crossroad of the 2 continents P$frica9 $sia9 (uropeQ made it very
accessible location
Dubai is a duty free R+,-S>1
Dubai is an important trading and business center
Dubai new development attracted the attention of the tourism world
DubaiOs constant innovations keeps it in the news
What are the different weather conditions in different regions?
(Tuatorial countries are P"ra?ilQ : hot9 humid all year
Tropical countries are P$frican LavannahQ: no cold season9 heavy rains in summer
Tropical monsoon PIndiaQ : no cold season9 very little rain
Warm temperate P#editerraneanQ: hot summer9 cool winter
Uool temperate PVL$Q: hot summer9 cold winter
$rctic PLcandinavianQ: harsh cold winter with snow9 cool summer with rain
'olar PKreenlandQ: snow and ice all year
What are the environmental Wisks a tourist might encounter?
Tropical storm Phurricane9 typhoonsQ
#onsoon rains
#onsoon winds
Xery dry summers causes bush fires
What are the measures to be taken if the destination is perishable RYZD> [\H] ?
)- constructing hard wearing paths
*- repairing minor damages
2- fertili?ing and reseeding
3- fencing
'erishability is not only to the environment it can also be to the historical places
What are the factors the influence the decision to travel?
'ast family holidays
#ass media
Work trips
What are the factors which limit destination choice?
(mployment status
%umber of children
$mount of free time
&ealth status
Uost of transport
What makes a tourist attracted to any place?
- the weather of the area
- scenery and landscape
- historical attractions
- indoor and outdoor activities
- accommodations
- events and festivals
- food_drinks
- entertainment places
What are the different types of Tourist attractions?
$ttractions are :
#anmade attractions
%atural attractions
&istorical attractions
^amily fun attraction
Theme parks
Lea life centers
^eed the animals 9 walk amongst the bats
Lpecial offers such as aids Ko ^ree 9 passport tickets
What are the factors which influence the popularity of a destination?
- cost of accommodation
- cost of transport
- costs at destination
- crime and social problems
- terrorism
- natural disasters
- positive or negative tourism management
- political instability

What is Uultural tourism?
To visit
- ^estivals
- &istoric sites and monuments
- #useums and galleries
- Weligious events
- $rt display
#ountain tourism:
Weasons for attraction:
- the climate and the clean air
- the beauty of the view PsceneryQ
- simple lifestyle
- the opportunity to practice sports that reTuire slops and winter snow
Waterfall tourism:
(g: Xictoria falls9 %iagara ^alls
$dvantages :
- outdoor leisure activities
- view pleasure
Uave tourism
Xolcano tourism
Uustomer service
What are the important things in customer service?
What does Uustomer service provides ?
- information
- giving advice
- providing assistance
- dealing with problems
- dealing with dissatisfied customer
- offering extra services
Why is customer service important?
-The welcome the tourists receive when they arrive and the Tuality of the service they
experience during their stay strongly influence the memories they take away with them
- Without appropriate customer service 9 many businesses would have ceased to exist
- With customer service 9 customers will feel satisfied so that they will want to return
What are the Uustomer services standards?
- $lways treat the customer in a nice and helpful way
- Kood appearance
- Weceptionists must wear name badges and are encouraged to smile and use the guestOs
name whenever possible
- Telephones should be answered before the third ring with a greeting followed by the name
of the department
- (nsure eTuipments and supplies used are updated and in good order
What is the importance of good training and good team work?
- it will improve productivity b,/cd1
- it will improve the Tuality of the products and services
- it will spread ideas
What does &otels give as !ob opportunities ?
- front office P reception9 reservation 9 guest relations Q
- kitchen
- engineering
- Tuality department
- human resources
What are the Tualities of staff in the customer service or in a restaurant should have ?
- personal presentation
- social skills
- tolerance
- telephone skills
- all necessary paperwork
- good personal skill is very important
- ItOs important that the customer is not offended by the personOs appearance so the mode
of dress and the physical appearance should match the nature of the work
- front line members of staff must have interpersonal skills
What the things that should be included in The registration record ? :
- name and surname of the guest
- telephone number
- address
- passport number
- credit card details
- Kuest signature
- any special reTuests

&ow to handle problems?
- it is important to listen carefully to the customer
- one should listen carefully and keep an open mind
- staff should apologi?e for the inconvenience
- the guest should know that the matter will be fully investigated and put right
- staff should see the problem from the guest point of view
- staff should never argue with the customer
- If the staff canOt find a solution of the problem the issue should be referred to the manager
or the supervisor
- it is always important that the customer agree with the solution
- it is vital that to make sure that what has been promised actually gets done
&ow To achieve good customer service?
- always smile and greet the guests before they greet you
- a guest reTuest will never be no
- treat all colleagues a with respect
What are the Tualities of receptionists Ltaff working in highly visible !ob role like9
- Kive a good first impression is important
- the ability to speak a foreign language
- good administrative skills
- &ave friendly and polite manner
- smart
- have responsible attitude
- be observant
- willing to help people
- confident in dealing with any challenging behavior from the customers
- uniforms are provided and should be clean and freshly pressed
- no visible tattoo or piercing
- do not use excessive perfume
- hair should be clean and well kept all the times and no extreme styling
&ow Uommunication can be affect the customer service?
- language problems : such as accent
- cultural differences : words can have different meaning in different cultures
- complexity : if the message is too long or too technical
When communicating one should use the appropriate language 9 pitch and tone of voice 9
pauses and silences
What at the Vses of IUT in travel and tourism industry?
- websites are important because it allows online booking and acts as a marketing tool
- Database aids in marketing
- computer ^inance system helps in payments
What information should be made clear to the customer in a hotel?
- information about unacceptable types of payment
- information about any fees charged for the credit cards
- information about deposits if reTuired
- advanced warning if restaurant is to be closed
- the prices for accommodations 9 meals9 serving charges9 taxes should all be clear
- clear explanation for charges for additional services
What are the fualities or characteristics of an employee involved in the
selling of a product or service?

- enthusiasmg,-h 9 honesty9 intelligence 9 friendliness
- knowledge of the product
- good !udgment
- effective communication
- well spoken 9the use of good grammar9 vocabulary
Why do people refrain from buying a product?
- Too expensive for them 9 however many can afford it but still donOt buy it because they are
not sure of its advantages
-They may be short of information so customer service should provide as much information
as reTuired Lo being knowledgeable about the product is very important
What is a "rochure?
- a map is included to give the location of the destination
- a table of what the weather conditions will be like
- photographs showing the natural and built environment
- brief details of the local places of interest and attractions
What is a ieaflet?
-They are mini brochures to advertise for a particular product or service
- they are designed to attract the eye
- they provide basic details about the service or the product like the pricing9 timings and
contact details
&ow can we adverti?e a product?
- newspaper
- direct mail
- TX
- radio
- local and national press
- budget will affect the choice of the ad
&ow can Internet help in the tourism:
- should have a well designed and well maintained website
- the website should be attractive 9 informative and Tuick to download
- accurate details 9 brochures9 timetables9 photos and graphs
- should be updated regularly
- subscription for email newsletter
- information in different language
- special offers and packages
Window display:
- should be full of promotional offers
- the signs should be large and in bold colors to attract the attention of people walking by
&ow to announce about any service?
&ow can the &otel guests will be made aware of the buffet or any service?
- in-room TX advertisement
- in-room newsletter
- notice in the reception
- notice at the restaurant entrance
- from the restaurant staff
- inserted in the menu
- table advertisement
What are the component of any package ?
$ package should include at least * of these components :
)- transport
*- accommodation
2- other tourist services like car rental 9 recreational services such as entrance tickets to a
ma!or park like Disneyland
What is an Independent product PpackageQ?
- $ll the components of a holiday bought separately and directly from the provider Pusually
through the internetQ without a travel agent
- Independent travelers take advantage of flights with low costs and seek the best prices of
accommodation They choose the restaurant and the visitor attraction by themselves
What is an $ll inclusive package?
-It is a package in which flights 9 transfers 9 accommodations 9 meals and unlimited drinks 9
snacks and activities such as kids clubs
-Uruise holidays usually are all inclusive
What are the $ncillary services? :j<,\k l,mCn
#eans any additional services offered by the tourism provider beyond the main service
(xamples of additional services :
- travel insurance
- foreign currency exchange
- sightseeing tours
- car rental
- $irport transfer
- passport and visa information
- rail tickets
- hotel bookings
- tickets to entertainment and recreational places
- guide books and guiding sevices
Who is the Tour Kuide and what services they can offer? oh,jp>1 CqH->1
- $ guide is someone with experience 9 training and local knowledge of the area
- $ guide offers information about the nature 9 the history 9 the customs and the culture
Who are International Tour rperators?
- They are wholesalers
- they work with airlines9 hotels9 tourist attractions
- they get their products in large Tuantities
- they make these products as package and sell them
What are the Types of tour operators?
There are 4 types of tour operators:
)- #ass market tour operators :
They usually offer ssun9 sea9 and sands package
They cater to very large numbers of tourists in usually popular destination
*- Inbound tour operator :
It is the type which produces package aimed at bringing overseas tourists into a destination
2- rutbound tour operator :
It is for those locals who want to travel abroad as tourists
It is based in the tourist country offering a holiday package to overseas destinations
3- Domestic tour operator :
They offer packages to locals to travel locally PDomestic travelQ
4- Lpecialist tour operators :
$re operators speciali?ed by :
- activity like skiing holidays
- destination like $ustravel which is specialli?ed in holidays in $ustralia
- transport like traveling by coach PtjuHvwp>1 l1+,j0Q
- age group
$ll tour operators are private sector so they are profit-seeking and need to make money to
&ow can tour operators achieve buying power and control over suppliers l,AHq @.m
xy,z{>1| }1Hj~>1?
"y doing two things :
)- hori?ontal integration :
-When companies !oin together with the aim to remove competition and to increase they
purchasing power
-It is the merge ,E/>1| @n1CB between companies at the same level
*- Xertical integration :
- It occurs between companies at different levels
-It means investment into the following :
accommodation and transport
travel agents
What are The advantages of integration?
-control of price
- control of Tuality
- ability to reach the customer
- Integration led to increase speciali?ation
- development of niche operators and niche products PTailored products and services l,mCn
What are the different types of tour operators?
There are two types of tour operators:
)-#ainstream tour operators:
- carry high volume of tourists
- many destinations
- serve customers that are highly price sensitive
- sell all inclusive package are attractive to this segment
- they work through travel agents of their own
- focus on standard and basic product Psun9 sand and seaQ
*- Independent tour operators
- they carry small volume of tourists
- they serve customers who want tailor made and high tourism Tuality
- they are increasing their speciali?ation
- they developed niche products to distinguish themselves from cheap mainstream
- serve customers who are less price sensitive
- they use independent travel agents with direct sell
- have long term relationship with their local suppliers in the destination
- pay higher prices to the local suppliers due to low volumes they buy
&ow can independent tour operators survive in the market?
Independent tour operators survive by competing to provide high Tuality 9 tailor made
What is the common thing among tour operators? What is their nature?
$ll tour operators perform similar role which
'utting together a holiday package - plan 9 organi?e 9 and sell packages
&ow do tour operators do their !ob?
- They do market research
- They select resorts 9 accommodations 9 flights
- the holiday season is planned )* to )6 months before the holiday packages released to
the market
- They estimate how many customers will buy their product $ccordingly accommodates
and flights are arranged
-Tour operators will negotiate with the providers This is carried out by senior mangers
- The negotiation is about the price9 Tuality and the Tuality
- usually the flights are with chartering planes
- once the product is released for sale9 the tour operator and the travel agents are engaged
in the sale and reservation processes
What are the disadvantages of holiday package?
- the average profit made on package holiday is low not only this the tour operators
manage considerable risks
What are the Wisks tour operators encounter?
- unexpected loss of popularity of a country because of political reasons or security issues9
natural disasters
-new tourist taxes
- changing in aviation fuel costs
- changing of exchange rate :
Tour operators pay for the hotels and the flights in foreign currency
&oliday prices are advertised long before the tour operator pay to the hotels and airlines9
variations in exchange rates affect the profit the tour operators make so tour operators give
sno surcharge guaranteeds but in Va law it should not exceed *8 increase in cost9 this
gives the customer protection from increases prices
What is the role of Tourism rrgani?ations? What do they do?
)- improve the Tuality of tourism services
*- #arketing of tourism
2- research marketing
3- cooperate with other organi?ation in foreign countries
4- establish tourists offices
5- establish tourists information offices
&ow do they do market research?
- data from previous seasons
- analysis of what their competitors offer
What are the types of contracts they do with their providers?
There are two main types of contracts or deals :
)- Kuarantee : },-\
&ere the tour operator guarantees to pay for certain number of bed space
*- Welease back:
$ny bed space is not sold is given back
What are the factors which affect the Tours operators prices ?
)- Leason:
The summer season is the main time to travel due to school holidays and due to the
weather so there is more demand D~>1 D] y,F 9 thatOs why prices rise at this time
*- ^light times:
#ost customers prefer to travel during the day so price differs because of the time of the
2- $ccommodation
Tour operator contract with hotels based on price per room9 while they sell the package
which includes a whole room cost
&ow can the Uustomer protected?
-The (uropean Vnion made a law which gives the customers compensation FwB when
things go wrong with their holiday
- "y law 9 Tour operators are fully responsible for all the services they sell
What are the government regulations l11Hu1 l,-j;zB to protect tourists?
)- fire safety laws in hotels
*- consumer protection laws
2- air travel regulations
What are the means of travel or Types of transportations?
)-Uoach travel:
-it is leisurely way of traveling
*- Wail travel:
The advantages are :
- it is cheap form of travel
- travellers can buy tickets without booking a seat
The disadvantage is that:
- trains become easily congested [>wZpv hyF
- it is more popular with commuters traveling to work than it is with tourists travelling for
leisure purposes
- the main tourist traveling by rail is the younger generation or explorers who purchase
discounted tickets allowing rail travel across whole region such as (urope
- the government tend to invest less in rail travel than in air travel
'ublic transport :
It is usually neglected by the tourists because of
lack of information about the services
lack of trust based on the travelers experience of public transport in their own country
Vnit 4
#arketing and promotion
- &igh competition in the tourism market make marketing and promotion is an important
part to stay in this industry
- They constantly find new ways to promote themselves to their customers
What is The definition of marketing?
s#arketing is the strategic business function that creates value by stimulating9 facilitating
and fulfilling customer demands
Why has #arketing gone under enormous changes over the last three decades?
)- globali?ation :->w>1
*- massive technological changes
&ow To achieve good marketing?
)- innovation +,/vd1
*-Ureating good customer services
2- #arketing should comes from the thinking point of the customer Prather than being
totally product centeredQ
3- establishing overseas information offices
4- market research
5- public relationships
I- raise awareness of the country as a tourist destination
Why is marketing important ?
-To increase the number of sales
-To increase the number of customers
-It helps destinations to attract more customers than their rivals
- to attract previous and new customers
Why is it travel and tourism industry is very competitive industry?
"ecause :
- there are many destinations with very similar attractions
- there are many different providers Ptour operators 9 hoteliers 9 airline companiesQ all
offering a similar product or service
What is the important goal of marketing?
- Ureating a positive image of the service and the product is very important in marketing
What is the best way to satisfy a customer?
- to offer them products and services which meet their needs
- to give them the best Tuality and value of money for the product
Why is marketing important for an organi?ation?
- #arketing allows the organi?ation to identify its position in the market for future
- #arketing allows the organi?ation to identify who their competitive are
- #arketing allows the organi?ations to identify the specific groups of customers at whom
their product are being targeted
Why is market Wesearch important in marketing?
- Wesearch is important to identify exactly what the needs and the wants of the customer
- Wesearch is important to identify who the customers are
- #arket research definition:
#arketing research is the planned process of collecting9 recording9 analy?ing and
evaluating data about customers and the market itself
Who do market research?
iarge organi?ations hire trained professionals to do the marketing research
rther organi?ations use research agency to do marketing for them
&ow to do market research?
There are 4 stages of how to do marketing research:
)- Letting Pdetermining or identifyingQ the ob!ectives
*- Design the research
2- Uollect data
3- $naly?e the data
4- Weport the results
)- Letting the ob!ectives 1CNd1
means to identify the problem and to know the purpose of the research
*- Design the research:
#eans to decide which research method will be used
2- Data collecting :
&ere the research activities are taking place and carried out
3- $naly?e the data:
rnce the data is collected it will need to be interpreted and a statistical analysis is done
4- Weport the results:
$ll the finding will be presented as well as the conclusion
What are the types of market research?
There are * types of market research: 'rimary and secondary
)- 'rimary market research :
It is known as sfield researchs
In this type of research the travel organi?ation go out into the market to find out about the
customers expectations and experiences
It could be done by The methods are :
)- fuestionnaires
*- Internet survey
2- Telephone survey
3- (xit survey : carried out when the tourist leaves an attraction
4- can be done face to face ask conducting a survey at the airport or in the hotel receptions
ing direct Tuestions
5- 'ostal survey but the respond rate is usually very poor
I- ^ocus groups : a group of customers are led by a member of staff to discuss their view
of a certain product or service 9 this is usually costly and take time to organi?e
*- Lecondary market research:
This is known as sDesk researchs
It is using the existing information that has been collected by another party for a different
purpose rW the data from the organi?ationOs own records
The data resources are either internal or external:
The internal data comes from the organi?ationOs own sales records or details of how often a
customer uses a particular service
The external data comes from the governmentOs data or from the trade reports or from
academic research findings Pexample9 the sournal of Travel WesearchsQ
- Why is Lecondary data research is not always reliable?
because of the following reasons :
The data may be outdated
The data may contain a biased opinions
The data may be irrelevant
The data was carried out with a different ob!ectives in mind
What is fualitative and Tuantitative data?
fualitative data:
It is the data and information collected about customersO opinions towards a product and
fuantitative data:
It is the data which is numerical or statistical (xamples are: freTuency of visits9 number of
users9 etc
In marketing research What is LWrT $nalysis?
- It is situation analysis
- It is an abbreviation or an acronym of Ltrength- Weaknesses- rpportunities- Threats
-It helps the travel organi?ation to identify and recogni?e the negative and positive
influences on its business
-It helps them to recogni?e the influences which are under their own control Pinternal
influencesQ and those which are beyond their own control Pexternal influencesQ
- Development within the travel organi?ation relies heavily on this LWrT analysis
- if the results show that there are many weakness and threats then the travel organi?ation
will chaos not to increase the products and services they offer
- if the results show that a particular destination has many strengths and there are many
opportunities for the destination to develop further9 then the travel organi?ation will
increase their products and services to this destination
Ltudy case 9 page )66 is important
In marketing research9 what is '(LT analysis?
- It is also a situational analysis
- It is an acronym of s'olitical- (conomic- Locial- Technologicals
-It helps the organi?ation to identify any influence on the market which are beyond their
own control
-"y understanding these influences 9 the organi?ation can access the risks and its
conseTuences on their business
What are the factors which can have conseTuences and influence the
business of an organi?ation?
)-'olitical :
the travel organi?ations are regulated by the government so civil unrest 9 international
terrorism affect the travel and tourism industry
foreign exchange rates9 recession 9 the global economy are affect tourism
Klobal 'andemic diseases [j,v| 1Hm affect the travel and tourism industry
Infrastructure development Pincluding the construction if airports 9 hotels Q is a positive
technological influence on the tourism industry
The internet has transformed the way which travel and tourism products are marketed
Those destinations which are under-developed infrastructure will lose competitive
advantage with those who are more technologically advanced
Ltudy case page )J7 is important
f- Why is it important to Ureate a brand image?
- there are many substitutes of the product in the market
-it helps the organi?ation to gain competitive advantage
&ow can brand image be created?
"y creating a slogan
"y selling a uniTue product
"y being known for their low prices
"y being known of their good promotions
"y advertising in the TX9
What is product range?
It means all the sdifferents types of the product
What is service range? Kive examples
It is the sdifferents types of services offered
(xample9 a hotel offers an organi?ation basic product of accommodation 9 food and health
club but they also may offer additional services like evening drinks 9 free Wi ^i 9 one piece
laundry for no additional cost only for members of the hotel club
#arket Legmentation
0%at is t%e definition of #arket segmentation?
- It is the process which a target market is selected for the products and services
(xample: the target market of honeymooners
What is the purpose of market segmentation?
-The purpose of this segmentation or classification is to save time and money as the
provider will target only those customers
-The travel and tourism industry uses this segmentation and the search results to build a
customer profile which gives the characteristic of a typical customer or product user
$ccording to what characteristics market segments are chosen?
)- Keographic segment :
Ulassification is based on locality or the area of the domestic and overseas customers
*- Demographic segment :
Ulassification is based in age9 gender9 ethnicity9 level of income
2- iifestyle segment :
Ulassification is based on socio-economic factors such as the level of education or the
profession and the interests
What are the Different market segments?
They are 6 segments:
)- ^amily segment :
It is the most important market segment
Lun9 sea9 and sand are the main features of the holiday brochures
*- Lingles segment :
It is much less publici?ed however it is an important one
2- Kroups segment :
It plays an important part for transport providers and for tourists attractions
Discounted prices are usually offered
(ducational groups such as school trips are the ma!ority of this segment
3-Types of customer segment :
This segment refers to the purpose of the visit which determines the type of customer
"usiness tourists 9 leisure tourists and visiting family and friends are examples
They are subdivided 9 eg leisure tourists can be subdivided into honeymooners and the
business tourists can be subdivided into the #IU( which is #eetings9 Incentives9
Uonventions and (xhibitions
4- Different age and gender segment:
This is subdivided into grey market which is the mature \,c customers and the youthful
student market
rld people tend to select destinations in Tuiet locations away from the hustle and bustle of
the large resorts
The )6-27 market tend to choose destinations with more lively life and nightlife
5- Lpecific needs:
(xamples 9 Uustomers with disabilities 9 religious needs 9 dietary needs
I- Lpecial interests :
This market segment is the subdivision of the market that is difficult to categori?e
(xamples are:
(co tourists
#edical tourists
Lports tourists
Uultural tourists
6- fuality and (conomy segment:
Travel customers are usually price sensetive
"ackpackers 9 students are examples but the grey market is not
Tour operators 9 accommodation providers and transport providers ensure that there is a
wide choice low cost options of accommodations9 low cost flights9 discounted rails tickets
$lso they provide the most luxurious travels 9 for example staying in the best
accommodations such as "urg $l $rab in Dubai9 the worldOs first I star hotel
What are the market segments classified according to their income and age?
)- "ackpackers:
)6-*3 yrs of age9 are very cost conscious ,->1 H o< jFHh
*- DI%a: ,

.FCh ju|/m
*4- 24 yrs of age9 Dual income [u|>1| b|>1 m 9 no children9 relatively affluent ,jz
2- (mpty %ester:
'arents whose children grew up and have left home9 34-44 yrs of age9 usually weOll
educated9 high disposable income
3- outh #arket:
)6-*4 yrs of age9 less well educated9 used to traveling9 like to party and live nightlife9
lower disposable income
#arketing #ix
Definition of marketing mix :
sIt is getting the right product to the right people at the right price at the right place 9 using
the right promotional methodss
What are the components of the marketing mix?
There are 3 components in the marketing mix: Pall starts with the letter 'Q
)- product
*- price
2- place
3- promotion
'roduct as the first component marketing mix:
Why is it important to improve the product as a part of marketing mix ?
)- to be known for innovation +,/v1
*- to develop the market in a specific destination [zjm CDv o< F,c xwp>1 w> xwp>1 1w~zF },]
2- to extend products into new destinations Z,c ,Sm 1w0wF
3- to defend themselves against competitors
4- to keep up with technological advances
5- to imitate competitors
What are the different characteristics of a product and a service?
$ product classified or identified by 3 characteristics :
)- 'roducts are Tangible : are the products which be seen and hold (xample 9 a meal in a
*- 'roducts are &omogeneous ,

m,-B [D.m CuwF @,-/m product: it is the products which are all
standardi?ed (xample 9 one &ilton hotel room is the same in any country
2- 'roducts are Leparable [-jpEB -F :
rne can distinguish between one product and another
(g9 air flights and ship travel
3- 'roducts are Ltorable: that is a product which last and is not perishable
%ow we will talk about the service:
It has the opposite characteristics of the product:
)- Lervices are Intangible : they canOt be seen or held
*- Lervices are heterogeneous : they are not standardi?ed 9 everyone experience the service
2- Lervices are inseparable : example : being waited upon is inseparable part of serving a
meal in a restaurant
3- Lervices canOt be stored : they are perishable 9 which means that they canOt be transfered
for use at a later date
(xplain with examples the similarities and difference between a product and a service?
(xample : 'ackage holiday as a product has more similarities [v,B with the services rather
than with a product because of the following
%ow 'ackage holiday has 2 main components :
)- transportation
*- $ccommodation
2- (xcursions l,Nz/->1
$ll these 2 components have these characteristics :
- Intangible at the time of purchase
- Inseparable because you canOt separate any component out of the package
- $re not homogenous because two customers buying the same package holiday will have
different experience
- 'erishable because if the tour operator didnOt sell the packages all airline and
accommodation reservation will be lost and canOt be made up again
Kive an example of a product that depends on the service
(xample: $ room in a hotel is a product but the services provided by the hotel is important
part in the product
&ow to develop a product to meet the needs of the customers?
- providers creat new and exciting product packages to offer to the customers
-providers try to cater to the likely needs and expectations of the specific market segment
- providers must understand the different types of the available products and to match them
with the different customers #arket research help them to achieve this
What are the different Types of products?
)- 'ackage &olidays:
^or families tourists
^or Ulub )6-27 tourists
^or groups tourists
^or luxury tourists
*- Transoprt:
Depends on the
$ge of the tourist
Lpecial needs tourists
"usiness or leisure tourist
"udget of the tourist
^amily or singles
2- $ccomodation :
Depends on:
^amilies or singles tourists
"usiness or leisure tourists
$ge of the trousers
The gender of the tourist
"udgets of the tourist
Lpecial needs tourists
3- Tourist attractions :
Depends on :
^amilies or groups
Lpecial interests
^ree enterance
4- Tourist information services:
Depends on:
families or singles or groups
"usiness or leisure tourists
Lpecial interests
What is a 'ackage holiday?
-It Uonsists of :Transport and $ccommodation
-rther services might be included such as : Uar rental - activities during the holiday
-Tour operators try to offer different package holidays to many destinations to meet the
needs and expectations of the customers
-The package holiday have accommodations which suit different budgets so it varies from
luxury 4 star &otels to low cost hostels or basic campsite facilities
-Different forms of transport should be available too to cater the needs of different
"esides market researching what do to improve the products and services?
-Through the use of product life cycle
What is product life cycle and what are their benefits?
The product life cycle allows the organi?ation to identify whether the product or service are
in a stage if growth or decline
&ow to do life cycle of a product?
"y #aking product analysis
Why making product analysis?
"ecause there are many other substitute competitive products and services available in the
market and by doing this analysis it helps to in the foloowings:
- to ascertain the popularity if a travel destination
-It also allows the organi?ation to plot the volume of sales for a product in order to
determine at what stage the product is positioned
What are the stages of product life cycle?
There are 3 main stages of the product life cycle :
)- Introduction stage:
-&ere the product starts
-There is intense marketing to raise the awareness of the product and to attract customers
-In this stage there is limited volume of sales There is high cost of marketing and
- There is no competition
*- The growth stage:
-&ere the demand on the product increases
- Uompetitors work in substitutes
- ievel of profitability increases as sales volume increases
-This stage is important to the success of the product
2- The maturity stage:
-The sales reach a peak in this stage
-The product continues to make profit
- The competition is strong
-#arketing is needed to keep the product appealed to the customers
3- Decline:
-%umber if sales falls sharply
-rrgani?ation needs to decide whether to discard the product or not
&ow do organi?ations distribute the products?
)- Direct selling :
-The customer obtain the product directly from the provider
-The provider is able to reduce the cost since there is no intermediaries so no commission
to be paid
-In this case the provider is fully responsible of the marketing and promotion of their
*- Wholesalers:
-Tour operators act as wholesalers by buying directly from travel and tourism principles or
providers Pairlines9 hotelsQ 9 they then sell theses products to retailers :S/>1 +,SB Pthe travel
agentsQ who sell them to the customers
-This is very costly for the provider Pairlines and hotelsQ because of the commission they
must pay and costly for the customer because of the added price
&owever it has its advantages because using two intermediaries enable the travel and
tourism providers to gain access to more customers as more marketing will be done for
their products
2- Wetailers:
Those are the travel agencies They are intermediary They get commission for selling the
Lome providers own their own travel agency 9 this save the cost of commission but it limits
their sales as it will not be widely distributed
3- Internet:
It has revolutioni?ed the way the travel and tourism products are made available to the
4- Klobal distribution systems :
It uses centralised processes to allow tickets to be produced instantly
What are the advantages of distributing a product through the internet?
- the customer is no longer must travel to discover what is on the market
- the customer has *3 hour access from their own homes and select 9 confirm booking
without the need of any assistance in the process
- it offers discounted prices because there is no intermediaries
- some customers donOt trust to make booking through the internet for the risk of identity
- some customer prefer to deal directly with the travel agent for the advices and the
knowledge they give
'rice as a second part of marketing mix:
What is the difference between price and cost?
'rice is not the same as Uost 'rice is the money paid for a service or product
"ut cost is the amount of money spent to put together the product before being offered for
The organi?ation considers carefully the actual cost before setting the final price of a
- It is important to make it easy for customers to buy from the organi?ation
- It must choose how to promote its product so that their products reach the customers
What are different types of price policies?
There are J price policies
)- #arket penetration:
- it is the most common price policy
- it is used when the company want to gain entry to the market
- the company use this policy when they start a new product or new business in a very
competitive market so what they do is that they set an artificial low price to attract the
customer and !ust to try the product9 this is know as strial pricings The aim is to win a large
customers and gain Tuick profit from high sales volume rnce the product or their position
in the market is established 9 they start to give different prices 9 they use different pricing
policy which allow the price to increase but without losing the customers
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*- #arket skimming
- this policy is used when the product is new but the competition is low The company
charges high price attracting customers who want to be the first to buy something
completely new
-Uompetitors enter the market with substitute products thus forcing the price down and
making the product more affordable for wider range of customers
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2- Discount pricing :
- this policy is used when the product couldnOt be sold enough or when it is about it reach
its expiry
(xample: discounted tickets !ust a few hours before the flight departure time
3- Xariable pricing:
- this policy is known as sprice discriminations
- the company set different prices for different seasons They charge high prices during
peak seasons and low prices during low seasons and when the demand decreases
- also the company may vary the price according to the customer type9 example 9 full price
entry tickets for adults but reduced tickets for children 9 students and the elderly
4- ioss leader pricing :
- this policy sell the product at little or no profit or even at loss
- this policy gives the customer the impression that the products is cheap and encourage
them to spend on more profitable linked items at the same time as picking up the loss
leader item 9thus still benefiting the company
- this policy is not often used in the travel and tourism industry
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5- Lpecial offers:
- it is known as spromotional pricings
- this policy is used to pull customers away from a rival
- the policy is persuading the customer that they are receiving value for money or they are
getting something additionally free
I- 'restige pricing :
- it is known as s'ermium pricings
- it is based on the assumption that people associate high prices with high Tuality
- the policy set high prices on products which have exceptional Tualities and very
6- 'rice bundling:
- known as sproduct bundle pricing s
- it is pricing few items of related products into a bundle
- (xample: a product bundle at a special reduced rate of bed9 breakfast and dinner at a hotel
rather than the rate charged on a room only basis
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What are the factors that determine pricing policies ?
P internal and external influences on pricesQ
'rices are influenced by I factors:
)- ^ixed and variable costs:
- this is all the expenses a company has to pay to buy or produce a product or service
- the lowest price the company can set is the same of what actually it costed but this makes
no profit at all This is called sat costs price
- the ma!ority of pricing policies use the scost pluss pricing to make profit
*- 'rofitability :
&ere the organi?ation operate with the private sector not the public sector to add value and
improve the product so more profit can be attained
2- Lubsidies9 taxation and surcharges:
- when the market is about the fall 9 the government interfers to put things right
- Lubsidy :mw=>1 m [j>,m C],pm : is to give the provider help to improve their work and this will
causes reduction in the prices
- Taxation 1H\ :
-It is the opposite of subsidy
-It is the taxes imposed on travel and tourism providers
-The providers will pass on some of the tax charges to the customer and rise the prices9
this will change the customer behavior and will affect the buying power Ppeople will buy
(xample : increasing taxes on cigarettes so people will buy less of them
- Lub charges:
It is the hidden charges that affect the rise of the price
(xample : taxes or duty on will increase the price of the flight tickets
3- Uompetitors :
If no substitute product is available then a high price can be charged or set
This is a case of supply and demand D| H] :>pm
Uompetitors imitate the product and udercut the price set by the first innovator |d1 H/->1
4- iikely number of customers :
The customer always try to make sure that the product has value for money w<C->1 -.>1 =/pF
'rice and Tuality are closely linked ^or many customers getting value for money is more
important than the price itself [j< w<C->1 D->1 =/pF Y< },A w> o>, [c1 :Dm m
5- Leasonality :
'roducts offered in high seasons are more expensive than those offered in off-peak times
It is a case of supply and demand
I- (conomic factors:
Klobal economy has an impact on the prices
Wecession y,/Gd1 y,p>1 affects tourism as people choose nearer destinations and cheaper
In times of economic booms y,/Gd1 +,Nyd1 9 people tend to spend more on holidays
'lace as the third part of the marketing mix:
'lace here means the destination where the tourist will go and the place where the
providers sell their products
What are the factors that affect the organi?ation choice of a destination?
)- Uosts:
'rime locations cost money iands in tourism areas are expensive This will limit the
choice for the travel and tourism providers Peg hotelsQ
*- $vailability of suitable premises:
Kood locations are needed for hotels travel agents9 tourism information centers9
restaurants and tourist attractions so tourism organi?ations do locational analysis to
determine the best sites for their services
2- Uharacter of the area:
$reas with political instability 9 high crime rates and social deprivation are not the best
tourist destination
Travel and Tourism providers consider the Ltandards of living and living costs in the areas
they choose for tourism development
3- iocal and transient population :
It is important that there is easy access to local people as a work force There is also need
for transient people to make full use of the facilities being offered
4- $d!acent facilities:
Travel and tourism providers consider what else there near to a selected site for their
tourism development
It is beneficial to have cafs near tourists attractions and restaurants near hotels
5- Transport links:
It is important that the place has good infrastructure 9 good roads 9 railway network 9
sufficient carrying capacity to deal with unexpected number of visitors
I- $vailability of staff:
it is important to have local people as a work force Lome organi?ation bring skilled
workforce from other countries when they first establishing in a new destination until the
locals get good training
Lome organi?ations hire staff from different countries because of the shortage of skilled
people in their own country
'romotion the fourth and last part of the marketing mix:
What is The definition of 'romotion?
sIt is any form of done to draw attention to the product and the servicess
Why is marketing and promotion important ? What are the main purposes of
promotion ?
-To raise awareness of the product and services
-To attract new customers to them
- to raise and maintan customer awareness of the products
- to inform customers of the productsOs futrue
- to stimulate demand
- to encourage sales
What are the methods of doing promotion?
)- $dversting :
- TX9 radio9 cinema 9 leading organi?ations usually use them
- print media newspapers9 maga?ines9 leaflets9 small organi?ations usually use them
- posters 9 signs
*- 'ublicity:
It is any activity that brings exposure to the product or service
Uan be done through 'ublic relationships 9 sponsorship
2- 'oint of sale display:
(xample : advertising for local tours through display stands in hotel reception
3- 'ublic relations:
"y attending trade fairs
"y holding press conferences
4- Direct marketing :
The provider makes direct contact with the customer through emails or telephones
It is commonly used by hotel chains once the customer registered their details
Lpecial offer email are sent on a regular basis
5- Lales promotions :
- money off coupons Pfree entry to a theme park with one free meal when buying three
mealQ R+,v1wA1 l,cwvwA
- competitions ,pcH< >1 ,u pA1
- special offers Pbuy one 9 get one freeQ
I- 'ersonal selling:
This is face to face communication with the customer
Lelling annual memberships
'romoting the use of spa in hotels
6- Xideos and the Internet:
- Vsing video clips in the internet on their own websites or other websites
- Vsing Digital display at the airports 9in the tourist information centers9 in the hotel rooms
J- Trade promotions :
- $ttending trade fairs such as the sWorld Travel #arkets
- ^amiliari?ation Trips to the travel agents to increase their knowledge of a destination
which will have positive impact on the sales
What are the factors that are put into consideration when producing
promotion ?
)- Uost:
$dversting can put lots of pressure on the organi?ationOs budget
The organi?ation must select the most effective means of promotion which matches with
their budget
*- Uampaign:
To do a campaign there are 5 stages:
- Uhoose an audience
- establishing the message
- selecting the suitable media
- setting the timing
- agreeing the budget
- #easuring the results
Uhoosing a wrong audience or wrong media will make the campaign fail
2- Target market segments :
(nsuring that the advertisement is seen by the chosen target market is important
(xample 9 $dversting in ^acebook and Twitter about luxurious health spa to the youth or
students will not succeed but to put the advertisment in the beauty and fitness maga?ines
will be beneficial
3- Timing:
- Lelecting the appropriate time to run a promotional campaign will ensure success
- $dvertising something too far in advance of its availability may result in customers losing
interst in the product
- Wunning the campaign too close to the expiry date may not give the customers enough
time to buy the product
4- "rand image:
Uustomers should be able to easily identify the brand by recogni?ing the logo and the
slogan of the brand in the advertisment
5- The $ID$ principle :
rnce a promotional material had been created 9 it must be evaluated to see how successful
the message will be To evaluate the massage thought $ID$ principle it is an acronym for
- $ttention: using bold fonts to grab the readerOs attention
- Interest: using illustrations and photographs to create interst in the product
- Desire: using language such as sbeautifuls sama?ings to make the customer want to be
- $ction : providing contact details 9 telephone numbers9 email address 9 website details so
the customer can take action to access the product
The positive environmental effect of tourism:
(xample :
kruger %ational 'ark In Louth $frica :
-They have a national park which protects the wildlife
- It has so many different species of trees9 reptiles9 birds and mammals
-"ecause of the wildlife in this park Louth $frica9 it attracts many
tourists so they protect all these species for the visitors and this
considers one of the positive environmental effects of tourism
The %egative effect of tourism on the environment :
(xample :
"imini island
"ecause of the establishment of "imini "ay Wesort the following
happened :
-Destruction of the fertile land threatened the life of the locals
-Water supply was used for tourism development causing the water to
turn off for the locals
-Destruction of mangroves which is very important in protecting during
hurricanes and tidal waves
-#any sea species became endangered
The positive effect of culture on tourism :
The #aori people in %ew `ealand :
-These people have their own uniTue culture and traditions which have a
ma!or impact on the tourism in %ew `ealand They have their special
dances 9 tattoos 9
-In their national museum which is one of the largest national museums
in the world 9 they have many treasures displayed in this museum
-If a tourism visit this place they will teach him woodcarving and he will
visit many historical sites there
The negative impact of tourism on the culture :
"anaue Wice Terraces in the 'hilipines :
-These terraces are *777 years old
-They are carved in the mountains
-They are considered seight wonder of the world s
-These terraces attract many tourists as a result there is increase in
connection as more $ccommodation for the tourists are built around the
-The 'hilipine people perform cultural performances to satisfy the
visitors 9 these performances are staged one ^or example9 agricultural
rituals are performed in the wrong time of the year
-#any of valuable inherited items were sold to the tourists and were not
-#any wood carvings which have cultural and religious significance to
the locals were sold to the tourists and that made the locals feel that
their privacy and culture were invaded
-Tourists who go there usually are negligent or ignorant about the
traditions and moral values of the locals so some dress in inappropriate
dresses 9 like wearing bikinis in the beaches which is against the
customs of the locals
Ltages of expansion of tourism :
(xample :
the #aldives :
(xploration : very small number of tourists in the year )JI*
Involvement : small number of tourists manily independent travelleres in
Development : number of visitors increases rapidly in year *777
Uonsolidation : more increase in the number of visitors
Ltagnations : the number of tourists reached a peak
Decline : if will not innovate9 the #aldives will become old fashiond
The importance of infrastructure in trousim :
(xample ):
In $ngola :
It is one of the poorest countries in the world Uivil wars destroyed this
beautiful country but the government started infrastructure
reconstruction and development pro!ects and there are signs of
ecomnic recovery
(xample *:
Uentara &otels in Thailand :
3J million were invested in the centara hotels started in *77J in
^or divers 9 it offers excellent reefs
$dults en!oy high level of service such as:
- variety of dinning options
- pools and recreational activity
- bars and night entertainment
- spa
- and Uhildern they get kid camp from age 3 to J
$nd (-?one for ages from )7 to )5
%ational travel organi?ation %Tr promote tourism
(xample :
-The ministry of local government is responsible for tourism
-They supervise the activites of hotels 9 sports 9 airlines
-They promote tourism through these ob!ectives:
- building and improving the image if &ungary
- raising the awareness if the country as a tourist country
- help tourism companies to penetrate foreign and domestic markets
- public relationship and promotion in &ungary and abroad
- providing tourists information to domestic and foreign tourists
Uulture toruism :
aampong in "runei
-aampong is a water village where all the buildings built over "runei
-The government established five galleries to attract tourists
-Tourists have a chance to learn about the history 9 the traditions 9 the
arts 9 the crafts of this uniTue village
-The galleries have touch screens to display information
-The galleries contain information about the history of the village
-They have live exhibition of the traditional manufacturing of of hand
woven fabrics
-This Uultual and Tourism Kallaty is a landmark in "runei
"usiness Tourism :
-In Dubai 9 this is a mixture if leisure and business tourism
-Dubai is a leading exhibition center in the middle easept and the world
best conference venue
-Dubai hosts more than 57 exhibitions annually as well as a lot of
conferences 9 seminars and meetings
They have :
- Dubai chamber of commerce
- Industry conference venue
- #a!or hotel venues such as umeirah and "ur! $l $rab
- Dubai World Trade Uenter With a huge exhibition hall
- Dubai airport exhibitor center
The hotel (mirate Tower was designed for business tourists to meet the
reTuirments of any business event
-It has )* boardroom 9 style meeting rooms for conferences and
-it has fully eTuipped business center which is opened *3 hours daily
- it has a ballroom which is well designed with marble flooring
- it has audio-Xisual 9 teleconferencing eTuipments
- there is comprehensive outdoor catering services
The business sector in Dubai cover hotel bookings 9 airport transfer 9
daily programs for tourists with multi-lingual guides They organi?e
business related travels with incentive programs
Xolcano toruism :
(xample :
Uosta Wica %ational 'ark:
-It has an active volcano The entire town economy is based on volcano
-There are many hotels9 lodges9 restaurants 9 hikes and adventure
tourism activites
-The visitors go there to hear the volcano rumble and see the smoke 9
the ash and the lava
-The most famous attraction there beside the -volcano is the &ot Lprings
Wesort and Lpa
-$t night visitors see orange streaks running down from the peak
-$lthough the park is a popular tourist attraction 9 the volcano is lethal
and has to be treated with respect
Uave toruism :
In Louth $frica sudwala caves :
-They are the oldest known caves in the world
-They are must see for any visitor to Louth $frica
-The caves were used as a shelter by the prehistoric men around )6
millions years ago
-They used the cave as a shelter only during the bad weather
-They found there Ltone $ge tools which are in display at the cave
-Tourists there are guided by a tour guide who takes them )47 meter
-It is one hour tour and is not physically exhausting so it is suitable to
hound and old alike
-There are other caves which are more exhausting as they reTuire
crawling through tunnel and it takes almost 4 hours
Waterfall tourism :
(xample :
Xictoria falls in `ambia :
-It is huge falls 9 around )I77 meter wide and )76 meter high
-It is the biggest falls in the wall
In mid $pril 9 the flood reaches its peak and the falls spray water up to
)547 feet in the air
-%umber of visitors declined because of political unrest in `amiba
-Xictoria falls are the best one day white water run in the world
-White water rafting is the most popular tourist activity in the Xictoria
falls area $lmost 479777 adventurous tourists a year visit this falls
-Xictoria falls bungi !ump is a heart stopping thrill 9 it is an experince of a
Uoastal tourism :
(xample :
#auritius :
-It is an island in the Indian rcean
-It is a volcanic and mountain island
-It is famous for its sandy beautiful beaches
-Its warm water allow round the year diving holidays
-It has an excellent coral reef for divers $n expert can guide you during
the diving
-Vnderwater there are many shipwrecks dated to the days of the pirates
-There are several enviromental issues in the beaches 9 like beach
erosion 9 pollution 9 the danger of damage to the coral reef which will
have a negative impact on the reputation of the destination as a good
diving site
#ountain toruism :
(xample :
ordan 9 'etra
-It has uniTue city that is carved in the rocks dated *777 years ago
-The colors and the formation of the rocks are da??ling
-#otori?ed vehicles are not allowed in the area so visitors can take only
donkeys 9 camels 9 carriages driven by horses all are nice experince
-It is a must see attraction for those who are interested in history 9
archeology 9 culture and nature
-There are ama?ing archeological relics [FH1 lwjv ,F,Ev Y
-There are many religious sites there There are several high places of
sacrifice to the gods in the old days
-Xisitors can climbe to this sacrifice place to have a look at this ancient
place and have a wonderful view of the city below
Lport based tourism in mountain areas:
The Lwiss ski resorts:
-&iking9 skiing 9 snowboarding9 climbing9 bird watching 9 rafting 9
canyoning are all popular mountain sports in the alps
-#any improvement were done in these mountains to attract tourists
such as :
-rver 277 km of signposted cycle routs
-rver )I7 km of signposted hiking routs
-4* km of cross country runs
-)44 km of slops for skiing
-67 km of trails
- lake for water sports with children pool
Island Tourism
Dubai creek : o,m HSm
-It is a natural see water inlet
-It was an anchore for ships
-There is Was $l ahor wildlife sanctuary which is a protected area9
established in )J64
-It is a global important bird area It provides safe breeding for many
birds Tourists can watch the birds and the flamingos feeding in water9
-The creek has beautiful green landscape with the see water of the
$rabian gulf
-The cable car FH{jD/>1 which runs parralle to the creek which offers
unrestricted view of the city from a hight of 27 mts
-Dubai creek is known for its golf and yacht club rne of the top world
golf courts
-The creek also a home for one of the most important pro!ect which is
Dubai ^estival Uity This is a large entertainment area promoted as sa
city within a citys
-Xisitors can experince the sights of the area by taking a dinner cruise
-There is a traditional village located near the creek where potters and
weavers practice traditional craves It is a place where a visitor can step
back in time and experince some the Dubai culture
-The house of sheikh saeed holds a rare collection of historic
photographs 9 coins 9 stamps and documents that record DubaiOs history
-The Deira rld LouT is dubai largest LouT
-Xisitors can find variety of kitchenwares9 glasswares and textiles are
very low prices
-In the Lpice LouT9 visitors can smell the aromas of the spices 9 nuts
and dry fruits and feel the DubaiOs trading past
Uhapter 2 : customer service
Uoncierge or keeper of the keys:
-This profession dates back to the medieval ^rance
-$ concierge works in the hotel lobby
- &e must have excellent knowledge of the hotel surrounding area
because they are reTuired to recommend restaurants 9 theaters and
other attractions to hotel guests
-&e is in highly visible position so personal presentation is highly
-#any of his duties can be done by the hotel receptionist
The main duties of the concierge are:
- to handle guest messages
- to arrange reservations for dinner 9 concerts and shows
- to suggest restaurants 9 shopping locations 9 spas9 health services and
other places of interest
- to act as travel consultant
- to provide directions about local places
- to take care of guests belongings
Klobal Distribution Lysetems in Travel and Tourism:
Worldspan :
-Is a provider of travel technology
-It offers worldwide electronic distribution of travel information 9 internet
-It is known as Klobal Distribution Lystem PKDLQ
-It is used by travel agents to book airline tickets 9 hotel rooms 9 rental
cars9 tour packages
It is also a global distribution system PKDLQ owned by Labre &oldi!g
Kalileo :
It is a Uomputer reservation system owned by Travelport
$ccommodations :
umeirah &otels and Wesorts :
-It has won many awards
-The company was founded in )JJI
-Its aim is to become the leader if luxury hotels in the world
-They have )) hotels 6 of them is in Dubai
-They plan to expand their work from the gulf region to #aldives 9 VL
Xirgin Islands
-They have another )) hotels under construction
-In china 9 they will open their first hotel in Lhanghai next year
-Their aims is to achieve luxury hotels by doing the following :
- making customers its first priority and doing their best to meet their
- they excellence in everything they do
- they provide superior innovative products and services
-$ll the staff members are expected to follow the company &allmarks
which are the reasons of umeirah success
These &allmarks are :
- I will always smile and great our guests before they greet me
- #y first response to a guest reTuest will never be no
- I will treat all colleagues with respect and integrity
The company ensure that its salaries are competitive and attracted the
top talented people
There are many benefits to every employee at this company:
- competitive salaries
- tax free salaries
- award winning $ccomodation and utilities Ponly in V$(Q
- medical cover and dental cover
- free meals at home and at work Ponly in V$(Q
- discounted $ccomodation 9 food and drinks
- social activites to ensure that the staff work in a fun enviroment
- incentives <1wh
iodges :
(xample :
#artinOs lodge in Lri ianka :
-It is a simple guesthouse $ccomodation with only )7 rooms 9 some are
double9 some are triple and some are dormitory style
-It doesnOt have a star rating
-Traditional meals are served there in the common dining area
-There is no air conditioning and limited supply of hot wate
-There are no other facilities in the $ccomodation
Wated &otels
(mpire &otel and Uountry Ulub in "runei :
-It is a luxury 4 star hotel
-It is on the coast of the Louth Uhina Lea
-It has 3I7 rooms and 23 suites and )5 villas so it offers the customers
with many choices
-(ach room has a king si?e beds and luxurious bathroom and a private
-(very room has a cable TX 9 a mini bar 9 telephone 9 writing table 9
internet access
-$ll the rooms are decorated to a very high standard
-The hotel offers *3 hours room service 9 laundry service
-They have )7 different restaurant and cafs
-The Uountry Ulub offers many recreational needs for the customers
-They have many golf courses9 spa 9 swimming pools9 sTuash and tennis
courts 9 gymnasium
-They also cater for business tourists as they have four different venues
for meetings and conferences for up to I77 people
The cliff hotel in (ngland
- it is a small 9 family run hotel
- it offers good $ccommodation in peaceful surroundings
- there are J suites rooms with TX 9 coffee and tea making facilities and
free Wi^i access
"reakfast is included in the tariff
Kuest house :
Xilla sunrise in "ali :
-It is a beautiful guesthouse in "ali
-It has 2 bedrooms 9 2 bathrooms 9 a kitchen 9 a dining room and a living
-rnly 5 people can sleep in it It is good for families or friends
-^resh and delicious breakfast is served
&ostel :
(xample :
&I Thamel &ostel in %epal :
It provides budget PcheapQ $ccomodation in safe 9 clean and friendly
surroundings at good price
Innovation in packages :
sTaste of Lpains packege:
-$ tours operator in Lpain has introduced a new package called s Taste
of Lpains tour package
-The package includes return flight from %ew ork to #adrid 9 two nights
of hotel $ccomodation in #adrid and "arcelona 9 buffet breakfast each
day9 gourmet lunch and wine tasting tour of vineyards and 4 days car
"runei toruism helped to raise the standards of tour guides in
"runei :
-#any tour guides received training by professionals from all over the
-Tour guides act as ambassadors as they are the one explaining the
history9 the culture 9 the nature of the country
-It is important that they give the correct information and to provide
pleasant experince to the tourists
Uurrency (xchange :
IU( international Uurrency (xchange :
Is one of the largest currency exchange operators in the world
Their services are :
-^oreign currency exchange
-Travellers cheTues
-#oney transfere
-International phone cards
-They offer commission free
-They offer buy back promise which means that the traveller will not be
-charged to exchange any unused holiday money back to their own
Inbound tour operator
#aurisun international :
-Is based in the Indian rcean
-It represents all the travel agencies in the world
-Its services is to book hotels 9 organi?ing exciting adventures and (co
toruism in #auritius
-It consults travel agencies when creating holiday packages
-It provides service such as airport transfere 9 car hire9 guided tours9
seminars 9 (co toruism
rutbound tour operator :
The Ulub holiday #editerranean :
-It was created )J47 in ^rance
-It is the first one to offer all inclusive package
-In its first year *9277 customer were taken from ^rance to stay in tent
accommodations in the beaches of "alearics 9 doing sports activites
since the% itOs going from strength to strength as a tour operator
-It is now operating 67 holiday villages in *4 destinations
-Its customers are around )* million each year
-They started small by offering by offering holidays for single adults but
scaled fast
-This rapid growth was because of the lack of compositions at this time
and the willingness of the customers to prepay for their holidays
-They had to replace the tent villages with more comfortable hotels
-They had to add couples and family
-They had to extend their sales outside ^rance
-They use direct sales method and indirect sales methods by developing
relationships with the travel agent to make their products available
around the world
Wegulations and customer protection :
-It is an association represent the tour companies in the VL$
-(very memeber has to pay ) million as a bond to be used in these
- a member go bankrupt
- a member go insolvent Punable to pay debtsQ
- a member cessation of business@->1 ] GwB
In "ritain :
$Tri $ir travel organi?ation licence :
-Is a licence issued by the civil aviation in "ritain
-It protects the tourists from losing money or being stranded abroad
CDv -uHF <HF ,m| H,=F
-They do this by carrying out checks on the tour operator
-If a tour operator goes out of business 9 the U$$ ensure that the
customer doesnOt lose the money they payed or if the tourist abroad 9
they arrange for the tourist to finish the holiday and come fly them
rnline travel agencies :
-It is a leading (uropean online travel agency
-It is speciali?ed in worldwide travel
-It offers wide range of travel products rver *47 airlines9 659777 hotels
&olidays9 car hire 9 and insurance
-Its headTuarter is in iondon
-Uustomers visit this website because of its travel range and value and
for their expertise
-Their call center and website team have very good knowledge of travel
and that reflect on the business they do
-Lometime they offer discount up to I4 8
-It continues to grow because of its close relationship with the leading
travel suppliers which enables the to offer discounted prices
iogos :
-Leeing the logo of $LT$ 9 youOll reali?e this is a trustworthy agency
-It is the $merican Lociety of Travel $gents
-It is the worlds largest association of travel professionals
-It is a leading advocate for travel agencies 9 the travel industry and the
travelling tourists
"usiness toruism
Louth $frica
-There are more than )I77 conferencing venues all over the country
- it hosts more than 647 international conference events each year
- in *775 there were *59777 exhibitors and 2I million visitors attending
the exhibitions
- the infrastructure was improved 9 the country now has 2 ma!or
airports 9 new air port in underconsrtuction Improvement to the
- more flights being added such as air ^rance 9 Louth $frican airways9
Dubai based emirates
- Louth $frica has a wonderful climate 9 great outdoor activities 9 sports
facilities 9 golf courses9 rich social and cultural history
Infrastructure development :
(xample :
Leoul :
- Two new high speed rail services were added to the already extensive
rail network
- Their international airport has freTuently won the worlds best award
'roducts and services:
There are 2 main international airline alliances :
)- rneWorld
*- Lky Team
2- Ltar $lliance
- Ltar alliance is the largest airline group
-It transport around 577 million passenger each year
-Its memeberes are : $ir Uanada9 $ir china 9 Louth $frican airlines9
Lingapore airways9 turkish airlines 9 VL airways 9 united airways and
Lwiss airlines
- rneWorld :
Transport 224 million passenger every day and covers more than J77
Its members are british airways9 $merican $irlines 9 ordanian airlines
Is the smallest of the three
It has )2 members
It transports 263 million passengers every year
Uovers J77 destinations
Its members include air (urope 9 delta airlines 9 aorean air9 air ^rance
Lea transport :
In Indonesia 9 The `r% ohor "ahru
It is a land that has a direct waterfront position
It is a leisure destination with hotel 9 shopping 9 entertainment 9 dinning
and sea traveling
It has `r% port which has ferry services to several international
The ferries are spacious 9 air conditioned 9 comfortable 9 and go high
The facilities available in the port are:
-The ability to handle 6 ferries per hour
- sea traffic control tower
- complete customs and immigration facilities for international departure
and arrivals
- international and domestic departure halls
- computeri?ing ticketing systems
- fully air conditioned ferries with large seating capacity
Lea transport :
The port of Dover:
-It is the busiest and the most successful ferry port
-It is vital to both national and local economies
-#illions of passengers 9 cars 9trucks9 motorcycles passing through the
port every year
-It is called s the Kateway to (urope s
-There is a ferry departure every 27 minutes
-It provides range of refreshments and shopping facilities
Wail travel :
The TKX rail network in ^rance :
The (urostar speed rail network is an alternative to airplanes
Wail travel:
$"(i$ (gypt :
-It is called the sleeping train
-It offers the passengers to travel in luxury and comfort in world class
sleeping units
-The staff is well trained provide passengers with the hightpest Tuality
of customer service
-there is dining car in the train
- there is luggage compartments
- there is double cabins with basins with running water9 soap and towels
Uompetition in the toruism market:
-has a booming tourist market rne third of their people travel annually
-The disposal income for the Taiwanese is high *4 8 of their income is
-There is a high completion for the Taiwanese tourists from closer
destinations offering similar products of ssurf9 sea and suns offered by
the pacific The 'acific main competitors are china 9 Thailand 9 the
'hilippines 9 the #aldives 9 &awaii and Lingapore
#arket Wesearch :
Lnaefell visitor center:
-has a natural attraction
-$ customer survey has found that the ma!ority of the visitors are middle
aged and elderly couples on couch tour holidays
-Xisitor numbers are declining $s a result of the survey 9 they employed
a consultant company to carry out a review and give advice on ways to
improve the business
Tourism analyses :
(xample :
iake Wanaka in %ew `ealand :
It has a wonderful location and tourists are attracted to it for boating9
hiking 9 climbing 9 skiing and mountain biking
LWrT analysis :
iake Wanaka :
Ltrength :
- uniTue attractions
- world class scenery
- established ski industry
- limited direct air services
- infrastructure is under pressure to cope with toruism demands
- poor level of customer service
rpportunities :
- increase number of visits from domestic market
- increase level of sustainability
- develop an events calendar
Threats :
- rising costs of fuel has an impact on the air fares
- competition from other regions in %ew `ealand such as fueenstwon
'(LT analysis :
'olitical :
- threat of terrorism and security issues
- the goverment has low spending on tourism promotion
(conomic :
-KD' of India
- exchange rate fluctuation
- demographic changes : aging population travel to more adventures
- trends for more sustainable tourism and healthier life style
- growth of ( tourism
- new transportation methods because airports and railway
infrastructure overloaded
Lchool trips and children adventure holidays :
'Ki in Va
-Is the leading provider of school trips and children adventures
-It offers outdoor education and adventures of a lifetime to children
since )J4I
-It offers the best school trips and activity adventure trips in the Va 9
^rance and in (urope
"rand image:
Trouble in paradise $ new slogan for #auritius to attract the tourists
This slogan replaced the old one which was s unforgettable experince s
'overty tourism :
The slums of India 9 "ra?il and Louth $frica :
-Lometimes called spoorisms
-Tours will walk or drive you through an area of extreme poverty
-This kind of tourism has been rung for two decades usually Tuietly
without heavy promotion
-Tourists are not allowed to take photographs and the group is kept to a
maximum of five people so it doesnOt look too intrusive
-They also use guides who are very knowledgeable of the area
-The tour company gives 678 of the profit to the %Kr to help to alleviate
the poverty
Klobal distribution system :
(xample :
Kalileo and worldspan :
-They are aTravel suppliers and travel agencies
-They operate in )57 countries
-&ave over 5I9777 travel agencies
-&ave 247 airlines
-&ave ) million car rental booking annually
-$vailable in 27 languages
-&ave *5 million hotel bookings annually
-&ave 5 billion stored airfares
-rver 6J9777 hotel represent more than 2)7 hotels
'romotion and marketing tools:
(xample :

-They give instant message
-They can spark immediate decision
-They remind and reinforce and keep the destination of attraction in
-They provide direction to people already heading to the destination
Luccess depends on :
-The location of the billboard
-The visibility
-The design
-The content
-The freshness
"illboard can be viewed by thousands of travellers in a very short short
aey consider ratio for outdoor advertising :
- Uar travellers have 2 to 5 minutes to read the sign
-"illboard need to be easily understood in less than 6 seconds
-Design and content and very important
-Immediate impression is needed
-Xery short text
-Kood sight lines
-When more than one billboard on the site9 each is competing for
-Too many competing billboard on the same site can mean failure to see9
read and absorb any of them
-Leasonal approach may be necessary 9 eg use the billboard during the
ski season to remind people of it to prepare and plan
@efine t%e ter- 9-ar4et seg-ent8/
5 su&se#tion of t%e -ar4et t%at s%ares #o--on #%ara#teristi#s
@efine t%e ter- 9touris- &rand8/
Identifi#ation of a touris- organisation8s produ#ts and servi#es &)
#reating an easil) re#ognisa&le &rand i-age @istinguis%es a
provider a-ongst its #o-petitors/
@es#ri&e t%e -ar4et #%ara#teristi#s of t%ese t*o stages/
Introdu#tion and @e#line
point at *%i#% t%e produ#t is -ade availa&le
*ide s#ale advertising and pro-otion of t%e produ#t
sales start to ta4e off
%ig% #ost to organisation to attra#t interest in ne* produ#t
Suppl) of produ#t out*eig%s de-and
nu-&er of sales is d*indling do*n to not%ing
organisation needs to -a4e a de#ision a&out retaining
produ#t in -ar4et
no advertising
ver) #ostl) to organisation
o-pare printed &ro#%ures *it% ele#troni# &ro#%ures (e-
&ro#%ures) a for-s pro-otional -aterials *%en #o--uni#ating
*it% #usto-ers/
' +rinted &ro#%ures
#an &e ta4en a*a) for future referen#eK e-&ro#%ures #an &e
' +rinted &ro#%ures in#orporate #olour i-agesK e-&ro#%ures use
video #lips and intera#tive te#%nolog) to engage audien#e
' Bot% #an #ontain detailed infor-ation
' +rinted &ro#%ures &e#o-e out of date and are e$pensive to print
' ! &ro#%ures #an &e updated regularl) and are not e$pensive to
!valuate t%e fa#tors t%at touris- providers -ust #onsider *%en
produ#ing effe#tive pro-otional -aterials to pro-ote a spe#ifi#
destination or event/
' #osts
' target -ar4et
' ti-ing
' &rand i-age
' use of 5I@5
7ive t*o e$a-ples of %o* a travel organisation -ig%t #reate a
&rand i-age/
' +rodu#t features
' +a#4aging
' +ri#e
' +ro-otion3advertising
' (arget -ar4et seg-ent
' S)-&ols> logos> slogans> #orporate #olours> unifor-s
@is#uss t%e advantages and disadvantages of &randing tourist
' .se of logos and slogans to %elp esta&lis% t%e 9&rand9 of t%e
destination in #usto-ers8-inds L *ar-> sunn) #olours used in
logos for ari&&ean destinations> e-otive language used in
des#riptive slogans /
' @iffi#ult) in &eing original
' (%e &attle to 4eep t%e &rand of t%e destination &igger t%an t%e
&rands of organiMations *it%in t%e destination L e/g/ %otel #%ains
!$plain t*o roles t%at organisations Bureau pla) in t%e -ar4eting
' raising a*areness &) using -ar4eting
' pro-otional #a-paigns &) using a range of -edia
' #arr)ing out -ar4et resear#% to identif) target -ar4ets
' tr) to attra#t ne* #usto-ers or repeat &usiness
@es#ri&e *%at is -eant &) t%e ter- 9-ulti-#entre %olida)8/
5 pa#4age %olida) *%i#% provides t%e opportunit) to spend ti-e in
t*o or -ore lo#ations
!$plain %o* touris- providers in a #ountr) su#% as Natar #ould
develop a produ#t3servi#e -i$ to attra#t a *ider range of
' !$tending t%e produ#t range to appeal to people fro- different
in#o-e levels L t%e e-p%asis is #urrentl) on t%e lu$urious end of
t%e -ar4et> so need to #onsider a##o--odation for &udget
travellers and t%e fa-il) -ar4et
' Bring in a range of different a#tivities to appeal to different -ar4et
seg-ents L *ater sports> golf> %orse-riding et#/ as *ell as a#tivities
for )oung #%ildren to attra#t t%e fa-il) -ar4et
' Loo4 at %o* e#o touris- #ould &e offered to attra#t e#o-tourists
Identif) and e$plain t*o reasons *%) fre?uent travellers prefer to
use t%e dire#t servi#es of travel suppliers8 *e&sites to -a4e t%eir
travel &oo4ings/
' to avoid pa)ing inter-ediaries8 servi#e fees as travel agents earn
#o--ission fro- t%e tour operators or travel prin#ipals for selling
t%eir produ#ts and servi#es t%e #ost of t%is #o--ission is passed
onto t%e #usto-er
' suppliers pro-ise guaranteed lo*est #ost to enti#e #usto-ers to
&oo4 dire#t
!$plain t*o pri#ing poli#ies t%at suppliers are -ost li4el) to use for
peris%a&le travel servi#es/
' dis#ount pri#ing
' spe#ial offers3pro-otional pri#ing
' varia&le pri#ing3pri#e dis#ri-ination
' loss leader pri#ing
!valuate t%e range of fa#tors t%at deter-ine pri#ing poli#ies for
travel suppliers/
' profita&ilit)
' su&sidies
' #o-petitors
' #usto-ers8 e$pe#tations
' seasonalit)
State t%ree reasons *%) national govern-ents #olle#t touris-
' (o aid planning
' (o pinpoint areas of de-and on infrastru#ture
' (o identif) 4e) -ar4et seg-ents
' (o -onitor t%e su##ess of past plans
' (o support poli#) de#isions
!$plain t%ree in-flig%t servi#es t%at are provided &) long-%aul
international #arriers for t%e &enefit of &usiness #lass
' pre-ta4e-off #%a-pagne or drin4 to *el#o-e
' %ig% #a&in #re* ratio provide attentive level of servi#e
' food and drin4 &etter ?ualit)3#%oi#e -eet &usiness
travellers8 e$pe#tations
' FOB on de-and fit in *it% #usto-ers8 needs
' seat #o-fort (*idt% and pit#%) #an *or4 #o-forta&l)/
' turns into &ed a&ilit) to sleep
' %anging spa#e so t%e) are a&le to store #lot%es or e?uip-ent
-ore #onvenientl)
' Internet a##ess
!$plain t*o fa#tors t%at are li4el) to %ave #ontri&uted to t%e
overall de#line in visitor nu-&ers to an) destiantoin//
' t%e glo&al e#ono-i# slu-p #auses de#rease of de-and (1)
' #%anges in #onsu-er spending %a&its as t%e) avoid %ig%-#ost
long-%aul travel
' #o-petition fro- ot%er destinations so-e destinations are
#%eaper for si-ilar produ#t/
!$plain t%ree positive i-pa#ts t%at t%e sale of souvenirs *ill %ave
on t%e lo#al %ost #o--unit)/
' -one)3in#o-e (1) L raise standard of living (1)
' *or436o& (1) L lessens lo#al une-plo)-ent (1)
' lo#al area -ore attra#tive (1) L redu#es -igration or rural
depopulation (1)
' preserves traditional #raft (1) L lo#al s4ills not lost (1)
' strengt%ens lo#al #ultural identit) (1) L in#reased visitor
a*areness3appre#iation (1
!$plain t%ree *a)s in *%i#% t%e 9de-onstration effe#t8
#an result in a negative so#ial3#ultural i-pa#t on a lo#al %ost
' #lot%es3fas%ion (1) L de#line in traditional dress (1)
' s-o4ing3drin4ing (1) L #%allenges lo#al #usto-> tradition>
religious o&servan#e (1)
' possessions (1) L en#ourages #onsu-eris- (1)
' se$ual &e%aviour (1) L -orals (1)
' drugs (1) L #ri-e (1)
' language (1) L #op)ing slang> s*earing> repla#es native
language (1)/
!$plain four -et%ods of pro-otion t%at #ould &e used as part of
t%is #a-paign/
' 5dvertising in international *e&sites and in international (V
' +u&li#it) su#% as leaflets and &ro#%ures distri&uted via
e-&assies overseas
' Fa-iliarisation trips to travel agents/
' +ress #onferen#e for -edia e$posure
' Internet &) #reating tourist &oard *e&site
'(rade s%o*3(ravel fair
' Sales pro-otion su#% as Free gifts> freea#tivities> #oupons>
' Sponsors%ip of events to raise a*areness of t%e organisation
@is#uss *%) travel and touris- organisations> su#% as t%e Jepal
(ouris- Board> #arr) out -ar4eting and pro-otion
' Raise a*areness of t%e destination
' o-petitive advantage
' In#reases potential #usto-er &ase
' In#rease sales3profita&ilit)
' reate positive i-age for t%e destination3organisation
' 5#%ieve #usto-er satisfa#tion
' I-prove foreign e$#%ange
' 5ttra#t -ore investors
Define the term regulation:
The measures and controls that exist over industry practice
Define the term deregulation:
This term is used to describe the situation in which
organi?ation within an industry becomes self regulated
Wegulation of air transport:
The standards of safety 9 how airports are managed are
controlled at national or international level
The government controls the air travel
$dvantage of Wegulations :
- It protects customers
- It prevents monopoly
$dvantages of deregulation :
- $ll barriers of competitions and price restriction are
- $irlines can make partnership with one another to serve the
main international routes
- Deregulation increase the level of competition between
- Deregulation helps to keep the cost of air tickets low