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. .

2007

. .


, : 28020265

2007

621
31.31
88
: .-.., . . (
);

. .

. .
: .
, , 2007. 171 c.
ISBN 5-06-003712-6
, , .
, ,
,
,
.
: 28020265
.
,
.

621
31.31
ISBN 5-06-003712-6

. , 2007

...
..
.........
I. ..
1. ..
1.1.
1.2. .
2. .
2.1. ...
2.2. . ..
2.3. ...
2.4. .
2.5.
2.6. ..
2.7. , .
, ..
2.8. .
3. ........
3.1. ...
3.1.1. . ..
3.1.2.
3.1.3. .
3.1.4. .......
3.2. ..
3.2.1. , .
.

3.2.2. ..
3.2.3.
. -..
3.2.4. ..
3.3. ..
3.3.1. ..
3.3.2. .
3.3.3.
..
3.3.4. ...
3.4. ..
3.4.1.
3.4.2. .
4.
4.1. ...

6
7
8
9
9
9
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
19
19
22
23
23
23
24
27
28
29
29
31
33
38
41
41
43
44
48
51
51
57
67
67

4.2. ...
II. ..
5. .
5.1. ..
5.2. ..
6. ...
6.1. .
6.2. .
7.

7.1. . ...
7.2. . ..
7.3. ..
8. .
8.1. .
8.2.
.
9. .
9.1. .
9.2. .
9.3. ...
9.4. .
10. ..
10.1. ..
10.2. . ...
10.3. -...
10.4. pT- ...
III.
11.

11.1. .
11.2.

12. ..
12.1.

12.2. .
12.3. ..
12.4.

12.5. .
13.
.
13.1. ...

69
71
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74
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88
92
94
95
95
97
100
101
102
103
103
104
108
108
108
111
112
115
118
118

13.2.
13.3.
..
13.4. .
14.
14.1.
14.2. ..
15. ...
15.1. , .
15.2. .
15.3.
..
15.4.
15.4.1.
..
15.4.2.
...
15.5.
...
15.6.
15.7. ...
15.8.
15.8.1. ..
15.8.2. ..
15.8.3.
...
15.9. ...
16. ...
16.1.
16.2. ..
16.3. ,

16.4.
16.5. ...
17. ..
17.1. .
17.2. ...
17.3.
...
17.4.
.

119
122
125
128
128
129
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133
134
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138
138
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149
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28020265
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28020265 ,
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28020265
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x, y, z ;
wx, wy, wz x, y, z ;
;
;
;
;
;
; ;
;
a ; ;
u ( 1
);
h ( 1 );
q ( );
q ( 1
);
l ( 1 );
;
p ;
( 1 );
t 0;
T K;
R ;
R ;
Q ;
Q ;
L ;
Ar ;
Gr ;
Fo ;
Kn ;
Eu ;
Re ;
Nu ;
M ;
Pe ;
Pr ;
Sh ;
St .

,
. .
,
.
(250 . . .),
.
, , ,

.
, , , , , , ,
.

.
.

.

, .
,
, , .

.
XVIII XIX .
, ,
.

I.
1.
1.1.

(, , .) (, .).

,
:
m
= ,
(1.1)
V
m , ; V , , 3.


.
V,

:
dV
V =
,
(1.2)
V0 dp
V0 , 3; dV , 3; dp
, .


T,
:
dV
T =
,
(1.3)
V0 dT
dT , .
( )
.

:
w
= x ,
(1.4)
y
, .
(. 1.1).
:

10
1,5

T T0 + TS
=
,
0 T0 T + TS

. 1.1.
: 1 p = 107;
2 p = 105; 3 p = 103

(1.5)

. 1.2.

0 T0; TS
. , TS = 122 .

:

(1.5)


(. 1.2) , .

,
.
, , .

0,7
0,06

(. 1.3).

, , .

11

0,006

(. 1.4). ,

5 10 , .


0,1

. 1.3.
:
1; 2; 3;
4; 5;
6; 7; - 8

. 1.4.

: 1; 2;
3; 4; 5; - 6

w l cv
,
3

(1.6)

; w

, /c; l , ;

cv ()
; .


(1.6) .
,

12



3
2

T
(1.7)
.
273

0 T = 273 .
,
, .

= 0

1.2.


,
.
,
.
.
, .
,
.
,
,
.
(),
,
.
, .
,
.
,
.

13

2.
2.1.


(. 2.1). ,
, ( )
.
.
r ABFE,
x, Px ( x ) ,
r
DCGH ( ) Px ( x + dx ) .
r
r
r
p x
r
r
Px ( x ) = p x dydz ; Px ( x + dx ) = p x +
dx dydz .
(2.1)
x

r
(2.1) p x ,
, x.
, ,
x , :
r pr x
Px =
dxdydz .
(2.2)
x
, y z ,
r
r p y
Py =
dxdydz ;
(2.3)
y
r pr z
Pz =
dxdydz .
(2.4)
z


r
r r
r
R = i Rx + j R y + k R z .
,
:
p
Rx = x dxdydz ;
x
p y
Ry =
dxdydz ;
(2.5)
y

p z
dxdydz .
z

Rx = Xdxdydz ; R y = Ydxdydz ; Rz = Zdxdydz .
Rz =

(2.6)

14

. 2.1.

(2.9)
p y
p
p
X= x;Y=
;Z= z.
(2.7)
x
z
y
(2.7)
. ( X = 0 ; Y = 0 ; Z = 0 ) (2.7)

p
p
p
= 0;
= 0.
= 0;
(2.8)
x
z
y
(2.8)
, ,

.
2.2. .


x , ,

(2.9)
X = g ; Y = 0 ; Z = 0 ,
g ; .
x
.

p
= g .
(2.10)
x
,
(2.11)
p p0 = g ( x x0 ) ,
p0 x = x0.

15

(x0 = 0),
h = x x0 , ,
:
(2.12)
p = p0 + gh .
(2.12) ,
( p = gh ),
.
,
,
.
:
1.
, ;
2. (
) .
, (2.12)
, , U.
,

U
U
U
;Y=
;Z=
.
X=
(2.13)
x
z
y

U p U p U p
;
;
=
.
=
=
x x y y z z
(2.14)
U U 0 = p p0 ,

(2.14)
(2.15)

(2.16)
p U = const .
(2.16)
.
2.3.

,
,
.
:

.
,

(. 2.2).

16

. 2.2.

. 2.3.

, 1 2, ,
(. 2.3), ,

. AB,
(. 2.3). p1 = p2 .
p1 = p + 1 gh1 ;
(2.17)
p2 = p + 2 gh2 .
,
1 h2
= .
(2.18)
2 h1
(2.18)
.
,
.
2.4.


.
: ,
, . ,
,
.
. 2.4. .
, F1, ,
,
, F2.
, ,
(2.19)
p1 F1 = p2 F2 .

17

. 2.4.

F1
.
(2.20)
F2
,
p2,
.
p2 = p1

2.5.


. .
( ),
(. 2.5).
,

,
. ,
,
(2.21)
p = gh ,
p ; ; h
( ).

. 2.5.

. 2.6.

. 2.7.

18

,
() .

.
.
,
.
.
, ,
.
(. 2.6), U-
c ( , ).
p > p , ,

, ,

.
, ( ) ,
.
.
p :
(2.22)
p = p + p ;
(2.23)
p = gh ,
h U- .

.
, , .
,

.
.
, (),
.
U- c ( , ).
p < p , U- h
( ) (. 2.7).
, , .
.
p :
(2.24)
p = p p ;
(2.25)
p = gh ,
h U- .

19

2.6.


, h2, h1
(. 2.8). r
P1 , ,
r
P2 ,
r
. P
:
(2.26)
P = P2 P1 ;
(2.27)
P1 = p1 F ; P2 = p2 F ,
p1, p2 h1 h2 ;
F .

(2.28)
P1 = gh1 F ; P2 = gh2 F .

. 2.8. ,

,
(2.29)
P = gF (h2 h1 ) = gV ,
V
r , .
P ,
.
:
, ,
r
P ,
.
2.7. , .
,

, .
r
r
P G .
, .
.

20

r
r
P G , ,
(. 2.9, ).
G > P , , .
G < P , .
G = P , .
, D
,
(.
r 2.9, ). ,
r
, P G ,
.
(. 2.9, ),

,
,
.
,
(. 2.10).

, ,
.
, C
D .

( G = P ).
,
.

. 2.9. ,

. 2.10. ,

21

. 2.11.

. 2.12.


(. 2.11), .
r
BOB\

N
,
r
N ,
.


r r

r
r ( P , G ), ,
( N , N ), .
, .

.
D D\ (. 2.12).
r
r
r
( P , G ), P ,
. ,
r
G , ,
,
.
M , CM
.

, .
.

22

2.8.


(2.10).

p
=
,
(2.30)
RT

dp
g dx
.
=
(2.31)
p
RT
, ,
(2.31)
p
g
(h h0 ) ,
ln
=
(2.32)
p0
RT
p0 h0.
(2.32)
g
(h h0 ) .
p = p0 exp
(2.33)
RT

, ,
,
dp
= gdx ,
1
(2.34)
pk
k ( k = 1,4).
(2.34)
k

k 1
k 1
k 1
k
(
)
p = p0 g
h h0 .
k
(2.35)

,
.

23

3.
3.1.

3.1.1. .
,
.
.
1 (. 3.1),
r
W1 . 2,
r
r
W1 1. 2 W2 .
r
3 W3 . .
1, 2, 3 .
, ,
.
,
,
.
,

,
(. 3.2).
.
ds.
x, y, z dx, dy, dz:
r w
r w
r w y dy
dx
dz
cos xW = x = ; cos yW =
= ; cos zW = z = .
(3.1)
W ds
W ds
W ds
,
ds dx dy dz
.
=
=
=
(3.2)
W w x w y wz

( )

( )

( )

(3.2) .

. 3.1.

. 3.2.

. 3.3.

24


(. 3.3) .

, .
, ,
.

:
(3.3)
G = W = const .
(3.3)
.
( = const):
(3.4)
W = const .
(3.4)
.
3.1.2.

.
, ,
,
.
:

, .
.
,
.
xy , d,
. 3.4.

. 3.4.

25

. 3.4 ABCD ; A/B/C/D/


d.
A A/. A/, x, y, z,

(3.5)
wx A / = wx ( x , y , z ) ; w y A / = w y ( x , y , z ) ; wz A / = wz ( x , y , z ) .
(3.5)

B/ D/:
w y
w x
dy .
wx B / = wx A / +
dy ; w y B / = w y A / +
(3.6)
y
y
w y
w
dx .
wx D / = wx A / + x dx ; w y D / = w y A / +
(3.7)
x
x
x, y y,
z z
,
. y, xy
w y B / w y A / d w y
(w / wx A/ )d wx
=
=
x = xD
; y =
.
(3.8)
d dx
x
d dy
y

w
z = z .
(3.9)
z
d1, d2. ,
(w / wx A/ )d = wx d ;
d 1 = tg (d 1 ) = x B
(3.10)
y
dy
w y D / w y A / d w y
d 2 = tg (d 2 ) =
d .
=
(3.11)
dx
x

xy, xy
d1 d2 .
(d + d 2 ) = 1 wx + w y .
xy = 1
(3.12)
2d
2 y
x

yz xz.
w
1 w
yz = y + z
2 z
y

xz

w
1 w
= x + z .
x
2 z

(3.13)
(3.14)

26


M, :
wx
1 w y wx 1 wz wx

+
+

x
2 x
y 2 x
z
xx xy xz
w y
w y
1 w
1 wz w y

;
(3.15)
M = yx yy yz = x +
+
2 y
2 y
x
y
z
zx zy zz
wz
1 wx wz 1 w y wz

+
+

2 z
z
x 2 z
y

xy = yx ; xz = zx ; yz = zy .

(3.16)

z
d AE.
,
. :
d 1 + B AE + d =
d 2 + D AE d =

;
.

B AE = D AE ,
(d 2 d 1 )
d =
.
2
, z
d 1 w y wx
.
z =
=

d 2 x
y
x y:
w
1 w
x = z y ;
2 y
z

(3.17)
(3.18)

(3.19)

(3.20)

(3.21)

1 wx wz

.
(3.22)
x
2 z
r

r
r
r r
(3.23)
= i x + j y + k z .
r
.
r
r

.
r
r
(3.24)
= rotW .
r 1r
1
1
1
= ; x = x ; y = y ; z = z .
(3.25)
2
2
2
2
1
, .

y =

27

wx1, wy1, wz1 1 x + x, y + y, z + z


wx0, wy0, wz0 0 x, y, z.
wx1, wy1, wz1 0,
,
w
w
w
wx1 = wx 0 + x x + x y + x z ;
x
y
z
w y
w y
w y
w y1 = w y 0 +
x +
y +
z ;
(3.26)
x
y
z
w
w
w
w z 1 = w z 0 + z x + z y + z z .
x
y
z
(3.26)
wx1 = wx 0 + xx x + xy y + xz z + y z z y ;
(3.27)
w = w + x + y + z + x z ;
y1

y0

yx

yy

yz

wz1 = wz 0 + zx x + zy y + zz z + x y y x .
(3.27) 1
, .
3.1.3.
,
,
r

() .
0
r
r
r
( 0 ), = 0 ( = 0 ).
: -
,

.

.
,
( ) .

dx dy dz
.
=
=
(3.28)
x y z
,
. .
r
, = 0 ,
(3.29)
x = y = z = 0 .

28

w y wx
wz w y
wz wx

= 0;

= 0;

= 0.
(3.30)
x
z
y
z
x
y
wz w y wz w y w y wx
=
;
=
;
.
=
(3.31)
y
y
z
z
x
y
wx dx + w y dy + wz dz .
(3.31) ,

( x , y , z ) :

wx dx + w y dy + wz dz = d =
dx +
dy +
dz .
(3.32)
z
x
y
,

; wy =
; wz =
.
wx =
(3.33)
x
z
y
( x , y , z ) .
r
r r
r
r r r
W = i wx + j w y + k wz = i
+ j
+k
= = grad .
(3.34)
x
y
z



. ,
wx w y wz
+
+
= 0,
(3.35)
x
dy
dz
(3.33)
2 2 2
+
+
= = 0 .
(3.36)
x 2 y 2 z 2
(3.36) . ,
,
.
3.1.4.

. ,
, ,

. ,
.

, , .
,
.

29


(. 3.5)
r
, W .
AB
r r AB
(3.37)
AB = Wds = W cos ds .
AB

AB

r r
(3.38)
= Wds = (wx dx + w y dy + wz dz ).
(3.37) (3.38)
,
.

. 3.5.


r
= grad ds =
dx +
dy +
dz = d = B A .
(3.39)

x
y
z
AB
AB
AB
,
,
. , = 0 .
3.2.

3.2.1. , .
.
,
.
, ,
() .

(, . .).
,
( . .).

30

, ,
.
,
.
,
.
x ( ,
x) x. y, z.
, , xy,
, ,

.
,
.
x, y, z :

x yx zx
xy y zy .
xz yz z
(3.40) .
xy = yx ; xz = zx ; zy = yz .

(3.40)

(3.41)

x xy xz
xy y yz .
xz yz z

(3.42)


xy = yz = xz = 0 .

(3.43)

(3.43) , .

(3.44)
x = y =z = p,
p ,
, ,
.
(3.44) ,
(3.45)
1
p = ( x + y + z ) .
3
, (
) ,

31

0
p 0
(3.46)
0 p 0 .
0
0 p

:
(3.47)
x = p + p x ; y = p + p y ; z = p + p z ;
px, py, pz
x, y, z, .
, (1.4)
.
,
,

r
w
w
w
2
x = p divW + 2 x ; xy = 2 xy = x + y ;
3
x
x
y
r
w
w
2
w
(3.48)
y = p divW + 2 y ; xz = 2 xz = x + z ;
3
y
x
z
r
w
w
w
2
z = p divW + 2 z ; yz = 2 yz = y + z .
3
z
y
z
r w
w y wz
divW = x +
+
.
(3.49)
y
z
x
(3.48) r .
divW = 0 , (3.48)
.
3.2.2.

(. 3.6) dm
d.

.
V = dxdydz ,
dm
d
dm d (V )
d d
=
=V
=
dxdydz .
(3.50)
d
d
d d

32

. 3.6.

,
.
ABFE, AEHD EFGH
: ABFE wx dydz ; AEHD w y dxdz ;
EFGH w z dxdy .
DCGF, BCGF ABCD
( w x )

: DCGH wx +
dx dydz ; BCGF
x

(w y )

( w z )

+
w
dz dxdy .

w
dy
dxdz
;

ABCD

z
y
z


, :
(wx ) (w y ) (wz )
d
+
+
dxdydz =
dxdydz ;
(3.51)

d
x
y
z

d (wx ) (w y ) (wz )
+
+
+
=0.
(3.52)
d
x
y
z

(3.52)

.
r
d
+ div W = 0 .
(3.53)
d
( )

wx w y wz
+
+
= 0;
(3.54)
x
dy
dz
r
(3.55)
divW = 0 .

( )

33

( )

(wx ) (w y ) (wz )
+
+
= 0;
(3.56)
z
x
y
r
(3.57)
div W = 0 .
,
.

( )

3.2.3. .
-
, , ,
.

(. 3.6).
, ,

, ,
.

,
.

x, y, z.

, .
ABFE, x,

d
x, y, z:
I xx ( x ) = wx wx dydzd = i xx dydzd ;
(3.58)
I xy ( x ) = wx w y dydzd = i xy dydzd ;

I xz ( x ) = wx wz dydzd = i xz dydzd .

i xx , i xy , i xz ,
, 1 x,
x, y, z .

34

DCGH
:
i
(wx wx )

dx dydzd = i xx + xx dx dydzd ;
I xx ( x + dx ) = wx wx +
x
x

(wx w y )
i xy

dx dydzd ;
dx dydzd = i xy +
I xy ( x + dx ) = wx w y +
(3.59)

x
x

(wx wz )
i

I xz ( x + dx ) = wx wz +
dx dydzd = i xz + xz dx dydzd .
x
x

()
() , x,
x, y, z
(wx wx )
I xx = I xx ( x ) I xx ( x + dx ) =
dxdydzd ;
x
(wx w y )
I xy = I xy ( x ) I xy ( x + dx ) =
dxdydzd ;
(3.60)
x

(wx wz )
dxdydzd .
x

y z:
(w y wx )
I yx = I yx ( y ) I yx ( y + dy ) =
dxdydzd ;
y
(w y w y )
I yy = I yy ( y ) I yy ( y + dy ) =
dxdydzd ;
(3.61)
y
(w y wz )
I yz = I yz ( y ) I yz ( y + dy ) =
dxdydzd .
y
( w z w x )
I zx = I zx ( z ) I zx ( z + dz ) =
dxdydzd ;
z
(wz w y )
I zy = I zy ( z ) I zy ( z + dz ) =
dxdydzd ;
(3.62)
z
( w z w z )
I zz = I zz ( z ) I zz ( z + dz ) =
dxdydzd .
z
I xz = I xz ( x ) I xz ( x + dx ) =

35

d I x ,
I y , I z x, y, z,
,
(wx )
dxdydzd ;
I x =

(w y )
dxdydzd ;
I y =
(3.63)

(wz )
dxdydzd .

, ,
( ) .
x, y, z d . r
r r
r
R = i X + j Y + k Z ,
,
(3.64)
I Rx = Xdxdydzd ; I Ry = Ydxdydzd ; I Rz = Zdxdydzd .
I z =

.
r ABFE,
x, Px ( x ) ,
r
DCGH ( ) Px ( x + dx ) .
r
r
r
p x
r
r
Px ( x ) = p x dydz ; Px ( x + dx ) = p x +
dx dydz .
(3.65)
x

r
(3.65) p x ,
, x.
,r
x , I Px

r
r
p x
I Px =
dxdydzd .
(3.66)
x
, ,
x , ,
, x.

, , y z:
r
r
p y
I Py =
dxdydzd .
(3.67)
y
r
r
p z
I Pz =
dxdydzd .
(3.68)
z

36

r
r
r
p x , p y , p z ,
x, y, z ,

r
r
r
r
p x = i x + j xy + k xz ;
r
r
r
r
p y = i xy + j y + k yz ;
(3.69)
r
r
r
r
p z = i xz + j yz + k z .

r x xy xz r xy y yz
+ j
+
+
+
+
+
i
r

x
y
z
x
y
z


(3.70)
dxdydzd .
I P =
r

z
k xz + yz +

y
z
x

,
,
xy xz

dxdydzd ;
+
I x (I xx + I yx + I zx ) = I Rx x +

x
y
z

xy y yz
dxdydzd ;
I y (I xy + I yy + I zy ) = I Ry
+
+
z
y
(3.71)
x
yz z

dxdydzd .
+
I z (I xz + I yz + I zz ) = I Rz xz +

x
y
z

:
(wx ) (wx wx ) (wx w y ) (wx wz )
x xy xz
+
+
+
=X+
+
;
+

x
y
z
x
y
z
(w y ) (wx w y ) (w y w y ) (w y wz )
xy y yz
;
+
+
+
+
=Y +
+
(3.72)

x
y
y
z
x
z
yz z

(wz ) (wx wz ) (w y wz ) (wz wz )


+
+
+
+
= Z + xz +
.

x
y
y
z
x
z

37

(3.72)
(wx ) (wx wx ) (wx w y ) (wx wz )
w
w

+
+
+
= x + wx
+ wx x +
x

x
y
z
(w y )
(wx )
w
w
(wz )
+ wx
+ w y x + wx
+ wz x + wx
=
x
y
z
y
z

w
w
w
w
= x + wx x + w y x + wz x +
x
y
z

(wx ) (w y ) (wz )
+ wx +
+
+

x
y

(3.73)

.
(3.52)
(3.73), , .
w
w
w
Dwx wx
=
+ wx x + w y x + wz x ,
(3.74)

x
y
d
z

Dwx
.
d
, :
r w
w y
Dwx
p wx 2
+

=X
+ 2
divW + x +

d
x x x 3
y
y
dx


;
w
w
+ x + z
z z
dx

Dw y
d

=Y

r
p wx w y w y 2
+ 2
+
+
divW +
y x y
dx y y 3

w y wz

+

z z
dy

Dwz
p wx wz

+
+
=Z
d
z x z
dx

r
wz 2

div
W

z z 3

w y wz
+
+
+
dy
y z
.

(3.75)

38

(3.75)

r
(). divW = 0 ,
-
2 wx 2 wx 2 wx
Dwx
p
;

=X
+ 2 +
+
2
2
d
x
z
y
x
2 wy 2 wy 2 wy
p
;
=Y
+
+
+

2
2
x 2
y
d
y
z

2 wz 2 wz 2 w z
Dwz
p
.
=Z
+ 2 +
+

2
2
z
d

x
y
z

= 0 (3.76)
Dw y
Dwx
Dwz
p
p
p
;
;
=Z .

=X
=Y
d
x
d
z
d
y
Dw y

(3.76)

(3.77)

wx
w
w
w
1
1 p
+ wx x + w y x + wz x = X
;

x
y
z

x
w y 1
w y
w y
w y
1 p
+ wx
+ wy
+ wz
= Y
;
(3.78)

x
y
z

y
wz
w
w
w
1
1 p
.
+ wx z + w y z + wz z = Z

x
y
z

z

.

3.2.4.
, , ,
.

(. 3.6).
E, u
W2
( ).
2

L ,
, () Q
QV :
DE
dxdydz = L + Q + QV .

(3.79)
d

39


L = (Xwx + Ywy + Zwz )dxdydzd .

(3.80)

,
. ABFE

(3.81)
Lx ( x ) = x wx dydzd .
DCGH:
( x wx )

Lx ( x + dx ) = x wx +
dx dydzd .
(3.82)

.
, ,
x:
( x wx )
Lx = Lx ( x ) + Lx ( x + dx ) =
dxdydzd .
(3.83)
x

, , x:
( xy w y )
Lxy =
dxdydzd ;
(3.84)
x

( xz wz )
dxdydzd .
(3.85)
x
,
y z.
,

(
)
(
)
+
+
+

w
+
+
+
x
x
xy
y
xz
z
xy
x
y
y
yz
z
x

y
dxdydzd .
L =
(3.86)

(
)

w
+
+
+
yz y
z z
x xz x

L
(3.87)
L = L + L .
, ,
x, ABFE:
(3.88)
Qx ( x ) = q x dydzd ,

Lxz =

qx , x, /2.
, DCGH:
q

Qx ( x + dx ) = q x + x dx dydzd .
x

(3.89)

40


x:

q x
dxdydzd .
(3.90)
x
,
, y z.
,

q y q z
q
dxdydzd .
+
Q = x +
(3.91)

x
y
z

Qx = Qx ( x ) Qx ( x + dx ) =

:
q = gradT ,

(3.92)
T r T r T r
; gradT =
i +
j+
k
x
y
x
.
, .
(3.91)
T T T
+
Q =
+
dxdydzd .
(3.93)

x
x
y
y


QV = qV dxdyd ,

(3.94)

qV .
,

W2

D u +
2
= Xw + Yw + Zw + ( w + w + w ) +

x
y
z
x x
xy y
xz z
d
x

(3.95)
+ ( xy wx + y w y + yz wz ) + ( xz wx + yz w y + z wz ) +
.
y
x
T T T
+

+
+ qV
x x y y z z
,

r T T T
Du
+
= pdivW +

+
+ qV + .
(3.96)
x x y y z z
d
+

41

(3.96) , = const

2
2
w 2 w 2

wz w y wx

y
x
2

+
+
+
+
+

x
y
z
x
y


=
.
2
2
2
(3.97)
w
w y wx wz
2 wx w y wz
z
+

+
+
+
+
+

z z
x
y
z
3 x
y

(3.98)
du = d (cT ) ,
c .
r
divW = 0 ,

D(cT ) T T T
+
=

+
+ qV + .
(3.99)
x x y y z z
d

.


2T 2T 2T
DT
c
= 2 + 2 + 2 + qV .
(3.100)
d
y
z
x
a =

,
c
q
DT
= a 2T + V ,
d
c

(3.101)

2T 2T 2T
T = 2 + 2 + 2 .
x
y
z
,
- , (3.99) (3.101)
cp.

, qV = 0 .
2

3.3.

3.3.1.
:
.
(1883 .).

42

,

, .
.


(), .
.
,
,
,
.
. 3.7.
.
,
.

.
,

wd
,
Re =

Re.
w, (
d), . Re
. ,
Re 2000 .
, Re < Re
, Re > Re .
,
.

Re = 40000 .

. 3.7. : , ;
,

43

, Re < 2000
,
.

Re > 10 4 . Re = 2000...10000
. .
,
n.

,
n

(3.102)


n. = 0...1 ,
= 0 , = 1 .
.
,
Re = (0 ,35...1,00 ) 10 6 .
3.3.2.
,

(.
3.8). ()

(3.103)
w = w + w ; p = p + p ; T = T + T ,
w, p, T ,
; w , p , T , ,
; w , p , T
, , .

. 3.8.

44



1 +
1 +
1 +
w=
wd ; p = pd ; T = Td .
(3.104)

,
( w , T . .),
.
(),
. ,
wx wy , wyT
, .
,
( w = w , T = T . .).
( w w = 0 , pp = 0 . .).

, Tu.

1 2
wx + wy2 + wz2
(3.105)
Tu = 3
,
w

wx2 , wy2 , wz2 , w


.
wx2 = wy2 = wz2 = w 2
w 2
.
Tu =
(3.106)
w
Tu 0,0002...0,01 . Tu
.

.
.

. .

3.3.3.


(3.76), (3.99).
,
,

45

(, , ).
(3.76) (3.99)
, . ,
-
.
.


.
,
.
.

(
-) ,
.

.
dIxx, dIxy, dIxz dFx, x,

(3.107)
dI xx = wx wx dFx ; dI xy = wx w y dFx ; dI xz = wx wz dFx .

dI xx = (wx + wx )(wx + wx )dFx = wx2 + 2 wx w x + wx2 dFx =
;
2
2
= wx + wx dFx

dI xy = (wx + wx )(w y + wy )dFx = wx w y + wx wy + w y w x + wx wy dFx =

= wx w y + wx wy dFx

dI xz = (wx + wx )(wz + wz )dFx = wx wz + wx wz + wz w x + wx wz dFx =

= wx wz + wx wz dFx

(3.108)

dFx
(
, x):
x = wx2 + wx2 ;

xy = (wx w y + wx wy ) ;
xz = (wx wz + wx wz ) .

(3.109)

dFy dFz,
y z , 6
.

46

dFy:

yx = xy = (wx w y + wx wy ) ;

y = w y2 + wy2 ;

(3.110)

yz = (w y wz + wy wz ).
dFz:

zx = xz = (wx wz + wx wz ) ;

zy = yz = (w y wz + wy wz );

(3.111)

+ wz .
,
:

z =

x xy xz
yx y yz =
zx zy z

wz2

wx2

wx wy

wx wy

wy2

wx wz

wy wz

wx wz
wy wz .
wz

(3.112)

,
,
.
,
Dwx
p
=X
+

x
d
;
wx
wx
wx

2
+
wx +
wx wy +
wx wy

x
x
y
y
z
z

Dw y
d

=Y

p
+
y

w
w y

w y

y
+
wx wy +
wy2 +
wy wz

x
x
y
y
z
z


Dwz
p

=Z
+
d
z
.
wz
wz
wz

2
wy wz +
wz
+
wx wz +
x
x
y
y
z
z


(3.113) .

(3.113)

47

. ,
:
w
w
w
Txx x Txy x Txz x
x
y
z
x xy xz
(3.114)
w
w
w
yx y yz = Txy y Tyy y Tyz y ,
x
y
z
zx zy z
w
w
w
Txz z Tyz z Tzz z
x
y
z
Tij .

Txx
Txy
Txz

Txy
Tyy
Tyz

Txz
Tyz
Tzz

wx2
wx
x
wx wy
=
w y

wx wy
wx
y
wy2
w y

wx wz
wx
z
wy wz
.
w y

x
wx wz
wz
x

y
wy wz
wz
y

z
wz2
wz
z

(3.115)


Tij .
,
Dw x
w
w
w
p
=X
+ ( + Txx ) x + ( + Txy ) x + ( + Txz ) x ;

d
x
x
y
z

w y
w y
w y
p
(3.116)
+ ( + Txy )
+ ( + Tyy )
+ ( + Tyz )
;
d
y
x
y
z
Dwz
w
w
w
p
=Z
+ ( + Txz ) z + ( + Tyz ) z + ( + Tzz ) z .

d
z
x
y
z

,
T
T
DT

T
c p
= ( + Tx ) + ( + Ty ) + ( + Tz ) ,
(3.117)
y z
z
d x
x y

Dw y

=Y

Ti ,
.

48

:
c w T
c w T
c w T
Tx = p x ; Ty = p y ; Tz = p z .
(3.118)
T
T
T
x
y
z
,
,
.

,
,
. ,
,
.
3.3.4.

-
.


.
1925 . . ,

.
,
wx y (. 3.9).

. 3.9.

49

, ,
y (
) l,
. l .
y1 y2,
y = l . , 1,
wx1 , , x-
, 2,
wx 2 . 2
wx 2 wx1 wx .
(3.119)
wx = wx 2 wx1 = wx .
wx 2
y = l :
dw
dw
wx 2 = wx1 + x y = wx1 + x l .
(3.120)
dy
dy
,
dw
wx = l x .
(3.121)
dy
, y2,
, wx 2 ,
, wx 2 .
wy , wx .
2 dw x

2 dw x

.
wx wy = l
(3.122)
dy

wx wy . l
(3.122) . l
, (3.122)

.
wx wy = l
dy

(3.123)

,
2

;
xy = l
dy
dw
Txy = l 2 x .
dy
2 dwx

(3.124)
(3.125)

50


:
dw x dT
wyT = l2
;
(3.126)
dy dy

qT = c p wyT = c p l2

dwx dT
;
dy dy

(3.127)

dwx
.
(3.128)
dy
l l
.
. ,
(3.129)
l = y ,
, .
.
,
dw x
dy
(3.130)
,
l= 2
d wx
dy 2
, .
,
,
,
.
.
1942 . . . , 1945 .
. ,
, (
Tij)
1
k = wx2 + wy2 + wz2 .
2

. k .
.

. , -:
k 2 wx

.
wx w y = a
(3.131)
y

T = c p l 2

51

T = a

k2

(3.132)

a .
k
, , ,
.
3.4.

,
:
,
;
,
,
.
3.4.1.
1.
,
.

.

,
.

( ) ,
1%
(. . 0 ,99 w ).
T.

. 3.11.

52


,
(. 3.11).
,

x
. .
2.


.

,
():

w
,

w =

(3.133)

w
,

w =

y
w

(3.134)

y w

(3.135)

; w
.
:
(3.136)
= f ( )
Re,
w . (5.4)
.

.

,
wx = 0
w
w = x ,
(3.137)
y
(3.136)
= .

(3.138)

53


, = T = w ,
:
2

.
w = y
dy

2 dwx

(3.139)

(3.139)

(3.140)
dwx
w
=
= .
dy
y
y
,
1
1 yw
1 w
1
= ln y + c = ln ln + c = ln + c1 .
(3.141)


:
(3.142)
= 5,5 + 2,5 ln ; = 5,5 + 5,75 lg .
. 3.12 ,
. = 5...30
. ,
,
.

(3.143)
= 3,05 + 11,5 lg .
,
: ( = 0...5 ), ( = 5...30 )
( > 30 ).
,
.
Re.

, Re

(3.144)
= c n ;
n

wx y
= ,
(3.145)
w
.
n , Re.
, Re = 5 10 5 ...10 7 n = 0,14 .

54

. 3.12.


.
T > 30 :
(3.146)
T = 3,2 + 5,9 lg T ,
T ; T
.

.
3.

,
(3.54), (3.116) (3.117) .
Tij = 0 Ti = 0.

, .

,

.



w
w
p
,
wx x + w y x = +
(3.147)
x
y
x y
w
= ( + Txy ) x ; Txy = 0 .
x

55

, ,
wx

= 0
= 0 .
x
y

w
p
w = ,
(3.148)
x
x
w = f ( x ) .
(3.148) (3.147):
w
w
w

w x x + w y x = w + .
(3.149)
x
y
x
y
dy

:

w x
w x
w

wx x dy + w y y dy = w x dy + y dy ,
(3.150)
0
0
0
0

w
w dw
1 x dy + w 1 x dy = w ,
(3.151)
w
0 w dx
w .
:
.
,
, ,
.
.

d 2 wx
w
dx 0 w

w = w dy wdy .

(3.152)

(3.152) ,

= 1 x dy .
w

(3.153)

,
,
.
, :
0

w2

= w(w w)dy ,

wx
0 w

wx
1
w

dy .

(3.154)
(3.155)

56

, (3.149)
d 2 + dw c f
+
=
,
dx
w
dx
2
cf
d Re
(
)
2
Re
+
H
f
=
Re L ,
L
d~
x
2
f

; Re =

(3.156)
(3.157)

x
x = , L
; ~
L

; H =

w L
dw
; Re L =

; f =
w dx

.
dw
( = 0 ) (3.156)
dx

d
= w2 .
(3.158)
dx
w


d T T dw T d (T )
= St ,
+
+
(3.159)
dx
w dx
T dx
qw
; qw
St =
c p w T
; T = T f Tw = f ( x ) ; T :

wx
T Tw

1
w T T dy ,
f
w
0

(3.160)

T ; Tf
.
(3.160)
d ReT ReT dw d (T )
+
+
= St ReL ,
(3.161)
d~
x
d~
x
T dx
w T

ReT =
.

57

dw
= 0
dx
d (T )

= 0 (3.160)
Tf Tw
dx

T
qw
d T
(
)
,

=
=
T
T
w
dy
a

f
dx 0
c p
y y =0
a .

(3.162)

3.4.2.
1.
,

,
(
).
(. 3.13).
,
Fw F1w1 F2 w2
G=
=
=
= const ,
(3.163)

1
2
G ; F1, F2
1
1

1 1 2 2; 1 = , 2 =

; p1, p2 , 1 1
2 2.
,

dw 2
Q = dU + L + G
+ Ggdz ,
(3.164)
2
Q ,
; dU
; L
dw 2

; G
2
; Ggdz (
).
,
.

58

. 3.13.

I I II II .
pF , ( p + dp )(F + dF ) .
()
(3.165)
L = ( p + dp )(F + dF )(w + dw) pFw .

,
(3.166)
L = pd (Fw) Fwdp .
(3.163)
(3.167)
L = G ( pd + dp ) = Gd ( p ) .
1 /c,
(3.168)
l = ( pd + dp ) = d ( p ) .
,
dw 2
dw 2
dw 2
dw 2
q = du + l +
= du + d ( p ) +
= d (u + p ) +
= dh +
,
(3.169)
2
2
2
2
dh .

,
.
w12
w22
h1 +
= h2 +
(3.170)
2
2

w2
h+
= const .
(3.171)
2
w2
h+
= h ,
(3.172)
2
h ( w = 0 ).

59


h = c p T ,
cp ,
w2
T+
= T ,
2c p

(3.173)

(3.174)

T ( w = 0 ).
(3.174)
.
2.
,
x.
= 0 -

Dwx
dp
=X
.

(3.175)
d
dx

Dwx dwx
dw
=
+ wx x .
(3.176)
d
d
dx

dwx
dw
1
dp
+ wx x = X .
(3.177)
d
dx
dx
dwx
,
= 0 .
d
X = 0 .

dw
1 dp
.
wx x =
(3.178)
dx
dx
(3.178) ,
dp
wx dwx = .

:
wx2
p+
= const .
2

w 2
p+
= const .
2

(3.179)

(3.180)

(3.181)

60

(3.181) .
, , .
,
, , (3.175),
( p = RT );
cp
( c p c = R ) ( = k ,
c
k ).
, .
w2
c pT +
= const ;
(3.182)
2
p w2
cp
+
= const ;
(3.183)
R 2
c p p w2
+
= const .
(3.184)
c c
2
p

(3.184)
,
k p w2
+
= const ,
(3.185)
k 1
2
,
k
.

k 1
3.

p, , ,
, ..
.
.

E
,
a=
(3.186)

E .
p
V.
,
dV
.
dp = E
(3.187)
V

61

V ,
1
E=
.
(3.188)
V

1
dp
.
=
a=
d
V

(3.189)

a . (3.189) ,
.

:
d dp
+
= 0,
k
(3.190)

p
,

dp
a = 2 = kp = kRT .
(3.191)
d
,
,

w
M= .
(3.192)
a
(3.192)
.
4. .
.
(3.173).
h :
h
T
w2
w2
=
=1 =1 2 ,
(3.193)
h T
wmax
2h
wmax = 2h .
w = wmax h = 0 , , T = 0 p = 0 ,
.
p k = const

p T
=
p T

k 1
k

T k 1
; = .
T

(3.194)

62

(3.193),
k 1
k

1
k
1

p
w
w

(3.195)

.
1
;
1
=

p wmax
wmax
, c 0 wmax
0 (. 3.14).
,
.
.
,
2
(3.196)
a 2 = kRT ; a = kRT ;
2

a2
a

a2
a

=1

k
k 1

T
;
T

(3.197)

w2
;
2
wmax

(3.198)
1
k 1

p a
a
(3.199)

;
=
= 2 .

p a
a
,
. a .
M.
2 2
k p
2
wmax
= 2h = 2
=
a ,
(3.200)
k 1 k 1
2

2
w2
k 1 2

a = a 1 2 = a
w .
2
wmax
2

. 3.14.

(3.201)

63

a2
2

a
k 1 2
1
=
+
M .
2
a2

(3.202)

k 1 2
p k 1 2 k 1 k 1 2 k 1 T
(3.203)
M ;
M ;
M .
= 1 +
= 1 +
=1+
p
2

2
T
2


,
w
=
, . a
a
, ,
. w = a M = 1 = 1.
(3.202) ,
2 2 k 1 2
2
a
=
a =
wmax ;
(3.204)
k +1
k +1
k

2
2 k 1 2 k 1
(3.205)
=
;
.
;
=
=

T k +1
k + 1
p k + 1
,
,
.
(3.204) :
w2
k + 1 2 w2
w2 k + 1 2 w2
2
2 .
= 2 =
a 2 ; 2 =
(3.206)
a k 1
wmax wmax k 1 wmax
p

T
a2
k 1 2
( ) = = 2 = 1
;

k
+
1
T
a

( ) =

k
k
2 1

p k 1

= 1
p k + 1

(3.207)

k 1 2 k 1
( ) = = 1
.
k +1
(3.207) ( ) , ( ) , ( )

.
,
k.

64

,

k +1
2
=M
.
(3.208)
k 1 2
M
1
2
. (3.163)
:
G=

wF

= wF =

1
k
2 1

k 1
F = a 1

w

a
k +1
a

1
k
1

F=
(3.209)

=
a Fq( ) = a Fq( )
k + 1
F .
(3.209)
q( ) =

w
a

k + 1 k 1 k 1 2 k 1
.
=
1
k +1
2

(3.210)

(3.210) q( )
k +1
, w = wmax .
k 1

.
q( ) . ,
q( ) w = a .

= 0 =

q( ) .

(3.211)
wF = w F ,
F
1
=
,
F q( )

(3.212)

k +1

k +1

F 2 2( k 1 ) 1 k 1 2 2( k 1 )
M
=
.
1 +

F k + 1
M
2


. 3.15.

(3.213)

65

. 3.15.

. 3.15 ,
: .
5.
.
(3.163) ,
d dF dw
+
+
= 0.
(3.214)
F
w

(3.179) (3.189) ,
w 2 dw
d
=
2

a w

(3.215)

dw
.
(3.216)

w
(3.216) (3.214):
dF
dw
= M 2 1
.
(3.217)
F
w
(3.217)
dF
dw
.


F
w
, (M < 1)
, (M > 1)
. , ,

.
, ,
, .

(. 3.16).
= M 2

66

. 3.16.

,
(dp < 0) (dw > 0).
, w < a,
a.
( ),
.
, w > a.

67

4.
4.1.


(), -.
,
.

.
F
w (. 4.1). ,
,
,
(4.1)
( p2 p1 )F = w Pl ,
p1 p2 ; w
; P
; l
.
,
( p p1 )F .
w = 2
(4.2)
Pl

( p p1 )d ,
w = 2
(4.3)
4l
d .
w
( )
( ) p

w 2
w = p =
.
(4.4)
4
4 2

Re ( ).

.

. 4.1.

68

, ,
, , .
Re
, . 4.2.
(
, , )
.
Re
.
( Re < 2300 )
,
64
=
.
(4.5)
Re
( Re > 10 4 )
,
.

< 5 ,

,
, .
,
1913 .
0 ,3164
= 0 ,25 .
(4.6)
Re

. 4.2. : 1- ; 2
; 38

69

70

. , Re
,
.

> 70

. .
Re

.
d

0 ,25

= 0 ,11 .
(4.7)
d


.



0 ,25
68
= 0 ,11 + ,
(4.8)
Re d
,
, (
)

.
4.2.


(, , , .).

w 2
p =
.
(4.9)
2
.

70

:
1.
, (. 4.3)

2

. . = 2 1 ,
(4.10)
F1

F1, F2 .


2

w
= 1 2 ,
(4.11)
w1

w1, w2
.
2.
. . ,
(. 4.4)

F
. .c . = 1 2 ,
(4.12)
F1
F1, F2 .
(. 4.5)

(4.13)
= . . . ,
,
.

, = 0 ,5 .

. 4.3.

. 4.4.

. 4.5.

71

II.
5.
5.1.
,
.
,
,
(
).
.
,
( ),
.
,
, .
,
, .
,
, .
,

.


, . .
:
1. ;
2.
.

, .

.

.
5.2.
,
.

72

, ,

.

.
. 5.1.

1
1
1 /2 ()
1 . .
1 . .

1
105
9,8104
133,3
9,8

10-5
1
0,98
1,3310-3
9,810-5

/
1,0210-5
1,02
1
1,3610-3
10-4

. .
7,510-3
7,5102
735,6
1
7,35610-2

5.1
. .
0,102
1,02104
104
13,6
1

, (
) ,
( ) .
. 2.5.

,
.
-
.

, . , ,

.
.

(
,

)
.

, (
), .
.


.
.

.

73

.
1 .
.
T = t + 273 ,
(5.1)
0
T , ; t , C.

1 .
V 1
= = ,
(5.2)
m

, 3/.

74

6.
6.1.

. 1.2.
, ,
.
T, p .
,
.

(6.1)
p = RT ,

.

(6.1) 1
.
m
(6.2)
pV = mRT .

R = 8,31


R
,
R=
(6.3)
R ,

, /.
6.2.

.
p, T.
m1, m2, , mn.
:

n

p = pi .
i =1

(6.4)

.
.

:
m
gi = i .
(6.5)
m

75


:
V
ri = i .
(6.6)
V

R
.
: .
, . .
,
n

R = g i Ri ;

(6.7)

1
.
gi

(6.8)

i =1

i =1

, . .
,
1
;
R = n
(6.9)
ri
R
i =1 i
n

= ri i .
i =1

(6.10)


gi
R

= i = .
(6.11)
ri
Ri
R .

76

7.

7.1. .

U
,
.

. ,
,


.
,
(7.1)
U = U 2 U 1 .
, . .
.

() ,
, .

(7.2)
H = U + pV .
(7.2) p V,

.

.
1 .

u, / h, / (
1 ).
7.2. . .

:
.
L Q , . .
( ).
,
(7.3)
L = pdV .

77

. 7.1.

p -

. 7.2.

TS -

V2

L = pdV .
V1

(7.4)

,
p - (. 7.1).

(7.5)
Q = cmdT ,

() ,
.

T2

Q = cmdT .
T1

(7.6)


(7.7)
Q = TdS .
S , /.


.
(7.7)
TS-
(. 7.2).
1 .
l, /
q, / (
1 ).

78

7.3.

- ,
, ,
1
Q
= .
(7.8)
dT
() c 1

; 1 ,
,

; \ 1 3 , 3
.


.
,
, p
.
,
.

( ),
(..
).
( ),
( ),
( ). ,
1
, .
p :
(7.9)
p c = R ; p c = R .

p
c

=k,

(7.10)

k .
,
.

,

.
:
(, )

79


kT
, kT.
2
,
.

. , ,
,

.
, ,

R
=
,
2
= R .
3
3
. , = R .
2
3
, 2 1
7
. , = R .
2
5
, R .
2
,
.
3R .
.

(7.11)
= 0 + at + bt 2 + ... ,
0 t = 0oC; a, b ,
.

(7.12)
= 0 + at .
:
n

= g i ci ,
i =1

(7.13)

i i- ; gi
i- .

80

8.
8.1.


, .
.

: , ,

.

:
(8.1)
Q = dU + L ,
Q , ; dU
; L
( ).
, 1 :
(8.2)
q = du + l

(8.3)
q = du + pd
(8.3) dp dp ,
:
(8.4)
q = du + pd + dp dp ;
(8.5)
q = du + ( pd + dp ) dp = du + d ( p ) dp ;
(8.6)
q = d (u + p ) dp ;
(8.7)
q = dh dp ;
(8.8)
q = dh + l .
(8.8) ,
l = dp .

(3.164).
, 1 /c
(3.169).
8.2.

1.
= const ,

81

q = du

(8.9)

(8.10)
dT = du .


(8.11)
q = dh + l

(8.12)
dT = dh dp .

(8.13)
dh = du + d ( p ) = dT + d (RT ) = dT + RdT = ( + R )dT = p dT .

(8.9)
:
dq
dT
.
ds = = c
(8.14)
T
T


(8.15)
q = u

(8.16)
q = h + l .
(8.9) (8.14) ,
( = const ):
q = c T = c (T2 T1 ) ;
u = c T = c (T2 T1 ) ;
l = 0;
(8.17)
h = c p T = c p (T2 T1 ) ;

l = p = ( p2 p1 ) ;
T
s = c ln 2 ,
T1
T1, T2 ;
p1, p2 .
2.
p = const ,

(8.18)
q = du + l

(8.19)
c p dT = c dT + pd .

82

q = dh

(8.20)

(8.21)
dT = dh .
:
dq
dT
.
ds = = c
(8.22)
T
T


(8.23)
q = u + l

(8.24)
q = h .
(8.18) (8.22) ,
( p = const ):
q = c p T = c p (T2 T1 ) ;

u = c T = c (T2 T1 ) ;
l = p = p( 2 1 ) ;
h = c p T = c p (T2 T1 ) ;

(8.25)

l = 0 ;
T2
,
T1
T1, T2 ;
1, 2 .
3.

T = const p = const ,

(8.26)
q = l

(8.27)
q = pd .


(8.28)
q = l

(8.29)
q = dp .
(8.27) (6.1)
:
dq
pd
d
ds = =
=R
.
(8.30)
T
T

s = c p ln

83



(8.31)
q = l

(8.32)
q = l .
(8.31) (8.32) ,
( T = const p = const ):

p
q = Ts = RT ln 2 = RT ln 2 ;
1
p1
u = 0 ;
l = RT ln

2
;
1

h = 0 ;
l = RT ln
s = R ln

(8.33)

p2
;
p1

2
,
1

1, 2
; p1, p2
.
4.
, q = 0 .
, s = const .

(8.34)
l = du

(8.35)
pd = c dT .


(8.36)
l = dh

(8.37)
dp = c p dT .
(8.35)
.
(8.35)
c dT + pd = 0 .

(6.1):
(8.36)
pd + dp = RdT .

84

c +R
c
pd + dp
c
pd + dp = 0 ;
+ pd =
R
R
R

(7.9)
c p pd + cdp = 0 .

(8.37)
(8.38)

c p d
dp
= .
(8.39)
c
p
p

= k , k ,
c
(8.39). ,
k ln = ln p + const
(8.40)

(8.41)
ln p k = const .
, ,

(8.42)
p k = const .

(8.42) .


(8.43)
l = u

l = h .
(8.44)
(8.34) (8.42) ,
( p k = const ):
q = 0 ;
u = c T = c (T2 T1 ) ;
1
( p2 2 p11 ) ;
l=
k 1
(8.45)
h = c p T = c p (T2 T1 ) ;

k
( p2 2 p11 );
k 1
s = 0 ,
T1, T2 ;
1, 2 ;
p1, p2 .
5.

c = const .
l =

85

(, ,
, )
.

(8.46)
q = du + l

(8.47)
cdT = c dT + pd ,
c .


(8.48)
q = dh + l

(8.49)
cdT = c p dT dp .
(8.47)
.
(8.50)
cdT c dT pd = 0 ;
(8.51)
(c c )dT pd = 0 ;
(8.36),
(c c ) pd + dp pd = 0 ;
(8.52)
R

c c
c c
dp pd = 0 ;
pd +
(8.53)
R
R
c c R
c c
dp = 0 .
pd +
(8.54)
R
R
(7.9)
(c c p + c )pd + (c c )dp = 0 ;
(8.55)

c p d
dp
= .
(8.56)
c c
p
c p

= n , n ,
c c
(8.56). ,
n ln = ln p + const
(8.57)

(8.58)
ln p n = const .
, ,

(8.59)
p n = const .

(8.59) .

86


.
c p
p
n=
k =
,
c c
c
nk
= c
.
(8.60)
n 1
(8.47) (6.1)
:
dq
dT + pd
dT
d
ds = =
=
+R
.
(8.61)
T
T
T



(8.62)
q = u + l

(8.63)
q = h + l .
(8.46) (8.61) ,
( p n = const ):
nk
(T2 T1 ) ;
q = cT = c(T2 T1 ) = c
n 1
u = c T = c (T2 T1 ) ;
1
( p2 2 p11 ) ;
l=
n 1
h = c p T = c p (T2 T1 ) ;
(8.64)
n
( p2 2 p11 ) ;
l =
n 1
T

s = ln 2 + R ln 2 ,
T1
1
T1, T2 ;
1, 2 ;
p1, p2 .
n 0 .
:
1. n = 0 p n = const
p = const ;
2. n = 1 p n = const
p = const ;
3. n = k p n = const
p k = const ;

87

4. n = p n = const
= const .
. 8.1
p-, . 8.2
Ts-.

. 8.1. p -

. 8.2. Ts

.
1 6 0 < n < 1 ; 2 5
1 < n < k ; 3 6 k < n < . 1, 2, 3
, 4, 5, 6 .

88

9.
9.1.


,
.
,
. ,
, , . .
(
).
,
,
.

. .
:
.
: ,

.

,

.
,
,
, ,
,
,
.
9.2.

. ,
.
,
.
1 ( ) ,
p1, 1, T1 (. 9.1). ,
T1.
,
,

89

. 2 p2, 2, T1.
,
, .
T2.
. 3 p3,
3, T2. ,
. ,
, T2. ,
T2. 4
p4, 4, T2.
,
T1
1.
:
L
,
=
(9.1)
Q

L ; Q .

. 9.1.

.
1 2:
Q 1 = Q 12 = L12 = mRT1 ln

2
.
1

2 3:
1
( p11 p2 2 ) = mR (T1 T2 ) .
Q 2 3 = 0 ; L23 = m
k 1
k 1

(9.2)

(9.3)

90

3 4:
Q 2 = Q 34 = L34 = mRT2 ln

3
.
4

4 1:
1
( p33 p4 4 ) = mR (T1 T2 ).
Q 41 = 0 ; L41 = m
k 1
k 1
,
L = L12 + L23 + L34 + L41 ;

mR
(T1 T2 ) mRT2 ln 3 mR (T1 T2 ) ;
L = mRT1 ln 2 +
4 k 1
1 k 1


L = mRT1 ln 2 mRT2 ln 3 .
1
4

L = Q 1 Q 2 .

(9.4)

(9.5)
(9.6)
(9.7)
(9.8)
(9.9)

(9.9) (9.1),
:
Q Q 2
;
= 1
(9.10)
Q 1





mRT1 ln 2 mRT2 ln 3 T1 ln 2 T2 ln 3
(9.11)
1
4
1
4

=
=
.
2
2
mRT1 ln
T1 ln

1
1
(6.1)
(9.12)
p k = T k 1 = const .
2 3 4 1:
(9.13)
T1 2k 1 = T2 3k 1

T11k 1 = T2 4k 1 .
,
k 1

(9.14)

k 1

2

= 3 .
1
4
:


(k 1)ln 2 = (k 1)ln 3 ;
1
4

(9.15)

(9.16)

91



ln 2 = ln 3 .
1
4

(9.17)

T1 T2
.
(9.18)
T1
,
Ts- (. 9.2).
(9.19)
Q 1 = T1 s ;

Q 2 = T2 s ;

Q 1 Q 2
Q 1

(9.20)

T1 s T2 s T1 T2
=
.
T1 s
T1

(9.21)

, (9.18)
, (9.10)
. < .
, .
,
.
:
( )
.

. 9.2. , Ts

. 9.3.

92

,
.
Ts- (. 9.3).

.
,
.
9.3.


.
:
Q
=1 2
(9.22)
Q 1

=1

T2
.
T1

(9.23)

, Q 2
,

Q 2
T
=1 2 ;
Q 1
T1

(9.24)

Q 2 T2
= ;
Q 1 T1

(9.25)

Q 1 Q 2
=
.
(9.26)
T1
T2
,
Q
Q 1 Q 2
+
= i = 0.
T1
T2
i Ti

(9.27)

Q
.
T
,
.
,
, .

, :
Q
T i = 0 .
(9.28)
i
i

93


, ,
Q
T = 0.
(9.29)
(9.29)
.

(9.22). < ,
1

Q 2
T
<1 2 .
Q 1
T1

(9.30)

Q 2 T2
> .
Q 1 T1

(9.31)

,
Q
Q 1 Q 2
+
= i < 0.
(9.32)
T1
T2
i Ti
,
Q
T < 0.
(9.33)
(9.33)
.
,
Q
T 0.
(9.34)

.
.
,
Q
= ds ,
(9.35)
T

Q
< ds .
(9.36)
T
(9.35) (9.36) ,
Q
ds .
(9.37)
T
, Q = 0 :
ds 0 .
(9.38)
,
, .

94

9.4.

(9.38)
,
,
.
-
,
, ,
.

,
, .
,
( ).

.
,
,
.
,
, , , ,
1 2,
:
(9.39)
= 1 2 .

.
, :
(9.40)
S = S1 + S 2 .
,
(9.41)
S (1 2 ) = S1 (1 ) + S 2 ( 2 ) .

,
(9.42)
S = k ln ,
k .
,
,
, .

, . ,
,
.

95

10.
10.1.

,
,
,
. ,
.
,
( ),
.
.
,
.
p- (. 10.1) (
)
.
, p-

. ,
: p, T,
.
. ,
, . . .

. 10.1. p-

96


--,
:
a

p + 2 ( b ) = RT .
(10.1)

--
: b
a
2 ,

.
,
-- , . 10.2. ,
.
AB CD
. AB ,
. ,
( ,
. .). CD ,
. ,
( , . .).
.

, .
:
2 p
p
= 0 ; 2 = 0 .
(10.2)
T
T

. 10.2. p-

97

RT
2a
p
+
=0;
=
2
3

(
)
b
T
2 p
RT
ba
2 =

= 0.
2
4
T ( b )
(8.3), (8.4) ,
8a
a
; = 3b ; p =
.
T =
27 Rb
27b 2
2

27 R T
a=
; b=
.
3
64 p

(10.3)
(10.4)

(10.5)
(10.6)

- , a b ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
--, .
, .

a

p + 2 ( b ) = R1T ,
(10.7)

cp

R1 = R1 5+ 2 m ; m .

T 2
,
z
1
:

B (T ) B3 (T ) B4 (T )
p
=1+ 2
+
+
+ ... ,
(10.8)

RT
2
3
1, 2, 3, . . ,
, , . . .
z=

10.2. .

( ),
.

98

, ,
,
, T0 (. 10.3).
q1,
T (
):
(10.9)
q 1 = c (T T0 ) ,
.
.

, T.
, ,

(10.10)
r = h h = T (s s ) ,
r ; h
; h ; s
; s .

;
.

. 10.3.

99


:
(10.11)
= x + (1 x ) ;
(10.12)
h = hx + h(1 x ) ;
(10.13)
s = s x + s (1 x ) ,
x .
:
m
,
x=
(10.14)
m
m ; m .
, x 0
1. x = 0 , x = 1
.
T. ,
,
. .
(10.15)
q 2 = c p (T T ) ,
cp ; T
.
Ts-
hs- (. 10.4, 10.5).

. 10.4. Ts-

. 10.5. hs-

Ts- ,
. hs-
r = h h .

100

10.3. -

p-
,
T, p T + dT, p + dp.
, ,
. , . 10.6
, .
(9.1),
(9.18),
(T + dT ) T = dT .
=
(10.16)
T
T

(10.17)
L = mdp( ) ,
m .
, ,

(10.18)
Q = mr .
,

dp( )
.
r
(10.18) (10.19) ,
dT dp( )
=
;
T
r
dp
r
.
=
dT T ( )

. 10.6.

(10.19)

(10.20)
(10.21)

101

(10.21),
( ) .
(10.21) (
, , ):
q 1 2
dp
=
,
(10.22)
dT T ( 2 1 )
q 12 ; 1
; 2
.
(10.22) -.
10.4. pT-


pT- (. 10.7).
pT- AK
p = f (T ) ,
().
K.
,
.
, ,
(), ,
.
: .
,
p = f (T ) .

. 10.7. pT-

102


.
.
p = f (T ) .

. ,
.

103

III.
11.

11.1.
: ,
.

.
.

.
,
.
.


.
(
).
,
( )
.

. ,
, , .
.

.
.
, ,
, -
.
,
, .
.

104

11.2.


.

:
(11.1)
T = f ( x , y , z , ) .
,
.

(11.1).
, .
:
(11.2)
T = f (x , y , z ) .
,
. ,
:
T = f ( x , y , z , ) ; T = f ( x , y , ) ; T = f ( x , ) ;
(11.3)
T = f (x , y , z ) ; T = f (x , y ) ; T = f (x ) .

.

.
.
, ,
(. 11.1). ,

, .

: ,
.

. 11.1.

. 11.2.

105

. c T

T
n (. 11.2).
n

. n 0
.
:
T r T
lim n = n0 n = gradT ,
(11.4)
n0
r
n0 ,
.
,
.
T r T r T r
gradT =
i +
j+
k,
(11.5)
z
x
y
r r r
i , j , k .
.
Q , ,
,
.

q ,
,
2
.
.
. dF (. 11.3)
. -
dQ, d :
r T
dQ = n0
dFd .
(11.6)
n

,
.
K

r
r T
.
q = n0
(11.7)
n
r
. q
,
. (11.7)

.

106

. 11.3.

-:
q = (T f Tw ) ,

(11.8)

Tf ; Tw ;

, 2
.
K

1.
.
:
( ),
( ), ,
, ,
.

,

(11.9)
q = q + q ,
q ,
-; q .
(11.10)
q = (T f Tw ).
, -

(11.11)
= + ,
.

.

107

g
:
r
r C
g = DC n0
,
(11.12)
n
C
DC ;

n
.

:
(11.13)
g = C (C w C f ) .

; f w

, 3 .

C ,

108

12.
12.1.


.
, ,
( ), .
, ,
,
. , ,
.

, : ,

, .

, : (
);
( );
(
); (
);
( , ,
).

.
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
, .
12.2.

109


.
()
, ,

.
.
,
.
,
:
l
l l
Cl = 1 = 2 = ... = i ,
(12.1)
l 1 l 2
l i
l1 , l2 , , li ,
; l1 , l2 , , li ,
; l .

,
:

C = .
(12.2)

,
.
,
:
w

l
p


T
; Cw =
; C =
; C = ; CT = ; Cl = ;
C p = ; C =
(12.3)
w

l
p

T
,
,
.
, ,
, .

.
, (12.3)
,
.
. ,
,
,
.

110

(12.4)
D1 + D 2 + ... + D i + ... + D n = 0 ,
Di , ,
- ,
.

, ,
. ,
p
Di = ,
(12.5)
x
p , x .
p0,
l0. (4.5)
p p
Di = 0
= i d i ,
(12.6)
l0 x
p
p
x
, x=
; i = 0 ;
p =
p0
l0
l0
p
.
di =
x
, (4.4)
(12.7)
1d1 + 2 d 2 + ... + i d i + ... + n d n = 0 .
,
. (4.7) i,

(12.8)
1d1 + 2 d 2 + ... + i d i + ... + n d n = 0 ,
1, 2, i, n ()
, , ,
.
,
,
( x , y , z )
( ).
,
.

,

.
.
,
,
.

111

, ,
.
,
, .
. ,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.

,

.
,
, ,
:
(12.9)
= f ( x , y , z , 1 , 2 ,...P1 , P2 ,...) ,
1, 2, ; P1, P2,
.

.

(12.10)
= f ( x , y , z , 1 , 2 ,...P1 , P2 ,...) ,
, .
(12.9) (12.10) .
,
(12.11)
= C 1k 2m ...P1n P2h ...
,
.
,
.
,
.
12.3.

,
. , ,
d.

112

4F
,
(12.12)
p
F ; p .

,
.

, .

: () Tw,
Tf, (
Tw + T f
.
) Tm =
2
,
. ,
,
. w, f m,
, .

d =

12.4.

, (
), ,
.
( ):
2 wx 2 wy 2 wz
wy
wx
wz
p
,
=
+ wy
+ wz
wx
+
+
+
(12.13)
2
2
2

x
y
x
z
y
z

x
2 wx 2 wy 2 wz
wy
wx
wz
p
.
=
+ wy
+ wz
wx
+
+
+
2
2
2

x
y
x
z
y
z

x
:

w
l
p

; Cw =
; C =
; Cl = .
C p = ; C =
w
l
p

(12.14)

(12.15)

,
:
l

p = C p p ; = C ; w = C w w ; C =
; Cl = .
(12.16)
l

(12.14) (12.16),

113

C C w2
Cl

wx

wy
C p p
wx
w
+ wy
+ wz z =
+
x
y
z
Cl x

C C w 2 wx 2 wy 2 wz

+
+
+

2
2
2
2

y
z
Cl
x
w
C p
w
w
+
wx x + wy y + wz z = p 2

x
x
y
z
C
C

w
2 wx 2 wy 2 wz
C

+
+
+

Cl C wC x 2
y 2
z 2
(12.18) (12.14) ,
Cp
C
;
=
1
= 1.
Cl C w C
C C w2

(12.17)

(12.18)

(12.19)

p
p


;
.
=
=
(12.20)
w 2 w 2 wl wl
(12.20) :
p
;
Eu =
(12.21)
w 2
wl wl
.
Re =
=
(12.22)

Eu
.
Re
() .
.

T
qV = 0
= 0 :

2T 2T 2T
T
T
T
;
wx
+
= a 2 +
+ wz
+ wy
(12.23)
z
y
x
y 2 z 2
x
2T 2T 2T
T
T
T
.
wx
+
+
= a
+ wz
+ wy
2
2
2

z
y
x
x
y
z

:
a
w
l
T
Cw =
; Cl = ; Ct = ; C a = .
w
l
a
T

(12.24)

(12.25)

114

,
(12.25).

2 T 2T 2 T
C w Cl T
T
T
.
wx
= a
+
+
+ wz
+ wy
2
2
2
(12.26)
C a
z
y
x

x
y
z

(12.26) (12.23)
C w Cl
= 1;
(12.27)
Ca
wl wl
=
;
(12.28)
a
a
wl
Pe =
;
(12.29)
a
Pe ,

.


Pe
= .
Pr =
(12.30)
Re a
Nu,


:
l
Nu =
.
(12.31)


Nu

St =
=
.
(12.32)
Re Pr c w
,

g l3
Ar = 2 ,
(12.33)

; g
.

,
.

115

Gr =

g l3

T T ,

(12.34)

g ; T
.
(
)
, .

,

w
M= ,
(12.35)
a
a .


.
Ho Sh
w
1
Ho =
; Sh =
.
(12.36)
l
Ho

a
Fo = 2 .
(12.37)
l


.
,

nf
Pn =
,
(12.38)
n
w

n (, .)
( f)
( w).
12.5.


,
. ,
.
.
, ,
,
.

116

.
,
, -. ,
, ,
(, ).

, .
(),
(). ,
, m, n,
z,
m ,
z = m n.
(12.39)

. .
,
,

.
, ,
,
,
. ,

, l0,
w0, , ,

.

(12.40)
= C l0 w0 c .
L, T, M,
.
[ ] = MT 3 1 ; [l0 ] = L ; [ ] = ML3 ; [c] = L2T 2 1 ; [ ] = LMT 3 1 ;
(12.41)
[w0 ] = LT 1 ; [ ] = ML1T 1 .
(12.40)

(12.42)
MT 3 1 = L LT 1 ML3 L2T 2 1 LMT 3 1 ML1T 1 .

)(

)(

)(

)(


,
1 = + + ; 3 = 2 3 ; 1 = ;
(12.43)
0 = + 3 + 2 + .

117

,
.
(12.44)
= 1; = ; = 1 ; = .
(12.40)
l0
1 1
= C l0 w0 c = C w0 c .
(12.45)

l0
,
(12.45)
(12.46)
Nu = C Re Pr ,
Nu =

l0
w l
c
; Re = 0 0 ; Pr =
.

-,
m = 7 , n = 4 , z = 3 .

118

13.

13.1.

. 1.1 .
.

(. 13.1).
450

.
, .
, , .

. .

. 13.1.

. 13.2.
:
1; 2; 3;
4; 5; 6;
7; 8;
9

119

.
, .
, , , ,
., , .

. ,
2 , .

. 13.2.
( 0,25

13.2.

(. 13.3). .

.
Tw1 Tw2.


d 2T
= 0.
(13.1)
dx 2
,
dT
= C1 ;
(13.2)
dx
(13.3)
T = C1 x + C 2 .
C1 2
.
:
x = 0 T = Tw1 ;
x = T = Tw2 .
(13.3)
T Tw1
; C 2 = Tw1 .
C1 = w2
(13.4)

,
T Tw2
T = Tw1 w1
x.
(13.5)

.
(11.7),

120

q=

Tw1 Tw 2

(13.6)

,
n (. 13.4).

, .

,

.


1
(T T ) ,
q=
(13.7)
R
R ; T T
.

.
.

. 13.3.

. 13.4.

121

, :

1
(T T ) ;
1 w1 w2

q = 2 (Tw 2 Tw3 ) ;
2
q=

(13.8)

q=

n
(T Twn+1 ) .
n wn

Tw1 Twn +1 = q 1 + 2 + ... + n ;


n
1 2
Tw1 Twn+1
T T
= w1 n wn+1 .
q=

1 2

+
+ ... + n
i

i ,
i =1

i =1

(13.9)
(13.10)

n ,


.


T T +1
,
q = n w1 nwn
(13.11)
i 1
+ Ri
i =1

i =1

Ri .

(. 13.5).
:
q = 1 (T f 1 Tw1 ) ;

(T T );
w1 w2
q = 2 (Tw2 T f 2 ) .
q=

1, 2 ,
q = k (T f 1 T f 2 ) ,
k =

1
+ +
1 2
1

(13.12)

(13.13)

122

. 13.5.

, ,

1
R= .
(13.14)
k

(13.13),
1
k=
.
n
1
1
i
+ +

i =1

k =

n1
1
+ i + Ri +
1 i =1 i i =1
2
1

13.3.

(. 13.6)


d 2T 1 dT
+
=0.
(13.15)
dr 2 r dr

(13.16)
T = C1 ln r + C2 .
1 2
(13.16).

123

:
r = r1 T = Tw1 ;
r =r 2 T = Tw2 .
(13.16) ,
T Tw2
ln r1
; C 2 = w1
.
C1 = Tw1 (Tw1 Tw2 )
r1
r1
ln
ln
r2
r2

(13.17)


,

T Tw2 d
T = Tw1 w1
ln ,
d 2 d1
ln
(13.18)
d1
d1 d2 .

T Tw 2 2
dT
= w1
.
dr
d2 d
ln
(13.19)
d1
, F :
T Tw 2 2
Q = w1
F.
d2 d
ln
(13.20)
d1
F = 2rl = dl .

. 13.6.

. 13.7.

124

l:
Q Tw1 Tw 2
ql = =
,
l
1 d2
ln
2 d1
:
2 Tw1 Tw2
2 Tw1 Tw 2
Q
Q
; q2 =
=
.
q1 =
=
d1l
d 2l
d2
d2
d1 ln
d 2 ln
d
1
d1

(13.21)

(13.22)


:
(13.23)
ql = d1q1 = d 2 q 2 .

, (. 13.7)

(T Twn+1 )
.
ql = n w1
(13.23)
d i +1
1
2 ln d
i =1
i
i

.
(. 13.8)

,
:
ql = d11 (T f 1 Tw1 );
ql =

(Tw1 Tw2 )

;
1 d2
ln
2 d1
ql = d 2 2 (Tw 2 T f 2 ).
1, 2 ,
ql = kl (T f 1 T f 2 ) ,
k l =

(13.24)

(13.25)

.
1
1 d2
1
ln
+
+
1d1 2 d1 2 d 2

(13.25),
1
kl =
.
n
d i +1
1
1
1
+
+
ln
1d1 i =1 2i
di 2d 2

125

. 13.8.


, .
13.4.


(. 13.9)

d 2T 2 dT
+
= 0,
(13.26)
dr 2 r dr

. 13.9.

126

:
r = r1 T = Tw1 ;
r =r 2 T = Tw2 .


T Tw2 1 1
,
T = Tw1 w1
1 1 r1 r

r1 r2
r1 r2 .

T Tw2 1
dT
= w1
.
1 1 r2
dr

r1 r2
, F :
T Tw2 1
Q = w1
F,
1 1 r2

r1 r2

(13.27)

(13.28)

(13.29)

F = 4r 2 = d 2 .
, (13.29),
4 (Tw1 Tw2 ) 2 (Tw1 Tw 2 )
=
.
Q=
(13.30)
1 1
1
1

r1 r2
d1 d 2


(Tw1 Tw2 )
Q=
.
n 1 1
(13.31)
1

2 d d
i =1
i i
i +1

.
:
Q = d121 (T f 1 Tw1 ) ;
Q=

2 (Tw1 Tw2 )
;
1
1

d1 d 2

(13.32)

Q = d 221 (Tw2 T f 2 ) .
1, 2 ,
Q = k (T f 1 T f 2 ) ,

(13.33)

127

k =

.
1
1 1
1
1
+
+
1d12 2 d1 d 2 2 d 22
(13.33),
1
.
k =
n

1
1 1
1
1

+
+
2
1d1 i =1 2i d i d i +1 2 d 22

128

14.
14.1.


,
()
.


2T 2T 2T
T
= a 2 + 2 + 2 .
(14.1)

y
z
x


T
(Tw T f ) = .
(14.2)
x n=0
T
;

n
.

:
= 0 T = T / .

:
(14.3)
= T Tf .
:
w = Tw T f ; 0 = T0 T f .

(14.4)

:
/ = T / Tf .

(14.5)


~
= / .

(14.6)

x
: ~
x = ; ~y =
l
.
(14.1) .
~
~
~
2T / 2 2T / 2 2T / 2 T
= /
= 2 ~2 ;
= 2 ~2 ; 2 = 2 ~2 ;
2
2

l x
l y
z
l z
x
y

y ~ z
; z = , l
l
l
~

(14.7)

129

~
~
~

2 2 2
= 2 + ~2 + 2 .
(14.8)
a ~
y
~z
x
2
l
~
, ,
a
Fo = 2 . ,
l
,
.
(14.2),
, ,

l
Bi =
.
(14.9)

:
~
= f (Fo , Bi , ~x , ~y , ~z ) ,
.

(14.10)

14.2.

, y z
, .
(Tf = const = const),
x.
,
2 (. 14.1).

. 14.1.

130

2
=a 2 .
(14.11)

x
x = :

m
= w .
(14.12)
x x =
: = 0 = / .
.
T ( ) X ( x ) ,
, :
= TX .
(14.13)

dT
dX 2
d2X
=T
;
;
.
=X
=T
(14.14)

d x
dx x 2
dx 2
(14.11),
dT
2 X
X
= aT
,
(14.15)
d
x 2

1 1 dT 1 2 X
=
= 2 ,
2
(14.16)
a d X x
2 .
(14.16) :
dT
+ a 2 T = 0 ;
(14.17)
d
2 X
+ 2X = 0,
2
x
:
2
T = Ae a ;
X = B cos x + C sin x .
(14.13)

= (C1 cos x + C 2 sin x )e a .


2

(14.18)
(14.19)
(14.20)
(14.21)

x
. C 2 = 0
(14.21)
2
(14.22)
= C e a cos x .
1

131


:
2

= m Ce a sin ;

(14.23)
x x =
2
(14.24)
= Ce a cos .
w

(14.12),

sin =

cos

ctg =

= ; Bi =

Bi

(14.25)

(14.26)

2
x
= Ci e i Fo cos i .
(14.27)

i =1
:
2
a
2
a = a 2 = 2 2 = 2 Fo .

Ci :
sin i
.
Ci = 2 /
i + sin i cos i
,

sin i cos i ~
x i2 Fo
/
= 2
e
i =1 i + sin i cos i

x i2 Fo
sin i cos i ~
e
,
sin
cos

i =1 i
i
i

(14.28)

(14.29)

(14.30)

= 2

(14.31)

x
x= .
~



.

(. 14.2).

132

. 14.2.


. ,
~
. 1 ,
1 1, (14.31).
1.
, ,
~
2
,
2 2. 2.
~
1


~
. 2

.
,

~ ~~
(14.32)
= 1 2 .

.

133

15.
15.1. ,

,
.
,
.

,
.

,

.

. ,
.

.
,
.
.

.
,
.
.

.
,
.
,

. ,
.

,
.

,

.

134

,
,
.
(11.8),
.
,
.

, ,
.

,
.

, .
,
, .

. ,

, , ,
.
15.2.



.
,
.
,
. x
,

~
~
~ 2w
~
~
~
w
w
w
2w
2w
x
x
x
x
x
wx ~ + w y ~ + wz ~ = ~ 2 + ~ 2 + ~ 2x ,
(15.1)
x
y
z
l x
y
z
x ~ y ~ z
~ = wx ; ~
w
x
=
; y = ; z = ; w ; l
x
w
l
l
l
.

,

135

,

~
~
~
~
~
~
T
T
T a 2T 2T 2T
wx ~ + w y ~ + wz ~ = ~ 2 + ~ 2 + ~ 2 ,
(15.2)
x
y
z l x
y
z
~ (T Tw )
T =
(T f Tw ) .

= a Pr = 1 , (15.1) (15.2)
~ T~ , :
w
x
~ ~
, T = w
x = 1.
,
wx (T Tw )
=
.
(15.3)
w (T f Tw )
,
w x = f (n ) T Tw = (n )
.

,
, ,
,

(15.4)
c p ( + T ) = + T .
, Pr = 1 PrT =

=1

( PrT ). , (15.3)
-
.

.

,
T
qw = .
(15.5)
n n=0


w
w = x .
(15.6)
n n=0

136

T

q w n n=0
.
=
(15.7)
w wx

n n=0
(15.3)
T

n n=0 T f Tw
=
.
(15.8)
w
wx

n n=0
,
T f Tw
qw = w
.
(15.9)
w
(15.9)

f .


w2
w = cf
,
(15.10)
2
:
(15.11)
q w = (T f Tw ).

(15.10) (15.11) (15.9)


:
cf
=
w
(15.12)
2

Nu x =

Nu x =

w x
x
; Re x = .

cf

Re x ,

(15.13)

Pr 1
Pr n .
, ,
cf
Nu x =
Re x Pr n .
(15.14)
2
Tf w
,

137

w 2 .

(15.15)
(15.16)

8
q w = (T f Tw ).


w
8

Nu =

Nu =

(15.17)

Re ,

(15.18)

d
wd
; Re =
.

Nu x =

Re Pr n .

Pr 1

8
,
(15.14) (15.19) n = 0,330,43.

(15.19)

15.3.



.


, . . . .

:
(15.20)
c f 0 = A Re m ;
A m 0 ,75
.
Re
Pr
(15.21)
2
, , ,
0.
. . . .
,


.

St 0 =

138

cf

= ;
c
f 0 Re

(15.22)

St

=,
St

0 Re

(15.23)

= T M ... ; = T M ...; T , M , T , M ,
,
.
. . . .

2

2
(15.24)
T = T =
.
Tw + 1

Tf

.
15.4.

15.4.1.

,
(. 15.1) .
x:
2
3
wx
y
y
y
= a 0 + a1 + a 2 + a3 .
(15.25)

. 15.1.

139

:
d 2wx
= 0;
y = 0 wx = 0
dy 2
dw x
y = wx = w
= 0.
dy
(15.25) : a0 = 0 ; a1 =
1
a 2 = 0 ; a3 = .
2

3
;
2

wx 3 y 1 y
=
.
w 2 2

(15.26)

wx wx
1
dy ,
w
w

0

39
=
.
(15.27)
280

w
w= x .
(15.28)
y y =0

(15.26) ,
wx
3 w

=
.
y y =0 2

(15.29)

,
3 w
.
(15.30)
2
(3.156)

3 w 280

dx = d .
(15.31)
2 w2 39

w=

0 ,
x
= 4,64
w

4 ,64
4 ,64
=
.
w x
Re x

(15.32)

(15.33)

140

, Rex
.
, (15.30)
0 ,33w2
w =
(15.34)
Re x

cf
2

0 ,33
.
Re x

(15.35)


(15.14)
(15.36)
Nu x = 0 ,33 Re x0 ,5 Pr 0 ,33 .
, , n = 0,33 .
l :
0 ,5
0 ,5 0 ,33
1l
1l
1l
w
0 ,33
= dx = 0,33 Re x Pr dx = 0,33
dx =
Pr
l0
l0
x
l0
x
.
(15.37)
0 ,5 0 ,33
= 0 ,66 Rel Pr
l
,
(15.38)
Nu l = 0 ,66 Rel0 ,5 Pr 0 ,33 .
, .


, ,
. , = T Tw
= T f Tw .

y
y

= b0 + b1
+ b2

T
T

y
+ b3

T
.

:
2
y = 0 = 0 , 2 = 0 ;
y

= 0.
y = = ,
y

(15.39)

141

(15.39)

3

3 y 1 y
=
.
2 T 2 T

(15.40)

,

3
=
.
y y =0 2 T

(15.41)

- ,

= .
(15.42)
y y =0

3
.
=
2 T

(15.43)

T.
,

:
T
T
T

wx
(T f T )wx dy = ( )wx dy = w 1 w dy =

0
0
0
T

3
3
3 y 1 y 3 y 1 y
dy =
= w 1
+

2
2 T 2 2
T
0

(15.44)

4
3 T 2
3 T
= w

280
20
(15.44) .
(3.159),
2
d T a
1
w =
.
(15.45)
dx T
10
:
2
w
d T T d a
.
2 T +
=
(15.46)
10
dx dx T

T
x.

w T d
a
=

10 dx T

(15.47)

142

w d
= a.

10 dx
(15.33) ,
d

= 2,32
.
dx
w x
(15.32),
d

= 10,7
.
dx
w
(15.50) (15.48),
T 3 a
1
=
=3
,

Pr

(15.48)

(15.49)

(15.50)

(15.51)

, 1,07 1 .

3
=
Re x0 ,5 Pr 0 ,33
(15.52)
2 4 ,64 x

x
Nu x =
= 0 ,33 Re x0 ,5 Pr 0 ,33 .
(15.53)

,
.

. Tw = const :
Nu l =

0 ,5
0 ,66 Rel

Pr0 ,33

Pr

Pr

(15.38) (15.54)
.

0 ,25

(15.54)

15.4.2.

.

d Re c f
Re L .
=
(15.55)
d~
x
2

143


c f = A Re m T .

(15.56)

(15.56) (15.55):
d Re A
= ReL Re m T .
~
dx
2
,

(15.57)

1
1+ m

A
Re = (1 + m ) ReL T d~
x
0
2

(15.58) (15.56):
x

+
1
m

A
c f = A (1 + m ) ReL T d~
x
2

0
x

(15.58)

T .

(15.59)

, Tw = const T = const Re < 10 4 ( A = 0,0256 m = 0,25 ):


(15.60)
c f = 0 ,0578 Re x0 ,2 T0 ,8 ,
Re x =

w x
.

(15.60) (15.14)
(15.61)
Nu x = 0,0289 Rex0 ,8 Pr 0 ,4 T0 ,8 .

(3.161)
A
St = ReTm Pr 0 ,75 T .
(15.62)
2
0
~
x
1
A 1+ m

St =
2

m
1+ m

(1 + m )

m
1
Re L+ m

Pr

0 ,75
1+ m

~
x

m
1
+m

T T m T t 1+ m d~
x
0

(15.63)

, Tw = const (T = const , T = const ) ReT < 10 4 :


(15.64)
St = 0 ,0289 Re x0 ,2 Pr 0 ,6 T0 ,8 .

(15.65)
Nu x = 0 ,0289 Re x0 ,8 Pr 0 ,4 T0 ,8 .

(15.66)
Nul = 0 ,0361 Rel0 ,8 Pr 0 ,4 T0 ,8 .

Re = 10 5 ...2 10 6 .

144

:
Nu x f =

0 ,0296 Re x0 ,8f

Pr f

Pr
w

Pr f0 ,43

0 ,25

:
0 ,25
Pr

f
.
Nu l f = 0 ,037 Rel0 f,8 Pr f0 ,43
Pr
w

,
,

, .

(15.67)

(15.68)

15.5.


(. 15.2, ). .
()
,
(. 15.2, ).
w d
Re = < 5 , d ,

(. 15.2, ).
Re > 5 , (. 15.2, ).
.
82 0 ,
= 110 0 ...140 0 .
Re = 10 5 ...4 10 5 .

.
(
. 15.3), .

. 15.2. : , ;
,

145


,
- .
( . 15.3)

, .

,
.
0,25

Pr f
.
Nu f = c Re mf Pr fn
Pr
w
. . .:
Re f = 5...10 3 c = 0,5 , m = 0,5 , n = 0,38 ;

(15.69)

Re f = 10 3 ...2 10 5 c = 0,25 , m = 0,6 , n = 0,43 .


,
, .
(. 15.4, 15.5).
, ,
, .
d
S
S
: 1 2 .
d
d
(15.69) s, :

S
: s = 2
d

0 ,15

. 15.3.

146

. 15.4.

. 15.5.

S
: s = 1
S2

0 ,167

S1
< 2,
S2

S1
2.
S2

.
,
,
.
(15.68) i, :
: 1 = 0 ,6 ; 2 = 0 ,9 ;
i = 1 ;
: 1 = 0,6 ; 2 = 0,7 ;
i = 1 .
,
, (
) :
1 = 1 3 ;
(15.70)
2 = 2 3 .

(
).
(15.69) .
. 15.1.
,

s = 1,12

Nu f =

c Re mf

Pr f

Pr
w

Pr fn

0 ,25

i s .

(15.71)

147

10
0,55

20
0,60

30
0,67

40
0,77

50
0,87

60
0,95

15.1.
70
80
90
0,98 1,00 1,00

0,42

0,52

0,67

0,78

0,88

0,94

0,98

1,00

1,00

:
Re f = 5...10 3 c = 0,56 , m = 0,5 , n = 0,36 ;
Re f = 10 3 ...2 10 5 c = 0,26 , m = 0,65 , n = 0,33 .
:
Re f = 5...10 3 c = 0 ,56 , m = 0 ,5 , n = 0 ,36 ;
Re f = 10 3 ...2 10 5 c = 0 ,41 , m = 0 ,60 , n = 0 ,33 .

,
F + 2 F2 + 3 (F3 + ... + Fn )
= 1 1
,
(15.72)
F1 + F2 + F3 + ... + Fn
1, 2, 3 ; F1, F2, F3,-
.
F1 = F2 = F3 =
+ 2 + 3 (n 2)
= 1
,
(15.73)
n
n .
15.6.

. 15.6
.

, ;
Re.
,
,
.
.

.
wd
, w
Re f =

, d .

148

. 15.6.

Re f 2 10 3 . ,

,
. -
.
Re f 10 4 , .
Re f > 1,5 10 5
.
Re f = 2 10 3 ...10 4
.
..
- :

Nu f =

0 ,15 Re 0f ,33

Pr f0 ,43

Gr f0 ,1

Pr f

Pr
w

0 ,25

l ,

(15.74)

l :
l
50 l = 1 ;
d
l
< 50 l > 1 ( l

d
).
..
,

Nu f =

0 ,15 Re 0f ,33

Pr f0 ,43

Pr f

Pr
w

0 ,25

l .

(15.75)


.. ,

149

Nu f =

Pr f0 ,43

Pr f

Pr
w

0 ,021 Re 0f ,8

0 ,25

l .

(15.76)


.
4f
d =
, f
u
; u .
15.7.

(
), (
).

.

:
(15.77)
Nu m = cRamn ,
Ram = Grm Prm ,

T f + Tw
Tm =
.
2
:
, ,
.
n
. 15.2.

Ra
c
n

-3

10 510
1,18
0,13

510 210
0,54
0,25

15.2
21071013
0,135
0,33


, ,
(15.77) 30%,
30%.
Ra
Ra = 10 3 ...5 10 2

150

. Ra = 5 10 2 ...2 10 7 ,
Ra = 2 10 7 ...1013 .

( , ..).
-
,
.
(T Tw2 )
q = w1
,
(15.78)

,
, ;
; Tw1, Tw2
.


(15.79)
= ,
;
().
,


(15.80)
= cRa nf ,
c n . 15.3.

Raf
<103
103106
1061010

c
1
0,105
0,4

Ra T f =

15.3
n
0
0,3
0,2
Tw1 + Tw 2
.
2

15.8.

15.8.1.
.
,
.
,

151

,
. . 15.7
.
, -
, .
0,020,05 .

. ,

.
.

.
:
w
.
Re =
(15.81)

w ; .

, . x 1
,
(15.82)
(Ts Tw )x = w r ,
r , Ts .
,
(Ts Tw )x
Re =
.
(15.83)
r
Re < 10 . Re 400
.

. 15.7.

152


q=

(T Tw ) .
s

; .
,
q w = (Ts Tw ) .
,

(15.84)

(15.85)

(15.86)
,
.

:

=4

g 2 3 r
;
4 (t s t w )x

= 0,943

g 2 3 r
,
(t s t w )h

(15.87)
(15.88)

g ; , , ,
, x
; h .

:
(15.89)
= ,
0 ,04

Re
= . = 1,21.
4
.

= 0,728

g 2 3 r
,
(t s t w )d

(15.90)

d .



Nu s = 0,023 Res0 ,8 Prs0 ,4 1 + 1 ,
(15.91)

;
; . s

153

,
().
15.8.2.

. . 15.8
,
. :
.
,
,
.
.
.

. , ,
. ,

.
.

,
, .
,
.
.
, 95%
5%
.
(15.92)
T = Tw T f = Tw Ts
.
. 15.9
.

,
.

T. .

, .
,
.

154

. 15.8.

. 15.9.


,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.

,
. . .

1
(15.93)
Nu s = cK sn Prs 3 ,

Nu s =

l
;

Ks =

ql
;
r

l =

Ts c
(r )2

155

; Ts (
); c .
(15.93) K s = 10 5 ...10 4
Prs = 0 ,86...7 ,6 . K s > 10 2 c = 0 ,125 , n = 0 ,65 . K s < 10 2 c = 0 ,0625 ,
n = 0,5 .

.
.

15.8.3.

,
,
.

-
.
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
.
.

.
. ,
, , .

.
( ),
( ),
, ( ).

.
.

,

, .

156

. .
, , ,
70%. :
q

,
= f
(15.94)
w

w
;
w w;
q
.
,

q
< 0 ,5
w

q
> 2
w
= q . ,
q
= 0 ,5...2

w

= w .

4 w + q

.
=
w 5 w q

(15.95)


.
.
.
15.9.


,
.
,
. , ,
,

,
. ,
,
,
.

,

157

.
.

, ,
.


.

158

16.
16.1.

,
.

(
= 0 ,8...800 ).
,
F , Q, .
, ,
,

dQ
E=
.
(16.1)
dF

.
+ d
dE.
dE
E =
(16.2)
d

.

,
.
dF
, (
)
d 2Q
J =
;
(16.3)
ddF
J =

d 2Q

,
(16.4)
ddF
dQ dQ
dF ,
d.

() .
,


,

159

,
:
J
;
J=
(16.5)
cos
J
J =
.
(16.6)
cos
,
, .
,
.
, Q,
: ,
(. 16.1).
,
(16.7)
Q = Q A + QR + QD

A + R + D = 1,
(16.8)
Q
Q
A = A ; R = R
Q
Q
Q
; D = D .
Q
, ,
. A = 1 R = D = 0 .
, ,
. R = 1 A = D = 0 .
, ,
. D = 1
A = R = 0.

. 16.1. , ,

160

, ,
. .
16.2.



E0 T.
,
:
C 5
,
E0 = C1
(16.9)
2

T
e 1
1 2 ; e .
. 16.2.
,
,
.

.
,
max .

(16.10)
maxT = 2,9 10 3 .
-
-
E0 .

. 16.2.

161

-
E0 = 0T 4 ,

(16.11)

0 -.
-

4
T
E0 = C0
,
(16.12)
100

C0 = 5,67 2 .

- (16.11) (16.12)
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
4
4
T
T
E = E0 = C0
,
= C
(16.13)
100
100

E
C
; C
=
=
E0 C0
.
,

.
,
: 0 < < 1 .


. ,
(
),
.
, .
E1,
A1,
(E0, A0 = 1).
(16.14)
E1 = A1 E0

E1
= E0 .
(16.15)
A1

162

, :
E1 E2
=
= ... = E0 .
(16.16)
A1 A2


:
(16.17)
E1 = 1 E0 .
, (16.16)

= ... = 1 .
(16.18)
A1 A2
, ,
= A , = A = 1 .
16.3. ,


.

(. 16.3),
, . ,
, . q1
,
,
. q2.
q2, ,
A1 q2 (1 - A1) q2 ( ). ,
(16.19)
q1 = E1 + (1 A1 )q2 ;
(16.20)
q2 = E2 + (1 A2 )q1 .

. 16.3.

. 16.4.

163

(16.19) (16.20),
E + E2 A1 E2
q1 = 1
;
(16.21)
A1 + A2 A1 A2
E + E 2 A2 E1
q2 = 1
.
(16.22)
A1 + A2 A1 A2

A E A1 E2
q = q1 q2 = 2 1
.
(16.23)
A1 + A2 A1 A2
- , = A ,
T1 4 T2 4
q = 0

,
(16.24)
100
100

1
1

.
1


, (. 16.4)

1
(16.24), =
, F1

1 F2 1
+ 1
1 F1 2
; F2 ,
.
16.4.

,
. , ,
. .

.
,
m .
(16.24),
1
, 1 2
=
m 1

1
1
1
+
1 +
+
1

1 2

i =1 i

; i i i- .

164


.
16.5.

,
,

4
T f 4
Tw
A
q = w 0
,
(16.25)
100
100
w ; A
.
, .
H2O CO2,
. , ,

(16.26)
= CO2 + H 2O CO2 H 2O .
.

w, , .

(16.27)
w = w [1 + (1 w )(1 )] .
A
.
, (16.25)
T f 4 T 4
w ,
q = 0
(16.28)
100 100
= w .

165

17.
17.1.

,
.

.

.

.
.
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
.

.

, .
,
.
.

.

, . .
.
.
.
17.2.


.
.

.

.

166


.

.

.
. 17.1 17.2
.


.

(17.1)
G1c p1 (T1 T1) = G2 c p 2 (T2 T2) ,
G1 G2
;
( 0,97, ,
, = 1); cp1 cp2
; T1 T2
; T1 T2

.

,
F

Q = ki TdF = kF T ,
0

(17.2)

k T
.

. 17.1.

. 17.2.

167



Q
.
F=
(17.3)
k T
Q , (17.1).

:

.
(17.4)
dQ = kTdF ;
(17.5)
dQ = G1c p1dT1 = G2 c p 2 dT2 .
(17.5) ,
dQ
dQ
; dT2 =
.
dT1 =
G1c p1
G2 c p 2

(17.6)


1
1
+
dT = dQ
;
(17.7)
G c

G
c
1
p
1
2
p
2

1
dT
1
=
+
kdF .
(17.8)
G c

T
G
c
1
p
1
2
p
2


,
1
T
1
=
+
ln
kF .
(17.9)
G c

T
G
c
1
p
1
2
p
2

T = T1 T2 T = T1 T2 ;
T = T1 T2 T = T1 T2 .


T T T T2 T T
1
1
.
+
= 1 1+ 2
=
(17.10)
G1c p1 G2 c p 2
Q
Q
Q
(13.10) (13.9), ,
T T
,
T =
(17.11)
T
ln
T
(17.3)
.

,

168

,
.

,
, .

.

,
, .
T T ,
(17.11)
T + T
.
T =
(17.12)
2

.
1
1

+
= m , (17.9)
G1c p1 G2 c p 2
T1 T2 mkF
=e
.
(17.13)
T1 T2
1,

(17.14)
(T1 T1) + (T2 T2 ) = (T1 T2 ) 1 e mkF .
,
G1c p1
.
T2 T2 = (T1 T1)
(17.15)
Gc

2 p2

1 e

T1= T1 (T1 T2 ) ,

G1c p1 kF

1+
G2c p 2 G1c p1

1+

G1c p1

(17.16)

G2 c p 2
T2 = T2 + (T1 T2 )

G1c p1
G2 c p 2

:
T1= T1 (T1 T2 )Z ;

(17.17)
(17.18)

169

T2 = T2 + (T1 T2 )

Z =

1 e
1

G1c p1 kF

1+
G2c p 2 G1c p1

G1c p1

G1c p1
1+
G2 c p 2

kF

G1c p1

G1c p1
G2 c p 2

Z,

(17.19)

e
G2 c p 2
Z .
(17.1).
17.3.



.

, .


l w 2
p =
,
(17.20)
d 2
l d ; .
:

1
3

0 ,3164 Prw
.
Re 0f ,25 Pr f

(17.21)

2 w22 1w12
.
p = 2

(17.22)

2
2

(17.23)
p = p + p + p .
(17.23) ,
.

170

17.4.


. ,
.
,
.

.
,
, .
,
(
). .

.

.

.

.
. ,
,
12 .
,
.


,
, .

, .

.10.2007. 6084.16.
. . .. 10,69.
100 .
,
432027, , . . , 32.
, 432027, , . . , 32.