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INTRODUCTION TO

AVIONIC SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT


WORKSHOP
This Workshop provides a comprehensive overview to the process, methods, techniques and
tools for the Avionic Systems design, development and integration. Main topics include:
A preliminary overview of the systems engineering concepts
A detailed analysis of the avionic system development process, including the design
approach and the activities to be performed during the entire system development cycle,
from the feasibility studies to the operational clearance
A detailed description of the methods and tools that are currently used for the avionics
development and integration. Particular consideration is givento the modern modeling and
simulation methods, techniques and tools which can be used for the system development,
including the system architectural design. The basic concurrent engineering concepts are
also addressed.
Quality and safety aspects.
The Workshop is designed for beginning systems engineers, but will also serve to introduce
avionics fundamentals to practicing engineers of small and medium enterprises involved in
the design, development and operation of avionic systems, subsystems and components.
WORKSHOP OVERVIEW
CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
1.1. The Current Environment
1.2. Definition of a System
1.3. Definition of Systems Engineering
1.4. The System Life Cycle
2. THE AVIONIC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
2.1. Desi gn Approach
Top Down Design Approach
Bottom Up Design Approach
Life Cycle Design Approach
The System Development Model
Model Based System Development
2.2. Devel opment Phases
Development Cycle Overview
Feasibility Study
Operational Requirements
Preliminary System Design
Detailed System Design
CONTENT (cont d)
Equipment Development
Operational Software Development
Development of Integration and Testing Facilities
System Integration and Testing
Ground Tests
Flight Tests
3. AVIONIC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS AND TOOLS
3.1. Concurrent Engi neeri ng
General
The System Development Process
Improving the System Development Process
Distributed Systems Engineering
3.2. Operati onal Software Development Faci lities
Software Design, Coding and Testing
Software Verification
3.3. System Integrati on and Testing Faciliti es
Integration Rigs
Antenna Testing
CONTENT (cont d)
Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing
HIRF Testing
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Modeling and Simulation Tools for the System Architectural Design
Reconfigurable Simulators
Mission Simulators
Software Modeling and Automatic Code Generation
Distributed Interactive Simulation
3.5. Rapid Prototyping Tool s for the HMI Design
4. QUALITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
4.1. Quali ty Engi neeri ng
Total Quality Management
Quality Systems, Standards and Specifications
Product and Process Quality Assurance
CONTENT (cont d)
4.2. System Configurati on Management
General
Configuration Change Control
Software Configuration
4.3. Devel opment of Safet y Criti cal Elements
Safety and Mission Critical Functions
Safety Engineering
Fault Tolerance Concept
1. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
1.1. The Current Environment
1.2. Definition of a System
1.3. Definition of Systems Engineering
1.4. The System Life Cycle
THE
CURRENT
ENVIRONMENT
SYSTEM ENGINEERING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES AND METHODS
CONSTANTLY CHANGING
REQUIREMENTS
CHANGING
TECHNOLOGY
LONGER
ACQUISITION TIMES
GREATER
INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION
HIGHER
OVERALL COSTS
EXTENDED SYSTEM
LIFE CYCLES
MULTIPLE
PRIME/SUPPLIER TEAMS
INCREASING
SYSTEM COMPLEXITY
1.1. The Current Environment
A SYSTEM CONSTITUTES A SET OF INTEGRATED COMPONENTS WORKING TOGETHER
WITH THE COMMON OBJECTIVE OF FULFILLING SOME DESIGNATED USER NEED
CONSTRAINTS
- Technology
- Economic
- Social
- Political
- Environmental
RESOURCE
REQUIREMENTS
- Human
- Equipment
- Software
- Facilities
- Data
- Maintenance
Support
SYSTEM
INPUT
User
Requirements
(Need)
OUTPUT
A System that
will respond to a
User need in an
effective and
efficient manner
1.2. Definition of a System
THE MAJOR ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM
Operating
Personnel
Prime
Operating
Equipment
Operating
Software
Data
Test and
Support
Equipment
Maintenance
Elements
THE SYSTEM
1.2. Definition of a System
EXAMPLE MODERN COMBAT AICRAFT
1.2. Definition of a System
EXAMPLE ATTACK HELICOPTER
1.2. Definition of a System
THE SYSTEM ENGINEERING IS THE EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING
EFFORTS TO TRANSFORM AN OPERATIONAL NEED INTO A DEFINED SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
THROUGH THE TOP DOWN ITERATIVE PROCESS OF REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS, FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
AND ALLOCATION, SYNTHESIS, DESIGN OPTIMIZATION, TEST AND EVALUATION AND VALIDATION
The Department of Defense(DOD) definesSystemsEngineeringasthe Process that:
- transforms operational needs and requirements into an integrated system design solution through
concurrent consideration of all Life Cycle needs
- ensures that systemdefinition and design reflect the requirements for all system elements
- ensures the compatibility, interoperability and integration of all functional and physical interfaces
- characterizesand managestechnical risk
1.3. Definition of Systems Engineering
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AREAS OF EMPHASIS
A Top Down approach is required, viewing the system as a whole.
Anoverviewand anunderstandingof howthe system componentsfit
together are essential.
A Life Cycle orientation is required,
addressing all phases toinclude system design
and development, production, operation,
maintenace, support and retirement.
A complete effort isrequiredrelative tothe
initial identification of system
requirements, in order toensurethe
effectivenessof earlydecisionmakingin
the design process.
Interdisciplinary effort and team approach are requiredthroughout
the system design and development process.
1.3. Definition of Systems Engineering
EXAMPLE OF SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
1.4. The System Life Cycle
SYSTEM ENGINEERING WITHIN THE SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
THE SYSTEM ENGINEERING PROCESS IS CONTINUOUS,
ITERATIVE AND INCORPORATES THE NECESSARY
FEEDBACK PROVISIONS AT EACH STEP OF THE SYSTEM
LIFE CYCLE
1.4. The System Life Cycle
2. THE AVIONIC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
2.1. Design Approach
2.1.1. Top Down Design Approach
2.1.2. Bottom Up Design Approach
2.1.3. Life Cycle Design Approach
2.1.4. The System Development Model
2.1.5. Model Based System Development
2.2. Devel opment Phases
2.2.1. Development Cycle Overview
2.2.2. Feasibility Study
2.2.3. Operational Requirements
2.2.4. Preliminary System Design
2.2.5. Detailed System Design
2.2.6. Equipment Development
2.2.7. Operational Software Development
2.2.8. Development of Integration and Testing Facilities
2.2.9. System Integration and Testing
2.2.10. Ground Tests
2.2.11. Flight Tests
TOP DOWN DESIGN APPROACH
OPERATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
SYSTEM
DESIGN
COMPONENTS
DEVELOPMENT
INTEGRATION
- DRIVEN BY OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
- PERFORMANCE ORIENTED
- IMPLIES SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT WORK AT BOTH SYSTEM
AND COMPONENTS LEVELS
- PLATFORM SPECIFIC
- USED FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AT THE UPPER
TECHNOLOGY EDGE
- TYPICAL OF NEW MILITARY PROGRAMS WITH VERY
DEMANDING REQUIREMENTS
2.1. Design Approach
BOTTOM UP DESIGN APPROACH
EXISTING
COMPONENTS
ADAPTATION
INTEGRATION
PERFORMANCE
ASSESSMENT
- BASED ON REUSE OF EXISTING COMPONENTS, ACCORDING TO
THE OFF THE SHELF CONCEPT
- COST ORIENTED
- REDUCES DEVELOPMENT EFFORT, TECHNICAL RISK
AND PROGRAM TIMESCHEDULE
- CAN BE EASILY ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT PLATFORMS
- CONFLICTS WITH THE NEED FOR TECHNOLOGY
GROWTH
- TYPICAL OF MILITARY UPGRADE PROGRAMS
WITH LIMITED BUDGETS AND SHORT
TIMESCHEDULES
2.1. Design Approach
FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION
Hierarchy Level 0
( Context-Diagram )
External Data
Sink
External Data
Source
Bottom-Up
Top-Down
Hierarchy Level 1
Hierarchy Level 2
2.1. Design Approach
2.1. Design Approach
GENERATORS
HIGHLEVEL CONTROLS
STATUS
MISSIONAVIONICS
SENSOR(S)
SENSORS
CONTROL
SENSORS
INTERFACE
HORIZONTAL
ENGINE
CONTROL
HORIZONTAL
ENGINE
NGIRI
DIRECTION
STATUS
VERTICAL
ENGINE
CONTROL
VERTICAL
ENGINE
NGIRI
STATUS
PROVISION
BASIC
AVIONICS
VROT
VOICE
MISSIONDATA
VOICE
TOAIR
TRAFFICCONTROL
ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION
ANDDISTRIBUTIONSYSTEM
EPGDSCONTROL
HIGHLEVEL CONTROLS
STATUS
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
ACTUATORS
PSCONTROL
HIGHLEVEL CONTROLS
STATUS
UNDERCARRIAGE SYSTEM
ACTUATORS USCONTROL
VIDEO
DATA
GROUND
STATION
NAUTILUS ETF AVIONICS FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE LEVEL ZERO
2.1. Design Approach
NAUTILUS ETF AVIONICS FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE LEVEL ONE
BASIC AVIONICS
HORIZONTAL
ENGINES
VERTICAL
ENGINES
NGIRI
DIRECTION
STATUS
NGIRI
STATUS
VROT
GROUND
STATION
VOICE
DATA
AIR TRAFFIC
CONTROL
HIGHLEVEL
CONTROLS
STATUS
EPGDS
PROVISION
MISSION
AVIONICS
HIGHLEVEL
CONTROLS
STATUS
HIGHLEVEL
CONTROLS
STATUS
PS
US
VOICE
VIDEO
COMMUNICATIONS
SUBSYSTEM
UTILITIES
CONTROL
SUBSYSTEM
FLIGHT
CONTROLS
SUBSYSTEM
NAVIGATION
SUBSYSTEM
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SUBSYSTEM
AUTOPILOT
MONITORING AND
RECORDING
SUBSYSTEM
VISION
SUBSYSTEM
VIDEO
DATA
MISSIONDATA
TOCOMMUNICATIONS
SUBSYSTEM
FROMNAVIGATION
SUBSYSTEM
FROMALL SUBSYSTEMS
LIFE CYCLE DESIGN APPROACH
THE SYSTEM ENGINEERING PROCESS MUST ENSURE THAT THE USER REQUIREMENTS ARE MET IN AN
EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANNER ACROSS THE ENTIRE SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE, INCLUDING
DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONAL USE.
SYSTEM DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
- FUNCTIONS
- PERFORMANCE
- MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE
- COST/EFFECTIVENESS
- ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
- RELIABILITY
- MAINTAINABILITY
- TESTABILITY
- SAFETY
- SURVIVABILITY
- VULNERABILITY
- RECONFIGURABILITY
- HUMAN FACTORS
- PRODUCUBILITY
- SERVICEABILITY
- LIFE CYCLE COST
2.1. Design Approach
THE V SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT MODEL
HW / SW
Design
System
Acceptance
System
Integration & Test
Module
Integration & Test
Requirements
Analysis
System Modification
Systems
Analysis &
Design
Test Scenarios
Test Scenarios
Test Scenarios
HW / SW
Implementation
& Unit Test
2.1. Design Approach
DEVELOPMENT CYCLE OVERVIEW
Operational
Requirements
System
Preliminary
Design
Review
System
Final
Design
Review
System
Test
Readiness
Review
Installation
on Aircraft
Flight
Release
Operational
Clearance
Preli minary
Design
Detail ed
Design
Equi pment Devel opment
Soft ware Development
Development of Integrat ion
and Testing Facil iti es
Ground
Test s
Flight Test s
Syst em Int egrati on and Testi ng
2.2. Development Phases
FEASIBILITY STUDY
INPUT
- OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
ACTIVITIES
- IDENTIFICATION OF RISK AREAS
OBJECTIVE
- RISK REDUCTION
- IDENTIFICATION OF THE VARIOUS POSSIBLE
TECHNOLOGICAL AND DESIGN APPROACHES
- EVALUATION OF THE CANDIDATES IN TERMS OF PERFORMANCE,
EFFECTIVENESS, LOGISTIC REQUIREMENTS AND LIFE CYCLE ECONOMIC CRITERIA
- INITIATION OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, IF REQUIRED, WITH THE OBJ ECTIVE OF
DEVELOPING NEW METHODS/TECHNIQUES FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
- SELECTION OF AN OVERALL TECHNICAL APPROACH AND
RECOMMENDATION TO THE CUSTOMER
OUTPUT
- FINALIZED OPERATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
- AGREED OVERALL TECHNICAL
APPROACH
2.2. Development Phases
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS REFLECT THE NEEDS OF THE USER RELATIVE TO SYSTEM
UTILIZATION AND THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF A MISSION.
TYPICAL OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT
- OPERATIONAL DEPLOYMENT: NUMBER OF SITES, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, QUANTITY
- MISSION TYPES: AIR SUPPORT, INTERDICTION, INTERCEPTION, AIR DEFENSE, ETC.
- MISSION PROFILE: FLIGHT PATH, RANGE, ALTITUDE
- MISSION SCENARIO: TERRAIN, TARGETS, THREATS, ETC.
- OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS: NAVIGATION, WEAPON AIMING, MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE, STORE MANAGEMENT, ETC.
- UTILIZATION REQUIREMENTS: OPERATING HOURS, DUTY CYCLE, OPERATIONAL LIFE, ETC.
- EFFECTIVENESS REQUIREMENTS: RELIABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY, TESTABILITY, VULNERABILITY, ETC.
- ENVIRONMENT: TEMPERATURE, VIBRATION, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, ETC.
- PERFORMANCE: NAVIGATION ACCURACY, WEAPON DELIVERY ACCURACY, REACTION TIME, WEIGHT, ETC.
2.2. Development Phases
PRELIMINARY SYSTEM DESIGN
OPERATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS
ANALYSIS
SYSTEM
FUNCTIONAL
DESIGN
SUBSYSTEM
FUNCTIONAL
DESIGN
SUBSYSTEM
DESIGN
SYSTEM
REQUIREMENTS
DOCUMENTS
SUBSYSTEM
REQUIREMENTS
DOCUMENTS
HARDWARE/SOFTWARE
COMPONENTS
DEFINITION
ITERATIONS
ITERATIONS
ITERATIONS
OBJECTIVES OF THE PRELIMINARY SYSTEM
DESIGN PHASE
- CONVERSION OF THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
INTO AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM DESIGN SOLUTION
- DEFINITION OF THE SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE,
HARDWARE/SOFTWARE PARTITIONING AND SYSTEM
PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE
2.2. Development Phases
AVIONIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
SCOPE
APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Mission Types
Mission Profil es
Mission Scenario
Utilization Requirements
General
System Functional Architecture
FUNCTIONAL AND PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS
General
System Moding
Subsystems Defini tion
Flight Management Subsystem
Autopilot
Communications Subsystem
Vision Subsystem
Utilities Control Subsystem
Monitoring and Recording Subsystem
2.2. Development Phases
Functi onal Interface
External Interface
Internal Interface
Navigation Subsystem
Flight Controls Subsystem
System Performance Requirements
Navigation Accuracy
Communications Subsystem Performance
Vision Subsystem Performance
System Readiness for Operations
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Hardware Confi guration
Hardware Preliminary Architecture
Equipment Functions
System Intercommunication
2.2. Development Phases
Physi cal Characteri stics
System Weight
System Volume
Installation Requirements
Electri cal Power Suppl y Requirements
Electrical Power Supply Characteristics
Power Consumption
Cooli ng Requirements
Cooling Air Characteristics
Air Mass Flow
SAFETY AND MISSION CRITICALITY
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Basic Defi niti ons
Safety/Flight Critical Functions
Mission Critical Functions
Basic Desi gn Requirements
Safety/Flight Critical Failure Rate
Software Devel opment Environment
Software Development Tools
Host System
Software Integration and Verification Facilities
Software Design/Architecture
Software Design Methodologies
Software Architecture
Software Development Phasing
Verification of Software
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Environmental Conditi ons
Temperature/Altitude
OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS
Mission Critical Failure Rate
Failure Tolerance Requirements
Redundancy and Reconfiguration Concept
AVIONIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION (cont d)
Umidity
Vibrations
Shock
Salt Fog
Others
2.2. Development Phases
AVIONIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION (cont d)
Electromagneti c Compatibil ity
Radiated and Conducted Emissions
Susceptibility to Radiated and Conducted
Emissions
Lightni ng Protection
LOGISTIC SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
Reliabilit y
SYSTEM TESTING, QUALIFICATION AND
CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
System Testing and Qual ification
Avionics System Test Concept
Equipment Testing and Qualification
Software Verification
System Integration and Testing
On Aircraft Ground Testing
Flight Testing
System Certi fication
Maintai nabi lity
Testabil ity
PRELIMINARY SYSTEM DESIGN
EXAMPLE INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SUBSYSTEM
ALTITUDE
DATA
GENERATION
INERTIAL
DATA
GENERATION
GPS
DATA
GENERATION
TERRAIN
REFERENCE
NAVIGATION
KALMAN
FILTER
NAVIGATION COMPUTING
TERRAIN DATA
AIRCRAFT POSITION
FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE
RADAR
ALTIMETER TRN
NAVIGATION
COMPUTER
PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE ALTERNATIVE 1
AVIONIC BUS
RADAR
ALTIMETER
INS GPS TRN
AVIONIC BUS
PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE ALTERNATIVE 2
INS/GPS
(INCLUDING
KALMAN FILTER)
NAVIGATION COMPUTER
(INCLUDING
KALMAN FILTER)
2.2. Development Phases
DETAILED SYSTEM DESIGN
OBJECTIVES
- PRODUCE DETAILED DEVELOPMENT
SPECIFICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
IN ORDER TO START PARALLEL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND OF THE INTEGRATION AND
TESTING FACILITIES
- SELECT EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS
INPUT
- RESULTS OF THE PRELIMINARY
SYSTEM DESIGN
ACTIVITIES
- SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS
- DETAILED DEFINITION OF EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS, INCLUDING FUNCTIONS, PERFORMANCE,
FUNCTIONAL, ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL INTERFACES, CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS, PHYSICAL
REQUIREMENTS, ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS, PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS, ETC.
- PREPARATION OF EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
- DETAILED DEFINITION OF THE SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE OF THE
MISSION COMPUTER/COMPUTERS. PREPARATION OF THE SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS AND OF
THE ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
- DETAILED DEFINITION OF THE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND
TESTING FACILITIES. PREPARATION OF THE RELEVANT SPECIFICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED
DOCUMENTS
OUTPUT
- EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATIONS AND
ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
- SOFTWARE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND
ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
- SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTING FACILITIES
SPECIFICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
2.2. Development Phases
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF AVIONIC EQUIPMENT ARE USUALLY SUBCONTRACTED TO
SELECTED SUPPLIERS
DESIGN
REALIZATION OF
A MODELS
REALIZATION OF
B MODELS
REALIZATION OF
C MODELS
PRELIMINARY
QUALIFICATION
EQUIPMENT
DEVELOPMENT
SPECIFICATION
DESIGN
DOCUMENTATION
ENGINEERING MODELS
RETAINED BY THE SUPPLIER
FOR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
REPRESENTATIVE MODELS
DELIVERED FOR SYSTEM
INTEGRATION AND TESTING
FLYABLE MODELS
FOR INSTALLATION
ON THE AIRCRAFT
PRELIMINARY DECLARATION
OF DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE
FOR FIRST FLIGHT
FINAL
QUALIFICATION
FINAL DECLARATION
OF DESIGN AND
PERFORMANCE
SUPPLIERS ACTIVITIES
ALL B AND C EQUIPMENT MODELS ARE SUBJECT TO ACCEPTANCE TESTING BEFORE DELIVERY
2.2. Development Phases
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT
THE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY THE EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS ARE TECHNICALLY
MONITORED BY EQUIPMENT ENGINEERS
EQUIPMENT ENGINEERS MAIN ACTIVITIES
- PREPARATION AND UPDATING OF THE EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS
- TECHNICAL MONITORING OF THE EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT IN ORDER TO ENSURE COMPLIANCE WITH THE SPECIFIED
REQUIREMENTS
- IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF IMPACTS ON THE AVIONIC SYSTEM RESULTING FROM POSSIBLE DEVIATIONS
FROM THE EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS
- APPROVAL OF ALL DEVIATIONS FROM THE SPECIFICATIONS AND/OR MODIFICATIONS TO THE EQUIPMENT
- ANALYSIS AND APPROVAL OF ALL TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS PRODUCED BY THE SUPPLIERS
- TECHNICAL LIASON WITH THE SUPPLIERS
- SUPPORT TO SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERS
2.2. Development Phases
OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
EXAMPLE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
BASIC SOFTWARE
EQUIPMENT
MANAGEMENT
NAVIGATION
SENSORS
DISPLAYS AND
CONTROLS
WEAPONS
OTHERS
DATA BASE
MISSION DATA
WEAPONS DATA
EQUIPMENT
DATA
HUD HANDLER
HUD MODING
HUD FORMATS
MFD HANDLER
MFD MODING
MFD FORMATS
DATA HANDLER
NAVIGATION
COMPUTATIONS
WEAPON
AIMING
COMPUTATIONS
STORES
MANAGER
MODE
CONTROLLER SCHEDULER
THE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE IS THE APPLICATION SOFTWARE RESIDENT IN THE AIRCRAFT
MISSION COMPUTERS PERFORMING THE AVIONIC FUNCTIONS REQUIRED IN ORDER TO FULFILL THE
MISSION REQUIREMENTS
2.2. Development Phases
OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
SOFTWARE
FUNCTIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE
REQUIREMENTS
ANALYSIS
SOFTWARE
PRELIMINARY
DESIGN
SOFTWARE
DETAILED
DESIGN CODING AND
UNIT TESTING
UNIT
INTEGRATION
AND TESTING
CSCI
QUALIFICATION
TESTING
SOFTWARE
REQUIREMENTS
ANALYSIS
SOFTWARE
PRELIMINARY
DESIGN
SOFTWARE
DETAILED
DESIGN CODING AND
UNIT TESTING
UNIT
INTEGRATION
AND TESTING
CSCI
QUALIFICATION
TESTING
CSCI/HWCI
INTEGRATION
AND TESTING
SYSTEM
FINAL
DESIGN
REVIEW
SOFTWARE
SPECIFICATION
REVIEW
PRELIMINARY
DESIGN
REVIEW
CRITICAL
DESIGN
REVIEW
SOFTWARE
TEST
READINESS
REVIEW
SYSTEM
TEST
READINESS
REVIEW
SOFTWARE
REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATION
INTERFACE
REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATION
SOFTWARE
ARCHITECTURE
SOFTWARE
DESIGN
DESCRIPTION
INTERFACE
DESIGN
DESCRIPTION
DATA BASE
DESIGN
DESCRIPTION
SYSTEM
QUALIFICATION
TESTING
SOFTWARE
TEST
DESCRIPTION
SOFTWARE
TEST
REPORT
SOFTWARE
TEST
DESCRIPTION
SOFTWARE
TEST
REPORT
CSCI = COMPUTER SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION ITEM
HWCI = HARDWARE CONFIGURATION ITEM
2.2. Development Phases
DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATION AND TESTING FACILITIES
THE INTEGRATION AND TESTING ACTIVITIES AT SYSTEM/SUBSYSTEM LEVELS REQUIRE COMPLEX
FACILITIES, CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING THE SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTING ACCORDING TO THE
HARDWARE IN THE LOOP METHODOLOGY WITH PILOT INTERACTION IN A REPRESENTATIVE
ENVIRONMENT
THE TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTEGRATION AND TESTING FACILITIES ARE STRONGLY
RELATED TO:
A) THE SPECIFIC AIRCRAFT CHARACTERISTICS
B) THE SPECIFIC AVIONIC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND CONFIGURATION
C) THE SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT HARDWARE
THE REALIZATION OF THE INTEGRATION AND TESTING FACILITIES
REQUIRES SPECIFIC DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
2.2. Development Phases
SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTING
THE SCOPE OF THE INTEGRATION AND TESTING ACTIVITIES IS TO VERIFY THAT THE FUNCTIONS AND
PERFORMANCE OF THE INTEGRATED AVIONIC SYSTEM COMPLY WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE
AVIONIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
STATIC TESTS
- ELECTRICAL INTEGRATION
- STATIC STIMULATION OF EQUIPMENT, IN ORDER TO VERIFY CORRECT STATIC OPERATION
- MODIFICATION OF SELECTED PARAMETERS
- INJ ECTION OF ERROR CONDITIONS
- VERIFICATION OF DIGITAL, DISCRETE AND ANALOG EQUIPMENT INTERFACES
2.2. Development Phases
SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTING
DYNAMIC TESTS
THE DYNAMIC TESTS ALLOW THE VERIFICATION OF THE GLOBAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND
PERFORMANCES, OPERATING IN DYNAMIC CONDITIONS IN A REPRESENTATIVE ENVIRONMENT
OPEN LOOP DYNAMIC SIMULATION
THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM IS STIMULATED BY COMPUTER GENERATED SIGNALS, ACCORDING TO PREDEFINED
MATHEMATICAL MODELS
CLOSED LOOP DYNAMIC SIMULATION
THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM IS STIMULATED BY AN AIRCRAFT SIX DEGREES OF FREEDOM MATHEMATICAL MODEL,
CONTROLLED BY PILOT COMMANDS.
THE CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION RUNS ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING OPERATIONAL MODES:
A) CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION WITH PILOT IN THE LOOP
THE LOOP IS CLOSED BY THE ACION OF THE PILOT/OPERATOR WITHIN THE MANEUVERS LIMITATIONS
IMPOSED BY THE AIRCRAFT OPERATIONAL FLIGHT ENVELOPE
B) CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION WITH SIMULATED PILOT (DETERMINISTIC TESTS)
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL GENERATES A PREDEFINED FLIGHT PATH. THIS MODE ALLOWS TESTS
REPEATABILITY.
2.2. Development Phases
GROUND TESTS
THE SCOPE OF THE GROUND TESTING ACTIVITIES IS TO VERIFY THE CORRECT INTEGRATION OF THE
AVIONIC SYSTEM ON THE AIRCRAFT IN TERMS OF:
A) MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL AND FUNCTIONAL INTERFACES
B) COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHERS AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.
POST INSTALLATION TESTING
- VERIFICATION OF THE AVIONIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY WHEN INSTALLEDON THE AIRCRAFT
- VERIFICATION OF AVIONIC SYSTEM INTERFACES WITH OTHERS AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
- USUALLY PERFORMED BY USING SPECIFIC TEST SOFTWARE PACKAGES
- PERFORMED ON ALL AIRCRAFTS
2.2. Development Phases
GROUND TESTS
ANTENNA TESTING
- VERIFICATION OF CORRECT OPERATION OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING ANTENNAS ASSOCIATED TO AVIONIC EQUIPMENT
- ANTENNAS RADIATION PATTERNS ARE MEASURED WITH EXTENSIVE LABORATORY TESTING ON SCALED MODELS IN
ANECHOIC CHAMBERS. ADDITIONAL TESTS ON PROTOTYPES AIRCRAFTS.
HAZARD FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TO ORDNANCE (HERO) TESTING
- VERIFICATION OF IMPACTS ON AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS RESULTING FROM EXTERNAL ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY TESTING
- VERIFICATION OF MUTUAL COMPATIBILITY OF AVIONIC EQUIPMENT AMONG THEMSELVES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATED AND CONDUCTED EMISSIONS
- VERIFICATION OF COMPATIBILITY OF AVIONIC EQUIPMENT WITH OTHERS AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATED AND CONDUCTED EMISSIONS
- BASICALLY PERFORMED ON PROTOTYPES AIRCRAFTS
2.2. Development Phases
FLIGHT TESTS
THE SCOPES OF THE FLIGHT TESTING ACTIVITIES ARE:
A) PERFORM THE FINAL INTEGRATION OF THE AVIONIC SYSTEM ON THE AIRCRAFT IN THE ACTUAL
OPERATING CONDITIONS
B) DEMONSTRATE THAT THE AVIONIC SYSTEM COMPLIES WITH THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
THE FINAL INTEGRATION OF THE AVIONIC SYSTEM ON THE AIRCRAFT REQUIRES EXTENSIVE FLIGHT CHAMPAINS ON PROTOTYPES
AIRCRAFTS, IN ORDER TO COVER THE FOLLOWING MAIN ASPECTS:
A) ENVIRONMENT: VIBRATION, TEMPERATURE, ALTITUDE, HUMIDITY, ETC.
B) COOLING: AIR FLOW, AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE, ETC.
C) POWER SUPPLY: AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS, NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CONDITIONS, TRANSIENTS, ETC.
D) ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY: RADIATED AND CONDUCTED EMISSIONS, COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TRANSMITTING
AND RECEIVING EQUIPMENT, ETC.
E) FUNCTIONALITY: FINAL VERIFICATION OF THE AVIONIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY.
ACTUAL AIRCRAFT OPERATING CONDITIONS
2.2. Development Phases
FLIGHT TESTS
OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS AND PERFORMANCE
DEMONSTRATION OF THE COMPLIANCE TO THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR:
A) OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS: NAVIGATION, WEAPON AIMING, COMMUNICATIONS, STORES MANAGEMENT, SELF
PROTECTION, ETC.
B) OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE: NAVIGATION ACCURACY, TARGET DETECTION RANGE AND ACCURACY, WEAPON
AIMING ACCURACY, WEAPON DELIVERY ACCURACY, COMMUNICATIONS RANGE AND COVERAGE, THREAT
DETECTION RANGE AND COVERAGE, ETC.
MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE
DEMONSTRATION OF THE COMPLIANCE TO THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR:
A) OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES: SYSTEM MODING, SUBSYSTEM MODING, EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND CONTROL,
ETC.
B) DISPLAYS FORMATS AND SYMBOLOGY: HEAD UP DISPLAY, HEAD DOWN MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS, CONTROL
AND DISPLAY UNITS, DEDICATED PANELS, ETC.
C) ALL ERGONOMIC ASPECTS
2.2. Development Phases
FLIGHT TESTS
FLIGHT TEST INSTRUMENTATION
FLIGHT TEST INSTRUMENTATION (FTI) IS INSTALLED ON BOARD OF PROTOTYPES AIRCRAFTS FOR DATA COLLECTION,
COMPRESSION AND RECORDING FOR POST FLIGHT ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION.
RECORDED DATA INCLUDE:
A) FLIGHT AND NAVIGATION DATA: AIRCRAFT ATTITUDE, ALTITUDE, SPEED, POSITION, ETC.
B) ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: VIBRATION, TEMPERATURE, ETC.
C) EQUIPMENT INPUT/OUTPUT DATA: DIGITAL, DISCRETES, ANALOGS, ETC..
FLIGHT BACK UP ACTIVITIES
THE FLIGHT TESTS ARE SUPPORTED BY PARALLEL FLIGHT BACK UP ACTIVITIES PERFORMED ON THE INTEGRATION AND
TESTING FACILITIES.
THIS ALLOWS TO:
A) REPRODUCE RECORDED SITUATIONS, IN ORDER TO ANALYZE AND EVALUATE THE MALFUNCTIONS DETECTED
DURING THE FLIGHTS
B) IDENTIFICATION AND TEST OF CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR THE MALFUNCTIONS DETECTED DURING THE FLIGHTS.
2.2. Development Phases
3. AVIONIC SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS AND TOOLS
3.1. Concurrent Engi neeri ng
3.1.1. Definition
3.1.2. System Design and Analysis
3.1.3. Interactive Simulation
3.1.4. System Verification
3.2. Operati onal Software Development Faci lities
3.2.1. Software Design, Coding and Testing
3.2.2. Software Verification
3.3. System Integrati on and Testing Faciliti es
3.3.1. Integration Rigs
3.3.2. Antenna Testing
3.3.3. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing
3.3.4. HERO Testing
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
3.4.1. Modeling and Simulation Tools for the System Architectural Design
3.4.2. Reconfigurable Simulators
3.4.3. Mission Simulators
3.4.4. Software Modeling and Automatic Code Generation
3.4.5. Distributed Interactive Simulation
3.5. Rapid Prototyping Tool s for the HMI Design
GENERAL
COMPUTERIZED DESIGN AIDS
- SIMULATION METHODS
- MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHODS
- STATISTICAL TOOLS
- DATA BASE MANAGEMENT MODELS
- SPECIALIZED ENGINEERING TOOLS
- PROJ ECT MANAGEMENT AIDS
3.1. Concurrent Engineering
3.1. Concurrent Engineering
Time Requi rements-
Anal ysi s
Systems
Anal ysi s &
Desi gn
HW/SW
Desi gn
HW/SW
Impl ementati on
Modul e
Integrati on & Test
System
Integrati on & Test
System
Acceptance
System Engi neers
Test Engineers
Mechanical Engi neers
Software Engineers
Electrical Engineers
THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
3.1. Concurrent Engineering
Time
System Engi neers
Test Engineers
Electrical Engineers
Software Engineers
Mechanical Engi neers
Requi rements-
Anal ysi s
Systems
Desi gn &
Anal ysi s
HW/SW
Desi gn
HW/SW
Impl ementati on
Modul e
Integrati on & Test
System
Integrati on & Test
System
Acceptance
System Engi neers
Test Engineers
Mechanical Engi neers
Software Engineers
Electrical Engineers
Time
IMPROVING THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
DISTRIBUTED
SYSTEMS
ENGINEERING
SYSTEM
DESIGN
PROJECT
REVIEWS
ENGINEERING
ANALYSIS
TEST
PREPARATION
AND EXECUTION
SIMULATIONS
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM DESIGN AND
ANALYSIS
DISTRIBUTION AND COLLABORATIVE EVALUATION OF
ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION RESULTS
DISTRIBUTED DESIGN REVIEWS
CONSOLIDATION OF THE SYSTEM DESIGN IN A DISTRIBUTED
REVIEW TEAM
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM VERIFICATION
SUPPORT TO PREPARATION, EXECUTION AND EVALUATION OF SYSTEM TESTS
3.1. Concurrent Engineering
OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FACILITY
- INCLUDES A SET OF SOFTWARE TOOLS COVERING ALL PHASES OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
- INCLUDES A HOST SYSTEM WITH A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF WORK PLACES TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT EFFORT
- SUPPORTS THE ENTIRE SOFTWARE LIFE CYCLE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE APPLICABLE MILITARY STANDARDS
(MIL STD 498 MILITARY STANDARD SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION)
GRAPHIC SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FACILITY
- DEFINES, DEVELOPS AND MAINTAINS THE FORMATS AND SYMBOLOGY OF THE HEAD UP DISPLAY AND OF THE HEAD DOWN
MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS
- ALLOWS RAPID PROROTYPING OF DISPLAYS FORMATS AND SYMBOLOGY ON HOST COMPUTER
- ALLOWS AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION FOR TARGET COMPUTER
SOFTWARE VERIFICATION STATION
- SUPPORTS THE HARDWARE/SOFTWARE INTEGRATION OF THE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE IN A REPRESENTATIVE
ENVIRONMENT
- ALLOWS THE VERIFICATION OF THE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE FUNCTIONALITY IN A SIMULATED DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT, INCLUDING AIRCRAFT AND AVIONIC EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS
3.2. Operational Software Development Facilities
- ALLOWS TO TEST AND EVALUATE THE INTEGRATED AVIONIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONS, PERFORMANCE AND
INTEGRATION ASPECTS
- SUPPORTS THE VALIDATION OF THE OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SOFTWARE BEFORE FLIGHT
- SUPPORTS THE FINAL TESTING OF THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM BEFORE FLIGHT AND THE PREPARATION
OF THE FLIGHT RELEASE DOCUMENTS
- SUPPORTS THE AVIONIC SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTING ACTIVITIES ON GROUND ACCORDING
TO THE HARDWARE IN THE LOOP AND PILOT IN THE LOOP CONCEPTS
- PROVIDES AN EFFECTIVE MEAN OF TRAINING PILOTS ON THE USE OF THE AVIONICS AND ON THE
RELATED FLIGHT AND ATTACK PROCEDURES
FUNCTIONS OF AN AVIONICS INTEGRATION RIG
AN AVIONICS INTEGRATION RIG CAN BE EXPANDED TO PROVIDE AN OVERALL MISSION SIMULATION
CAPABILITY IN A COMPLEX TACTICAL SCENARIO
3.3. System Integration and Testing Facilities
COCKPIT MOCK UP
EQUIPMENT BENCH
OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATOR
AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR
DATA ACQUISITION AND
STIMULATION SYSTEM
IMAGE GENERATOR
TERRAIN DATA BASE
TACTICAL SCENARIO SIMULATOR
GRAPHICS CONTROL
STRUCTURE SIMULATION SYSTEM
PROJECTION SYSTEM
SCREEN
STRUCTURE
WIRING
POWER SUPPLY
PROJ ECTOR
STRUCTURE
WIRING
POWER SUPPLY
STRUCTURE
WIRING
POWER SUPPLY
AVIONIC
EQUIPMENT
NON AVIONIC
EQUIPMENT
DYNAMICS/BASIC SENSORS
AVIONIC EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS
INTERFACE WITH REAL EQUIPMENT
DATA ACQUISITION AND STIMULATION
SOFTWARE SERVICES
NON AVIONIC EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS
DISCRETES
ANALOGS
DISCRETES
ANALOGS
LAN
LAN
DIGITAL
DISCRETES ANALOGS
REAL DISPLAYS
AND INDICATORS
REAL CONTROLS
AVIONICS INTEGRATION RIG CONFIGURATION
3.3. System Integration and Testing Facilities
3.3. System Integration and Testing Facilities
ANTENNA TESTING
The design of airborne antennas and their location on the aircraft are essential for the
overall system performance. The radiation patterns of the antennas can be significantly
affected by the aircraft structure. Interference problems can also occur from coupling
froman onboard transmitting antenna to a receiving antenna. Extensive testing activities
must therefore be carried out to ensure the desiredinstalledperformance.
Computational antenna modellingon structures
Measurements on subscale models of the airframe
Full scale groundmeasurements
Operational flight testingto verifyproper
installation, functional performance and
electromagnetic compatibility withthe
aircraft systems
OVERVIEW
HW / SW
Design
System
Acceptance
System
Integration & Test
Module
Integration & Test
Requirements
Analysis
Systems
Analysis &
Design
Test Scenarios
Test Scenarios
Test Scenarios
HW / SW
Implementation
& Unit Test
MODELING AND SIMULATION
TOOLS FOR
SYSTEM DESIGN
SOFTWARE MODELING
AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATORS
INTEGRATION RIGS
MISSION SIMULATORS
RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATORS
MISSION SIMULATORS
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS
- Systems today are becoming more and more complex.
- Static documentation is insufficient for describing dynamic behavior.
- Functional groups have a lack of communication.
- System requirements can be misinterpreted.
- Individuals interpret requirements differently.
- Missing requirements.
- Ambiguous requirements.
- Conflicting requirements.
System Development Time
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3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
System
Acceptance
System
Integration & Test
Module
Integration & Test
Requirements
Analysis
Requirements Model s
( Use Cases )
System Modification
System - /
Performance - Model
T
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-
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Test Scenarios Test Scenarios
HW / SW
Implementation
& Unit Test
HW / SW
Design
Systems
Analysis &
Design
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
System
Functional
Design
Requi rements
Document
System
Requi rements
Document
Subsystem
Design *
HW/SW Requi rements
Speci fi cation
Document
* Concurrent Engineering Task
Subsystem
Functional
Design *
HW Desi gn & Bui l d SW Desi gn & Impl ementati on
Subsystem
Requi rements
Document
Links providing Traceabil ity
to original Requirements
Test Scenari os /
Test Vectors
Test/Parameter
Database
Executable Use Case Model s
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
- Requirements Model
- Analyze each requirement and derive new system requirements.
- Develop use-casemodels of the requirements.
- Functional Model
- Build and validate a functional description of the entire system.
- Concerned with functional decomposition of a system, building a complete definition of the
system interfaces, and behavioral descriptions of the functions.
- Functional decomposition is modeled independent of the physical architecture.
- Executable specification to describe dynamic behaviour.
- System validation performed earl y in the design process.
- Early detection of design errors.
- Model based design.
- removes ambiguous requirements.
- resolves conflicting requirements.
- Communication channels are opened.
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
TEST DATABASE
- Tests need to be defined at each stage of the development cycle.
- At every level of the systems hierarchy, before progressing to the
next level, the model should be tested to validate the system
requirements.
- Stimuli and responses should be recorded and applied during each
phase of development.
- Tests recorded on the virtual system can be applied to the physical
system.
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
MODELING AND SIMULATION CONCEPT FOR SYSTEM DESIGN
GRAPHICAL
MODELING AND
DESIGN
SIMULATION AND
ANALYSIS
GENERATE CODE
VALIDATE AND
DEBUG DESIGN
EXECUTABLE
SPECIFICATIONS
PROTOTYPES
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
PI_Controller
Vehicle_Dynamics
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
User Interface Vi ew
Panel
Target Pilot
Use Case 1
UC_1_1_3
Select Weapon
UC_1_1_4Perform
prerelease calcs UC1_1_1 Process
andstore TGT
position data
UC1_1TGT
Acquisition
UC1_1_12
Groundstab LDP
to TGT
Use Case 1
<<include>>
<<include>>
Use Case View
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Use Case Scenari o Vi ew
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D
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Time-conti nuous Behavi oral Vi ew
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D
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State-based Behavi oral Vi ew
S
t
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S
t
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m
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e
Functional / Architectural Vi ew
A
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h
art
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
- System Design Automation Tool.
- Allows the user to:
- Graphicall y model a design.
- Uses a graphical modeling language.
- Perform system anal ysis.
- Allows earl y validation of the systems behavior and functionality.
- Create a rapid prototype of the system.
- C/Ada and VHDL/Verilog Code can be generated for a design.
- Panels can be created as a user interface to your simulation.
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
FROM USE CASES TO SYSTEM DESIGN
Identi fy Use Cases (done in RQ Anal ysis)
Identi fy Subsystems
Assign Requirements (Use Cases) to
Subsystems
Define Subsystem Interfaces
Synthesi ze Hi gh Level Architecture
- Functi onal System Desi gn
- System-Level COTS Anal ysi s
Refine Subsystems
- HW / SW Parti tioning
Hierarchy Level 0
(Context-Diagram)
External
Data Sink
External
Data Source
Hierarchy Level 1
Top-Down
Hierarchy Level 2
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
ENCAPSULATION OF ACTIVITIES
Statechart
Activity Chart
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Hierarchy Level -1
Hierarchy Level 0 and 1
Hierarchy Level 2
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Mini-Spec Continuous Diagrams
( VisSim )
Truthtables
C-Code:
User written or
SE-Tool generated
( Matrix_x, Simulink, )
Statemachines
(Statechart)
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Interactive Simulation
Generating Events and/or changing Conditions and Data
manuallyvia a Monitor Window or a Graphic User Interface
- Animation of Statecharts and Activity Charts
- Play-back File (Simulation Control Language (SCL-) Format)
- Trace-File (Output: Spread Sheet, Waveform Display)
SIMULATION MODES
Batch Simulation
Users may write their own Simulation Control Program (SCP)
on the Basis of a recorded Playback File
Testbench Simulation
By defining a Statechart to be a Testbenchthis Chart will be
interpreted as a Concurrent State Machine to the entire System.
- Stimulation and Monitoring of the System via the BroadcastingMechanism
- Application: Test Program Generation, FMEA, linear Plant Models
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Aerospace Typical Applications
Avionics
Flight
Surfaces
Passenger
Cabin
Systems
Hybrid
Discrete
Logical
Behavior
Time/Continuous
Control Law
Behavior
MATRIXX/BetterState
Simulink/StateFlow
Statemate MAGNUM/
VisSim
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Exampl e Hybrid Systems
Discrete Logic
Systems
Exterior Car Lighting
Digital Displays
Time-Continuous /
Control Law Systems
Engine Controller
Flight Surfaces
Physical Systems
Hybrid
Systems
Autopilot
Transmission
HVAC
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
The essential concept behind model checking is to (mathematically) prove whether a given model (a
set of system requirements or a simulation model) satisfies a certain specification property.
Define a formal model of the system that is
subject to verification by creating a model of the
system in a language that fits the model checker's
input language.
MODELING AND SIMULATION TOOLS FOR THE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Provide a parti cular system propert y that
should be proved. In other words, a question about
the system's behavior is formulated that should be
answered bythe model checker.
Invoke the model checking tool and receive a
notification whether the given system property was
fulfilled or not. In case the system property could
not be verified, a counterexample is generated to
finger-point to the source of error in the simulation
model.
MODEL CHECKING
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATORS FOR THE SYSTEM DESIGN
RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATORS CAN BE USED IN
THE SYSTEM DESIGN PHASE FOR EARLY
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF
POSSIBLE DESIGN ALTERNATIVES IN A
REPRESENTATIVE ENVIRONMENT
- FRONT PANEL GENERAL LAYOUT
- DISPLAYS FORMATS AND SYMBOLOGY
- SYSTEM/SUBSYSTEMS MODING
- AVIONICS CONTROL PROCEDURES
- FLIGHT AND MISSION PROCEDURES
- MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE PROCEDURAL ASPECTS
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
MISSION SIMULATORS FOR THE SYSTEM DESIGN
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
MISSION SIMULATORS FOR THE SYSTEM DESIGN
MISSION SIMULATORS CAN STRONGLY SUPPORT THE SYSTEM DESIGN BY PROVIDING AN EFFECTIVE
MEAN FOR ANALYZING AND EVALUATING THE AVIONIC SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR IN AN EARLY STAGE OF THE
DEVELOPMENT
MAIN AREAS OF UTILIZATION
- EARLY VERIFICATION OF THE AVIONIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE
- EARLY VERIFICATION OF COMPLIANCE TO THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN A HIGHLY
REPRESENTATIVE ENVIRONMENT
- EVALUATION OF THE MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS IN A HIGHLY REPRESENTATIVE
ENVIRONMENT
- DEFINITION AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT AND MISSION PROCEDURES IN A HIGHLY
REPRESENTATIVE TACTICAL SCENARIO
- EARLY VERIFICATION OF COMPLIANCE TO THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS WITH THE FINAL USER
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
MISSION SIMULATOR FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
TACTICAL
SCENARIO
SIMULATOR
VISUAL
SIMULATOR
AIRCRAFT
SIMULATOR
PILOT
INTERFACE
SENSORS
SIMULATORS
AVIONIC
EQUIPMENT
SIMULATORS
REAL
AVIONIC
EQUIPMENT
SOFTWARE
SERVICES
OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATOR
AVIONIC SYSTEM
SCENARIO DATA
STATUS STATUS
COMMANDS
PROJECTION
SYSTEM
GRAPHICS
PLATFORM
DATA
STATUS
COMMANDS
AND CONTROLS
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
MISSION SIMULATOR PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
COCKPIT MOCK UP
OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
SIMULATOR
AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR
DATA ACQUISITION AND
STIMULATION SYSTEM
IMAGE GENERATOR
TERRAIN DATA BASE
TACTICAL SCENARIO SIMULATOR
GRAPHICS CONTROL
STRUCTURE
SIMULATION SYSTEM
PROJECTION SYSTEM
SCREEN
STRUCTURE
WIRING
POWER SUPPLY
PROJ ECTOR
STRUCTURE
WIRING
POWER SUPPLY
DYNAMICS/BASIC SENSORS
AVIONIC EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS
DATA ACQUISITION AND STIMULATION
SOFTWARE SERVICES
NON AVIONIC EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS
DISCRETES
ANALOGS
LAN
LAN
DIGITAL
DISPLAYS
INDICATORS
CONTROLS
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR
THE AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR IS A HIGH FIDELITY SIX DEGREES OF FREEDOM AERODYNAMIC MODEL
SIMULATING IN REAL TIME THE FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND HANDLING OF THE AIRCRAFT. IT ALSO
SIMULATES SOME AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT.
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR MAIN SIMULATION MODELS
- AERODYNAMIC SYSTEM
- FLIGHT CONTROLS SYSTEM
- FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
- AUTOPILOT SYSTEM
- NAVIGATION SYSTEM
- AIR DATA SYSTEM
- AMBIENT SYSTEM
- WINDS SYSTEM
- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
- ENGINE SYSTEM
- AUTOTHROTTLE SYSTEM
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
THE TACTICAL SCENARIO SIMULATOR ALLOWS THE DEFINITION OF INTERACTIVE TACTICAL SCENARIOS
WITHIN USER DEFINED SYNTHETIC ENVIRONMENTS. ONCE THE SCENARIOS ARE GENERATED, THE SIMULATOR
RUNS THEM IN REAL TIME, ENABLING FREE PLAY PARTICIPATION MIXED IN WITH THE PREDEFINED ENTITY
BEHAVIOR RULES.
TACTICAL SCENARIO SIMULATOR
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
TERRAIN DATA BASE
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
IMAGE GENERATOR
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
DATA ACQUISITION AND STIMULATION SYSTEM
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Impl ementati on
Testing
Mechanistic
Design
Detailed
Design
Coding
Unit
Testing
Integration
Testing
Validation
Testing
Iterative
Prototypes
Desi gn
Object-ori ent ed
SW Engi neering
System Modi fi cati on
K
n
o
w
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e
d
g
e

B
a
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e
HW/SW Requirement s
Specifi cat ion
Test Scenari os
Requirement s
Specifi cat ion
Function driven
Syst ems Engineering
Requi rements
Capture & Anal ysi s
A-D-I-T Cycles
Systems
Anal ysi s & Desi gn
A-D-I-T Cycles
System
Acceptance
Test Scenari os
SOFTWARE MODELING AND AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
+TypePP_DATA PP_DATA
+setPP_DATA(TypePP_DATA iPP_DATA)
CALC_AVG_SIGMA
+ACQ_DATA : OMBoolean
+setACQ_DATA(OMBoolean iACQ_DATA)
+RESTART_ACQ()
DATA_ACQUISITION
+PB_ON_OFF : OMBoolean
+PB_DISP : int
+setPB_ON_OFF(OMBoolean iPB_ON_OFF)
+setPB_DISP(int iPB_DISP)
SIGNAL_GENERATOR
+A_DAT : double
+setA_DAT(double iA_DAT)
+SEND_PP_DATA()
PRE_PROCESSING
+DISP_REQUEST : OMString
+AV_VAL : double
+SIGMA : double
+setDISP_REQUEST(OMString iDISP_REQUEST)
+setAV_VAL(double iAV_VAL)
+setSIGMA(double iSIGMA)
DATA_EVALUATION
DISPLAY
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
EXAMPLE OF SOFTWARE MODELING OBJECT MODEL DIAGRAM
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
Transition labels = Notes
EXAMPLE OF SOFTWARE MODELING STATECHARTS
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
CODE GENERATION AND DEBUGGING
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
DISTRIBUTED INTERACTIVE SIMULATION
DISTRIBUTED INTERACTIVE SIMULATION FACILITIES SUPPORT INTERACTION AND COLLABORATIVE
WORKING BETWEEN GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED FACILITIES FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND
REAL TIME SIMULATION, INCLUDING HARDAWARE IN THE LOOP AND/OR MAN IN THE LOOP
NETWORK
COMMUNICATIONS
SIMULATION AND
VIRTUAL REALITY
MIDDLEWARE
SUPERVISOR GROUPWARE
HARDWARE IN
THE LOOP
MAN IN
THE LOOP
NUMERICAL
MODELS
SUPERVISION
AND CONTROL
VIDEOCONFERENCE AND
COLLABORATIVE WORKING
3.4. Modeling and Simulation Tools
DISTRIBUTED INTERACTIVE SIMULATION
ENGINEERING: COLLABORATIVE WORK BETWEEN DISTANT ENGINEERING TEAMS
SYSTEM VALIDATION: VALIDATION OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTED TEST
FACILITIES
TRAINING: TRAINING AND MISSION REHEARSAL USING REMOTE RESOURCES
RTI
HLA-RTI
RTI RTI RTI
User
Interaction
DSI
Logger
DSI
RTI RTI
DSI
DSI
Tank Simulator
DSI
DSI
Aircraft Simulator
THE RAPID PROTOTYPING IN THE MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE DESIGN
ADVANCED TACTICAL FIGHTER COCKPIT LAYOUT TYPICAL HEAD DOWN DISPLAY FORMAT
3.5. Rapid Prototyping Tools for the HMI Design
THE RAPID PROTOTYPING IN THE MAN/MACHINE INTERFACE DESIGN
THE RAPID PROTOTYPING TOOLS ARE USED IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY FOR DESIGNING, RAPID
PROTOTYPING, TESTING AND DEPLOYING MAN/MACHINE INTERFACES. THEY ENABLE THE
DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC, INTERACTIVE, REAL TIME GRAPHICAL MAN/MACHINE INTERFACES FOR
COMPLEX APPLICATIONS SUCH AS THE COCKPIT LAYOUTS AND THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS
FORMATS AND SYMBOLOGY
RAPID DESIGN, GENERATION, TESTING AND DOCUMENTATION OF VIRTUAL MAN/MACHINE
INTERFACE OBJECTS FOR MISSION CRITICAL, SAFETY CRITICAL AND SIMULATION APPLICATIONS
AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION FOR REAL TIME EMBEDDED TARGET
AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF QUALIFIABLE SOURCE CODE WHICH IS COMPILED FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT AND FOR REAL TIME EMBEDDED TARGETS
3.5. Rapid Prototyping Tools for the HMI Design
4. QUALITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS
4.1. Quali ty Engi neeri ng
4.1.1. Total Quality Management
4.1.2. Quality Systems, Standards and Specifications
4.1.3. Product and Process Quality Assurance
4.2. System Configurati on Control
4.2.1. Configuration Identification
4.2.2. Configuration Change Control
4.2.3. Software Configuration
4.2.4. Configuration Audits
4.3. Devel opment of Safet y Criti cal Elements
4.3.1. Safety and Mission Critical Functions
4.3.2. Safety Engineering
4.3.3. Fault Tolerance Concept
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: THE TOTAL INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT APPROACH THAT
ADDRESSES SYSTEM/PRODUCT QUALITY DURING ALL PHASES OF THE LIFE CYCLE AND AT EACH
LEVEL IN THE OVERALL SYSTEM HIERARCHY
- TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
- CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT ON A DAY TO DAY BASIS APPLIED TO ENGINEERING, PRODUCTION
AND SUPPORT PROCESSES AND FUNCTIONS
- INDIVIDUAL UNDERSTANDING OF PROCESSES, EFFECTS OV VARIATION AND PROCESS CONTROL METHODS.
INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES MUST BE KNOWLEDGEABLE OF VARIOUS PROCESSES AND THEIR INHERENT
CHARACTERISTICS
- TOTAL ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH, INVOLVING EVERY GROUP IN THE ORGANIZATION. INDIVIDUAL
EMPLOYEES MUST BE MOTIVATED AND SHOULD BE RECOGNIZED AS BEING KEY CONTRIBUTORS TO
MEETING QUALITY OBJECTIVES
QUALITY ENGINEERING IS A PART OF THE SYSTEM ENGINEERING PROCESS
- QUALITY PLANNING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED
DURING CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND UPDATED AS REQUIRED
- QUALITY IN DESIGN: SIMPLICITY, FLEXIBILITY, STANDARDIZATION, ROBUSTNESS
4.1. Quality Engineering
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
4.1. Quality Engineering
A Quality System is an organizational structure with responsibilities, procedures,
processes, and resources that implements a management function to determine and
enforce quality principles. A Quality System encompasses Quality Assurance and
Quality Control.
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
A management system for programming and coordinating the quality maintenance
and improvement efforts of the various groups in a design and/or manufacturing
organization, so as to permit design and/or production in compliance with
regulatory and customer requirements.
Conduct and direct supervision of the quality tasks (inspection of product) to
ensure that the quality requirements of the product are achieved.
QUALITY SYSTEMS, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
4.1. Quality Engineering
QUALITY SYSTEMS, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Quality and reliability are critical values for the aerospace industry. In an environment
where the mistakes or failure of products or services can be fatal, the effective
operation of a quality management system plays an essential role in helping to reduce
risks and provide a reliable framework for organizations to provide a product or service.
Quality management systems have been used in the aerospace industry for many years.
Efforts by members of the aerospace industry to establish a single common quality
management system resultedin AS9100, 9110, 9120. They are used and supported bythe
world's leadingaerospace companies and also throughout their supply chain partnerships.
AS9100 - Quality Management System Requirements for Design and/or
Manufacture of Aerospace Products
AS9110 - Quality Management System Requirements for Maintenance
Organizations
AS9120 - Quality Management System Requirements for Stockist
Distributors
4.1. Quality Engineering
QUALITY SYSTEMS, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
AS 9100 has been endorsed by all major
Aerospace regulators, including:
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA).
The AS9100 is the quality management standard specifically written for the aerospace industry. It
provides organizations with a comprehensive quality management system focused on areas direcly
impacting product safety and reliability.
Configuration management
Requires that management discipline be applied over the life cycle of a product to provide visibilityand
control of its functional and physical characteristics
Design
Ensures that design responsible organizations have a robust design process to meet safetyand
reliabilityrequirements demanded bythe Aerospace industry
Purchasing
Requires effective controls over the organizations entire supplychain
Product Realization
Ensures that each phase of product realization, from
planning procuring and manufacturing to shipment is
controlled for delivery of product conforming to customer
requirements
Product Monitori ng/Measurement
Defines requirements for product validation prior to
shipment.
4.2. System Configuration Management
GENERAL
ONCE A CONFIGURATION BASELINE HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT ANY VARIATIONS
OR CHANGES WITH RESPECT TO THAT BASELINE BE TIGHTLY CONTROLLED. THE PROCESS OF
CONFIGURATION IDENTIFICATION, THE CONTROL OF CHANGES AND MAINTAINING THE INTEGRITY AND
CONTINUITY OF DESIGN ARE ACOMPLISHED THROUGH THE CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
PRELIMINARY
DESIGN
DETAILED
DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION
OPERATIONAL
USE
FUNCTIONAL
BASELINE
ALLOCATED
BASELINE
PRODUCT
BASELINE
UPDATED PRODUCT
BASELINE
CLASS 1 CHANGES
DESIGN CHANGES AFFECTING FORM AND/OR FIT AND/OR FUNCTION AND/OR ANY OTHER SYSTEM
SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENT
CLASS 2 CHANGES
DESIGN CHANGES RELATIVELY MINOR IN NATURE AND NOT AFFECTING THE SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
REQUIREMENTS
CONFIGURATION CHANGE CONTROL
4.2. System Configuration Management
SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION
4.2. System Configuration Management
The Software Configuration Management (SCM) process identifies the functional and physical
attributes of software at various points in time, and performs systematic control of changes to the
identified attributes for the purpose of maintaining software integrity and traceability throughout the
software development life cycle.
It identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure that a sound SCM
process is implemented.
Confi guration identi fication is the process of identifying the attributes that define every aspect of a
configuration item. These attributes are recorded in configuration documentation and baselined.
Baselining an attribute forces formal configuration change control processes to be effected in the event
that these attributes are changed.
Confi guration change control is a set of processes and approval stages required to change a
configuration item's attributes and to re-baseline them.
Confi guration status accounting is the ability to record and report on the configuration baselines
associated with each configuration itemat anymoment of time.
Confi guration audits are broken into functional and physical configuration audits. They occur either
at delivery or at the moment of effecting the change. A functional configuration audit ensures that
functional and performance attributes of a configuration item are achieved, while a physical
configuration audit ensures that a configuration itemis installed in accordance with the requirements
of its detailed design documentation.
- FLIGHT CONTROL SENSORS, PROCESSING AND DISPLAYS
- TERRAIN FOLLOWING/TERRAIN AVOIDANCE SENSORS AND
CONTROL
- STORES MANAGEMENT CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
EXAMPLE TACTICAL AIRCRAFT
TYPICAL SAFETY/FLIGHT CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
EXAMPLE TACTICAL AIRCRAFT
TYPICAL MISSION CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
- NAVIGATION SENSORS, PROCESSING AND DISPLAYS
- ATTACK SENSORS, PROCESSING AND DISPLAYS
- COMMUNICATIONS
- STORES MANAGEMENT NON CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
- TACTICAL SITUATION MANAGER
- ELECTRONIC WARFARE
SAFETY/FLIGHT CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL TO SAFE
OPERATION OF THE AIRCRAFT. FAILURES TO THESE
FUNCTIONS MIGHT LEAD TO A HAZARD FOR THE PILOT
OR FOR THE AIRCRAFT.
SAFETY/FLIGHT CRITICAL FUNCTIONS MUST BE
SUBJECT TO RIGOROUS FAULT TOLERANT AND
INTEGRITY DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES.
MISSION CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
FUNCTIONS WHICH RELATE DIRECTLY TO THE
MISSION OF THE AIRCRAFT. FAILURES TO THESE
FUNCTIONS MIGHT LEAD TO THE MISSION ABORT.
A LOWER DEGREE OF FAULT TOLERANCE AND
INTEGRITY CAN BE ACCEPTED FOR THE MISSION
CRITICAL FUNCTIONS.
4.3. Development of Safety Criti cal Elements
SAFETY AND MISSION CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
SAFETY IS A SYSTEM DESIGN CHARACTERISTIC. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS BE
APPROPRIATELY INTEGRATED INTO THE OVERALL SYSTEM ENGINEERING PROCESS
SAFETY PROGRAM TASKS
- PROGRAM MANAGEMENT TASKS
- SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM PLAN
- REVIEW AND CONTROL OF SUPPLIERS/SUBCONTRACTORS
- SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM REVIEWS
- DESIGN AND ANALYSIS TASKS
- FAULT TREE ANALYSIS
- HAZARD ANALYSIS
- RISK ANALYSIS
- DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, FEEDBACK AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
- TEST AND EVALUATION TASKS
- SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAM
- SAFETY TEST AND EVALUATION
4.3. Development of Safety Criti cal Elements
SAFETY ENGINEERING
THE CRITICAL SYSTEMS MUST BE DEVELOPED ACCORDING TO THE FAULT TOLERANCE CONCEPT. THE
FAULT TOLERANCE IS THE ABILITY OF A SYSTEM TO PROVIDE ITS FUNCTION AND TO CONTINUE OPERATION
AFTER ONE OR MORE FAULTS HAVE OCCURRED.
FAULT TOLERANCE TECHNIQUES
- FAULTS MUST BE DETECTED, IDENTIFIED AND ISOLATED
- REDUNDANT SYSTEM RESOURCES MUST BE AVAILABLE AND BE RECONFIGURED
TO PROVIDE CONTINUING OPERATION
- MONITORS, VOTERS AND SWITCHING MECHANISMS ARE REQUIRED TO RECOGNIZE
FAULTS AND TO PROVIDE RECONFIGURATION PATHS
- THE RECOVERY MECHANISMS MUST BE AUTONOMOUS, ALLOWING GRACEFUL
DEGRADATION
- ALL FAILURES THAT MIGHT LEAD TO A HAZARD MUST BE DETECTED
4.3. Development of Safety Criti cal Elements
FAULT TOLERANCE CONCEPT