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Simple Present

FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person

Examples:

You speak English.

Do you speak English? You do not speak English.

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Simple Present FORM [VERB] + s/es in third person Examples:  You speak English.  Complete List of Simple Present Forms USE 1 Repeated Actions Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do. Examples:  I play tennis.  She does not play tennis.  Does he play tennis?   The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. The train does not leave at 9 AM.  When does the train usually leave ?  She always forgets her purse.  He never forgets his wallet.   Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. Does the Sun circle the Earth? USE 2 Facts or Generalizations The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Examples: " id="pdf-obj-0-36" src="pdf-obj-0-36.jpg">

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples:

I play tennis.

She does not play tennis.

 

Does he play tennis?

 

 

The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. The train does not leave at 9 AM.

When does the train usually leave?

 

She always forgets her purse.

 

He never forgets his wallet.

 

Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

Simple Present FORM [VERB] + s/es in third person Examples:  You speak English.  Complete List of Simple Present Forms USE 1 Repeated Actions Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do. Examples:  I play tennis.  She does not play tennis.  Does he play tennis?   The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. The train does not leave at 9 AM.  When does the train usually leave ?  She always forgets her purse.  He never forgets his wallet.   Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. Does the Sun circle the Earth? USE 2 Facts or Generalizations The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Examples: " id="pdf-obj-0-129" src="pdf-obj-0-129.jpg">

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

Examples:

Cats like milk.

Birds do not like milk.

 

 

Do pigs like milk? California is in America.

California is not in the United Kingdom.

 

 

Windows are made of glass. Windows are not made of wood.

New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

 Cats like milk.  Birds do not like milk.   Do pigs like milk?Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs. Examples:  I am here now.  She is not here now.  He needs help right now.  He does not need help now.   He has his passport in his hand. Do you have your passport with you? ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. " id="pdf-obj-1-68" src="pdf-obj-1-68.jpg">

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

Examples:

The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.

 

The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.

When do we board the plane?

 

 

The party starts at 8 o'clock. When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

 Cats like milk.  Birds do not like milk.   Do pigs like milk?Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs. Examples:  I am here now.  She is not here now.  He needs help right now.  He does not need help now.   He has his passport in his hand. Do you have your passport with you? ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. " id="pdf-obj-1-122" src="pdf-obj-1-122.jpg">

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

Examples:

I am here now.

She is not here now.

 

He needs help right now.

 

He does not need help now.

 

He has his passport in his hand. Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

You only speak English. Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

Verb Tense Exercise 1

Simple Present / Present Continuous

Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change.

  • 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice.

  • 2. Usually, I (work)

Examples:   You only speak English. Do you only speak English? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html Verb Tense Exercise 1 Simple Present / Present Continuous Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change. 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) . 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) so loudly. because everybody (talk) 7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) Their prices (be) printed by a company in New York. inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. " id="pdf-obj-2-49" src="pdf-obj-2-49.jpg">

as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study)

  • French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

    • 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep)

.
.
  • 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain)

.
.
  • 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always)

.
.
  • 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say)

    • so loudly.

Examples:   You only speak English. Do you only speak English? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html Verb Tense Exercise 1 Simple Present / Present Continuous Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change. 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) . 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) so loudly. because everybody (talk) 7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) Their prices (be) printed by a company in New York. inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. " id="pdf-obj-2-71" src="pdf-obj-2-71.jpg">

because everybody (talk)

  • 7. Justin (write, currently)

a book about his adventures in Tibet. I

hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished.

  • 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?

Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go)

Examples:   You only speak English. Do you only speak English? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html Verb Tense Exercise 1 Simple Present / Present Continuous Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change. 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) . 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) so loudly. because everybody (talk) 7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) Their prices (be) printed by a company in New York. inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. " id="pdf-obj-2-90" src="pdf-obj-2-90.jpg">

to a movie tonight with some friends.

Examples:   You only speak English. Do you only speak English? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html Verb Tense Exercise 1 Simple Present / Present Continuous Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change. 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) . 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) so loudly. because everybody (talk) 7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) Their prices (be) printed by a company in New York. inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. " id="pdf-obj-2-94" src="pdf-obj-2-94.jpg">
  • 9. The business cards (be, normally )

Their prices (be)

Examples:   You only speak English. Do you only speak English? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html Verb Tense Exercise 1 Simple Present / Present Continuous Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change. 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) . 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) so loudly. because everybody (talk) 7. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) Their prices (be) printed by a company in New York. inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. " id="pdf-obj-2-102" src="pdf-obj-2-102.jpg">

printed by a company in New York.

inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) Switzerland.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) Switzerland. made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, <a href=http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs1.htm Sentences and Questios in Simple Present - Exercise 1 Explanation: Simple Present Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use Simple Present. Watch the punctuation and form sentences or questions. Toggle example play 1) They w rites 2) She hockey at school. (to play) e-mails. (not/to write) do speak 3) you don´t like 4) My parents 5) Anne English? (to speak) fish. (not/to like) any hobbies? (to have) 6) Andy's brother 7) Leroy in an office. (to work) very fast. (can/not/to read) 8) Jim and Joe the flowers every week? (to water) 9) Yvonne's mother 10) Elisabeth a motorbike. (not/to ride) cola? (to drink) http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_present_mix.htm " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">

made by a small chocolatier in Zurich,

Sentences and Questios in Simple Present - Exercise 1

Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use Simple Present. Watch the punctuation and
Put in the verbs in brackets into the gaps. Use Simple Present. Watch the punctuation
and form sentences or questions.
Toggle example
play
1) They
w rites
2)
She
hockey at school. (to play)
e-mails. (not/to write)
do
speak
3)
you
don´t like
4)
My parents
5)
Anne
English? (to speak)
fish. (not/to like)
any hobbies? (to have)
6) Andy's brother
7) Leroy
in an office. (to work)
very fast. (can/not/to read)
8)
Jim and Joe
the flowers every week? (to water)
9) Yvonne's mother
10)
Elisabeth
a motorbike. (not/to ride)
cola? (to drink)

Simple Present Exercise 08

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

1.

Christopher

drives
drives

(drive) a bus.

 

2.

We

have
have

(have) some money.

3.

do

(you watch) movies?

 

4.

They

 

doesn´t w

(not work) for us.

5.

I

love
love

(love) to dance.

6.

She

has
has

(have) many friends.

7.

Alexis and her husband always

come
come

(come) for the summer.

8.

he draw

(he draw) well?

 

9.

James

doesn´t remembe

(not remember) me.

10.

Laura

is
is

(be) a beautiful girl.

 

11.

I don't eat (not eat) cheese.

12.

Cats

like
like

(like) to sleep.

13.

You

are
are

(be) a smart boy.

14.

She

w ashes
w ashes

(wash) the dishes every evening.

15.

you are
you are

(you be) ready?

 

16.

I

am
am

(be) ready

Simple Present Exercise 02

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

is
is
  • 1. (be) in England.

London

is 2. The summer (be) hot.
is
2. The summer
(be) hot.
  • 3. She

    • (drive) very well.

open
open
  • 4. (open) the store at 8:00.

They

is
is
  • 5. (be) a very pretty girl.

Linda

6.

I

have
have

(have) several jobs.

7.

Water

boils
boils

(boil) at 100 degrees.

8.

Water

freezes
freezes

(freeze) at 0 degrees.

9.

My sister

speaks
speaks

(speak) English.

10.

He

has
has

(have) a big apartment.

11.

A triangle

has
has

(have) three corners.

12.

My birthday

is
is

(be) in June.

13.

Books

has
has

(have) pages.

14.

Dogs

is
is

(be) good friends.

15.

I

w ork
w ork

(work) hard.

Simple Present Exercise 03

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

1.

I

love
love

(love) you.

2.

This

w eighs
w eighs

(weigh) 20 kilograms.

3.

Ron

seems
seems

(seem) serious.

4.

We

like
like

(like) tomatoes.

5.

The boy

w ant
w ant

(want) to play.

6.

You

need
need

(need) to sleep.

7.

They

agree
agree

(agree) with me.

8.

She

hears
hears

(hear) something strange.

9.

The box

contains
contains

(contain) food.

10.

Emma

appears
appears

(appear) sad.

11.

David

know s
know s

(know) how to fix a car.

12.

Daniel and Liz

seem
seem

(seem) happy.

13.

This

smell
smell

(smell) bad.

believe
believe
  • 14. (believe) you.

I

are
are
  • 15. (be) number one!

We

Simple Present Exercise 04

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

1.

I

I (go) to the city once a week.

(go) to the city once a week.

2.

You

You (play) the guitar very well.

(play) the guitar very well.

3.

She never

She never (visit) me.

(visit) me.

4.

Tom always

Tom always (find) new ways to do things.

(find) new ways to do things.

6.

Ann

Ann (want) to speak.

(want) to speak.

7.

Toronto

Toronto (be) in Canada.

(be) in Canada.

8.

Cars

Cars (have) wheels.

(have) wheels.

9.

My mother

My mother (have) a big house.

(have) a big house.

10.

We

We (play) a lot.

(play) a lot.

11.

They

They (sell) fruit and eggs.

(sell) fruit and eggs.

12.

The building

The building

(be) on fire.

13.

Marta

Marta (seem) sad.

(seem) sad.

14.

I usually

I usually (help) my neighbors.

(help) my neighbors.

15.

His brother rarely

His brother rarely

(leave) town.

Simple Present Exercise 05

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

believe 14. (believe) you. I are 15. (be) number one! We Simple Present – Exercise 04
  • 1. (fly) to Paris once a year.

Daniel

believe 14. (believe) you. I are 15. (be) number one! We Simple Present – Exercise 04
  • 2. (do) her homework.

She never

believe 14. (believe) you. I are 15. (be) number one! We Simple Present – Exercise 04
  • 3. (try) to help her sister.

Lisa

4.

Mark

Mark (go) home at seven.

(go) home at seven.

5.

The baby

The baby (cry) every night.

(cry) every night.

6.

He

He (miss) her a lot.

(miss) her a lot.

7.

Joe

Joe (study) really hard.

(study) really hard.

8.

A boy

A boy (kiss) a girl.

(kiss) a girl.

9.

Joana

Joana (buy) new stuff all the time.

(buy) new stuff all the time.

10.

Tim

Tim (watch) this show every night.

(watch) this show every night.

11.

Sara

Sara (say) this all the time.

(say) this all the time.

12.

The teacher

The teacher (teach) us new things.

(teach) us new things.

13.

He

He (pay) me well.

(pay) me well.

14.

Barbara

Barbara (wash) the dishes, and Leo washes the floor.

(wash) the dishes, and Leo washes the floor.

15.

Nick

Nick (play) tennis twice a week.

(play) tennis twice a week.

16.

This girl always

This girl always (push) somebody.

(push) somebody.

17.

Isabella

Isabella (enjoy) listening to music.

(enjoy) listening to music.

18.

David never

David never (mix) milk and eggs.

(mix) milk and eggs.

19.

The bee

The bee (buzz).

(buzz).

20.

Taylor

Taylor (fix) cars.

(fix) cars.

Simple Present Exercise 06

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

  • 1. I

 

(not ride) horses.

  • 2. You

 

(not sell) cars.

He

 
  • 3. (not bring) gifts.

She

 
  • 4. (not take) pictures.

 

It

 
  • 5. (not cost) so much.

 

We

 
  • 6. (not seem) so happy.

7. (not buy) new products. They
  • 7. (not buy) new products.

They

Michael

 
  • 8. (not dance).

Michel

 
  • 9. (not run) fast.

Tim and Kate

 
  • 10. (not work) every day.

11. (not eat) meat. Lucas and Clara
  • 11. (not eat) meat.

Lucas and Clara

I

 
  • 12. (not swim) much.

  • 13. You

13. You (not ski) at all.

(not ski) at all.

  • 14. It

 

(not hurt).

 
  • 15. We

 

(not give up).

Simple Present Exercise 07

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

1.

 

(I wake up) at five in the morning?

2.

2. (you go) to work by train?

(you go) to work by train?

3.

 

(she drink) coffee every morning?

4.

 

(he smoke)?

5.

   

(it hurt)?

6.

   

(we dance)?

7.

 

(they travel)?

8.

 

(Emma cook) well?

9.

(Alexander exercise) regularly?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 10. (I look) well?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 11. (you rest) enough?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 12. (William work) too hard?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 13. (they travel) often?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 14. (Anthony go) to sleep too late?

Michael 8. (not dance). Michel 9. (not run) fast. Tim and Kate 10. (not work) every
  • 15. (you bake) cakes?

Simple Present Exercise 08

Change the verb into the correct form, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if you don't know. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints!

Change the verb into the correct form:

1.

Christopher

(drive) a bus.

(drive) a bus.

 

2.

We

We

(have) some money.

3.

 

(you watch) movies?

 

4.

They

 

(not work) for us.

5.

I

I (love) to dance.

(love) to dance.

6.

She

She

(have) many friends.

7.

Alexis and her husband always

Alexis and her husband always

(come) for the summer.

8.

 

(he draw) well?

9.

James

 

(not remember) me.

10.

Laura

(be) a beautiful girl.

(be) a beautiful girl.

 

11.

I don't eat (not eat) cheese.

12.

Cats

(like) to sleep.

(like) to sleep.

13.

You

13. You (be) a smart boy.

(be) a smart boy.

14.

She

14. She (wash) the dishes every evening.

(wash) the dishes every evening.

15.

(you be) ready?

(you be) ready?

 

16.

I

I (be) ready.

(be) ready.

Present Simple Tense

I sing
I sing

How do we make the Present Simple Tense?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb

do

base

There are three important exceptions:

1.

For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.

  • 2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.

  • 3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.

Look at these examples with the main verb like:

           

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

   
           

I, you, we, they

 

like

coffee.

+

   
         

He, she, it

 

likes

coffee.

   
           

I, you, we, they

do

not

like

coffee.

-

   
         

He, she, it

does

not

like

coffee.

   
           

Do

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

?

   
         

Does

he, she, it

like

coffee?

   

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

         

subject

main verb

 
         

I

am

French.

 
       

+

You, we, they

are

French.

 
       

He, she, it

is

French.

 
         

I

am

not

old.

 
       

-

You, we, they

are

not

old.

 
       

He, she, it

is

not

old.

 
 

Am

I

 

late?

?

Are

you, we, they

 

late?

       

Is

he, she, it

 

late?

How do we use the Present Simple Tense?

We use the present simple tense when:

the action is general

the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future

the action is not only happening now

the statement is always true

 

John drives a taxi.

 

past

present

future

 
 

It is John's job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.

 

Look at these examples:

I live in New York.

The Moon goes round the Earth.

John drives a taxi.

He does not drive a bus.

We meet every Thursday.

We do not work at night.

Do you play football?

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the present simple tense for situations that are not general. We can use the present simple tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the present simple tense - some of them are general, some of them are now:

Am I right? Tara is not at home. You are happy.

past

present

future

 
past present future The situation is now.

The situation is now.

 

I am not fat. Why are you so beautiful? Ram is tall.

 

past

present

future

 
 

The situation is general. Past, present and future.

 

This page shows the use of the present simple tense to talk about general events. But note that there are some other uses for the present simple tense, for example in conditional or if sentences, or to talk about the future. You will learn about those later.

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