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ESTADOS DE AGREGACIN DE LA MATERIA

1
UNIVERSIDAD DE SAN CARLOS DE GUATEMALA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA
ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS
QUMICA GENERAL 1


Elaborado por
Ing. Edgar Gamal!l D! L!"n
La ma#or$a d! %&%'an(a% p&!d!n pr!%!n'ar%! !n la na'&ral!)a !n 'r!% !%'ado%
d! agr!ga("n* %"ldo* l$+&do o ga%!o%o* d!p!nd!ndo d! %& '!mp!ra'&ra* (ada &no
d! !%'o% !%'ado% pr!%!n'a (!r'a% (ara('!r$%'(a% +&! lo% d%'ng&!,
El estado slido:
S! (ara('!r)a por '!n!r &n -ol&m!n # .orma !%p!($.(o%* (&ando la %&%'an(a
!% %om!'da a !l!-ada% pr!%on!% %& -ara("n d! -ol&m!n r!%&l'a pr/('(am!n'!
n%gn.(an'!.
El volumen especfico d! (&al+&!r %&%'an(a !% !l n-!r%o d! la d!n%dad* !%
d!(r* !l -ol&m!n por &ndad d! ma%a. La% &ndad!% d! -ol&m!n !%p!($.(o
p&!d!n %!r por !0!mplo, (m
1
2g* m
1
23g* p!
1
2lb
m
.
El estado lquido:
En !%'ado l$+&do* la% %&%'an(a% no '!n!n .orma d!.nda* g!n!ralm!n'!
adop'an la .orma d!l r!(p!n'! +&! la% (on'!n!* b&%(ando %& propo n-!l ba0o la
n.l&!n(a d! la .&!r)a d! gra-!dad. En !%'! !%'ado la% %&%'an(a% '!n!n &n
-ol&m!n !%p!($.(o* %& -ara("n d! -ol&m!n (&ando a('4a %obr! !lla% pr!%on!%
m&# al'a% r!%&l'a 'amb5n n%gn.(an'!.
El estado gaseoso:
La palabra gas* -!n! d! la -o) n-!n'ada por 6. 7. -an 8!lmon'* 91:;;<1=>> ?*
(omo paral!lo d!l la'$n chaos ?.
La% %&%'an(a% ga%!o%a% %! (ara('!r)an por no '!n!r .orma propa*
pr/('(am!n'! adop'an la .orma d!l r!(p!n'! +&! la% (on'!n!* no '!n!n &n
-ol&m!n .0o* p&!%'o +&! p&!d!n (on'ra!r%! o !@pandr%! !n la m%ma m!dda +&!
lo Aaga %& r!(p!n'!* d! 'al .orma +&! !l -ol&m!n d!l r!(p!n'! !% !l -ol&m!n d!l
ga%.
O'ra (ara('!r$%'(a m&# mpor'an'! d! la ma'!ra !n !%'ado ga%!o%o !% la
pr!%"n +&! !0!r(!n %&% mol5(&la% d!n'ro d!l r!(p!n'! +&! la% (on'!n!.
LA PRESIN:
La pr!%"n %! d!.n! (omo la r!la("n !n'r! la B.&!r)a por &ndad d! /r!aC* lo
+&! !n '5rmno% alg!bra(o% %! r!pr!%!n'a (omo,
Dond!, D E Dr!%"n
F E F&!r)a
A E Fr!a %obr! la (&al a('4a la .&!r)a !0!r(da
UNIDADES DE PRESIN:
2
D E . F .
A
La% &ndad!% para r!pr!%!n'ar la pr!%"n r!%&l'an d! la (ombna("n d!
&ndad!% d! .&!r)a # /r!a. En !l %%'!ma n'!rna(onal d! &ndad!%* la .&!r)a %!
!@pr!%a !n N!G'on 9 N ? # !l /r!a !n m!'ro% (&adrado% 9 m
H
?I la (ombna("n
(ond&(! a N 2 m
H
* r!la("n +&! %! d!nomna Pasal 9 Pa ?. Alg&na% r!la(on!%
!n'r! !%'a # o'ra% &ndad!% d! pr!%"n p&!d!n %!r,
J La &ndad* lbra% .&!r)a por p&lgada (&adrada* !% abr!-ada B lb
.
2 n
H
B* %n
!mbargo alg&na% -!(!% %! r!pr!%!n'a (omo p% * por !l nombr! !n ngl5%, !o&ndal
s+&ar! in(A .
PRESIN DE LOS GASES
La pr!%"n d! &n ga% !% (a&%ada por lo% (Ao+&!% d! la% mol5(&la% +&! lo
(on%''&#!n (on la% par!d!% d!l r!(p!n'!. S %! n(r!m!n'a !l n4m!ro d!
mol5(&la% por &ndad d! -ol&m!n !% d!(r %! a&m!n'a la (on(!n'ra("n mol!(&lar*
%! '!ndr/ &na ma#or pr!%"n d!bdo al ma#or n4m!ro d! (Ao+&!% por &ndad d!
'!mpo.
EL GAS IDEAL
Un ga% d!al !% &n ga% Apo'5'(o (&#o (ompor'am!n'o !n r!la("n a la
pr!%"n* !l -ol&m!n # la '!mp!ra'&ra p&!d! %!r d!%(r'o por la d!nomnada
B!(&a("n d!l ga% d!alC.
C&ando %! Aabla d! ga%!% d!al!%* %! (on%d!ran alg&na% %&po%(on!% +&!
'!nd!n a .a(l'ar !l 'raba0o,
En &n ga% d!al %! %&pon! +&! no !@%'! a'ra(("n o r!p&l%"n !n'r! la%
mol5(&la% +&! lo (on%''&#!n.
Tamb5n %! (on%d!ra* +&! !l -ol&m!n d! la% mol5(&la% !% d!%pr!(abl! !n
(ompara("n (on !l -ol&m!n d!l r!(p!n'! +&! la% (on'!n!.
3
1 a'm"%.!ra 9 a'm ? E 1K1*1H: Da%(al 9 Da ?
1 a'm"%.!ra E ;=K ml$m!'ro% d! m!r(&ro
9 mm8g ?
1 a'm"%.!ra E ;=K 'orr
a'm"%.!ra E HL.LH p&lgada% d! m!r(&ro 9 n 8g ?
1 a'm"%.!ra E 11.L1 p!% d! ag&a
1 a'm"%.!ra E 1>.; lbra% .&!r)a 2 p&lgada (&adrada
J
Con%d!ra 'amb5n +&! lo% (Ao+&!% +&! o(&rr!n !n'r! mol5(&la% # d! 5%'a%
(on !l r!(p!n'! dond! !%'/n alma(!nada%* %on (Ao+&!% !l/%'(o%* !% d!(r
+&! no Aa# p5rdda d! !n!rg$a.
En r!aldad* !n la na'&ral!)a no !@%'! &n ga% d!al* %n !mbargo* la
d-!rg!n(a !n !l (ompor'am!n'o d! lo% ga%!% r!al!% d!n'ro d! m/rg!n!%
ra)onabl!% d! '!mp!ra'&ra # pr!%"n no al'!ran !n .orma %&%'an(al lo% (/l(&lo%.
Dara d!%(rbr (ompl!'am!n'! &n ga% d!al* !% n!(!%aro !l (ono(m!n'o d!
(&a'ro (an'dad!% .$%(a% r!la(onada% (on !%'o%,
La (an'dad d! ma'!ra
La pr!%"n
El -ol&m!n
La '!mp!ra'&ra
La% r!la(on!% !n'r! !%'a% -arabl!% !%'/n dada% por la% %g&!n'!% l!#!%,
LE" DE #O"LE
E%'a l!# .&! d!mo%'rada por -!) prm!ra !n !l aMo 1==K por !l ngl5%
Rob!r' 7o#l!. La l!# !%'abl!(! +&!, Si la temperatura permanece constante,
el volumen de una determinada masa de gas vara en forma inversamente
proporcional a la presin
Al r!d&(r !l -ol&m!n d! &n ga% la% mol5(&la% %! a(&m&lan !n &n !%pa(o m/%
p!+&!Mo* (on lo (&al %! prod&(! &na (on(!n'ra("n mol!(&lar ma#or # &na pr!%"n
propor(onalm!n'! m/% al'a.
Alg!bra(am!n'!* para do% (ond(on!% d.!r!n'!%* n(al!% # .nal!%* la l!# %!
!@pr!%a (omo,
Dond!, D

#

V

r!pr!%!n'an la pr!%"n # -ol&m!n n(al!%


D
.
#

V
.
r!pr!%!n'an la pr!%"n # -ol&m!n .nal!%
4
D

E
D
.
V
.
LE" DE C$ARLES
E%'a l!# .&! prop&!%'a # d!mo%'rada por !l .ran(5% 6a(+&!% CAarl!% !n !l aMo
1;N;. S&% n-!%'ga(on!% mo%'raron +&!* a &na pr!%"n (on%'an'!* !l -ol&m!n d!
&na m&!%'ra d! ga% %! !@pand! (&ando %! (al!n'a # %! (on'ra! (&ando %! !n.r$a.
La l!# !% !n&n(ada d! la man!ra %g&!n'!, Si la presin se mantiene
constante, el volumen de una determinada cantidad de gas es directamente
proporcional a la temperatura absoluta
La pr!%"n d! &n ga% +&! !%'/ %om!'do a (al!n'am!n'o p&!d! man'!n!r%!
(on%'an'! % al ga% %! l! p!rm'! !@pandr%!. El a&m!n'o d! -ol&m!n (on%!r-a la
pr!%"n (on%'an'! # r!d&(! !l n4m!ro d! (ol%on!% d! la% mol5(&la% (on la%
par!d!% d!l r!(p!n'! !n &n d!'!rmnado '!mpo. En !%'a .orma* !l d!%(!n%o d! la
.r!(&!n(a d! la% (ol%on!%* (omp!n%a !l a&m!n'o d! n'!n%dad d! lo% (Ao+&!%.
Ma'!m/'(am!n'!* para do% (ond(on!% d%'n'a%* la l!# %! !@pr!%a (omo,



Dond!, V # T r!pr!%!n'an !l -ol&m!n # '!mp!ra'&ra n(al!%
V. # T. r!pr!%!n'an !l -ol&m!n # '!mp!ra'&ra .nal!%
LE" DE GA" % LUSSAC " AMONTONS
E%'a l!# alg&na% -!(!% %! l! a'rb&#! a 6o%!pA Ga# O L&%%a( # !n o'ra%
o(a%on!% a G&lla&m! Amon'on%. E%'a l!# !%'abl!(! +&!, cuando el volumen
de una muestra de gas permanece constante, la presin es directamente
proporcional a la temperatura absoluta
A m!dda +&! la '!mp!ra'&ra d!l ga% a&m!n'a* %&% mol5(&la% %! m&!-!n (ada
-!) a ma#or -!lo(dad* lo +&! mpl(a +&! 5%'a% r!al(!n (Ao+&!% m/% .r!(&!n'!% #
!n5rg(o% (on la% par!d!% d!l r!(p!n'!* ob'!n5ndo%! (omo r!%&l'ado &n a&m!n'o
!n la pr!%"n d!l ga%.
En '5rmno% alg!bra(o%* para do% (ond(on!% d.!r!n'!%* !%'a l!# %! plan'!a
(omo,
5
. V

. E . V
.
.
T

T
.
. D

. E .
D
.
.
T

T
.

Dond!, D # D. r!pr!%!n'an la% pr!%on!% n(al # .nal r!%p!('-am!n'!
T # T. (orr!%pond!n a la% '!mp!ra'&ra% n(al # .nal r!%p!('-am!n'!.
LE" DE A&OGADRO
E%'a l!# .&! .orm&lada por Amad!o A-ogadro !n !l aMo 1N11* !%'abl!(! +&!,
Si la presin y la temperatura permanecen constantes, volmenes iguales de
distintos gases contienen el mismo nmero de molculas.
Como !(&a("n* para do% (ond(on!% d%'n'a%* la l!# %! plan'!a (omo,
Dond!, V

# V
.
r!pr!%!n'an lo% -ol4m!n!% al n(o # .nal r!%p!('-am!n'!
n

# n
.
r!pr!%!n'an lo% mol!% d! ga% al n(o # .nal.
LE" COM#INADA
Dara &na (an'dad .0a d! ga% 9 ma%a (on%'an'!?* # do% (ond(on!% d%'n'a%*
!%'a l!# plan'!a la r!la("n !n'r! la% -arabl!% +&! r!pr!%!n'an la pr!%"n* !l
-ol&m!n # la '!mp!ra'&ra* alg!bra(am!n'! %! !@pr!%a (omo,
LE" DEL GAS IDEAL
Al (ombnar la% l!#!% d! 7o#l!* CAarl!% # d! A-ogadro* %! ob'!n! &na
!(&a("n +&! r!la(ona la% (&a'ro -arabl!% +&! d!%(rb!n a &n ga%* la !@pr!%"n
+&! r!%&l'a d! la (ombna("n !% (ono(da (omo la ecuacin del gas ideal* # '!n!
la %g&!n'! .orma,
Dond!, D E Dr!%"n
V E Vol&m!n
n E N4m!ro d! mol!%
6
. V

. E .
V
.
.
n

n
.
. D

. E . D
.
V
.
.
T

T
.
DV E nRT
T E T!mp!ra'&ra ab%ol&'a
R E Con%'an'! d! propor(onaldad* llamada (on%'an'! d! lo%
ga%!% d!al!%
LA CONSTANTE R DE LOS GASES IDEALES
La (on%'an'! d! propor(onaldad d! lo% ga%!% d!al!% adop'a d%'n'o% -alor!%
+&! d!p!nd!n d! la% &ndad!% (on +&! %! r!pr!%!n'a la pr!%"n* !l -ol&m!n # la
'!mp!ra'&ra ab%ol&'a* alg&no% -alor!% (om&n!% para !%'a (on%'an'! p&!d!n %!r,
La r!pr!%!n'a("n B7TUC * !% la abr!-a'&ra d! la &ndad ngl!%a para !n!rg$a*
d!nomnada Undad T5rm(a #r'/n(a.
LA DENSIDAD DE LOS GASES
La d!n%dad d! &n ga% p&!d! (al(&lar%! &'l)ando la r!la("n,
Dond!, E D!n%dad
M E Ma%a mol!(&lar d!l ga% 9 gramo% 2 mol ?
D E Dr!%"n
R E Con%'an'! d! lo% ga%!% d!al!%
T E T!mp!ra'&ra ab%ol&'a
LE" DE DALTON
C&ando %! 'raba0a (on m!)(la% d! ga%!%* la pr!%"n +&! (ada &no d! lo%
ga%!% !0!r(! d!n'ro d!l r!(p!n'! !% d!nomnada !'esi( !a'ial) El !%'&do d!l
7
R E K.KNHK= 9 l'ro O a'm ? 2 9 mol O 3!l-n ?
R E N.11> 9 m!'ro
1
O Da%(al ? 2 9 mol O
3!l-n ?
R E N.11> 6o&l!% 2 9 mol O 3!l-n ?
R E 1.LN; Calor$a% 2 9 mol O 3!l-n ?
R E 1.LN; 7TU 2 9 lbra O Ran3n! ?
R E K.KN11> 9 l'ro O bar ? 2 9 mol O 3!l-n ?
R E =H.1= 9 l'ro O mm 8g ? 2 9 mol O 3!l-n ?
R E K.;1KH 9p!
1
O a'm ? 2 9 lbra O Ran3n! ?
E . MD .
RT
(ompor'am!n'o d! &na m!)(la d! ga%!% .&! r!al)ado por 6oAn Dal'on !n !l aMo
1NK1* .orm&lando la d!nomnada l!# d! Dal'on d! la% pr!%on!% par(al!%.
La l!# !%'abl!(! +&!, La presin total de una mecla de gases es en
realidad la suma de las presiones !ue cada gas e"ercera si estuviera solo.
En '5rmno% alg!bra(o%* !%'a l!# %! p&!d! !%(rbr (omo,
Dond!, D
T
E Dr!%"n 'o'al
D
A
* D
7
* D
C
* . . . E pr!%on!% par(al!% d! lo% (ompon!n'!% A* 7 # C d!
la m!)(la
LA PRESIN PARCIAL
En &na m!)(la ga%!o%a* la pr!%"n par(al d! &n ga% p&!d! (al(&lar%! por
m!do d! la !@pr!%"n,
Dond!, D
A
E Dr!%"n par(al d!l (ompon!n'! A
P
A
E Fra(("n molar d!l (ompon!n'! A
D
T
E Dr!%"n 'o'al d! la m!)(la ga%!o%a
LA *RACCIN MOLAR
La .ra(("n molar d! &n ga% A* !n &na m!)(la ga%!o%a (on N (ompon!n'!%*
%! p&!d! (al(&lar por la r!la("n,
dond!, P
A
E Fra(("n molar d!l ga% A
n
A
E n4m!ro d! mol!% d!l ga% A
n
7
E n4m!ro d! mol!% d!l ga% 7
n
N
E n4m!ro d! mol!% d!l !n5%mo (ompon!n'! ga%!o%o
8
D
T
E D
A
Q D
7
Q D
C
Q . .
.
D
A
E P
A
D
T
P
A
E . n
A
.
n
A
Q n
7
Q . . . n
N
Ob%5r-!%! +&! la .ra(("n molar* !% &na (an'dad adm!n%onal* +&! !@pr!%a
la r!la("n d!l n4m!ro d! mol!% d! &n (ompon!n'! !n r!la("n al n4m!ro d! mol!%
d! 'odo% lo% (ompon!n'! pr!%!n'!% !n la m!)(la ga%!o%a.
La %&ma'ora d! 'oda% la% .ra((on!% molar!% !n &na m!)(la ga%!o%a %!mpr!
%!r/ apro@madam!n'! g&al a B1C .
CONDICIONES NORMALES DE PRESIN " TEMPERATURA
Lo +&! %! d!.n! (omo (ond(on!% normal!% d! pr!%"n # '!mp!ra'&ra*
(orr!%pond! a u(a a'm"%.!ra d! pr!%"n # +,-)./ 3!l-n.
G!n!ralm!n'!* (&ando %! Aabla d! !%'a% (ond(on!% %! &'l)an la%
abr!-a'&ra% C.N 9 Cond(on!% Normal!% ?I T.D.N 9 T!mp!ra'&ra # Dr!%"n
Normal ?I T.D.E. 9 T!mp!ra'&ra # Dr!%"n E%'/ndar ? o %& !+&-al!n'! d!r-ada d!l
nombr! !n ngl5% S.T.D. 9S'andard T!mp!ra'&r! and Dr!%%&r! ?.
&OLUMEN MOLAR DE UN GAS IDEAL EN CONDICIONES T)P)E)
E@p!rm!n'alm!n'! %! Aa !n(on'rado +&!* !l -ol&m!n o(&pado por 1 mol d!
ga% d!al !n (ond(on!% T.D.E. !% d! apro@madam!n'! HH.>11= l'ro%.

RECOLECCIN DE UN GAS SO#RE UN L01UIDO
En alg&na% o(a%on!%* lo% ga%!% prod&('o d! &na r!a(("n +&$m(a* %on
r!(ol!('ado% %obr! ag&a l$+&da +&! po%!! &na d!'!rmnada pr!%"n d! -apor a la
'!mp!ra'&ra d! 'raba0o* !%'o Aa(! n!(!%aro r!al)ar &na (orr!(("n !n la pr!%"n
d!l ga%* d!bdo a +&! !l ga% !%'ar/ %a'&rado (on !l -apor d! ag&a !0!r(!ndo
'amb5n &na pr!%"n 9 pr!%"n par(al ?.
La (orr!(("n %! r!al)a %&%'ra#!ndo d! la pr!%"n 'o'al 9 pr!%"n d!l ga% m/%
pr!%"n d! -apor d!l ag&a?* la pr!%"n d! -apor d!l ag&a* ob'!n5ndo%! a%$ la
-!rdad!ra pr!%"n !0!r(da por !l ga% r!(ol!('ado,
LA ESTE1UIOMETR0A DE GASES
La !%'!+&om!'r$a d! %&%'an(a% !n !%'ado ga%!o%o* %! .&ndam!n'a !n !l
-ol&m!n d! lo% ga%!% +&! n'!r-!n!n !n d!'!rmnada r!a(("n +&$m(a. El
prn(po +&! g!n!ralm!n'! %! apl(a !% !l +&! !%'abl!(! la l!# d! Ga# O L&%%a( d!
lo% -ol4m!n!% d! (ombna("n.
9
Dr!%"n d!l ga% E Dr!%"n 'o'al O Dr!%"n d! -apor d!l
ag&a
LE" DE GA" % LUSSAC DE LOS &OL2MENES DE COM#INACIN
La l!# !%'abl!(! +&!, B # temperatura y presin constantes, los volmenes
de los gases !ue reaccionan o se forman en una reaccin !umica pueden ser
e$presados en proporciones de nmeros enteros sencillos .
Dor !0!mplo* la r!a(("n d! .orma("n d! (lor&ro d! Adr"g!no 9 8Cl ? a par'r
d! Adr"g!no # o@$g!no ga%!o%o%,
8
H 9g?
Q O
H 9g?
H8Cl
9g?

D! a(&!rdo a la l!# d! Ga# O L&%%a(,
1 -ol&m!n d! 8
H
Q 1 -ol&m!n O
H
H -ol4m!n!% d! (lor&ro d! Adr"g!no
E3EMPLO 4 .:
RQ&5 pr!%"n* !@pr!%ada !n p%* !0!r(! &na m!)(la d! H gramo% d! Adr"g!no
ga%!o%o* 8
H
# N gramo% d! n'r"g!no ga%!o%o* N
H
* % %! !n(&!n'ran a (!ro grado%
C!l%&% d!n'ro d! &n r!(p!n'! d! 1K l'ro%S
SOLUCIN:
La pr!%"n !0!r(da por lo% do% ga%!% d!p!nd! d!l n4m!ro d! mol!% d! (2&
pr!%!n'!% !n la m!)(la* por (on%g&!n'! %! d!b! (on-!r'r (2ma%a d! gramo% a
mol!%,
Pa'a N
+
: N g N
H
@ 1 mol N
H
E K.HN= mol!% N
H
HN g N
H
Pa'a $
+
: H g 8
H
@ 1 mol 8
H
E 1 mol 8
H
H g 8
H
Lo% mol!% 'o'al!% !n la m!)(la %! ob'!n!n por ad("n,
n E n
8H
Q n
NH
n E 1 mol Q K.HN= mol!% E 1.HN= mol!%
AAora* (on la !(&a("n d!l ga% d!al* %! p&!d! (al(&lar la pr!%"n !0!r(da por la
m!)(la d! ga%!%,
DV E nRT
Dara K
o
C !l !+&-al!n'! !n T!l-n !% H;1* # (on R E K.KNH1 L.a'm 2 mol.T
D E 91.HN= mol!% @ K.KNH1 L.a'm2mol.T @ H;1 T ? E H.NN a'm
10
1K L
Fnalm!n'! %! (on-!r'! la pr!%"n a p%,
H.NN a'm @ 1>.; p% E 5+)-5 !si
1 a'm
E3EMPLO 4 +:
RC&/n'o% l'ro% d! Adr"g!no # o@$g!no ga%!o%o% !n (ond(on!% S.T.D. p&!d!n
ob'!n!r%! '!"r(am!n'! a par'r d! la d!%(ompo%("n d! 1 lbra d! ag&aS.
Con%d!r! la %g&!n'! !@pr!%"n,
8
H
O 8
H
Q O
H
SOLUCIN:
Dara pod!r !%'abl!(!r la (an'dad Adr"g!no # o@$g!no !% n!(!%aro &'l)ar la
!@pr!%"n dada* !%'o Aa(! n!(!%aro !%'abl!(!r % la !@pr!%"n r!pr!%!n'a &na
!(&a("n +&$m(a o no.
Dor %mpl! n%p!(("n %! p&!d! -!r +&! !% n!(!%aro balan(!arla* !%'o %!
logra (olo(ando !l n4m!ro H (omo (o!.(!n'! !%'!+&om5'r(o d!l ag&a # d!l
Adr"g!no ga%!o%o, +8
H
O +8
H
Q O
H
AAora %! (on-!r'! a mol!% la (an'dad d! ag&a dada !n la n.orma("n,
1 lbra 8
H
O @ >:> g 8
H
O @ 1 mol 8
H
O E H:.HH mol!% 8
H
O
1N g 8
H
O
A par'r d! lo% mol!% d! 8
H
O* &'l)ando la% r!la(on!% !%'!+&om5'r(a% d! la
!(&a("n +&$m(a %! !%'abl!(! !l n4m!ro d! mol!% d! Adr"g!no # o@$g!no +&! %!
.orman,
H:.HH mol!% 8
H
O @ H mol!% 8
H
E H:.HH mol 8
H
H mol 8
H
O
H:.HH mol!% 8
H
O @ 1 mol!% O
H
E 1H.=1 mol O
H
H mol 8
H
O
Como la r!a(("n pro(!d! !n (ond(on!% S.T.D.* %! p&!d! &'l)ar !l -ol&m!n
molar d! &n ga% !n !%'a% (ond(on!%* !% d!(r HH.> l'ro% 2 mol ,
H:.HH mol!% 8
H
@ HH.> l'ro% 8
H
E /65)7- lit'os $
+
1 mol 8
H

1H.=1 mol!% O
H
@ HH.> l'ro% O
H
E +8+)56 lit'os O
+
1 mol 8
H
11
E3EMPLO 4 -:
RC&/n'o% m!'ro% (4b(o% d! amon$a(o* N8
1
* p&!d! ob'!n!r%! a par'r d! H:
m!'ro% (4b(o% d! Adr"g!no ga%!o%o* 8
H
* d! a(&!rdo a la %g&!n'! !@pr!%"n,
N
H
Q 8
H
N8
1
Q&5 -ol&m!n d! N
H
r!a((onaS 9Con%d!r! +&! 'odo% lo% -ol4m!n!% !%'/n
m!ddo% a la m%ma pr!%"n # '!mp!ra'&ra ?.
SOLUCIN:
La !@pr!%"n +&! r!pr!%!n'a la r!a(("n +&$m(a %! d!b! balan(!arI #a
balan(!ada* %! p&!d! n'!rpr!'ar !n '5rmno% d! mol!% # d! -ol4m!n!% molar!%,
N
H
Q -8
H
+N8
1
1 mol 1 mol!% H mol!%
1 -ol&m!n molar 1 -ol4m!n!% molar!% H -ol4m!n!% molar!%
D!bdo a +&! %olam!n'! !% (ono(do !l -ol&m!n d! Adr"g!no +&! r!a((ona*
r!%&l'a mpo%bl! !%'abl!(!r !l n4m!ro d! mol!% d! Adr"g!no +&! r!a((onan* a
m!no% +&! %! %&ponga +&! !l pro(!%o o(&rr! a TDE.
Sn !mbargo* !n !l !n&n(ado d!l probl!ma %! m!n(ona +&! 'odo% lo%
-ol4m!n!% !%'/n m!ddo% a la m%ma '!mp!ra'&ra # pr!%"nI # %ab!ndo +&! !l
-ol&m!n d! &n ga% !% dr!('am!n'! propor(onal al n4m!ro d! mol!% pr!%!n'!%* #
+&! la l!# d! A-ogadro !%'abl!(! +&! -ol4m!n!% g&al!% (on'!n!n !l m%mo
n4m!ro d! mol5(&la%* !l -ol&m!n d! n'r"g!no +&! r!a((ona %!r/ la '!r(!ra par'!
d!l -ol&m!n d! Adr"g!no.
E%'o %! d!d&(! d! la !(&a("n +&$m(a +&! !%'abl!(! +&! 1 mol d! n'r"g!no
r!a((ona (on 1 mol!% d! Adr"g!no. D! .orma %!m!0an'! %! p&!d! !%'abl!(!r
+&! !l -ol&m!n d! amon$a(o .ormado %!r/ la% H '!r(!ra% par'!% d!l Adr"g!no +&!
r!a((ona. E%'a% %'&a(on!% no% (ond&(!n a,
Vol&m!n .ormado d! amon$a(o,
H: m
1
8
H
@ H -ol4m!n!% d! N8
1
E .6)6, 9
-
de N$
-
H -ol4m!n!% d! 8
H
Vol&m!n d! n'r"g!no +&! r!a((ona,
H: m
1
8
H
@ 1 -ol&m!n d! N
H
E .+)/ 9
-
de N
+
H -ol4m!n!% d! 8
H
12
E3EMPLO 4 5:
RC&/l %!r/ la pr!%"n !n p% * +&! !0!r(!r/n =KK gramo% d! n'r"g!no
ga%!o%o* N
H
* +&! !%'/n alma(!nado% !n &n r!(p!n'! d! : galon!% a m!no% 1:
grado% C!l%&%S
SOLUCIN:
En prm!r l&gar* !% n!(!%aro (on-!r'r lo% galon!% a l'ro%,
: galon!% @ 1.;N: l'ro% E 1N.LH: l'ro%
1 gal"n
En %!g&da %! (on-!r'! la '!mp!ra'&ra a 3!l-n, T E
o
C Q H;1.1:
T E O1: Q H;1.1: E H:N.1:
AAora %! (on-!r'! lo% =KK gramo% d! N
H
* a mol!%,
=KK g N
H
@ 1 mol N
H
E H1.>1 mol!% N
H
HN g N
H
Fnalm!n'!* %! %&%''&#! la n.orma("n !n la !(&a("n d!l ga% d!al,
D E nRT 2 V
D E 9H1.>1 mol ?9K.KNH1 l'ro% O a'm 2 mol O 3!l-n ?9H:N.1: 3!l-n ?
1N.LH: l'ro%
D E H1.LLL H> a'm"%.!ra%
H> a'm @ 1>.; p% E -/+)8 !si
1 a'm
E3EMPLO 4 /:
Una m&!%'ra d! H.H;1 gramo% d! &n ga% m!ddo a H; grado% C!l%&% # NLK
mm d! 8g* o(&pa &n -ol&m!n d! 1>KK ((. Cal(&lar !l Bp!%oC mol!(&lar d!l ga%.
SOLUCIN:
Dara pod!r &'l)ar !l -alor d! R E K.KNH1 l'ro% O a'm 2 mol O 3!l-n * !%
n!(!%aro !@pr!%ar la% (an'dad!% dada% !n la% &ndad!% ad!(&ada%,
NLK mm 8g @ 1 a'm"%.!ra E 1.1;1 a'm
;=K mm 8g
1>KK (( @ 1 l'ro E 1.> l'ro%
1KKK ((
T E H;
o
C Q H;1.1: E 1KK.1: 3!l-n
13
Con la n.orma("n an'!ror* %! p&!d! (al(&lar !l n4m!ro d! mol!% d! ga% !n
!%'a% (ond(on!%, n E DV 2 RT
n E . 91.1;1 a'm?91.> l'ro%? . E K.K==:1 mol!%
9K.KNH1 l'ro% O a'm 2 mol O 3!l-n ?91KK.1: 3!l-n?
Fnalm!n'! %! r!la(ona la ma%a (on !l n4m!ro d! mol!%,
Bp!%oC mol!(&lar E H.H;1 gramo% E -5)., g : 9ol
K.==:1 mol!%
E3EMPLO 4 6:
D! a(&!rdo a !%'&do% amb!n'al!%* %! Aa !%'mado +&! an&alm!n'! %! lb!ra a la
a'm"%.!ra K.1: gga'on!lada% m5'r(a% d! mon"@do d! (arbono ga%!o%o* CK
9g?
.
a? RC&/l !% !l -ol&m!n !@pr!%ado !n m!'ro% (4b(o% +&! o(&pa !%'a (an'dad
d! ga% !n (ond(on!% STDS
b? RC&/n'a% mol5(&la% d! CO !%'/n (on'!nda% !n !%'! -ol&m!nS
SOLUCIN:
En prm!r l&gar* %! d!b! (on-!r'r la% 'on!lada% m5'r(a% d! CO a mol!%,
K.1: Gga'on m5'r(a% @ 1@1K
L
'on m5'r(a% E 1:K KKK KKK Ton m5'r(a%
1 Gga'on m5'r(a
1:K KKK KKK Ton m5'r(a% @ 1KKK 3g @ 1KKK g @ 1 mol CO E :.1=P1K
1H
1 Ton m5'r(a 1 Tg HN g CO
a? En (ond(on!% STD* &n mol d! (&al+&!r ga% o(&pa &n -ol&m!n apro@mado
d! HH.> l'ro%* &'l)ando !%'a r!la("n %! p&!d! !n(on'rar !l -ol&m!n +&!
o(&pa !l CO,
:.1= @ 1K
1H
mol!% CO @ HH.> l'ro% CO @ 1 m!'ro (4b(o CO E .) +; < .;
..
9
-
CO
1 mol CO 1KKK l'ro% CO
b? El n4m!ro d! mol5(&la% d! CO %! p&!d! (al(&lar &'l)ando !l n4m!ro d!
A-ogadro,
:.1= @ 1K
1H
mol!% CO P =.KHH@1K
H1
mol5(&la% CO E -)+-<.;
-6
9ol=ulas CO
1 mol CO
14
PRO#LEMA 4 ,:
Una m!)(la d! :K g d! o@$g!no ga%!o%o 9 K
H
? # :K g d! A!lo 9 8! ? '!n! &na
pr!%"n 'o'al d! : a'm"%.!ra%. RC&/l !% la pr!%"n par(al d! (ada ga% !n la
m!)(laS
SOLUCIN:
En prm!r l&gar* %! d!b! (on-!r'r la ma%a d! (ada ga% a mol!%,
Dara !l o@$g!no ga%!o%o, :K g K
H
@ 1 mol K
H
E 1.:=H: mol K
H
1H g K
H

Dara !l 8!lo, :K g 8! @ 1 mol 8! E 1H.: mol 8!
> g 8!
AAora %! p&!d! !%'abl!(!r lo% mol!% 'o'al!% !n la m!)(la,
Mol!% 'o'al!% E mol!% d! o@$g!no Q mol!% d! A!lo
Mol!% 'o'al!% E 1.:=H: mol!% Q 1H.: mol!% E 1>.K=H: mol!%
Con la n.orma("n !n(on'rada* %! p&!d! (al(&lar la .ra(("n molar d! (ada ga%,
P
o@$g!no
E mol!% o@$g!no 2 mol!% 'o'al!% E 1.:=H: mol 2 1>.K=H: mol E K.11
P
A!lo
E mol!% A!lo 2 mol!% 'o'al!% E 1H.: mol 2 1>.K=H: mol E K.NL
Fnalm!n'! %! p&!d! (al(&lar la pr!%"n par(al d! (ada ga% &'l)ando la .ra(("n
molar d! (ada &no # la pr!%"n 'o'al d! : a'm"%.!ra%. La !@pr!%"n +&! p!rm'! !l
(/l(&lo !%,
D

E 9P

?9D
'o'al
?
Dr!%"n par(al d!l o@$g!no,
D
o@$g!no
E K.11 @ : a'm E ;)// at9
Dr!%"n par(al para !l 8!lo,
D
A!lo
E K.NL @ : a'm E 5)5/ at9
PRO#LEMA 4 8:
Una m&!%'ra d! =KK mL d! o@$g!no %! r!(og" %obr! ag&a a 1K grado% C!l%&% #
pr!%"n d! 1.: a'm"%.!ra%* RQ&5 -ol&m!n o(&par$a la m&!%'ra %!(a a TDES 9 La
pr!%"n d! -apor d!l ag&a a 1K C!l%&% !% K.K>1L a'm"%.!ra% ?
SOLUCIN:
15
Como !l ga% .&! r!(ol!('ado !n ag&a* la pr!%"n m!dda d! 1.: a'm (ompr!nd! la
pr!%"n d!l -apor d! ag&a # la pr!%"n d!l o@$g!no* por (on%g&!n'! %! Aa(!
n!(!%aro (al(&lar la pr!%"n d!l o@$g!no %!(o* la !@pr!%"n +&! r!la(ona la%
pr!%on!% !%,
Dr!%"n 'o'al E pr!%"n -apor d! ag&a Q pr!%"n d!l o@$g!no %!(o
S&%''&#!ndo la n.orma("n,
1.: a'm E K.K>1L a'm Q pr!%"n d!l o@$g!no %!(o
Dr!%"n o@$g!no %!(o E 1.: a'm O K.K>1L a'm E 1.>:N1 a'm
La% (ond(on!% n(al!% para !l o@$g!no %on,
Dr!%"n E 1.>:N1 a'm
T!mp!ra'&ra E 1K C!l%&% E 1K1 T!l-n
Vol&m!n E =KK mll'ro%
U %! l! d!%!a ll!-ar a (ond(on!% TDE* +&! (orr!%pond!n a,
Dr!%"n E 1 a'm
T!mp!ra'&ra E H;1 3!l-n
Vol&m!n E S
La !@pr!%"n alg!bra(a +&! r!la(ona la% 'r!% -arabl!% !% la l!# (ombnada,
D

E D
.
V
.
T

T
.
Al %&%''&r la n.orma("n* %! !n(&!n'ra +&!,
91.>:N1 a'm?9=KK mll'ro%? E 9 1 a'm ? 9 V
.
?
1K1 3!l-n H;1 3!l-n
V
.nal
E ,88 ) +5 9ililit'os
PRO#LEMA 4 7:
RC&/l !% la d!n%dad d!l (loro ga%!o%o 9 Cl
H
? a TDES
SOLUCIN:
La ma%a molar d!l (loro ga%!o%o 9 Cl
H
? !%, ;K.L gramo% 2 mol
Con la !@pr!%"n para d!n%dad* %&%''&#!ndo la n.orma("n propor(onada* %!
ob'!n! ,
E . MD .
RT
E 9 ;K.L gramo% 2 mol ? @ 9 1 a'm ?
9 K.KNH1 L.a'm 2 mol.T ?9 H;1 T ?
16
E -).6 g : lit'o
gared
17
Instruye al joven en su camino, y aun cuando fuere viejo no
se apartar de l.
Prov. 22 , 6