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# GMAT Verbal Notes

PREPARATION STRATEGY.............................................................................................................................3
Six most important types of RC Questions..............................................................................................4
TEST TAKING STARTEGY.............................................................................................................................7
SENTENCE CORRECTION STRATEGY.................................................................................................7
PREPARATION STRATEGY.............................................................................................................................7
The 8 Major rrors !f GM"T nglish...................................................................................................#
\$%&ronoun error......................................................................................................................................#
'%Mispla(ed Modifier )modifiers must stay (lose to home%....................................................................*
3%&arallel Constru(tion..........................................................................................................................*
4%+er, Tense.........................................................................................................................................\$-
.%Su,je(t/+er, agreement errors.........................................................................................................\$\$
0%&arallelism )"pples 1 !ranges%.......................................................................................................\$3
#%Quantity 2ords..................................................................................................................................\$4
8%3dioms................................................................................................................................................\$4
343!M"T3C &R&!S3T3!5 6S"G..................................................................................................\$8
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT...............................................................................................................42
THE BASICS................................................................................................................................................42
USING THE PRESENT PERFECT...................................................................................................................43
EXPERIENCES..............................................................................................................................................43
Changing ,et7een the &resent &erfe(t and &ast Simple......................................................................44
DURATION..................................................................................................................................................45
Simple or Continuous8.........................................................................................................................40
PAST ACTION WITH A RESULT IN THE PRESENT........................................................................................46
9ust........................................................................................................................................................4#
:een or Gone8......................................................................................................................................4#
CRITICAL REASONING...........................................................................................................................47
APPENDIX A. ABSOLUTE PHRASES: INTRODUCTION..................................................................52
APPENDIX B. SUBJECT/VERB INVERSION........................................................................................53
APPENDIX C. PREPOSITIONS................................................................................................................57
Acknowledgement : This material has been compiled with the inputs from
various documents on the verbal strategies. Special thanks to Dave, Sahil and
Scoretop.
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Preparation Strategy
). Try to read the whole tet o! the passage once" i! possible# Man people think ou should
!ust skim the passage or read the first lines of ever paragraph, and not to read the passage.
"e believe this is an error# if ou misunderstand the main idea of the passage, ou will
certainl get at least some of the \$uestions wrong. Give the passage one good read, taking
no more than % minutes to read all of the te&t. Do not read the passage more than once ' that
wastes too much time. (f ou have not understood it completel, tr to answer the \$uestions
anwa. )ote# this point of reading the whole passage is important for test*takers whose first
language is not +nglish, provided that the can read the passage in % minutes or less.
2. Make brie! notes on the tet on yo\$r scrap paper# ,s we will see below in greater detail,
ou should write down a couple of words on ,- the Main (dea or .rimar .urpose, /-
0rgani1ation2Structure of the passage, and C- the Tone or ,ttitude of the author 3if
applicable-. 4ou !ust need a few words for each of these areas, and altogether it should not
take longer than %5 seconds to write down.
3. Remember that the tone or attit\$de o! the passage is \$s\$ally respect!\$l and moderate"
ne%er going to etremes o! praise nor criticism# +TS obtains its Reading Comprehension
passages from real articles about real academics and professionals. So the tone of the
articles, even when there is criticism in the passage toward an academic or her work, is
alwas balanced and moderate. (n the same vein, articles that deal with minorities or ethnic
groups are almost alwas positive and smpathetic.
4. &ook o\$t !or str\$ct\$ral words that tell yo\$ the important ideas or transitions in a
passage#
Contin\$e the 'dea (ords Concl\$sion
(ords
Similarl
Moreover
,dditionall
(n the same wa
6ikewise
Thus
Therefore
7ence
So
(n summar
(n conclusion
)everthless
)onetheless
7owever
/ut
,lthough
Though
+ven though
)otwithstanding
4et
Despite
(n spite of
0n the one hand8on the other
hand
"hile
9nlike
/efore 2,fter
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Generall
Most people think8
5. Go back to the tet o! the passage !or the answers# Man test*takers fail to return to the
te&t of the passage to look for the correct answers. The rel solel on their memories and
understanding of the passage after having read or skimmed it. "rong. +TS is counting on
that. Go back to the te&t to look for information to answer the \$uestions. )ine times out of ten,
the answer lies within the passage.
Si& most important tpes of RC ;uestions
There are < most important tpes of \$uestions for Reading Comprehension#
Main 'dea-Primary P\$rpose .\$estions
Man people believe there is no difference between the main or central idea of the passage
and the primar purpose of the author of the passage. This is simpl not true. 6et=s take a
look at the subtle but important difference between them#
Main 'dea
The \$uestion might look something like this#
>"hich of the following best states the central idea of the passage?>
>"hich of the following most accuratel states the main idea of the passage?>
>"hich of the following is the principal topic of the passage?>
>The main topic of the passage is....>
Primary P\$rpose
The \$uestion might look like this#
>The primar purpose of this passage is to...>
>The primar purpose of the passage as a whole is to...>
>The primar focus of this passage is on which of the following?>
>The main concern of the passage is to...>
>(n the passage, the author is primaril interested in....>
>The passage is chiefl concerned with...>
Strategy:
Main 'dea# 6ook in the first and last paragraphs for the main idea. ,n concl\$sion words
like therefore, thus, so, hence, etc. that ou see are most likel introducing the main idea. The
correct answer will sa the same thing as it sas in the te&t, but using different words. The
Main (dea is not alwas stated e&plicitl in the passage ' in fact, more likel than not, it is not
stated e&plicitl. Therefore, in order to answer this tpe of \$uestion when it is more implicit#
Re*read the first line of ever passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This
should give ou the general structure or outline of the argument, with which ou can answer
the Main (dea \$uestion.
,fter determining the general structure or content of the argument, eliminate answer choices
that are too broad or too specific, i.e. answer choices that go beond the content of the
passage, or that deal with content onl discussed in one paragraph of the passage.
Make brief notes ' a couple of words* regarding the Main (dea on the te&t on our scrap
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Primary P\$rpose# "hat is the author tring to do? "hat is his intention? (f he is evaluating a
theor, then the answer could be something like >Discuss an interpretation>. )ote that the
correct answer would deal with >an interpretation>, because the author is onl dealing with
one theor. (f the .rimar .urpose is to critici1e @ new books, then his intention or his primar
purpose might be to >Criti\$ue new studies>. ,gain, as in Main (dea \$uestions, re*read the first
line of ever passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This should give ou
the general structure or outline of the argument, with which ou can answer the .rimar
.urpose \$uestion.
Note# , good main idea or primar purpose does not go beond the scope of the passage,
nor does it limit itself to discussing onl one part of the passage.
Title .\$estions
Title \$uestions are ver similar to Main (dea \$uestions, though are less common. The
passages in the real GM,T will not have titles. The title \$uestion might look like this#
>"hich of the following titles best summari1es the passage as a whole?>
Strategy#
Treat this as a Main (dea \$uestion. , good title sums up the central idea of a passage.
Therefore, in order to answer this tpe of \$uestion#
A. 6ook in the first and last paragraphs for the main idea. ,n conclusion words like
therefore, thus, so, hence, etc. that ou see are most likel introducing the Main
(dea2Title. The correct answer will sa the same thing as it sas in the te&t, but using
different words.
@. Re*read the first line of ever passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs.
This should give ou the general structure or outline of the argument, with which ou can
%. Make brief notes ' a couple of words* regarding the Title on the te&t on our scrap paper
B. ,fter determining the general structure or content of the argument, eliminate answer
choices that are too broad or too specific, i.e. answer choices that go beond the content
of the passage, or that deal with content onl discussed in one paragraph of the passage.
Speci!ic /etail or Target 0\$estions
Specific Detail or Target \$uestions are probabl the most common tpes of \$uestions, and
the easiest to answer. The \$uestion might look like this#
>,ccording to the passage,....>
>The passage states that ....>
Strategy
The Specific Detail or Target that we are looking for could be a 6ine )umber, or a )ame or
Date. Go to the 6ine )umber or )ame or Date, and then read several lines above and below
it. Cind the answer choice that basicall sas the same thing as in the passage, though
usuall with different words or word order.
'n!erence or Ass\$mption .\$estions
This is probabl the most difficult tpe of Reading Comprehension problem. The \$uestions
might look like this#
>(t can be inferred that the author makes which of the following assumptions?>
>"hich is an assumption underling the last sentence of the passage?>
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>"hich of the following, if true, would most strengthen the hpothesis mentioned in lines
>"ith which of the following statements regarding chaos theor would the author be most
likel to agree?>
Strategy#
Cirst, treat this tpe of problem as a Specific Target \$uestion. 6ook for a target in the
\$uestion, find it in the te&t, and then look above and below it. 0ften ou do not have to infer
ver much, the answer remains within the te&t.
(f the answer must be inferred and is not stated e&plicitl within the te&t, then choose the
answer choice that can be inferred or assumed from the information given. ,gain, ou should
not have to infer ver much ' onl one or two logical steps removed from the information in
the passage.
Make sure that the answer choice ou decide on does not violate or contradict the Main (dea
of the passage * if it does, the answer choice is probabl wrong.
Attit\$de or Tone o! the passage .\$estions
The \$uestion might look like this#
>The author=s attitude towards Morgan=s theor could best be described as one of ...>
Strategy#
6ook for descriptive words, ad!ectives or adverbs, that could tell ou the author=s attitude. Cor
e&ample, the words unfortunately or flaw suggest a negative connotation, while strength or
valuable emphasi1e the positive. Make brief notes ' a couple of words* regarding the Tone of
the te&t on our scrap paper while ou read. ,dditionall, keep in mind that the author=s
attitude toward a theor, book, or ethnic group will almost alwas be respectful, even when
somewhat critical.
1rgani2ation o! the passage 0\$estions
The \$uestion might look like this#
>"hich of the following best describes the organi1ation of the passage?>
>"hich of the following best describes the organi1ation of the first paragraph of the
passage?>
>0ne function of the third paragraph is to....>
Strategy#
Re*read the first line of ever passage, and the last line of the first and last paragraphs. This
should give ou the general structure or outline of the argument, with which ou can answer
the \$uestion. Remember to make brief notes about the structure of the te&t on our scrap
paper. (f ou are looking for the organi1ation of one paragraph, read the first and second
sentence of the paragraph. That will give ou a rough idea of what is the structure or
organi1ation of the paragraph.
a. Read the whole te&t of the passage once.
b. Make brief notes about the te&t on our scrap paper.
c. Remember that the tone or attitude of the passage is usuall respectful and moderate,
never going to e&tremes of praise nor criticism.
d. 6ook out for structural words that tell ou the important ideas or transitions in a passage.
e. Go back to the te&t of the passage for the answers to specific \$uestions.
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Test Taking Startegy
A- ,ggressivel read each paragraph for its main idea. (f ou canFt write down in a few words
what the point of each paragraph is, ou werenFt reading activel enough. 4ou should !ot
down the following.
a. Main idea or primar purpose
b. 0rgani1ation2Structure
c. Tone or attitude of author 3if applicable-
Note# /e careful to not write facts down. (tFll bog ou down and usuall results in a loss of the
big picture and moves ou to focus too much into the details.
@- )ote an trigger words, same train of thought words, in*ang parallelism.
%- "eed out possible disputable answers. :ague, wimp answers are often correct over
stronger statements. +TS doesnFt want to get man complaints that a particular answer that
was strongl stated, that e&ceptions could arise. +TS would rather pla it safe.
B- Minorit passages are often positive in tone and answers tend to be positive in tone as well.
,gain, +TS, wouldnFt want to look pre!udiced.
G- ,lwas eliminate bad choices first before answering. 4ouFll almost alwas be able to narrow
down to @*% and that significantl improves our odds of getting the \$uestion right.
<- Read the entire passage before answering the \$uestions. 0ther books sa skim, but itFs not
alwas successful with more difficult passages where minute details change meanings of the
passage and could get ou going down the wrong path on inference or main point \$uestions.
Give ourself % minutes or less.
D- Cor (nference \$uestions, 3)ote# these are usuall the hardest of all RC \$uestions- go find the
general area being referenced. Read a bit above or below it and then make our choices.
DonFt go b memor. This is going to cause more problems than are helpful with saving time
in the long run. 4our answer should never contradict the main point of the passage.
H- Most people get main point and inference \$uestions wrong so focus more carefull on these.
E- >,ccording to the passage2author> \$uestion tpe of \$uestions. "henever ou see this
\$uestion, tell ourself, >Stop and stop thinking. ( need to 3'N/, not think.>
A5- Cor main point or central idea tpe of \$uestions, re*read the first and last sentences of each
paragraph before making elimination choices and answering. Getting the overall structure is
AA- (n Summar# Consider weeding out answers that
a. ,re disrespectful to others2professionals. +TS doesnFt like to be disrespectful.
b. Too strong an answer. 9se of words like IonlJ, IdefinitelJ, IpositivelJ
c. Condone2approve pre!udicial attitudes. +TS doesnFt like to be disrespectful.
Sentence Correction Strategy
Preparation Strategy
The 4 Ma5or 6rrors 1! GMAT 6nglish
Spotting bad sentences is the ke to doing well on sentence structure test \$uestions.
7, Prono\$n error
There are % main tpes of pronoun errors encountered in GM,T.
a# Pl\$ral and Sing\$lar
0nce ou start with one, ou need to sta in the same \$uantit 3singular or plural-.
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Sing\$lar Prono\$ns )Memori2e these,
7int# Do ou see the categories ( setup? (tFs S,)+ to memori1e this
Some***
AnK
NoK
6verK
+verone
+verbod
+verthing
Someone
Somebod
Something
+ither
)either
0ne
+ach
,none
,nbod
,nthing
)o one
)othing
)obod
"hoever
"homever
7is
8e aware that gro\$p" 5\$ry" team" co\$ntry" !amily are sing\$lar# Society today \$ses
them sometimes as pl\$ral. This is because these act as a single unit when the do
something.
Pl\$ral Prono\$ns )Memori2e these,
/oth Their Man Several
Cew 0thers
Sing\$lar and Pl\$ral Prono\$ns 9 depends on whether the no\$n is sing\$lar or pl\$ral
)Memori2e these,
Some More Most ,ll
The pl\$ral and sing\$lar cla\$se error
"hen two nouns are in the sentence doing an action together but the are linked with
i- ,long with
ii- Together with
iii- "ith
iv- ,s well as
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vi- ,ccompanied b
8 this does not make the following action the do plural. 1nly :and; can take the
two sing\$lars and make their action pl\$ral#
Cor e&ample
Lanie, with her poodle limping behind her, walks to the dog park.
+&planation# Lanie is singular. The poodle is singular. The both do the action
together, but the use of IwithJ means that we need to keep the verb singular. I"alksJ
is singular and I"alkJ is plural.
Remember" a %erb that ends with an 9s is sing\$lar#
b. Prono\$n re!erence error* referring pronoun is not correctl placed.
Cor e&ample#
(n the sentence ISamantha and Lane went shopping, but she couldnFt find anthing she
liked.J, the pronoun IsheJ does not refer to a person unambiguousl. (t is difficult to
understand that whether IsheJ is referring to Samantha or Lane.
The correct form would be ISamantha and Lane went shopping, but Samanatha couldnFt
find anthing she liked.J
c. Relati%e prono\$ns are often used incorrectl toda.
A- Referring to things or animals ' that, which
@- Referring to peopleKwho, whom
%- They ' be careful that ou donFt use this unless ouFre positive there is a referring
noun. Toda we often use ItheJ to replace the use of a proper noun which it is not.
(tFs a .ronoun.
<, Misplaced Modi!ier )modi!iers m\$st stay close to home,
Sentences that begin with a verb, ad!ectiveMverb, and ad!ective phrases need to be followed
b the noun or pronoun the are modifing. 9suall end with 'ing.
+&ample# IComing out of the department store, LohnFs wallet was stolen.J
IComingJ is the modifier. "as !ohnFs wallet coming out of the store? 'ncorrect
.ossible solution to look for#
i- Correct the reference
ii- .ut a noun or pronoun into the A
st
part of the sentence turning the A
st
part into an
adverbial clause. Thus can stand apart without needing to watch the modifier.
=, Parallel Constr\$ction
There are two kinds of +RS sentences that test the parallel construction. The first is a
sentence that contains a list, or has a series of actions set off from one another b commas.
The second kind is a sentence thatFs divided into two parts.
/oth tpes must have parallel tpes of verbiage#
8..to NNNN, to NNNN
ate NNNNN, slept NNNN, drank NNNN.
8to NNNN, NNNNN
8ate NNNNN, sleep NNNNN, drank NNNN.
There are a few more things to be observed in a parallel construction sentence.
a# Comparisons m\$st be logical and compatible
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Cind the two things being compared and see if the sentence is structured in balance.
DonFt be afraid to consider changing verbs or ad!ectives to get the balance.
The words >like,> >unlike,> >similar to,> >as8so>, IwhenJ and >in contrast to> are the most
common indicators of comparisons. (n comparisons, compatibility is determined by
s\$b5ect matter. Cor e&ample#
I,s domesticated animals, indoor cats tpicall lose their abilit to hunt for their own food,
so too do domesticated dogs come to rel e&clusivel on their owners for sustenance.J
7ere, domesticated cats are compared to domesticated dogs, and the comparison works
because the are both domesticated animals K the are like terms. "henever ou see a
comparison being set up in a sentence, check to see that the terms of the comparison
are compatible.
b# Parallelism is not 5\$st abo\$t cla\$ses" b\$t %erb \$sage
+&ample# *ing and 'ing, to88 to88 , either 8.. or, neither 88. nor.
(n a series of two or more elements, what ou do on O@ determines what ou do on %M. (n
other words, everthing after O@ must match O@#
( like to swim, to run, and to dance.
( like to swim, run, and dance.
are oka.
( like to swim, run, and to dance.
( like to swim, to run, and dance.
are )0T oka.
>, Verb Tense
0n the GM,T, tense problems are often !ust a matter of parallel construction. (n general, if a
sentence starts out in one tense, it should probabl remain in the same tense.
Some ma!or categories of tense# DonFt need to memori1e tpes. Lust be familiar
a. Present tense e&ample# 7e walks three miles a da.
b. Simple Past e&ample# "hen he was ounger, he walked three miles a da.
c. Present Per!ect e&ample# 7e has walked.
d. Past Per!ect e&ample# 7e had walked.
e. 3\$t\$re e&ample# 7e will work.
f. Present Per!ect ' Describes action that began in the past but continues \$ntil the
present. Pe identifier ' IhasJ IhaveJ. Sidenote: Sometimes used when deadline e&ists.
g. Past Per!ect ' Describes action that started and stopped in the past. Pe identifier '
h. Present Progressi%e ' 9sed as emphasis b the speaker that the action is happening
this ver minute. Pe identifier ' verb Qto beF M a verb with an 'ing ending.
i. Per!ect Progressi%e ' 0ccupies more than one moment in the past. (n other words,
ongoing for a period of time. Pe identifier ' Ihad beenJ
0ne e&ception to this rule is a sentence that contains the past perfect 3in which one action in
the past happened before another action in the past-.
+&amples#
7e had ridden his motorccle for two hours when it ran out of gas.
The dinosaurs are e&tinct now, but the were once present on the earth in large numbers.
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Two events that have taken place, are taking place or will take place at the same time must
have the same tense in the sentence.
.assive verbs begin with the form of Ito beJ 3+&ample# to be, were, was- and end with a
different verb in the past tense.
?, S\$b5ect+Verb agreement errors
, verb is supposed to agree with the sub!ect.
a. Sing\$lar @ Pl\$ral agreement# Do the two agree in pluralit? Can be made ver
comple& when prepositional phrases separate verb from noun2sub!ect b G or more
words. +as to overlook cross referenced sub!ect*verb relationship.
b. To tell i! a %erb paradigm is pl\$ral or sing\$lar.
Mentall put ITheJ in front of the verb plural
Mentall put I7eJ in front of the verb singular
c# Verb pl\$rality: )This comes \$p A &1T on the GMAT,
,dding an IsJ to the end of an ad!ective makes it singular.
Cor e&ample, dislike plural dislikes singular
\$uote#
( chose ,, but the correct answer is /.
The ma!orit of the talk was devoted to an account of the e&perimental methods used b
investigators in the field.
a. ...
b. The greater part of the talk was
c. The bulk of the talk has been
d. , large amount of the talk has been
e. , predominance of the talk was
Good oneRR
>ma5ority> sho\$ld be \$sed with co\$nt no\$ns only#
The ma!orit of the water is dirt.
(s >unidiomatic,> because >water> is a non*count noun.
Lust in case, count nouns can be counted 3bottle, idea, person, brush, etc.-S
)oncount nouns cannot be counted 3water, furniture, information, soap, luggage, etc.-.
There is, however, a lot of overlap between the two**beer, coke, coffee, material, love, etc.
can all be either count or non*count, depending on our meaning, conte&t, or level of formalit.
0ne of the most common \$uestions is something like this#
Do ( sa#
>Most of the people is2are...?>
>Most of the water is2are...?>
7ere=s the rule#
\$uantifier M of M N1AN M verb
The N1AN determines whether the verb is singular or plural.
Cor e&ample#
Most of the people is/ are ...
because the quantifier "most" refers to "people," (a plural noun) so "most" is plural in this
sentence.
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Most of the water is2are...
because the \$uantifier >most> refers to >water,> 3a non*count noun- so >most> is plural
3singular-in this sentence.
So, from these e&amples, ou should notice that we are looking mainl at whether the ob!ect
of the preposition is count or non*count because the \$uantifier will take on this propert from
the ob!ect of the preposition.
(n other words, in these sentences#
Most of the people are...
>Most> becomes a count noun because >people> is a count noun.
Most of the water is...
>Most> becomes a non*count noun because >water> is a non*count noun.
So, this rule tells us only whether the \$uantifier is count or non*count.
To figure out whether the \$uantifier is singular or plural, we need to check one more thing...
Sometimes, a \$uantifier refers onl to one thing, not man things. Cor e&ample,
each, e%ery, and one alwas refer to one thing, but 7BC, hal!, all, and most would refer to
more than one thing if the ob!ect of the preposition is count 3with one possible e&ception that (
will show ou in a second-.
0f course, if the \$uantifier is alwas singular, then the verb must alwas be singular, too.
36et=s not forget our common sense in grammar, oka??- Cor e&ample, we sa#
T 1ne of the people is...
T 6ach of the students is...
0f course, when ( first wrote out these rules, ( imagined a situation like this#
T AU of the A55 people is2are...
because, of course, AU of A55 is one, and that=s singular, right? ,nd there=s invariabl some
student in m class who will tr to find an e&ception 3that=s what ( do in class, tooRR M
teachers hated itRR -
,nwa, ( think most people would sa that this is simpl a bad sentence and should be
rewritten. This sentence (=ve shown ou is more of a grammar p\$22le than a real sentence.
/ut ( know that somebod out there will want to know the >answer.> "ell, ou can=t go wrong
if ou write it in the singular, can ou?
The teacher together with the student 'S 3or ,R+- going to...?
The teacher and the st\$dent AR6 3or (S-going to?
Generall speaking, we need a con!unction to create a plural sub!ect from more than one
singular noun. >together with> is )0T a con!unction, and therefore cannot create a plural
sub!ect. >and> on the other hand, (S a con!unction and C,) create a plural sub!ect.
(=m concluding#
>a number of ...> alwas takes plural verbs.
>the number of ...> alwas takes singular verbs.
+g# the number of people has increased
, number of people have gone
The important thing here is that the number in the first e&ample 3the number of women
emploed outside the home- is an actual number**%G,555, for e&ample. +ven if ou add more
women to the original number, there will still be one number, right?
The second usage of >numbers> is also correct, and means that there are man people in that
group. Cor e&ample, it is correct to sa#
People are lea%ing Cali!ornia in greater n\$mbers#
People are spending more money on the 'nternet in greater n\$mbers#
Second, >curfew> is a singular count noun and therefore re\$uires a determiner 3the-.
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( agree with ou that skill can be both a count noun as well as a non*count noun. (t all
depends upon the conte&t.
7ave a look at the e&ample below#
A. 7arr knows \$uite a few driving skills.
@. 7ow much skill do ou have in driving a car, 7arr?
So ou see, the word >skill> remains the same but depending on the conte&t, skill can be a
non*count or a count noun?
"ith fractions, percentages and indefinite \$uantifiers, the verb agrees with the preceding noun or
clause. (ith sing\$lar or non+co\$nt no\$ns or cla\$ses" \$se a sing\$lar %erb#
,ll of the book seems relevant to this stud.
7alf of what he writes is undocumented.
,bout fift percent of the !ob is routine.
,ll the information is current.
"ith plural nouns, use plural verbs#
0ne third of the students have graduate degrees.
Cift percent of the computers have CD*R0M drives.
Man researchers depend on grants from industr.
"ith collective nouns, use either sing\$lar or pl\$ral, depending on whether ou want to
emphasi1e the single gro\$p or its indi%id\$al members#
7alf of m famil lives2live in Canada.
,ll of the class is2are here.
Ten percent of the population is2are bilingual.
This is another reason, and this one=s a bit harder to e&plain. (n a nutshell, though, we can=t
use a that noun clause with the word irective, !ust as we cannot with orer, as hellogmat
has pointed out.
D, Parallelism )Apples @ 1ranges,
This error is not a fre\$uentl encountered error, but it is worth knowing and practicing such
errors. (n such sentences, generall two things or items are compared.
a. "hen the sentence compares two items. ,sk ourself, can the be reall compared?
b. "hen the sentence compares two actions as well.
9suall, the problem is with hidden comparison where two things or actions are compared,
but another two items or actions are intertwined and ou lose the comparison relationship.
+&ample# ISnthetic oils burn less efficientl than natural oils.J
The sentence is wrong because we are tring to compare how well each oil burns and not the
oils themselves. /ut do ou see how the actual thing being compared is easil missed?
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )3 6*)+*2,)4- )3 -
E, .\$antity (ords
i. The words measuring \$uantit ma be used incorrectl. Cor e&ample, when comparing
two items, it would be inappropriate to use IamongJ to compare them. 7ereFs a chart#
< items i! more than <
/etween among
More most
/etter best
6ess least
ii. (tems that canFt be counted should not use \$uantit words. Cor e&ample, ou canFt sa
Ifewer soupJ. 7ereFs a chart#
Non+co\$ntable words Co\$ntable words
6ess fewer
,mount, \$uantit number
Much man
iii. "hen two distinct words or phrases are !oined b the correlatives either" or" neither"
nor" not only" b\$t also, the number (singular or plural) of the wor or phrase nearest to
the verb etermines the number of the verb .
+&ample# +ither his parents or he is bringing it 3notice IisJ is singular- This can be a
confusing sentence because parents is plural, but we pa attention to he which is the
noun IheJ tells us that we need to keep IisJ singular.
+&ample# +ither he or his parents are bringing it. )otice IparentsJ is plural and is the
closest to the verb so we use IareJ which is plural.
4, 'dioms
Such sentences incorporate incorrect usage of idiomatic e&pressions. There are no rules.
Reall need good +nglish familiarit.
0verall rule# (f itFs not one of the previous D, then itFs ver likel an idiom e&pression test
\$uestion. "atch for the prepositions 3to, the, of, at, for, on, in, about, etc.,- changing among
the answer choices. This usuall implies an (diomatic problem, if not a .arallel Construction
problem
Ma!or (dioms ou should be prett familiar with#
A- a debate over
@- a lot
%- a responsibilit to
B- a result of
G- a se\$uence of
<- acclaimed as is the correct idiom 3,cclaimed to be is wrong-
D- accompanied b....
E- ,dverb twice cannot be an ob!ect of proposition QbF. Q(ncrease b twiceF is incorrectS
QdoubledF is correct
A5- affect to..
AA- agree with
A@- ,id in 3,id for is incorrect-
A%- ,llerg to 3,llerg of, allerg for are incorrect-
AB- ,llocated to is the correct idiom
AG- alternative to....
A<- as a result of...
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )4 6*)+*2,)4- )4 -
AH- as good as...or better than
AE- as great as
@5- as much as
@A- ,ssociate V with 4
@@- assume ...to be of...
@%- ,t least as strong as3,t least as great as-
@B- ,ttempt to Qdo somethingF 3,ttempt at doing is incorrect-.
@G- attend to 3someone-
@<- attribute V to 42V is attributed to 4
@D- based on
@H- believe V to be 4
@E- /elieved to have
%5- benefit from...
%A- better served b V than 4 ..
%@- between V and 4
%%- /oth V and 4 3/oth V as well as 4 is incorrect- /oth at V and at 4 is correct. /oth on V or
on 4 is correct.
%B- /usiness ethics * (s a singular word
%G- call...to consider...
%<- centers on
%D- Combined V with 4 0R Combined V and 4 3/oth are correct-
%H- Compensate for
%E- Concerned for * worriedS concerned with * related2affiliated
B5- conform to
BA- Consider V to be 4 3a little controversial-
B@- contrar to...
B%- created with
BB- Credit V Rupees to 4Fs account 3"hen mone is involved-
BG- Credit V with discovering 4 3Credit with doing something-
B<- decline in....
BD- defined as
BH- depends on whether
BE- depicted as
G5- Descendent of 3Descendent for is incorrect-
GA- Different from one another 3Different one from the other is wrong-
G@- Distinguish between V and 4 3@ ver different items, distinguished, sa red and green
colors-
G%- Distinguish between V and 4 3Distinguish V from 4 is incorrect-
GB- Distinguish V from 4 3Two prett similar items, sa original paintings from fake ones-
GG- doubt that
G<- either...or
GD- enable to
GH- entrusted with...
GE- +stimated to be 3+stimated at is incorrect-
<5- e&pected that V would be 4 ...
<A- e&pected V to be 4 ...
<@- e&tent to ...
<%- fascinated b
<B- for !obs..
<G- for over...VVV ears...
<<- forbid V to do 4 identical with
<D- forcing ...to...
<H- Crom V to 4 3Grow from @ million to % billion- 3Crom V up to 4 is wrong-
<E- Given credit for being ones * who
DA- (n an attempt to 3gain control-
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )5 6*)+*2,)4- )5 -
D@- in contrast to
D%- independent from
DB- indifferent towards
DG- (ntent on
D<- interaction of ...
DD- Lust as * So too
DH- Ma be 3This is a word- is idiomatic, mabe 3This means perhaps- is not idiomatic
DE- Mistake V for 4
H5- modeled after
HA- more than ever
H@- more V than 4 ...
H%- more...than 2 less...than
HB- more...than ever...
HG- must have 3done-
H<- )ative of 3)ative to is also used in some cases-
HD- )either * )or should have parallel forms associated to it.
HH- no less....than
HE- )o sooner than
E5- )ot in a flash but in a
EA- not onl...but also
E@- )ot so much to V as to 4
E%- not V ...but rather 4 ..
EB- noted that ..
EG- one attributes V 3an effect- to 4 3a cause-
E<- 0ne V for ever WW3 some numeric number- 4=s ...
ED- .ersuaded V to do 4
EE- .otential for causing
A55- potential to
A5A- prohibits V from doing 4
A5@- range from V to 4
A5%- range of ...
A5B- reason8.. that incorrectl seen as reason8.. because
A5G- IRegard asJ is the correct idiom ** Regarded as having, Regarded as ones who have
A5<- regardless
A5D- regards V as 4 ...
A5H- replacing with...
A5E- Re\$uire that V be 4 3)ot re\$uire that V is 4-
AA5- research to
AAA- responsible for
AA@- restitution...for ...
AA%- resulting in
AAB- retroactive to
AAG- Same as V..as to 4
AA<- same to V as to 4
AAE- So V as to be 4 3So unreal as to be true-
A@5- So V that 4 3So poor that the steal-
A@A- subscribe to
A@@- such...as
A@%- targeted at
A@B- that V ...that 4 ...
A@G- That V is called for is indicated both b 4 and b W.
A@<- the same to V as to 4
A@D- to .. used to 3e&ample to get used to or to become used to-
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )6 6*)+*2,)4- )6 -
A@H- to contrast V with 4
A@E- To e&change V for 4 3e&change V with 4 or an other form is incorrect-
A%5- to mistake V for 4
A%A- to monitor ...
A%@- to orbit...
A%%- To ratif 3,t ratifing is incorrect- ,n attempt to ratif is the correct use
A%B- to result in
A%G- to sacrifice V for 4
A%<- to survive
A%D- To tr to fi& is the right idiom 3to tr and fi& is incorrect-
A%H- To worr about someoneFs condition 3To keep worring over an action-
A%E- used in the construction...
AB5- used to 3do-
ABA- viewed marriage as
AB@- wa to provide 3"a for providing is incorrect-
AB%- "hen QratesF means Qprices chargedF it should be followed with QforF
ABB- widel anticipated that....
AB<- V XisY e&pected to 4
ABD- V as 4 ..
ABH- V forbids 4 to do W ...
ABE- V is attributed to 4
AG5- V is different from 4 3different than 4 is incorrect-
AGA- V is to what 4 is to
AG@- V is unknown, nor it is known * is a correct idiom 3)either is not re\$uired-
AG%- V ordered that 4 be W=ed...
AGB- V ordered 4 to be W=ed..
AGG- V ordered 4 to do W
AG<- V prohobits 4 from doing W ...
Z Resemblance between V and 4 , also V resembles to 4
There are three tpes of idioms that ou=ll see on the GM,T#
word pairs that go together
prepositions and the verbs that use them
standard e&pressions.
/I"-- u0" \$12\$30 451152 \$ 65u67 65" \$6 \$8"!56.
E'. W&56' 9 F&\$6% 0\$30 I "55% #!0 855%!(07 :u" I ;!;6<" ;5 !".
R!'#" 9 F&\$6% 0\$30 I "55% #!0 855%!(07 :u" I ;!;6<" "\$%( "#(.
). S8!(6"!0"0 (0"!\$"( =56 "#( :\$0!0 54 Y> X
2. S8!(6"!0"0 (0"!\$"( =:\$0(; 56 Y> X
I "#!6% ) 05u6;0 :(""(&.
M\$3:( . . . .
N5u60 ? :\$0(; 567 @T#( A(&;!8" 2\$0 :\$0(; 56 X@
B(&:0*\$8"!56 ? 56 "#( :\$0!0 547 @T#( Cu&3 &u1(; 56 "#( :\$0!0 54 X@
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )7 6*)+*2,)4- )7 -
R(Du!&(; 54 ---- I" !0 &(Du!&(; 54 35u "5 2(\$& 45&\$10 !6 544!8( =\$\$E 0( u((; %! C\$\$"! #\$!
%! \$\$E 544!8( (!6 45&\$10 E\$#(6 %( \$\$(6'(.>
R(Du!&(; :3 ----- T!(13 0uEE13 54 &\$2 \$"(&!\$10 !0 &(Du!&(; :3 "#( 85E\$63. =85E\$63
%5 C\$&55&\$" #\$!.>
(ord Pairs
as8as The movie was as long as it was boring.
more8than
less8than
greater8.than
The workshop was more thrilling than anthing (=d ever done.
not onl8but
3also-
She was not only e&hausted b\$t )also, famished as well.
so8that
The apartment was so e&pensive that no self*supporting student
could afford it.
3!ust- as8so
)F\$st, as it is the dut of emploees to contribute to the well*
being of the compan, so it is the dut of the compan to
contribute to the well*being of its emploees.
neither8nor
either8or
Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
'/'1MAT'C PR6P1S'T'1N ASAG6
Man idiomatic e&pressions tested on the e&am involve prepositions. There=s no
overarching grammatical rule that tells ou which prepositions go with which verbs.
,gain, the rules are determined b usage, so ou=ll have to >listen> to the e&pression and
determine if the verb is followed b the correct preposition.
/e on the lookout for commonl tested prepositions like >of,> >at,> >b,> >in,> >from,> >to,>
and >for>. (f ou have difficult determining whether a usage is correct, tr testing out the
idiom in a simpler version of the sentence.
+&ample#
Altho\$gh he was considered as a leading proponent !or the contro%ersial new
initiati%e" the pro!essor ne%ertheless so\$ght re!\$ge !rom the media \$proar.
The sentence above becomes#
The professor was considered as a proponent.
Does anthing sound unusual? Could this sentence be worded differentl? (n fact, to be,
not as, is the correct idiom#
The professor was consiere to be a proponent.
"ould rather present tense if referring to mself and past tense if someone other than
the sub!ect is doing the action
+&ample# "ould rather ( speak present tense
+&ample# "ould rather ou spoke past tense
General Grammar definitions
So [ therefore
So that [ in order to2in order that
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( ). 6*)+*2,)4- ). -
That [ the fact that
Con!unctions that can !oin two independent clauses are# and, but, et, for, or, nor
/onGt start sentences with :8eca\$se;
"ords re\$uiring IhowJ 3e&ample# know how-
Pnow
Teach
6earn
Show
Always choose acti%e o%er passi%e %oice
,ctive e&ample# +laine purchased new software for the compan
.assive e&ample# )ew software was purchased for the compan b +laine
,nother fre\$uentl tested grammatical error is unnecessar use of the passive voice. (t=s
a good idea to become familiar with this tpe of errorS it appears \$uite often in the answer
choices of sentence correction \$uestions.
,s a reminder, the passive voice is in use when the action of the sentence is performed
on the sub!ect. The active voice is in use when the sub!ect itself performs the action.
+&ample#
Acti%e# ,llison 3sub!ect- went 3action- to the store to bu a cake 3ob!ect-.
Passi%e# The cake 3sub!ect- was bought 3action- b ,llison 3ob!ect-.
.reposition use
IToJ or I0fJ needs sub!ect M verb )0T ob!ect M verb
+&amples of sub!ect# she, he, whoever, who, (
+&amples of ob!ect# her, him, whomever, its, it
+ither side of a form Ito beJ 3were, was- must have sub!ects not ob!ects on either side to
agree.
, verb that ends in 'ing is a gerund which is a verb acting like a noun. Tr not to use
gerunds if ou can help it.
Pe identifier# ,dverbs end in 'l
Correct e&ample# ( sure wish ( were rich
(ncorrect e&ample# ( surel wish ( were rich
(ord Asage
Some pairs of words, like !ewer and less, are often used incorrectl because the=re
treated as snonms. (n fact, there is a solid rule that determines which one ou should
use, and the e&am will test our abilit to decide which is the correct option. The e&am
tests four such word pairs with particular fre\$uenc, so memori1e the rules pertaining to
them if ou don=t know them alread.
3ewer-&ess
"hich of the two following sentences is correct?
The compan fired no less than fift emploees.
The compan fired no fewer than fift emploees.
The second sentence is correct. "h? /ecause ou use less when ou=re talking
about things ou can=t count 3less pollution, less violence- but !ewer when ou=re
talking about things ou can count 3fewer pollutants, fewer violent acts-.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( )+ 6*)+*2,)4- )+ -
N\$mber-Amo\$nt
These words follow the same rule as less and fewer. N\$mber is correct when ou
can count the thing being described 3a number of cars, a number of people- and
amo\$nt is correct when ou cannot 3amount of love, amount of pain-.
Among-8etween
9se between when onl two options are available 3between the red car and the blue
car- and among when more than two options are available 3among the five answer
choices, among the man books-.
'!-(hether
(hether is correct when ou=re discussing two options 3whether to get chocolate or
strawberr ice cream- and i! is correct for more than two options 3if she should get ice
cream, fro1en ogurt, or a cookie-.
1n the GMAT" whether will )almost, always beat i!
(ncorrect# 7er client didnFt tell her if he had sent his pament et.
Correct# 7er client didnFt tell her whether he had sent his pament et.
Compared to %-s# Compared with: To show comparison between unlike things,
Qcompare toF is used. To show comparison between like things, Qcompare withF is
used.
e#g.
7e compared her to a summer da.
Scientists compare the human brain to a computer. 39nlike thing-
The police compared the forged signature with the original. 36ike things-
There are two rules which ou should consider. Cirst read the usage notes from
dictionar.com#
Compare usuall takes the preposition to when it refers to the activit of describing
the resemblances between \$nlike things#
7e compared her to a summer da.
T Scientists sometimes compare the human brain to a computer.
Compare takes with when it refers to the act of e&amining two like things in order to
discern their similarities or differences#
T The police compared the forged signature with the original.
T The committee will have to compare the Senate=s version of the bill with the
version that was passed b the 7ouse.
"hen compare is used to mean :to liken; 3one- with another, with is traditionall
held to be the correct preposition#
That little bauble is not to be compared with 3not to- this enormous !ewel. 8\$t :to;
is !re0\$ently \$sed in this contet and is not incorrect#
R\$le 7# Compare to compares \$nlike things, whereas compare with compares
like things.
R\$le <# Compare to is used to stress the resemblance. Compare with can be
used to show either similarity or di!!erence b\$t is \$s\$ally \$sed to stress the
di!!erence.
There is a di!!erence between compare to and compare withH the !irst is to liken
one thing to anotherH
the second is to note the resemblances and di!!erences between two things#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 2, 6*)+*2,)4- 2, -
+ach
This \$uestion tests one use of >each> which most of us ignore. The traditional rule still
holds true i.e. >the s\$b5ect o! a sentence beginning with each is grammatically
sing\$lar>.
/ut there is another rule which sas that#
(hen each !ollows a pl\$ral s\$b5ect" the %erb and s\$bse0\$ent prono\$ns remain
in the pl\$ral#
e.g. the apartments each have their own private entrances 3not has its own private
entrance-
Three cats each eat ...
Three cats, each of which eats ...,
(n A, each is postpositive ,d!, whereas in @, it is distributive determiner.
e.g.
Television can be s\$per!icial, as when three ma!or networks each broadcast e&actl
the same.
,dverb clause of manner with temporal adverb clause#
Television can be s\$per!icial, as XT: is superficialY when three networks each broad
cast the same.
************************************************************************************************************
\$uote#
,lthough it claims to delve into political issues, television can be superficial such as
when each of the three ma!or networks broadcast e&actl the same statement from a
political candidate.
3,- superficial such as when each of the three ma!or networks
3/- superficial, as can sometimes occur if all of the three ma!or networks
3C- superficial if the three ma!or networks all
3D- superficial whenever each of the three ma!or networks
3+- superficial, as when the three ma!or networks each
Cirst of all, each, if it=s a pronoun 3as it is in ,-, is singular. (n fact, each is almost
alwas singular, but there=s at least one e&ception, which we will see in !ust a minute.
So, , can be faulted for using a plural verb, broacast, with a singular sub!ect, each.
"hat ( reall like about , is that it uses such as, which we use to give e&amples. ,ll
the other incorrect answer choices use words that mean something different from for
e!ample.
The best answer, +, maintains the same meaning as ,, and corrects the sub!ect2verb
agreement problem. .lease note that one of the accepted meanings of as is for
instance, and with this meaning, as is an adverb and can therefore be followed b
parts of speech other than simpl nouns.
/ is not onl awkward, it also incorrectl uses if in the subordinate clause connected
with can in the main clause. ( think this is the part that is confusing people 3it certainl
is what has confused TestMagic students in the past-, so let=s flip the sentence
around to see a bit more clearl that it=s not correct to use if with can# "f all of the
three ma#or networks broacast the same statement, television can be superficial.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 2) 6*)+*2,)4- 2) -
"f all of the three ma#or networks broacast the same statement, television will be
superficial.
(n other words, it=s not correct to use can after if 3in the conte&t of what we=ve been
talking about-. 6et=s look at a simpler e&ample#
"f the temperature rops below \$ egrees celsius, istille water can or will free%e.
.lease post back with \$uestions if ou need clarification on this. Cinall, it=s better to
use each than it is to use all, since each network is operating independentl**all
implies that the networks were working together.
That Vs (hich
Most often than not, in GM,T, which would be preceded b a comma in the
sentence.
e.g. Get me the book, which is mine. "hich is used to \$ualif the book i.e. which is
mine. There ma be man books in the room, but ( want m book.
Q"hichF should alwas refer to a noun. +.g. Get me the book, which is mine. So,
QwhichF here refers to the noun QbookF.
"hich should appl to things
The other thing**which must replace a noun, not a sentence or idea.
e.g. Sales of 9nited States manufactured goods to non*industriali1ed countries rose
to \A<D billion in AEE@, which is AB percent more than the previous ear and largel
offsets weak demand from +urope and Lapan.
which is AB percent more than the previous ear
which is AB percent higher than it was the previous ear
AB percent higher than the previous ear=s figure
an amount that is AB percent more than the previous ear was
an amount that is AB percent higher than the previous ear=s figure
/ is incorrect, because which should refer to a specific noun in the preceding clause.
That noun does not e&ist 3 Rise of sales-. So, it is replaced b an amount that is AB
percent higher 8
So, + is the correct answer 3Similar to the 9C0 e&ample in princeton-
That is a restrictive clause while which is a non restrictive clause.
,fter people stud GM,T sentence correction for a while, the ma ask about the
difference between that and which.
/ut first, a testmagic tip# GM,T almost alwas 3( sa almost alwas because (=ve
seen two \$uestions that did not follow this rule, but the rule was violated in all five
answer choices- wants ou to put a comma be!ore which. (n other words, if ou see
which without a comma before it, it=s probabl wrong. ,fter this e&planation, ou
should understand wh, but for those of ou who want onl the most important
information, this is what ou need to know.
,n +&ample
/oth of these sentences are correct in GM,T land#
.lease go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.
.lease go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.
4es, in GM,Tland, these two sentences have two different meanings.
/oth of the following sentences would be incorrect in GM,T land#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 22 6*)+*2,)4- 22 -
V .lease go into the room and get me the big book which is mine. V
V .lease go into the room and get me the big book, that is mine. V
)otice the commas**that=s what makes all the difference.
The +&planation
0ka, we have in +nglish this weird idea that we need to use different grammar in an
ad!ective clause 3a.k.a. relative clause- depending on whether the information in the
ad!ective clause is necessar to specificall identif which noun we are referring to.
Cor e&ample, imagine ou have one sister, and ou are telling a friend that our sister
is coming to visit ou. Since this person is our friend, we can presume that he knows
that ou have onl one sister.
4ou utter a sentence like this to our friend in GM,Tland#
>M sister, who !ust graduated from college, is coming to see me.>
(n GM,Tland, since our friend 3we presume- knows ou well and knows that
ou have onl one sister, this e&tra bit of information is considered unnecessar
to identif which sister it is ou are talking about. (t is a sort of >b the wa>
information**>M sister is coming to see me, and oh, b the wa, she !ust
)ow imagine ou have two, three, or even more sisters. 6et=s imagine that one is
a college professor, another is a webmaster, and this one who is coming to visit
ou !ust graduated from college. (f ou=re talking to our friend, and ou sa onl
>m sister,> and ou do not mention her name, our friend might not know which
sister ou are talking about. So ou add that e&tra bit of information**m sister
who !ust graduated from college**to identif which sister it is ou are referring to.
(n this situation, we have !ust correctl emploed a ver important grammar rule.
So, if the person ou=re talking to, or the person who=s reading what ou=ve
written, needs that e&tra bit of information to know which noun ou=re referring to,
we sa that that e&tra information is non+restricti%e. This word doesn=t reall
describe the function clearl, so man teachers sa that this information is
>e&tra.>
0n the other hand, if ou need that information to know which noun ou are
talking about, we sa that the information is restricti%e. ,gain, this word is not
reall a good choice for clarit, and man teachers use the term >necessar
Cinall, !ust to make +nglish a bit more difficult, we have a rule that sas we
should \$se a comma be!ore or a!ter Ietra in!ormation cla\$ses and
phrases"I b\$t not with Inecessary in!ormation cla\$ses or phrases#I The
idea here is that the comma represents the slight pause in speech or change in
intonation that a native speaker might use when making such an utterance.
( should point out that both that and which are relative pronouns, i.e., the are
grammaticall the same, but their meanings are slightl different.
.lease go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.
(n this sentence, the clause which is mine is >e&tra> because the information >the big
book> is enough to identif which book it is that ou want. "e can assume that there
is onl one big book in the room.
.lease go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.
(n this sentence, the clause that is mine is >necessar> because the information >the
big book> is )0T enough to identif which book it is that ou want**it is probabl the
case that there are several big books in the room, so ( need to add the information
>that is mine> to identif which book it is that ( want.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 23 6*)+*2,)4- 23 -
More +&amples
, few more e&amples ma help#
( met with /ill Clinton, who is a lawer.
The name &ill 'linton is enough to identif which person (=m talking about**who is a
lawyer is therefore e&tra information.
( met with the man who is a lawer.
(n this case, >the man> is not enough information to identif which person (=m talking
about**who is a lawyer is therefore necessar information.
The Sun, which is the onl star in our solar sstem, is the source of heat for
+arth.
,gain, the name >the Sun> alread clearl identifies the nounS therefore, the
information in the ad!ective clause >which is the onl star in our solar sstem> is e&tra.
The star that is at the center of our solar sstem is called what?
(n this case, since we don=t have a name here, we don=t know which star it is that we
are referring to. Therefore, the information in the ad!ective clause >that is at the
center our solar sstem> is necessar.
A good r\$le to learn is that which re0\$ires a comma be!ore it# (f ou=re not sure about
wh the comma is necessar, please see this post.
7owever, GM,T is ver trick at times, and can of course create a \$uestion in which this rule
does )0T appl. (n fact, (=ve seen a \$uestion that used which without a comma, but ,66 the
answer choices violated the rule. (.e., none of the answer choices used thatS the all used
which without a comma.
7ere=s an e&ample of what ( mean#
6ucise in San Crancisco is a place which anbod can visit.
3,- which anbod can visit
3/- which an person could visit
3C- which no person could not visit
3D- which, if the wanted to, an person could visit
3+- which an person could visit if the so desired
( know some of ou will think that this sentence is terrible, but the whole point of GM,T
sentence correction is that we must choose the best answer, )0T the perfect answer.
The \$se o! being
.eople who stud for GM,T for a while \$uickl learn that being is usuall wrong.
So (=m guessing ou alread know that being in an answer choice is wrong more
often than it is right.
This is a good strateg to get ou started, but to get over D55 on the GM,T, ou
reall need to know some of the finer points of GM,T Sentence Correction that relate
to the use of the word being.
There are at least two different situations in which being is often the right answer.
7ere is the first e&ample of when being is correct#
a. (hen the grammar re0\$ires it#
4es, (=m tring to simplif things here, but the idea is this**man ideas can be e&pressed in
more than one wa. Cor e&ample, ( can sa#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 24 6*)+*2,)4- 24 -
(=m afraid of being late#
(=m afraid that 'Jll be late#
+ach has its own emphasis, but the point is that these two structures e&ist. 3(f ( know m
members here, ( know that the will have \$uestions about the difference, but please, let=s
start a separate thread for this.-
"hether we can e&press ideas in one or more structures is reall related to the word
usedS in other words, it is idiomatic.
/ut some idioms allow onl one structure. Cor e&ample#
(n addition to being one of the first restaurants to combine Mediterranean and ,merican
tastes, Che1 .anisse in /erkele is also one of the /a ,rea=s most established
restaurants.
The idiomatic structure in aition to does not have a counterpart that uses a sub!ect and
a verb, so our onl option here is to use being, which is grammaticall a noun, but is
derived from a verb.
b. with @ N1AN @ being @ N1AN C1MP&6M6NT
The second e&ample of when being is correct is shown in this e&ample#
There are man reasons to get an M/,, with increase career prospects being
the most important for man M/, applicants.
Technicall this part here#
with increase career prospects being the most important for man M/,
applicants
is an absolute phrase, but ( think it=s also helpful !ust to memori1e the pattern#
Cramed b traitorous colleagues, ,lfred Drefus was imprisoned for twelve ears
before there was e&oneration and his freedom.
3,- there was e&oneration and his freedom
3/- he was to be e&onerated with freedom
3C- being e&onerated and freed
3D- e&oneration and his freedom
3+- being freed, having been e&onerated
C is correct. The main thing here is that we do not have the best option available
to us#
before he was e&onerated and freed
The second best option would be#
before being e&onerated and freed
8eca\$se %-s# 'n That: "hen +TS puts QbecauseF and Qin thatF in a sentence, more often
than not, Qin thatF would be correct. Q(n that \$ualifiesF the previous sentence, while
QbecauseF is !ust used to show a simple causal relationship.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 25 6*)+*2,)4- 25 -
Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because the are composed of tissues such
as tooth and bone not normall found in the organ in which the tumor appears.
because the are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone
because the are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are
because the are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues
in that their composition , tissues such as tooth and bone, is
in that the are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues
As\$al %-s# 's As\$al: 7e is faster than is usual for an human being ' (s correct.
7e is faster than usual toda ' is correct
, Mercedes is more e&pensive than usual for a car ' (ncorrect
, Mercedes is more e&pensive than is usual for a car ' Correct
"hen something is compared to a subgroup to which it belongs, is usual should be
used. "hen something is compared to itself, usual is fine.
e.g. 7e is nicer than usual.
Can %-s# Co\$ld: (f ou are !ust assuming something, QcouldF should be used.
e.g. ,rtificial intelligence emerged during the late AEG5=s as an academic discipline
based on the assumption that computers are able to be programmed to think like
people.

3,- are able to be programmed to think like people
3/- were able to be programmed to think as people
3C- can be programmed to think as people can
3D- could be programmed to think like people
3+- are capable of being programmed to think like people do
Could is used for# possibilit 3Lohn could be the one who stole the mone-, condition
3(f ( had more time, ( could travel around the world-, suggestion 34ou could spend
our vacation here-, polite re\$uest 3Could ( have something to drink?-
6ike vs ,s
Cirst of all, ( should sa that !ust about an GM,T grammar rule will have some
e&ception. Cor this reason, ( prefer not to refer to >+nglish grammar rules> but to
>GM,T patterns.> ,s (=m sure ou=re aware, it=s ver difficult to give a pattern that
applies in e%ery case. ( would sa that generall speaking, our summar is good,
but !ust to be sure, ( want to restate#
9se like when ou want to focus on two nounsS
9se as when ou want to focus on two nouns doing two actions.
,nother little trick is that >!ust as> can replace >in the same wa that...>
6et=s compare two ver similar sentences that could cause confusion#
M Siamese cat moved across the floor 5\$st like a lion stalking its pre.
To me, this sentence stresses how two different cats are similar. ( know this is
confusing because we have a noun, >lion> and a participle >stalking,> which would
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 26 6*)+*2,)4- 26 -
seem to indicate that we should use >as,> but it=s !ust not so. (n this sentence, do ou
think we=re ting to sa
M Siamese cat moved across the floor in the way that a lion stalks its pre.
( don=t think so...
M Siamese cat moved across the floor 5\$st as a lion stalks its pre.
This one sounds bad to me, ( think because we are not e&plaining how the cat is
moving. Curthermore, at some point, we are going to run into some ambiguit**>as>
does also mean >at the same time,> and ( also think that the sentence above does
sound a bit like two things are happening at the same time.
6et=s look at a better sentence#
M Siamese cat moved across the floor 5\$st as a lion stalking its pre moves.
This one sounds ver good to meS it e&plains how a m cat moved.
Curthermore, it has the same meaning as#
M Siamese cat moved across the floor in the way that a lion stalking its pre
moves.
&ike %s# S\$ch As
.\$estion# "hat=s the difference between like and such as?
6ample o! the ImistakeI that we make in e%eryday speech# Can ou bu me
some fruit like oranges or grapefruit?
Kow the GMAT 1!!icial G\$ide wo\$ld eplain this mistake# 9sing like in this
answer choice mistakenl suggests that the utterer of the re\$uest does in fact not
want oranges or grapefruit, but rather some other kind of fruit that is similar to
oranges or grapefruit.
'n normal 6nglish# (n GM,T6and, like means similar to, and such as means for
e!ample. Take a look at these e&amples#
Can ou bu me some fruit like oranges or grapefruit?
(n GM,T6and, this sentence would mean that ou do )0T want oranges or
grapefruitS instead, ou=d prefer some fruit similar to oranges and grapefruit. Cor
e&ample, ou ma want pomelo, lemons, or limes. 4es, ( know this sounds a little
cra1, but our goal is to understand what GM,T is looking for, not what is
>correct> +nglish.
Can ou bu me some fruit s\$ch as oranges or grapefruit?
4es, this is what we=re supposed to sa in GM,T6and ** oranges and grapefruit
are e&amples of the tpe of fruit we want.
( would like ou to bu s\$ch fruit as oranges and grapefruit for me, if ou don=t
mind.
This is simpl a variation ** notice how such and as are separated. Separating the
two elements tends to make this pattern a bit harder to see.
Not-8\$t %s# Rather than
The ke here is to reali1e that not... but... is con5\$nction. "e use con!unctions when
we want to !oin things that are >linguisticall e\$uivalent.> 7elp much? )o, probabl
not.
.ucci is not a dog but a cat.
(ot Todd but Taka will be stuying with us toay.
" not was sad but happy to learn that Megumi was moving to )aris for a better #ob.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 27 6*)+*2,)4- 27 -
4ou should notice that the words in bold are >linguisticall e\$uivalent,> or, as we sa
in class, >parallel.> )ow compare one of these sentences if ( tr to use rather than#
.ucci is a cat rather than a og.
Doesn=t this sentence sound cra1? (t shouldS the meaning is all wrong. )ow, let=s
look at a similar sentence, one in which rather than is oka#
" want a cat rather than a og.
This sentence is oka because we are e&pressing a pre!erence for one thing over
another thing.
( need V, not 4 [ ( need V but not 4 [ ( need not 4 but V
>( need V rather than 4> does not connote >( need not 4>, it !ust tells our preference.
Ase o! Consider # "hen QconsiderF means Qregard asF, QasF should not be present with
QconsiderF in the sentence. Consider must directl be followed b the sentence
without an infinitive like Qto beF etc.
+&ample# Some students of literar criticism consider the theories of /laine to be a
huge advance in modern critical thinking and \$uestion the need to stud the
discounted theories of Rauthe and "ilson.
to be a huge advance in modern critical thinking and \$uestion
as a huge advance in modern critical thinking and \$uestion
as being a huge advance in modern critical thinking and \$uestioned
a h\$ge ad%ance in critical thinking and 0\$estion )(hen consider means regard
as" no need o! as,
are a huge advance in modern critical thinking and \$uestioned

+&ample @#
Critics consider correction facilities to be an integral part o! communal sstem. *
(ncorrect
Critics consider correction facilities an integral part of communal sstem. ' Correct
86CAAS6 %-s# 1N ACC1ANT 13: 0n GM,T, Q/ecauseF is preferred over Qon account
ofF. This is because QbecauseF can introduce an entire subordinate clause in the
sentence 3Golden crab is not fished, on account of living8 * is not correct-. Golden
crab is not fished, because it lives8 * is correct
CK'63 o! (K'CK %-s# C7(+C among which#
Lamieson=s proposal was re!ected for several reasons, the chief among which was cost.
3,- the chief among which was cost
3/- among which the chief was its cost
3C- the main one was cost
3D- the chief reason of which was its cost
3+- the chief of which was cost
chief means main or principal, and all three words mean the top one. ,nd when we
refer to a member of a group, we use of. Cor e&ample, if we want to name our best
friend, we=d sa *e is the best of my friens, but not *e is the best among my
friens.
)ow, run these through our head to see how the sound#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 2. 6*)+*2,)4- 2. -
The main reason of all the reasons.
The main reason among all the reasons.
( think the first sounds better and is more precise.
PRACT'C6 %-s# PRACT'S6:
.ractise is a verb and practice is a noun. ( practise piano is correct. ,lso, ( had m
piano practice for the da is correct.
The doctor practised for @5 earsS his brother a lawer had a @ ear practice.
6ACK %-s# 6V6R*:
+ach refers to Q< timesG, ever refers to QMore than < timesG
The dog has bitten m ounger son twice, and each time, he has had to be sent to his
kennel.
each time, he has had to be sent to his
ever time, it has had to be sent to his
each time" it has had to be sent to its
ever time, it has had to be sent to its
each time, he has had to be sent to its
Q+ach timeF because it has bitten onl twice. The use of the pronoun >he> is unclear
here * does it refer to the dog or to the son? (n fact, tracing our wa back along the
sentence, we find that we come across the word >son> before we come across the
word >dog>, which rather implies that it is the son who owns, and is sent to, the
kennel.
The wa to get round this ambiguit is to use >it> followed b >its> 3no apostropheR-.
This limits the choices to 3C- and 3D-. The onl difference between these options is
the fact that one uses the word >ever> and the other uses the word >each>. Since
these refer to the two times that the dog bit the son, we shouldn=t \$se Ie%eryI )that
re!ers to three or more times,. The correct option is therefore 3C-.
6conomic %-s# 6conomical:
6conomic means >having to do with the econom or the stud of economics.>
6conomical means >careful or prudent in managing finances, mone* saving.>
The suppl of oil being finite has become an economical and political consideration of
the first magnitude for all modern industrial nations.
3,- The suppl of oil being finite has become an economical
3/- The finite suppl of oil has become an economical
3C- That the suppl of oil is finite has become an economical
3D- The suppl of oil being finite has become an economic
3+- That the s\$pply o! oil is !inite has become an economic + 1A
Due To
I/\$e toJ means >ca\$sed by> (t should onl be used if it can be substituted with
>ca\$sed by>. 't does not mean the same thing as Ibeca\$se o!#I
'ncorrect: The game was postponed due to rain.
Correct: The game was postponed because of rain.
Correct: The game=s postponement was due to rain.
)either 8 )or
Neither the prosecutorFs elo\$uent closing argument nor the mo\$ntains of
incriminating evidence were able to convince the !ur to find the defendant guilt.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 2+ 6*)+*2,)4- 2+ -
(n neither L nor sentences, the verb has to agree with the sub!ect following nor * in
this case mo\$ntains, which is plural.
6ikewise in either ## or sentences, the verb must agree with the sub!ect following or.
"hen ou see .. neither ## or ## nor in a sentence, see if it fits this se\$uence
Neither )A or 8," nor C RRR also, not )A or 8," nor C is fine too.
Correct# 7er debts are so e&treme as to threaten the future of the compan
ISo asJ is never correct on the GM,T
(ncorrect# 7e e&ercises everda so as to build his stamina
Correct# 7e e&ercises everda in an e!!ort to build his stamina
Not To Ase:
A- ,n Sentence construction with Qpreposition @ no\$n @ participleF
e.g. "ith child*care facilities included 3with ' preposition, child*care ' noun, included '
participle-
(nfinitives like Qto includeF, Qto implementF etc. are wrong on GM,T. (nstead use,
QimplementingF, QincludingF 3"hich are known as Gerunds- etc.
, Gerund is a noun formed from a verb i.e. 1%ercoming the GM,T is a great
achievement. infinitives are usuall formed to retain the integrit of the idiom which is
used or to keep a sentence in parallel
@- 7opefull, is almost alwas wrong.
Charlotte .erkins Gilman, a late nineteenth*centur feminist, called for urban
apartment houses including child*care facilities and clustered suburban houses
including communal eating and social facilities.
,- including child*care facilities and clustered suburban houses including communal
eating and social facilities
/- that included child*care facilities, and for clustered suburban houses to include
communal eating and social facilities
C- with child*care facilities included and for clustered suburban houses to include
communal eating and social facilities
D- that included child*care facilities and for clustered suburban houses with
communal eating and social facilities
+- to include child*care facilities and for clustered suburban houses with communal
eating and social facilities included
Cirst, we can eliminate all the answer choices that use with communal eating and
social facilities included or an other structure that follows this pattern#
preposition M noun M participle
This pattern is almost alwas wrong on the GM,T, and is certainl wrong in this
\$uestion. This eliminates C- and +-.
,- is ambiguous**is clustered suburban houses parallel with child*care facilities or
with urban apartment houses? "e need to repeat for to be sure that clustered
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 3, 6*)+*2,)4- 3, -
suburban houses is parallel with urban apartment houses.
)ow we=re left with /- and D-.
)ow, the onl difference between / and D is the infinitive to include, which GM,T
considers unidiomatic.
That leaves us with D-.

A. "atch for the prepositions 3to, the, of, at, for, on, in, about, etc.,- changing among the
answer choices. This usuall implies an (diomatic problem, if not a .arallel
Construction problem.
@. )ote that (diomatic problems are often shorter than man of the other tpes of
\$uestions. )ot in all cases, but as a general rule, if the problem seems much shorter
than other problems, it is probabl (diomatic.
%. Check out the verb immediatel before the changing preposition. "hich verb*
preposition combination sounds worst? +liminate answer choices that sound !ust
awful, e&. *e forbis me of going. The correct answer would be *e forbis me to go.
B. "hich verb*preposition combination sounds best? Choose that as our answer.
3ew 'mportant Points to remember:
A- 3less preferred- being ] since ] because
<, As S\$ch
s\$ch [ nominal e\$uivalent to the foregoing clause.
ClauseA and as such, Clause@ [ clauseA, and as clauseA, clause@.
Caesarea was 7erodFs cit, founded as a Romani1ed counterweight to 7ebraic Lerusalem,
and as s\$ch it was regarded with loathing b the devout.
The meaning of the above sentence is similar to the following#
/ecause Caesarea was 7erodFs cit, founded as a Romani1ed counterweight to 7ebraic
Lerusalem, it was regarded with loathing b the devout.
%- Reduced Costs M Red\$ction 'N costs )res\$lt o! red\$ction,
IRed\$ction o!I is used when reducing b a certain amount. e.g. reduction of @5U.
Second, for all means espite, and along with means in aition to. (=m sure ou=ll agree that
the meanings are different, right?
Cor e&ample#
( haven=t visited /ora /ora, and neither has Perr Xvisited /ora /oraY.
(n this case, ( can omit visite &ora &ora because it alread appears in the sentence.
6et=s look at another e&ample#
" haven+t visite &ora &ora, an " probably never will visit &ora &ora .
This is wrong, at least on the GM,T, since visite and visit are different.
B- (t
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 3) 6*)+*2,)4- 3) -
\$uote#
7i, can someone e&plain the following \$uestions to me? Thanks.
A- "h the answer is +? ( chose ,
Schliemann determined at the age of seven to find the site of ancient Tro and devoted his
subse\$uent career to do it.
a-...
b- has devoted his subse\$uent career to do that
c- devoted his subse\$uent career to such an end
d- has devoted his subse\$uent career for that
e- devoted his subse\$uent career to that end
0ption + here is wrong since it uses the pronoun QitF replaces Qfind the site of ancientF
Cirst off, and ou=ll get used to this prett \$uickl, e%ery single time yo\$ see a prono\$n"
especially the word Iit"I yo\$ MAST CK6CN TK6 ANT6C6/6NT#
This \$uestion is a favorite one**using >it> to replace a sentence. (n GM,Tland, >it> must
alwas replace a noun.
Cor e&ample, this sentence would be wrong in GM,Tland#
M little brother said ( took his cookies, but ( didn=t do it.
>it> doesn=t replace an nounS it >tries> to replace a sentence# >( took his cookies.>
The correct phrase is Ihelpful in demonstrating; and not :help to demonstrate;#
G- >\$ntil> is used to e&press a point of time in the future. So, 3,- would mean that the sale will
continue until a certain point in time, and that point in time is when the sale >lasts.> That
doesn=t make senseS if we wanted to use >\$ntil> in that sentence, we should sa something
like >the sale will continue until customers stop coming in.>
<- >as long as> implies that one thing will occ\$r while another thing is still tr\$eH
for e&ample, >we will sta outside as long as it=s light out.>
D- Semicolon: ,n sentence after a semicolon 3S-, should be an independent clause.
H- 1ne o! the: The pattern to remember is Oone of the )09) 3this noun will alwas be plural- M
that2who M .69R,6 :+R/
6ample : 7e is one of the persons who make mone.
This is one of the cars that r\$n on hdrogen.
A n\$mber of people are waiting for the bus.
The n\$mber of cars in the cit is decreasing.
,n of the stockholders who disapprove ' is the right use
Three cats, each eat
Three cats, each of which eats
P, Res\$mpti%e modi!iers
Since the AE%5Fs aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings,
shaped so smoothl and perfectl that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
wings, shaped so smoothl and perfectl
wings" wings so smooth and so per!ectly shaped
wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
wings, wings having been shaped smoothl and perfectl so
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 32 6*)+*2,)4- 32 -
"ings is re\$uired to unambiguousl conve the meaning of the sentence.
, res\$mpti%e modi!ier picks up a word or phrase from a sentence that seems to be
finished and then adds information and takes the reader into new territor of thought.
(n a crowded, ac\$uisitive world, the disapperance of lifestles such as those once
followed b southern ,frica=s /ushmen and ,ustralia=s aborigines, re\$uiring vast wild
spaces and permitting little accumulation of goods, seem inevitabl doomed.
re\$uiring vast wild spaces and permitting little accumulation of goods, seem
inevitabl doomed
re\$uiring vast wild spaces and permitting little accumulation of goods, seems to be
inevitabl doomed
which re\$uire vast wild spaces and permit little accumulation of goods, seems to be
inevitabl doomed
life*stles that re\$uire vast wild spaces and permit little accumulation of goods, seem
inevitable
life*stles re\$uiring vast wild spaces and permitting little accumulation of goods,
seems inevitable
The Swiss watchmakers= failure to capitali1e on the invention of the digital timepiece was
both astonishing and alarming K astonishing in that the Swiss had, since the
beginnings of the industrial revolution in +urope, been among the first to capitali1e on
technical innovations, alarming in that a tremendous industrial potential had been lost to
their chief competitors, the watchmakers of Lapan.
The defensive coaches taught risk*taking, ball*hawking, and perpetual movement K three
strategies that bewildered the opposition and resulted in man bad passes, steals, and
,nother e&ample in the same league8
.roponents of artificial intelligence sa the will be able to make computers that can understand
+nglish and other human languages, recogni1e ob!ects, and reason as an e&pert doesK
computers that will be used to diagnose e\$uipment breakdowns, deciding whether to
authori1e a loan, or other purposes such as these.
3,- as an e&pert doesKcomputers that will be used to diagnose e\$uipment breakdowns,
deciding whether to authori1e a loan, or other purposes such as these
3/- as an e&pert does, which ma be used for purposes such as diagnosing e\$uipment
breakdowns or deciding whether to authori1e a loan
)C, like an epertQcomp\$ters that will be \$sed !or s\$ch p\$rposes as diagnosing
e0\$ipment breakdowns or deciding whether to a\$thori2e a loan
3D- like an e&pert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of e\$uipment
breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authori1ed
3+- like an e&pert, to be used to diagnose e\$uipment breakdowns, deciding whether to
authori1e a loan or not, or the like
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 33 6*)+*2,)4- 33 -

e#g# 7, 7is father demanded that he return home b E .M.
Ret\$rn 9 Simple present tense
/emanded+ precedes QthatF in the sentence.
i. The manager demanded that the staff sta late to finish the work.
ii. Lack suggested that Slvia sho\$ld bu a new watch ' (ncorrect 3Should
must be removed-
Lack suggested that Slvia bu a new watch.
&ist o! %erbs normally !ollowed by 'n!initi%es
afford ^ agree ^ appear ^ arrange ^ ask ^ attempt ^ care ^ choose ^ claim ^ come ^ consent
dare ^ decide ^ demand ^ deserve ^ determine ^ elect ^ endeavour ^ e&pect ^ fail ^ get ^ guarentee
hate ^ help ^ hesitate ^ hope ^ hurr ^ incline ^ intend ^ learn ^ long ^ manage ^ mean ^ need
offer ^ plan ^ prepare ^ pretend ^ promise ^ refuse ^ resolve ^ sa ^ seem ^ tend ^ threaten ^ want ^
wish
&ist o! %erbs that can only ha%e ger\$nds a!ter them
acknowledge ^ admit ^ adore ^ anticipate ^ appreciate ^ avoid ^ celebrate ^ confess ^ contemplate
dela ^ den ^ describe ^ detest ^ discuss ^ dislike ^ dread ^ endure ^ en!o
fanc ^ finish ^ imagine ^ involve ^ keep ^ !ustif ^ mention ^ mind ^ miss ^ omit ^ postpone ^ practise
\$uit ^ recall ^ recommend ^ regret ^ report ^ resent ^ resume ^ risk ^ suggest ^ tolerate ^ understand
e.g. anticipate implementing is correct 3,nticipate to implement is wrong-.
+ven though she didn=t anticipate ]to implement it, the advertising manager agreed with the
personal_ manager=s proposal to strengthen her department.
,- to implement it, the advertising manager agreed with the personal
/- implementing it, the advertising manager agreed with the personal
C- implementing it, the advertising manager agreed with the personnel
D- to implement it, the advertising manager agreed with the personnel
+- implementing it, the advertising manager agreed to the personnel
3+- )0T+# all answer choices are indeed different here. =.ersonal= deals with a person=s own
special thingsS =.ersonnel= deals with a lot of people. :erbs like =anticipate= must be followed b a
gerund, the verb form in =*ing=. The correct idiom usage should read# a person =agrees with=
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 34 6*)+*2,)4- 34 -
another person, not with an inanimate thing such as a proposal. Therefore, she agrees =to the
proposal.= 3+- is correct.
7B, TK6 6RP&6T'V6 O'TG and < 0\$estions" testing the same !\$ndamentals:
A- Cor man travelers, charter vacations often turn out to cost considerabl more than the
originall seemed.
a. the originall seemed
b. the originall seem to
c. the seemingl would cost originall
d. it seemed originall
e. it originally seemed they wo\$ld.
@- Researchers are finding out that plastics are taking more time to deteriorate than the
originall seemed.
,- The originall seemed.
/- the seemed originall
C- it seemed that the would originall
D- it originall seemed
+- it originall seemed the would
=The trick part is to choose between it and the. =The= would impl that the plastics
themselves first seemed to do one thing and then ended up doing another. The epleti%e JitJ,
the pronoun with no clear antedecent * makes more sense, it simpl suggests that initial
indications were misleading. 9sing =it=, it is necessar to include the phrase =the would= to
make it clear what seemed to be the case. So + is the best answer.
+rin sas# 3,bout charter vacations-
/ would need to be in past tense, seeme. (n fact, ( often teach GM,T and T0+C6 students
that the words original 3and its derivations- and first usuall re\$uire past tense.
Curthermore, the >past future> of woul in + is more precise than the simple past in , 3or that
/ is lacking, in case ou=re going to ask if / would be correct if we changed seem to
seeme-. Since we=re talking about something we=d learn after a certain point in the past,
woul is better.
Cor e&ample#
This ,cura is a lot better than ( thought it would be.
is better than
This ,cura is a lot better than ( thought it was.
(n the first e&ample, we are saing that something turned out to be true. (n the second
e&ample, we are saing that we were not aware of a fact that was true at that time.
,nd in the charter vacations \$uestion, there is no fact that the travelers were unaware of
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 35 6*)+*2,)4- 35 -
when the purchased the charter vacation**after the original purchase of the charter vacation
3and probabl toward the end of the vacation-, the charter vacation turned out to be more
costl than the had at first believed it would be.
(t is as difficult to prevent crimes against propert as those that are against a person.
3,- those that are against a
3/- those against a
3C- it is against a
3D- preventing those against a
3+- it is to prevent those against a
,nswer is +, for the e&pletive it.
77, /\$ring
>during> M time period is "R0)G.
Cor e&ample#
During two hours, ( felt sleep.
but
During the last two hours, ( have felt sleep.
To make our sentence correct with >during,> we=d need to add some information that
Cor e&ample#
,ven though its per capita foo supply harly increase uring the two ecaes between
-./\$
an -.0\$...
Think o! as y +++++ correct idiom )not Oto beG,
JSoJ is used to replace a :erb in a Sentence whereas J'tJ is used to replace a )oun.
Cirst, memori1e the pattern#
no sooner @ in%ersion @ than @ sentence
;uote#
This was a \$uestion that was posted a little while ago. The answer was said to be D, but it seems
that it should be +.
The domesticated camel, which some scholars date around the twelfth centur /.C., was the ke
to the development of the spice trade in the ancient world.
a. The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
b. The domesticated camel, which some scholars have thought to occur
c. Domesticating the camel, dated b some scholars at
d. The domestication of the camel, thought b some scholars to have occurred
e. The camel=s domestication, dated b some scholars to have been
(n D, it seems that >thought b some scholars...> modifies camel, rather than domestication
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 36 6*)+*2,)4- 36 -
0ka, ( checked out the other topic, and there was no e&planation of the answer. 0ka, to be
honest, ( didn=t catch the mistake in + the ver first time ( read the \$uestion, either. ( picked D,
because somehow it sounded better, but ( wasn=t sure wh.
6ater, when a student asked me specificall what was wrong with +, ( looked at the \$uestion a
little more carefull. + has a classic mistake, albeit a well disguised oneR
( teach this mistake fre\$uentl in m S,T (( classes for high school students. 6et me
show ou an e&ample of what m high school students might write#
The greatest change in my li!e was when ' immigrated to the AS#
Can ou see the mistake in this sentence?
6et me tr again, with a little hint#
The greatest change in my li!e was when ' immigrated to the AS#
Can ou see it now?
0ka, !ust in case, let me give ou one more sentence 3(=m prett much doing now what ( do in
class to e&plain this grammar point.-
This pen is a bargain beca\$se itJs only ten cents#
7int again#
This pen is a bargain beca\$se it is only ten cents#
0ka, got it et?
6et=s work backward. The last sentence is incorrect because it is incorrectl saing that the pen
and the ten cents are the same thingS a pen cannot be ten centsS it can be a writing instrument, it
can be a bargain, it can even be a weapon in some cases, but it cannot be ten cents. 0ne*tenth
of a dollar is ten cents, a dime is ten cents, but a pen is not.
,re ou getting it? .robabl, but since (=ve alread started, please let me finish...
0ka, now let=s look at the immigration sentence#
The greatest change in m life was when ( immigrated to the 9S.
This sentence means that >change> and >when ( immigrated...> are the same thingS the in fact
are not.
6ike ( said, this is a classic mistake, and the classic correction is#
The greatest change in my li!e occ\$rred-happened when ' immigrated to the AS#
3Do ou see where (=m heading now???-. So, in our original \$uestion, + sas#
The camelJs domestication was aro\$nd the twel!th cent\$ry 8#C####
GM,T cleverl hides this mistake b using >to have been> instead of a simple be verb, but >to
have been> is one of the man variants of was, were, is, are, am, etc.
The funn thing is that GM,T uses the classic correction as well#
domestication... occurred... when...
Cinall, ( !ust have to comment# ( imagine that if GM,T had to e&plain this grammar point, the
would sa in their tpical, crptic fashion something like this#
+ incorrectl uses an adverb clause as the noun complement of the sub!ect >domestication.>
0ka, what have we learned???
This#
N1AN @ 86+V6R8 @ N1AN-A/F6CT'V6
Cor e&ample#
The change was good for me.
The change was a good one for me.
The change was an important step for me in m life.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 37 6*)+*2,)4- 37 -
/9T )+:+R
The change was when ' came to the AS#
(n other words, noun complements 3the words that come after a be*verb and modif nouns-
should onl be nouns or ad!ectives 3although we often use adverbs when we want to describe
location, but more on that later, if ou likeS this e&planation is getting prett longRR-.
;uote#
<. "h the answer is ,? ( picked +
The central issue before the court was how far the regulator agencies should go in re\$uiring
better working conditions in factories.
a. in re\$uiring better working conditions in factories
b. as far as re\$uiring better working conditions in factories
c. in their re\$uirement that factories should have better working conditions
d. as far as re\$uiring that factories should have better working conditions
e. to re\$uire factories to have better working conditons
Thanks
"hewR "hat a trick \$uestionR /oth , and + are grammaticall correct, but the have a ver
slight difference in meaning. Cor this \$uestion, we most likel want the meaning in ,, not the
meaning in +. ,nd, whene%er we have two options that are both grammaticall correct, and the
onl difference is one of meaning, we M9ST go with the original meaning. (n other words, if , is
grammaticall correct, not word, redundant, awkward, etc., and another answer choice is also
grammaticall correct, not word, redundant, awkward, etc., we must go with ,.
/ut (=m sure ou want to know the meaning difference and the rule, right? 0ka, here ou go#
( know ou won=t like this, but with this meaning, we use >in.> Cor e&ample#
' want to know how !ar yo\$ will go in helping me#
( think ou remember from class that we talked about >helpful> M >in,> right? "ell, this is ver
similar**>helping me> is a process. (n this sentence, ( am wondering how long ou would sta with
me while ou are helping me, how man different things ou would do to help me. Cor e&ample,
would ou break the law while ou are helping me if ou thought ( would benefit? "ould ou
ignore our friends and famil while ou are helping me? ,gain# During the process, how much
would ou do?
3,- has a similar meaning in this sentence. 6et=s now look at the meaning of +.
' want to know how !ar yo\$ will go to help me#
(n this sentence, we are using the infinitive of purpose, which we use to e&press a goal. (f ( use
this structure, ( am wondering how much effort ou would e&pend to help me. (n other words,
would ou come to me at midnight? "ould ou travel G5 miles, A55 miles, A,555 miles to help
me? "ould ou spend all our time and mone to come to help me? "ould ou give up our !ob,
health, and famil to help me? ,gain# 7ow much would ou do to be able to be in a situation to
help me?? ( know that these two are ver, ver close in meaning, but read what (=ve written ver
carefull, and be sure to post back with an further \$uestionsR
\$uote#
%. "h , is correct? ( chose C
,lthough about EE percent of the more than G5 million Turks are Muslims, the republic founded b
Mustafa Pemal ,taturk in AE@% is resolutel secular.
a...
b. ,lthough about EE percent of over G5 million of the
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 3. 6*)+*2,)4- 3. -
c. ,lthough about EE percent of more than G5 million
d. Despite the fact that about EE percent of more than G5 million
e. Despite the fact that about EE percent of over G5 million
"hewR This is one of the most commonl asked \$uestions... ( think it=s going to take a while to
e&plain, and ( don=t think ( can do it tonight since (=ve got class in the morning.
7ere=s the short answer# if we use >the,> we are saing that there are onl G5 million
Turks in the whole worldS if we don=t use >the,> we are saing that there are possibl more than G5
million Turks in the world.
This one=s similar to the one in the 0fficial Guide, the one about the >Thomas Lefferson... setting
free the more than G55 slaves...>
,ll things being e\$ual, (=d have to sa that >invest in> is slightl preferable to >invest into.>
( think there=s also a ver slight difference in meaning**>invest in> would be the better choice for
such traditional investments as stocks and bonds, while >invest into> coul be used in more
metaphorical investments, such as the time, energ, and love ou might shower upon our
children.
************************************************************************************************************
\$uote#
The visiting doctors concluded that the present amalgram is probabl as good as or better than,
an other sstem that might be devised for the patients.
This is correct. 0ne of the answer choices used =might= instead of =ma=... what=s the difference
between may and might?
"hew, hard \$uestion. (n general, may has more of a concrete meaning, so should therefore be
used more in statements of fact, whereas might is a bit less tangible, and tends to be used more
in e&pressions of things that don=t et e&ist 3hpothetical situations-. ,lso, a bit more simpl, since
might is the past tense form of may, we use might more in the past tense.
,ll that said, we often use them interchangeabl in man constructions**there is a lot of overlap
between may and might.
T credit S8 with STK 3verb-# give responsibilit for. Thomas ,ison is creite with inventing the
light bulb.
T credit R to * 3verb-# give mone or credit to. The bank creite 1- million to trebla+s account.
T credit !or 3noun-# mone received for or in e&change for something. The customer receive a
12\$ creit for the interruption in service.
So there are a few things ou need to know here for GM,T Sentence Correction.
Cirst is this**ou should know that GM,T likes to test ou on >thinking words.> These are words
that indicate some sort of mental process, such as believe, belief, iea, theory, notion, concept,
etc. .lease note that both verbs and nouns can be considered >thinking words.>
GM,T tpicall likes to follow these words with that and a sentence. Cor e&ample, on the
GM,T it=s better to sa#
T 6ucise=s belief that the +arth is flat was easil accepted.
than to sa#
T 6ucise=s belief of the +arth being flat was easil accepted.
(t is oka to use Qof3 if we want to indicate onl a noun. That=s wh, for e&ample, we sa theory of
relativity. (n this case, if we choose answer choices that use of instead of that, we seem to be
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 3+ 6*)+*2,)4- 3+ -
talking more about theories of land mammalsS we are not identifing the action of those land
mammals. (n other words, with the Qthat3, we are leaving out what it is that the theor purports the
mammals did.
Crises is the pl\$ral o! crisis
/ata is pl\$ral o! dat\$m
(n S,+, we generall use o to replace >regular> verbs, i.e., verbs that are not linking verbs, verbs
that use modals, etc.
Cor e&ample#
Megumi speaks Japanese better than I do.
/ut ou alread knew that, (=m sure.
6ook at the following e&amples for something 3perhaps- new#
Megumi has visited more countries than I have.
"e can use have again because have is an au&iliar verb here.
Megumi has more skirts than I do.
7ere, has is )0T an au&iliar verb, and in S,+, we cannot use the verb have in the second bit.
7ere=s what ou need to know#
ha%ing @ past participle
is used to e&press actions that are !inished and to show that one thing comes a!ter another.
Curthermore, there is usuall a >because relationship between the two.
Cor e&ample#
7aving eaten alread, ( turned down Megumi=s invitation to dinner.
This sentence is oka.
/ut this ne&t sentence is )0T oka, because the two things should be happening at the same
time 3basicall the same grammar point found in this \$uestion-#
7aving been sick and having felt tired, ,lan did not want to go to work.
,ll the things in this sentence are happening at the same time, so we should )0T use the >having
M past participle> construction here.
,nd this sentence is incorrect because there=s no >because relationship> between the two parts of
the sentence#
7aving set, the Sun rose some hours later.
The Sun will set and rise no matter whatS setting doesn=t cause rising, so we shouldn=t use the
>having M past participle> construction here.
IModeled ,fterJ is the correct idiom
Hopefully is almost always wrong on GMAT
sage !ote" "riters who use hopefully as a sentence adverb, as in *opefully the measures will
be aopte, should be aware that the usage is unacceptable to man critics, including a large
ma!orit of the 9sage .anel. (t is not eas to e&plain wh critics dislike this use of hopefully. The
use is !ustified b analog to similar uses of man other adverbs, as in Mercifully, the play was
brief or 4rankly, " have no use for your frien. ,nd though this use of hopefully ma have been a
vogue word when it first gained currenc back in the earl AE<5s, it has long since lost an hint of
!argon or pretentiousness for the general reader. The wide acceptance of the usage reflects
popular recognition of its usefulnessS there is no precise substitute. Someone who sas
*opefully, the treaty will be ratifie makes a hopeful prediction about the fate of the treat,
whereas someone who sas " hope (or 5e hope or "t is hope) the treaty will be ratifie
e&presses a bald statement about what is desired. 0nl the latter could be continued with a
clause such as but it isn+t likely. `(t might have been e&pected, then, that the initial flurr of
ob!ections to hopefully would have subsided once the usage became well established.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 4, 6*)+*2,)4- 4, -
(nstead, critics appear to have become more adamant in their opposition. (n the AE<E
9sage .anel surve, BB percent of the .anel approved the usage, but this dropped to @D percent
in our AEH< surve. 3/ contrast, <5 percent in the latter surve accepted the comparable use of
mercifully in the sentence Mercifully, the game ene before the opponents coul a another
touchown to the lopsie score.- (t is not the use of sentence adverbs per se that bothers the
.anelS rather, the specific use of hopefully in this wa has become a shibboleth.
)one is one of the indefinite pronouns that is singular or plural. There used to be a old rule that
defined that none is less than 1ero so it inherits a singular verb. 7owever it is used in different
conte&t man times, and ( would agree with ou that since =pregnancies= is plural, it should take a
plural verb, but with the choices given...D is definitel the best answer, and that is what +TS will
look for.
+&ample# (n this \$uestion ( think none of the answers are correct.
Jo#o had so little money when she was in college that she couldn\$t even afford to buy new
clothes% much less take a vacation.
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
\$uote#
A5. 7owever much 9nited States voters ma agree that there is waste in government and that the
government as a whole spends beond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a
movement toward a minimal state.
3,- 7owever much 9nited States voters ma agree that
3/- Despite the agreement among 9nited States voters to the fact
3C- ,lthough 9nited States voters agree
3D- +ven though 9nited States voters ma agree
3+- There is agreement among 9nited States voters that
This is a ver commonl asked \$uestion. The reason C is not the answer is that C changes the
meaning.
6ook at these simplified sentences#
T 7owever much ou complain, ( will not change m mind.
This sentence means no matter how much you complain, " will not change my min.
0r, to put it in a more precise wa, my resolve to stick to my ecision will not wane even if the
This meaning is \$uite specific. )ow compare it to this sentence#
T ,lthough ou complain, ( will not change m mind.
This sentence means even though ou complain, ( will not change m mind. This meaning is
prett simple, and doesn=t need an more e&planation, ( think. So, even though the two meanings
are \$uite close, the are in fact different, and between two grammaticall correct and plausible
sentences, we must go with the one that doesn=t change the meaning of ,.
B. "hat does >that which> refer to in this sentence. 3correct answer is D-
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polgam with a similar defiance that
welcomed the prohibition of alcohol in the 9nited States in the nineteen*twenties.
a...
b. a similar defiance which welcomed
c. a similar defiance to what welcomed
d. a defiance similar to that which welcomed
e. the same defiance welcoming
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 4) 6*)+*2,)4- 4) -
(n +nglish, instead of saing something like >that that> we sa >that which.>
Cor e&ample#
The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week.
is pre!erable to
The number we recorded this week is greater than that that we recorded last week.
(n this sentence
The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week.
that [ number
and
which [ number
)otice that this sentence e\$uals
The number we recorded this week is greater than the number that we recorded last week.
So in our sentence here, we want to sa#
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polgam with a de!iance that was
similar to the de!iance that welcomed the prohibition of alcohol in the 9nited States in the
nineteen*twenties.
This is a great SC trickR
Sometimes in SC we must choose which to use according to the meaning.
T supposed Mediterranean predecessors.
This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actuall predecessors.
T supposedl Mediterranean predecessors.
This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actuall Mediterranean.
The answer is /, not D.
Notes
F!" # \$%& P!&'&(\$ P&!#&)\$
T#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 0!E1( !0 45&(; 2!"# "#( *+,-.-*!/ A(&: %*0& !6 "#( 85&&(0E56;!6'
45& 45& "#( 0u:C(8" 54 "#( 0(6"(68(7 451152(; :3 "#( 1*!\$-)-1.& 54 "#( "*-( A(&:.
EF\$E1( 0(6"(68(09
Affirmative: I've done my homework.
Negative: I haven't done my homework.
Question: Have you done your homework?
T#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 856"!6u5u0 !0 45&(; 2!"# "#( *+,-.-*!/ A(&: %*0& !6 "#(
85&&(0E56;!6' 45& 45& "#( 0u:C(8" 54 "#( 0(6"(68(7 451152(; :3 "#( E\$&"!8!E1( G2&&(G 54
"#( \$uF!1\$&3 A(&: 2&7 451152(; :3 "#( 3ING 45& 54 "#( "*-( A(&:.
EF\$E1( 0(6"(68(09
Affirmative: I've been waiting for three hours.
Negative: I haven't been waiting long.
Question: Have you been waiting long?
T%& B*'-)'
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 42 6*)+*2,)4- 42 -
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;(08&!:( \$ "!( E(&!5; 2#!8# !0 +(#-(-'%&4. EF\$E1( !681u;( \$4*/ \$6; \$%-' 8&&7. S5
2( 0\$39
I've been to the shops twice already today.
I went to the shops before toy arrived.
T#!0 E&5A!;(0 \$ '55; &u1( 54 "#u: !4 35uG&( 65" 0u&( 2#!8# "(60( "5 u0(. T5 1(\$&6 7hy
"#!0 !0 "#( 8\$0(7 0(( "#( (FE16\$"!560 :(152.
S(( "#( "\$:1( :(152 45& 5&( (F\$E1(0 54 \$;A(&:0 54 4!6!0#(; \$6; u64!6!0#(; "!(. N5"(
"#\$" 5613 \$;A(&:0 2#!8# ;(08&!:( E\$0" "!( #\$A( :((6 !681u;(;7 \$6; "#\$" \$;A(&:0 "#\$"
;(08&!:( ;u&\$"!56 =#! ("8> #\$A( \$105 :((6 5!""(;.
T-"& A40&!2'
U64!6!0#(; T!( F!6!0#(; T!(
"5;\$3 3(0"(&;\$3
"#!0 2((% 1\$0" 2((%
"#!0 3(\$& 1\$0" 3(\$&
"#!0 5&6!6'H "#!0 5&6!6'H
"#!0 \$4"(&6556H "#!0 \$4"(&6556H
"#!0 (A(6!6' -
;u&!6' "#( 1\$0" "25 3(\$&0 ;u&!6' "#( 0u(&
0!68( I 1(4" 08#551 :(45&( I 0\$2 35u
- \$" 0!F 5G8158%
- 2#(6 I (" #!.
- 4!A( !6u"(0 \$'5
(A(&HH -
Cu0"HHH -
* Can be finished or unfinished, depending on the time of day
** ever is only used in questions
*** just is used to describe a very recently completed action
U'-(5 \$%& P!&'&(\$ P&!#&)\$
W( 8\$6 ;!0"!6'u!0# "#&(( 0!"u\$"!560 2#(&( "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" !0 u0(;7 \$1"#5u'# "#(&( !0 \$
15" 54 5A(&1\$E :("2((6 "#(0( 0!"u\$"!560.
T#(3 8\$6 :( ;(08&!:(; \$09
T5 ;(08&!:( G(FE(&!(68(0G
T5 ;(08&!:( "#( ;u&\$"!56 54 856"!6u!6' 0"\$"(0 \$6; \$8"!560
T5 ;(08&!:( \$ E\$0" \$8"!56 2!"# \$ &(0u1" !6 "#( E&(0(6"
E,1&!-&()&'
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 43 6*)+*2,)4- 43 -
T#( #(\$;!6' #(&( !0 \$ :!" !01(\$;!6' \$0 50" 54 "#( "!( "#( G(FE(&!(68(0G ;(08&!:(; \$&(
65" &(\$113 "#( %!6; 54 "#!6' 35u 25u1; 2&!"( #5( \$:5u". H52(A(&7 "#(3 \$&( (FE(&!(68(0
!6 "#( 0(60( "#\$" 2( \$&( !6"(&(0"(; !6 7hat #\$EE(6(;7 \$6; 65" (F\$8"13 7hen !" #\$EE(6(;.
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8\$6 #\$EE(6 \$'\$!6.
F5& (F\$E1(9
The teacher hasn't arrived yet. (She might still arrive!
I've spent \$! today. (" can still spend money!
C56"&\$0" "#( \$:5A( 0(6"(68(0 2!"#9
The teacher didn't arrive (#he class is over, he can\$t arrive no%!
I spent \$! this morning (\$this morning\$ is over, " can\$t spend any
more money \$this morning\$!
T#( 4!6\$1 (F\$E1( \$:5A( 0#520 2#3 35u 8\$6G" u0( "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 2!"# \$6 \$;A(&: 54
4!6!0#(; "!( =0u8# \$0 G3(0"(&;\$3G>9
I went to the bank yesterday.
T#( E\$0" 0!E1( !0 6(8(00\$&3 \$0 35u 8\$665" 0"!11 ;5 05("#!6' 3(0"(&;\$3 =I>
A.' +'& \$%& 1*'\$ '-"1.&9 &0&( 8-\$% *( *40&!2 # un #-(-'%&4 \$-"&9 -# \$%& *)\$-( )*( (
.(5&! %*11&( 9
I went to the shops today. (&ut the shops are no% closed!
F!6\$1137 65"( "#\$" !6 :5"# 8\$0(0 "#( \$8"!56 !0 4!6!0#(;7 \$6; "#\$" #52 &(8(6" "#( \$8"!56 2\$0
!0 65" !E5&"\$6"9
I've only seen him twice in the last ten years. ('ossibly a long time
ago!
I saw him two minutes ago. ((ery recently!
Changing between the Present Per!ect and Past Simple
S"u;(6"0 54"(6 #\$A( E&5:1(0 %652!6' 2#(6 "5 02!"8# 4&5 u0!6' "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" "5
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"#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8"7 2( 02!"8# "5 "#( E\$0" 0!E1( "5 ;(A(15E "#( (F8#\$6'(. H52(A(&7 "#!0
!0 65" \$12\$30 "#( 8\$0(7 \$6; 2( 8\$6 451152 "#( 5&!'!6\$1 Du(0"!56 2!"# 5&( Du(0"!560 !6 "#(
E&(0(6" E(&4(8". W#!8# "(60( "5 u0( ;(E(6;0 56 "#( (F\$8" 0!"u\$"!56 35u \$&( "\$1%!6' \$:5u".
C560!;(& "#( 451152!6' (F8#\$6'(9
)ane Alan
Have you read any good boo*s recently+
,ell, yes I have, as a matter of
fact
-h, %ell, %hich boo*s have you read+
\$#he .anguage "nstinct\$
/eally+ And %hat did you think of them+
#hey were very good "\$d
recommend them
I6 "#!0 856A(&0\$"!567 J\$6(G0 0(856; Du(0"!56 !0 \$:5u" :55%s7 \$6;7 \$0 0#( !0 65" &(4(&&!6' "5
\$ E\$&"!8u1\$& E5!6" !6 "!(7 \$6; !" !0 0"!11 E500!:1( 45& A1\$6 "5 &(\$; 5&( :55%07 !" !0 6\$"u&\$1
"5 u0( "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8". F5& #(& 4!6\$1 Du(0"!56 0#( 8#\$6'(0 "5 "#( E\$0" 0!E1(7 \$0 "#(
"!( 0#( !0 &(4(&&!6' "5 =2#!8# !0 65" \$8"u\$113 0"\$"(;> !0 G2#(6 35u &(\$; "#(G.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 44 6*)+*2,)4- 44 -
N52 85E\$&( "#( \$:5A( 2!"#9
)ane Alan
Have you been to the cinema recently+
,ell, yes I have, as a matter of
fact
-h, %hat film did you go to see+
" went to see Seven
/eally+ ,hat did you think of it+
" thought it %as -0
I6 J\$6(G0 0(856; Du(0"!56 0#( u0(0 "#( 0!6'u1\$&7 G4!1G7 E&(0u\$:13 :(8\$u0( 0#(G0 5613
!6"(&(0"(; !6 "#( 4!1 A1\$6 0\$2 50" &(8(6"13. S#( "#(6 u0(0 "#( E\$0" 0!E1(7 \$0 0#( !0
&(4(&&!6' "5 "#( "!( G2#(6 35u 2(6" "5 "#( 8!6(\$G7 \$6; 0#( ;5(06G" !\$'!6( "#\$" "#(
\$8"!56 2!11 :( &(E(\$"(; - "#\$" !07 "#\$" A1\$6 2!11 '5 "5 0(( "#( 4!1 \$'\$!6.
D+!*\$-(
W( u0( "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 0!E1( "5 ;(08&!:( "#( ;u&\$"!56 =GH52 156'...G> 54 \$ 0"\$"( 2#!8#
!0 "&u( 652.
F5& (F\$E1(7 85E\$&(9
I've lived here for eight years. (" live here now!
I lived in "ondon for two years. (,e don't know %here " live no%!
L!%( \$11 "#( 5"#(& (F\$E1(0 54 "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8"7 2( \$&( :(!6' "51; 05("#!6' \$:5u" "#(
E&(0(6" !6 "#( 4!&0" 0(6"(68(. T#( 0(856; 0(6"(68( "(110 u0 5613 \$:5u" "#( E\$0"7 \$1"#5u'#
2( 25u1; E&5:\$:13 \$00u( "#\$" "#( 0E(\$%(& ;5(06G" 1!A( !6 L56;56 652.
T#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 856"!6u5u0 !0 u0(; "5 ;(08&!:( "#( ;u&\$"!56 54 \$6 \$8"!A!"3 5& \$8"!56
2#!8# !0 #\$EE(6!6' 652.
F5& (F\$E1(9
They've been watching T# since three o'clock. (#hey are %atching #( now!
They were watching T# for three hours. (,e don\$t *no% %hat they
are doing no%!
B5"# 45&07 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u07 \$&( 8556 !6 Du(0"!560 2!"# H8 .(5...:
How long have you been waiting?
T#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u0 0#5u1; \$105 :( 85E\$&(; 2!"# "#( E&(0(6"
0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u09
I've lived in \$abadell for eight years.
They've been watching T# since three o'clock.
They're watching T#.
I6 :5"# 8\$0(07 "#( E(&4(8" 45& "(110 u0 "#( ;u&\$"!56 54 "#( 0"\$"(*\$8"!A!"37 "#( 656-E(&4(8"
45& 5613 "(110 u0 "#\$" !" !0 "&u(*#\$EE(6!6' 652. I" !0 !685&&(8" "5 u0( "#( E&(0(6"
0!E1(*856"!6u5u0 "5 ;(08&!:( ;u&\$"!567 \$0 !6 "#( 451152!6'9
I%&'(()&T* +I live in \$abadell for eight years.+
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 45 6*)+*2,)4- 45 -
Simple or Contin\$o\$sT
W!"# 05( A(&:0 !" !0 E500!:1( "5 u0( :5"# "#( 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u0 45&0 54 "#( E&(0(6"
E(&4(8"9
I've worked here for five years.
I've been working here for five years.
T#( 4!&0" 45& #(&( 8\$6 :( 8560!;(&(; "#( G6(u"&\$1G7 5& 65&\$17 45&. I6 "#!0 0(6"(68( "#(
A(&: 8!7 #\$0 "#( (\$6!6' G#\$A( \$ C5:G7 \$6; \$0 0u8# &(4(&0 "5 \$ 0"\$"( \$6; 65" "#( \$8"!A!"3
35u \$8"u\$113 do 2#(6 35u \$&( 25&%!6'. T#( 0(6"(68( 0!E13 0\$30 #52 156' "#!0 =35u&
#\$A!6' "#( C5:> #\$0 :((6 "#( 8\$0(.
T#( 0(856; 0(6"(68(7 !6 "#( 856"!6u5u0 45&7 25u1; :( u0(; !6 01!'#"13 ;!44(&(6"
0!"u\$"!560. F5& (F\$E1(9
)ane Alan
1ou put those papers in the green filing cabinet
1ou don\$t have to tell me that 2
"\$ve been %or*ing here for five
years, you *no%3
H(&( "#( 856"!6u5u0 !0 u0(; "5 '!A( 65" Cu0" "#( ;u&\$"!56 54 "#( 0"\$"(7 :u" \$105 !E13 \$
&(0u1" 54 "#( 4\$8" "#\$" A1\$6 #\$0 25&%(; "#(&( 45& 4!A( 3(\$&0 - #( %6520 2#(&( "5 Eu" "#(
E\$E(&0.
A 8556 0!"u\$"!56 2#(&( "#( 856"!6u5u0 45& !0 u0(; !0 "5 !E13 "#\$" "#( 0!"u\$"!56 !0
\$:5u" "5 8#\$6'(9
I've been living here for ten years. I think it's time I moved on.
Bu" 65"( "#\$" "#( 65&\$1 &(0"&!8"!560 \$EE13 "5 A(&:0 "#\$" ;56G" "\$%( 856"!6u5u0 45&09
I've had this car since ,-./. It's time I changed it.
I%&'(()&T* +I've been having this car since ,-./. It's time I changed
it.+
S(( "#( 451152!6' 0(8"!56 45& 5&( !645&\$"!56 56 "#( u0( 54 "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" "5 '!A(
!645&\$"!56 \$:5u" &(0u1"0 !6 "#( E&(0(6".
P*'\$ A)\$-( 8-\$% * R&'+.\$ -( \$%& P!&'&(\$
W( 8\$6 u0( "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" "5 ;(08&!:( \$6 \$8"!56 !6 "#( E\$0" 2#!8# #\$0 \$ &(0u1" !6 "#(
E&(0(6". B5"# "#( 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u0 45&0 8\$6 :( u0(;9
\$he's broken her glasses. (She can\$t see!
They've been painting the flat. (#hey\$re covered in paint!
T#( &(0u1" &(4(&&(; "5 ;(E(6;0 56 "#( 0!"u\$"!56 !6 2#!8# 35u 0\$3 "#( 0(6"(68(. T#(&( \$&( \$
6u:(& 54 ;!44(&(68(0 :("2((6 "#( 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u0 45&0.
W!"# "#( 0!E1( 45&7 "#( \$8"!56 !0 4!6!0#(;. A6 !E5&"\$6" ;!44(&(68( :("2((6 "#!0 u0( 54
"#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 0!E1( \$6; "#( u0( ;(08&!:(; \$:5A( u6;(& (FE(&!(68(0 !0 "#\$" #(&(7
2#(6 "#(&( !0 65 \$;A(&: 54 "!(7 5& "#( \$;A(&: 54 "!( Cu0" !0 u0(;7 !" !0 65" 6(8(00\$&3 "#\$"
"#( \$8"!56 8\$6 :( &(E(\$"(; 5& 0"!11 #\$EE(69
They have knocked down the old station building.
T#( 856"!6u5u0 45& ;5(0 65" "(11 u0 2#("#(& "#( \$8"!56 !0 4!6!0#(; 5& 65". A1"#5u'# "#(
E(&056 0E(\$%!6' \$3 65" :( E(&45&!6' "#( \$8"!56 \$" "#( "!( 54 0E(\$%!6'7 "#(3 \$3 :(
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 46 6*)+*2,)4- 46 -
'5!6' "5 856"!6u( ;5!6' !" \$4"(& 0E(\$%!6' - "#( \$8"!A!"3 !0 65" G85E1("(G. I6 "#( (F\$E1(
'!A(6 \$:5A(7 2( ;56G" %652 !4 "#(3 #\$A( 85E1("(13 E\$!6"(; "#( 41\$" 5& 65".
T#( "3E( 54 &(0u1" &(4(&&(; "5 ;!44(&0 :("2((6 "#( 0!E1( \$6; 856"!6u5u0 45&0. T#(
0!E1( 45& &(4(&0 "5 \$ 5&( 5& 1(00 G4-!&)\$G &(0u1"7 2#!1( 2!"# "#( 856"!6u5u0 45& "#(
&(0u1" !0 u0u\$113 G!6;!&(8"G7 5& \$ G'-4&3&##&)\$G.
I've washed the car. ("t\$s very clean no%!
I've been washing the car. (#hat\$s %hy "\$m %et !
T#( 856"!6u5u0 45& !0 54"(6 u0(; "5 \$602(& GW#3...KG Du(0"!560 - !6 "#( \$:5A( (F\$E1(7 !"
!'#" #\$A( :((6 !6 &(0E560( "5 "#( Du(0"!56 GW#3 \$&( 35u 2("KG. A'\$!67 65" "#\$" !" !0 65"
81(\$& 4&5 "#( 0(856; 0(6"(68( 2#("#(& I #\$A( 4!6!0#(; E\$!6"!6' "#( 8\$& 5& 65".
F\$st
GJu0"G !0 855613 u0(; 2!"# "#( E&(0(6" E(&4(8" 0!E1( "5 0#52 "#\$" \$6 \$8"!56 #\$EE(6(;
A(&3 &(8(6"13. W#(6 GCu0"G !0 u0(; "#( &(0u1" &(4(&&(; "5 !0 54"(6 !6;!&(8"7 \$6; "#!0 45& 8\$6
:( u0(; !4 35u 2\$6" "5 \$%( !" 81(\$& "#\$" "#( \$8"!56 !0 85E1("( 2#!1( \$" "#( 0\$( "!(
(FE1\$!6!6' \$6 !6;!&(8" &(0u1" 54 "#( \$8"!569
I've just washed the car0 which is why I'm wet.
&een or GoneT
B5"# 2&&( \$6; 5(& 8\$6 :( u0(; \$0 "#( E\$&"!8!E1( 54 "#( A(&: \$ 5. C5E\$&( "#(
451152!6' "25 0(6"(68(09
He's gone to the shops. (4e\$s at the shops no%!
He's been to the shops. (#here\$s food in the fridge!
I6 "#( 4!&0" 0(6"(68(7 2( u6;(&0"\$6; "#\$" #( !0 \$" "#( 0#5E0 no7L !6 "#( 0(856; 2(
u6;(&0"\$6; "#\$" #( !0 65" \$" "#( 0#5E0 652 :u" "#\$" "#(&( !0 05( 5"#(& &(0u1" 54 #!0 '5!6'
"5 "#( 0#5E0.
N52 155% \$"9
He's been to school today.
He's been in school today.
A1"#5u'# "#(0( 0(6"(68(0 \$&( A(&3 0!!1\$& ="#!0 !0 65" "#( E1\$8( "5 '5 !6"5 "#( ;!44(&(68(0
:("2((6 "#(>7 85E\$&( "#( 2!"# 2#\$" 2( 25u1; 0\$3 !4 2( 2(&( "\$1%!6' \$:5u"
3(0"(&;\$39
He went to school today.
He was in school today.
I6 '(6(&\$17 35u 8\$6 ;!0"!6'u!0# :("2((6 2& \$6; 5 4&5 "#( "3E( 54 E&(E50!"!56 2#!8#
4511520 "#( A(&: - 2& !0 451152(; :3 \$ E&(E50!"!56 54 E1\$8( \$6; 5 :3 \$ E&(E50!"!56 54
5A((6".
Test Taking Strategy
Critical Reasoning
0n verbal part of the GM,T, ou will encounter about AB Critical Reasoning \$uestions of various
lengths 3sometimes ou will even need to scroll to read all the answer choices-. (n EE per cent of
cases, ou will have a short passage with one \$uestion right under it. The argument ou meet
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 47 6*)+*2,)4- 47 -
can be anthing from a classical argument to an advertisement or a dialog. The \$uestions will ask
ou to manipulate the argument to weaken2strengthen it, find the conclusion, assumption,
e&planation, do an inference, supplement a statement, or even tell how its parts are related to
each other. 0n average, ou will have A#G5 for each \$uestion, but it is recommended that ou tr
to sta within A#%5 on CR 3Critical Reasoning- \$uestions since ou will need to save some time
(t is recommended that ou read through Paplan=s :erbal workbook or the Section of CR in the
Paplan GM,T book with CD, Gth edition. /oth of the books are good for building a solid
backgroundS in our sessions, we will develop further the techni\$ues described in these books, et
will not rel on them for e&ercises or anthing else.
Cirst of all, Critical Reasoning is abilit to reason clearl to evaluate and !udge arguments. 4ou
are using this skill a lot during ou everda life while reading newspapers or watching movies.
"hen ou think that the movie is pushing the limit of the Reasonable or the news sounds less
reasonable than the movie that was pushing the limit, ou are using our CR skills to produce
these conclusions. /esides the :erbal part on the GM,T, ou will also need good argumentative
skills to beat the essas since one of them is to construct an argument, and the other is to
evaluate one. ,s a rule, GM,T CR \$uestions will ask ou to manipulate the argument to
weaken2strengthen it, find the conclusion, assumption, e&planation, do an inference or
supplement a statement, etc. "hatever it is that ou have to do, ou will need @ things to
succeed# know the basic structure of arguments and clearl understand the argument.
(n general, about H5U of GM,T arguments consist of evidence, usuall @ pieces, a conclusion *
the main point of an argument, and an assumption * the bridge between the evidence and
conclusion. The ma!orit of the arguments ou encounter on the test will be % step arguments#
6%idence7 @ 6%idence< M Concl\$sion#
6ample 7. 6ast week Mi ke was detai ned for shopl i fti ng at a groceri es store near
hi s house, but he has been a Chri sti an for A5 ears, therefore, the pol i ce must have
been wrong accusi ng hi m i n steal i ng.
"e have here two pieces of evidence# Mike was accused of stealing and that his is a Christian.
The conclusion is that the police are wrong. Therefore, our huge assumption here is that a
Christian could not have stolen anthing.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 4. 6*)+*2,)4- 4. -
6ample <. There are a l ot of mos\$ui toes outsi de toda, pl ease do not turn on the
l i ght i n the room because a l ot of them wi l l fl i n.
There is no set scheme for structure in GM,T CR, but since the ma!orit of the arguments are
onl a few sentences long, the conclusion usuall comes in the first or the last sentence.
7owever, some of the arguments ou encounter will not have a conclusion at all or will have !ust
an implied one.
6et=s go through the strateg to approach CR \$uestionsS we will cover it toda in general and then
will practice some of the crucial steps one b one and then in the third session will consolidate the
approach.
Critical Reasoning Strategy
65e want to warn you immeiately that this strategy is not the easiest way to o '7 (the easiest
woul be rea8an8answer), but it lets you get the most questions right spening less time per
correct answer. The bottom line is that it won+t be easy to follow this strategy but if you o, it will
rewar you9
A. Read the \$uestion 3this needed so that ou would know what to look for and what to do#
find an assumption, weaken, infer something or elseS do not worr about the details in the
\$uestion, read for kewords, such as strengthen, den, or e&plain. Sometimes at the end
of the :erbal section on the test, our brain won=t even hold a keword, so ou ma want
to write it down smbolicallS e.g. M for strengthen or * for weaken.
Comprehension, there is ver little te&t here and mostl everthing is importantS tr to
%. ,s ou read, look for the problem in the passage 3evaluate how convincing it is-
B. .araphrase the passage 3this a ver important step because when ou do a paraphrase,
ou check whether ou understood the passage and at the same time ou e&tract the
skeleton of the argument, making it easier to identif the conclusion and the assumption.
:er often, the paraphrase of the passage will be prett close to the conclusion. (t is not
surprising, since the conclusion is the main point and evidence !ust supports it.- 4our
paraphrase should be as close to the te&t and as simple as possible so that ou would
understand it easil and at the same time could full trust it. Do not make it too general
nor too detail oriented. "hen ou do a paraphrase, do it in three steps# +videnceA,
+vidence@, and ConclusionS put >therefore> word before ou start our conclusion, this
will help ou to set it off.
the \$uestion @ times, will also help ou to make sure ou answer e&actl what is stated
and that ou understand the \$uestion.-
<. ,nswer before reading the answer choices 3"h do this? Two reasons# one, if ou can
think of the correct answer or at least the general direction that the answer choice needs
to be, ou will identif it among the wrong choices much faster, thus spend less time
reading the answers, which usuall take %5 seconds to cover. The second reason is that
often test takers are seduced b the author=s wording. 0ne reads a few words that were
used in the passage and the brain identifies this choice with the passage, thus making it
seem more right that it needs to be. The more problems ou practice with, the more
chance is ou will guess the right answer even before reading it. ,nd there is nothing
more pleasant than seeing 409R answer choices among the listed. -
D. Go through the answers, first time scan them for 409R answer choice 3usuall ou will
guess correctl in <5*D5U of cases-, if ou did not find it, reread them more attentivel.
H. Draw a grid to eliminate the wrong answers easier. 9se >M> for a sure answer, >*> for a
definitel wrong answer choice, and >a> or >?> for an answer that ma be right or
\$uestionable. This will help to concentrate onl on a few answer choices and will prevent
ou from reading same answers several times if ou get confused or keep having
, * M
/ ? *
C * *
D * *
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 4+ 6*)+*2,)4- 4+ -
+ * M
E. ,lwas remember to think how the answer choice relates +V,CT64 to this situationS it
ma be out of scope b being too general. +.g. ,dvertisement#
Cor sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients )ove&. So when ou want
the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, )ove& is the one to choose.

argument?

3,- **
3/- **
3C- Man drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals
b selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the
manufacturers can afford.
3D- 9nlike some competing brands of painkillers, )ove& is available
from pharmacies without a doctor=s prescription.
3+- **
,s about this session we will be mostl concerned with one of the most important parts of a
gmat argument, ,ssumption. Man CR \$uestions directl ask for an assumption or are based
on them, such as weaken and strengthen \$uestions. ,lso, assumption of an argument is one
of the onl parts that we can influence to destro or solidif an argumentS thus if we can
disprove an assumption, we can negate the whole argument because the conclusion will not
make sense. 0n the other hand, if we can strengthen our assumption, thus patch a possible
hole, we will create a stronger argument and our conclusion will be more credible.
(:ometimes some of the evience is oubte or is amene to a new meaning an
change the argument, but generally, it is the assumption that is attacke to estroy an
argument. "n a case when evience is complete with more info, we can still say that it is the
assumption that the evience we ha was vali is being estroye). Thus, to succeed in CR,
it is crucial that ou are able to e&tract an assumption fastS it will save ou time on man
\$uestions. .racticing with assumptions does not take too longS @*B hours and our skills will
be on top. ,lso, ou will be a better speaker and a more critical writer if ou are able to see
assumptions of the writer who argues against ou because as we have said, if ou can kill an
assumption, ou will damage the argument. Cor e&ample, if we pla with +&ample A and add
a piece of evidence that sas that Christians sometimes steal, we will not be able to sa with
confidence that the police are wrong about Mike being a thief, since evidence proves that
Christians do steal.
"e will also cover one of the most important steps of the CR approach, paraphrase.
.araphrase allows ou to check how well ou understood the passage as well as to see the
structure stripped. .araphrase should not take ou more than G*A5 seconds after ou have
read the passage. Sometimes it is useful to write down some complicated relationship or
something that will help ou to understand the passage better, such as a diagram, for
e&ample. 0ther than that, don=t write down anthing else, the passage that ou read will be
so short that ou should be able to remember all the details without writing down anthing.
Toda we were supposed to learn that the ass\$mption of an argument is
a bridge 3link- between the evidence and the conclusion of an argument
never stated in the te&t
is the most vulnerable element of an argument
is the onl element in the argument that can be influenced
should be eas for ou to find b now
Paraphrase
Should be brief and take G*A5 seconds
"ill state the main idea of the passage and be close to the conclusion
"ill help ou to understand the passage better
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 5, 6*)+*2,)4- 5, -
"ill reveal the conclusion, evidence, and eventuall, the assumption
Start our conclusion with Therefore
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 5) 6*)+*2,)4- 5) -
APP6N/'R A# Absol\$te Phrases: 'ntrod\$ction
,n absolute phrase is a modifier 3\$uite often a participle-, or a modifier and a few other
words, that attaches to a sentence or a noun, with no con5\$nction. ,n absolute phrase
cannot contain a finite verb.
,bsolute phrases usuall consist of a noun and a modifier that modifies this noun, )0T
another noun in the sentence. Absol\$te phrases are optional in sentences" i#e#" they can
be remo%ed witho\$t damaging the grammatical integrity o! the sentence. Since absolute
phrases are optional in the sentence, the are often set off from the sentence with commas
or, less often, with dashes. "e normall e&plain absolute phrases b saing that the modif
entire sentences, rather than one word. This is an important concept, since man similar
phrases that we work with modif other words. Cor e&ample, ad!ectives modif nouns, and
it seems to make more sense to sa that absolute phrases modif nouns. "e will look at
some of these e&amples a bit later.
Cirst, let=s look at some e&amples of absolute phrases#
Ker determination stronger than e%er, )e&isa resolved not to give up until she had
achieved her dreams.
The s\$n shining bright and the pale bl\$e sky !orming a backdrop o! the Sacre
Coe\$r, Carl stepped into his future as a traveler and observer.
Still yo\$ng boys, Matt and +rin /ill awoke earl one Christmas morning with sleep
ees, completel unaware that the were sleeping not in the beds the had gone to sleep
in, but in one of their presents that ear ** a new set of bunk beds.
"e finished the heart meal \$uickl, o\$r appetites satis!ied" o\$r minds at peace.
All things being e0\$al, the active voice tends to be correct more often than the passive
on standardi1ed tests.
.lease notice that in ever case the absolute phrase provides some sort of information that
works to put the whole sentence or idea in conte&t. Please also notice that the absol\$te
phrases themsel%es do N1T contain %erbs" nor are they connected to the main
sentence with a con5\$nction. Cinall, please notice that the primar components of most
3but not all- of these absolute phrases are a noun M a modifier, although it is possible to use
onl a modifier.
7ere is the ne&t pattern we should know#
no\$n @ participle phrases
This is one of the most common was to form an absolute phrase. (t might be helpful for
some people to imagine this pattern with a verb between the noun and the participle. Cor
e&ample, if ou sa IThe question was still unanswere;, ou have a complete sentenceS
if, on the other hand, ou sa IThe question unanswere; and ou then attach that
phrase to a main sentence, then ou have an absolute phrase.
7ere are some e&amples. The absolute phrases look like this.
The \$uestion still unanswered, the teacher decided to address the confusion of her
students more closel.
The train running late, we decided to get off at the ne&t stop and take a ta&i home.
There are man industries in California vital to its econom, with technolog being
one of the most important.
Compare these sentences with the verbs and con!unctions in them#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 52 6*)+*2,)4- 52 -
The \$uestion was still unanswered, and the teacher decided to address the confusion
of her students more closel.
The train was running late, so we decided to get off at the ne&t stop and take a ta&i
home.
There are man industries in California vital to its econom, and technolog is one of
the most important.
(mportantR ,lthough man of these absolute phrases could be written with the word being
in them, more !ormal 6nglish and 6TSU tend not to \$se being when being is
optional. (f ou=ve studied GM,T Sentence Correction for a while, then ou know that
the word being raises a big red flag on the testR
7ere are some e&amples#
The movie being over, we left the theater.
This sentence could be rewritten like this#
The movie over, we left the theater.
Similarl, having M past participle is often so semanticall similar to the sentence without
it that man sentences are written without having M past participle.
,n e&ample would be ver good here#
7aving been chosen to head the committee, ,ngus )g thought about how he could
help raise mone for his chess club at 7arvard.
This sentence could look like this#
Chosen to head the committee, ,ngus )g thought about how he could help raise
mone for his chess club at 7arvard.
This concept is important for the Sentence Correction section of the GM,T, so if ou=re
preparing for that test, pa attention to thisR
,nother pattern is to use an ad!ective after the noun it modifies.
6ook at these e&amples#
Their meal still not read after BG minutes, the hungr and angr customers left the
restaurant.
7is hat in hand and pride in check, 7orace asked his former boss for his !ob back.
The previews still showing, Pell and Chris decided to leave the theater and en!o the
sunn da.
APP6N/'R 8# S\$b5ect-Verb 'n%ersion
So ou alread know that the GM,T test is an adaptive test, meaning that our score
goes up or down depending on the difficult of the \$uestions that ou answer
correctl or incorrectl. 0n the sentence correction section of the GM,T, the
\$uestions that test ou on sub!ect2verb inversion tend to be the harder \$uestions, and
are therefore worth more points.
So, to raise our GM,T score, ou should be ver familiar with most or all of the
items on this list.
There are at least eighteen tpes of inversion as listed in the e below#

Tpe +&amples )otes
A. neg intro )ever do ( sleep.
0nl at night can ( stud.
;uestion form is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 53 6*)+*2,)4- 53 -
Tpe +&amples )otes
(n no wa could ( help ou with
our Lapanese grammar
\$uestion.
( believe that onl rarel will (
need our help.
)ot until ( got home did ( reali1e
that m shoes were untied.
This one is ver common on the
T0+C6 and somewhat common on
the GM,T and GR+.
"e need to learn the various tpes
of words and phrases that re\$uire
this tpe of inversion.
)otice that sometimes the inversion
occurs right after the neg intro form
and sometimes it occurs in the ne&t
sub!ect and verb.
Cirst comes love, then comes
marriage.
,fter , comes /, then comes C,
ne&t comes D.
Down came the rain and
washed the spider out.
(nversion is optional.
and verbs of direction.
This one is less common on the
T0+C6, but more common on the
GM,T and GR+.
)otice that sometimes we have an
adverb, like first and down and
phrase like into the room or after ,.
usuall show location or direction.
This tpe of inversion usuall onl
and verbs that show direction or
movement, like come, go, run, etc.
%. intro 'ed Cound in San Crancisco is
6ombard Street, the so*called
crookedest street in the world.
6ost among the old tables and
chairs was the priceless
:ictorian desk.
6ocated between San Crancisco
and Marin Count is the Golden
Gate /ridge.
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with be*verbs.
This one is ver common on the
T0+C6, GM,T, and GR+.
This tpe of inversion usuall occurs
with be*verbs, but sometimes with
)otice that the phrase is the
complement of the be*verb.
B. comparatives Cheetahs run faster than do
antelopes.
4ou speak Chinese better than
do (.
Lessica is more interested in
Computer Science than is
/en!amin.
(nversion is optional.
9sed with all verbs.
This form of inversion is common on
the T0+C6, GM,T, and GR+.
"e normall onl have inversion
here if we are comparing sub!ects of
the verb, not ob!ects. Cor e&ample,
in the following two sentences, we
are comparing ob!ects, carrots and
potatoes, not the sub!ect (.#
( like carrots more than ( do
potatoes.
( like carrots more than do ( like
potatoes.
)ow, in this sentence, we are
comparing sub!ects, ( and m friend
Carl#
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 54 6*)+*2,)4- 54 -
Tpe +&amples )otes
( like carrots more than does m
friend Carl.
G. intro
comparative
/igger than an apatosaur is the
blue whale.
More important than our
personal statement is our G.,.
)o less impressive than the
invention of the laser was the
development of the wheel.
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with be*verbs.
This form is more common on the
GM,T and GR+ than it is on the
T0+C6.
)otice that we can onl use this
form of inversion when the verb is a
be*verb since in ever case, the
comparative is the complement of
the be*verb.
Remember that less than is also a
comparative.
<. as Megumi is from Lapan, as is
Sato.
So*eun wants to leave earl
toda, as does 0i.
(f thrown into the water, camels
can swim, as can cats.
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
"e can onl use inversion if we are
using as for comparisons.
as is one of the trickiest words in
+nglishS it can have man different
meanings.
D. so8 that8 So happ was ( that ( bought
flowers for everbod in class.
So \$uickl did she leave that we
did not even reali1e was gone.
So rarel does a comet appear
visible to the naked ee that
when one does, it is considered
a ma!or event.
;uestion form is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
This is not so common on the
T0+C6, but is fairl common on the
GM,T and GR+.
The so8 that8 clause must before
the verb in for this tpe of inversion.
H. ha, shoul,
were for if*
clauses
birthda, she wouldnFt be mad at
me now.
Should ou need a hand, ( will
be more than happ to help ou.
"ere ( ou, ( think ( would stud
more for our e&am tomorrow.
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
This is somewhat common on the
T0+C6 and more common on the
GM,T and GR+.
This tpe of inversion is kind of
special. )otice that we can onl use
this tpe of inversion when we are
using an if*clause. (n other words, if
is omitted# even though the word if
does not appear in the clause, we
still have the meaning of an if*
clause.
should, were.
E. there is, there
are, there e&ists,
there comes, etc.
There is a good restaurant
nearb.
There comes a time in ever
personFs life when she reali1es
that she is responsible for her
own happiness, not other
people.
Scientists hpothesi1e that there
(nversion is obligator.
9suall used onl with these verbs.
This form of inversion is common on
the T0+C6, GM,T, and GR+, as
well as in spoken and written
+nglish.
Most people remember there is and
there are. /9T we must also
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 55 6*)+*2,)4- 55 -
Tpe +&amples )otes
e&ists a certain tpe of particle
that can travel faster than the
speed of light.
remember that there are other verbs
that we can use instead of is and
are. The most common ones are
e&ist, come, and go.
A5. here is, here
are, here comes,
here come
7ere is some good food for ou
to tr.
7ere are the books that ( donFt
need anmore.
7ere comes the busR
(nversion is obligator.
9suall used onl with these verbs.
4ou will probabl not see this on the
grammar section of the T0+C6 or
on the GM,T or GR+. (t could,
however, appear on the 6istening
Comprehension Section of the
T0+C6. "e use this form mostl in
spoken +nglish.
AA. intro *ing /urning out of control was the
forest located in the foothills of
Coming in last in the race was
Loe I+lephant 6egsJ /low.
)ot helping the situation was
little Susie, who was throwing
fire.
(nversion is obligator.
9sed onl with be*verbs.
This form is not common on the
T0+C6, but might show up on the
GM,T or GR+.
)otice the intro 'ing phrase is the
complement of the be*verb.
A@. emphasis /o am ( hungr.
(s it ever hot in hereR
Do ou know how to cookR
(nversion is optional.
9sed with all verbs.
4ou will probabl not see this on the
grammar section of the T0+C6 or
on the GM,T or GR+. (t could,
however, appear on the 6istening
Comprehension Section of the
T0+C6. "e use this form mostl in
spoken +nglish.
A%. the bigger,
the better
The closer an ob!ect is to
another ob!ect, the greater is the
gravit between the two ob!ects.
;uestion form is optional.
9sed with all verbs.
AB. \$uestions (s this the last e&ample?
lists?
,re we finished et?
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
4ou will probabl not see this on the
grammar section of the T0+C6
3T0+C6 doesnFt test \$uestions
anmore- or on the GM,T or GR+.
(t would, however, appear on the
6istening Comprehension Section of
the T0+C6.
AG. >stor
speech>
I( think itFs time to go,J said
Susan.
I(tFs time for ou, but not for me,J
replied Gar.
IMabe we should collect our
thoughts for a moment,J
commented 6an.

(nversion is optional.
9sed with verbs that report speech.
4ou will probabl not see this on the
grammar section of the T0+C6 or
on the GM,T or GR+.
A<. nor )o one has volunteered for the (nversion is obligator.
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 56 6*)+*2,)4- 56 -
Tpe +&amples )otes
!ob, nor do we e&pect anone to
volunteer in the future.
7ok*ming cannot speak
.ortuguese, nor can Losb speak
Cantonese.
The 1oo regulations will not
permit ou to touch the animals,
ou to do so.
9sed with all verbs.
4ou might see this on the adaptive
T0+C6 if ou are scoring high and it
could appear on the GM,T or GR+.
Remember that nor is considered a
con!unction, but we use it between
two sentences 3not between an two
elements like the other
con!unctions-.
>neither do (.>
ISo do (.J
ISo can Terr.J
I)either do most people ( know.J
(nversion is obligator.
9sed with all verbs.
4ou will probabl not see this on the
grammar section of the T0+C6 or
on the GM,T or GR+.
AH. intro ad!ective /eautiful beond belief was m
bab daughter.
into their dream schools were
6an and Tomo.
;uick and painless will be our
medical procedure.
(nversion is obligator in most
cases.
9sed with be*verbs.
This one is fairl rare and probabl
would not appear on the T0+C6, but
ou might see it on the GM,T or
GR+.
(nversion is sometimes not used in
poetic language.
"hat does <uestion form is obligatory mean?
This simpl means that ou M9ST invert the sub!ect and the verb in this construction.
(n other constructions, inversion is optional, but in these constructions, it is re\$uired.
Cor e&ample, ou ma sa#
She runs faster than do most of her classmates.
3%erb comes before the sub!ect-
or
She runs faster than most of her classmates do.
3sub!ect comes before the %erb-
/9T
)ever ha%e ( heard such a thingR
C,))0T become
VV )ever ( ha%e heard such a thingR VV
APP6N/'R C# Prepositions
R\$le
the most important rule for prepositions is#
preposition @ no\$n
This is the TestMagic list of most of the prepositions ou will ever see on the T0+C6.
There are a few more prepositions in +nglish that are not listed here, but ou will probabl not
see them on the T0+C6 since the are fairl uncommon. This list is ver important*ou should
know at least E5U of this list. ,nd don=t forget, after ever preposition, we must have a noun, and
onl a nounS )+:+R can we have a verb after a preposition.
8e care!\$lUU
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 57 6*)+*2,)4- 57 -
Si& 3<- of these prepositions can also be subordinating con!unctions. (n other words, the can be
followed b a noun or b a sentence, depending on the meaning.
7uh? Can ou show me some e&amples??
Sure, no problem. 6ook#
T A!ter lunch, ( felt sleep.
o (n this sentence, A!ter is a preposition and is therefore followed b onl one noun, l\$nch 3no
verb hereRR-.
T A!ter ( worked twelve hours, ( felt tired.
o (n this sentence, A!ter is a s\$bordinating con5\$nction and is followed b a sentence, '
worked twel%e ho\$rs.
T ( worked \$ntil midnight.
o 7ere, \$ntil is a preposition and is followed b a noun, midnight. )o verbs, pleaseRRR
T ( worked \$ntil ( felt tired.
o (n this sentence, \$ntil is a s\$bordinating con5\$nction and is followed b a sentence, ' !elt
tired.
&ist
A. aboard
%. above
B. absent
G. according to
<. across
E# a!ter )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
H. against
A5. all over
AA. along
A@. alongside
A%. amid or amidst
AB. among
AG. around
7D# as )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
AH. as to
AE. as M ,D:+R/ 0C T(M+ M as
@5. as earl as
@A. as late as
@@. as often as
@%. as much as
@B. as man as, etc.
@G. aside
@<. astride
@D. at
@H. awa from
@E. bar
%5. barring
%A. because of
=<# be!ore )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
%%. behind
%B. below
%G. beneath
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 5. 6*)+*2,)4- 5. -
%<. beside
%D. besides
%H. between
%E. beond
B5. but
BA. b
B@. b the time of
B%. circa
BB. close b
BG. close to
B<. concerning
BD. considering
BH. despite
BE. down
G5. due to
GA. during
G@. e&cept
G%. e&cept for
GB. e&cepting
GG. e&cluding
G<. failing
?E# !or )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
GH. for all 3this means espite-
GE. from
<5. given
<A. in
<@. in between
<%. in front of
<B. in keeping with
<G. in place of
<<. in spite of
<D. in view of
<H. including
<E. inside
DA. into
D@. less
D%. like
DB. minus
DG. near
D<. near to
DD. ne&t to
DH. notwithstanding
DE. of
H5. off
HA. on
H@. on top of
H%. onto
HB. opposite
HG. other than
H<. out
HD. out of
HH. outside
HE. over
E5. past
Su!" T#\$%u& P\$'( 5+ 6*)+*2,)4- 5+ -
EA. pending
E@. per
E%. plus
EB. regarding
EG. respecting
E<. round
ED. save
EH. saving
EE. similar to
7BB# since )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
A5A. than
A5@. thanks to 3this means because of-
A5%. through
A5B. throughout
A5G. till
A5<. to
A5D. toward or towards 3both forms are correct, but towar is considered slightl more formal-
A5H. under
A5E. underneath
AA5. unlike
777# \$ntil )This one can also be a s\$bordinating con5\$nction # 'n other words" it can be
!ollowed by a no\$n or a sentence" depending on the meaning,#
AA@. unto
AA%. up
AAB. upon
AAG. up to
AA<. versus