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## Experiment 3: Combination of Resistors

Laboratory Report

Villanueva, Gianne, Villanueva, Zyrell May

Department of Math and Physics
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila, Philippines

Abstract
The resistance by standard color code on a
resistor was compared to the resistance
obtained experimentally using a multimeter
on a series and parallel connections.
Percentage errors Activity 2 resulted in a
20% error, and activity 3 resulted in a
0.36% error. The %errors could be due to
human error.
I. Introduction
A standard color code table is used
to determine the value and function of
resistance on components and wires[1].
Each colored band on the resistor can be
decoded into a digit, multiplyer, and then
tolerance. The tolerance is usually in percent
(%). The law of a series circuit is that the
sum of the voltages (V) in the circuit is the
total voltage (V
T
), the sum of the resistances
(R) in the circuit is the total resistance (R
T
),
and the current in the whole circuit is equal.
The law of a parallel circuit is that the sum
of the currents in the circuit is the total
current (I
T
), the sum of 1/R
1
+ + 1/R
n
is
1/R
T
, and the voltages in the circuit is equal.
The Experiment seeks to determine the
resistance by standard color code, the

resistance by multimeter method, and to
verify the laws on series/parallel resistors.

II. Theory

Table 1. Color Code for Resistors (maliit lang
dapat ang caption, mga 10pt)
(Photo credit: http://romelblog.wordpress.com/tutorial/resistor-
color-coding/)

As Table 1 shows, the Color Code
for Resistors was used in the first activity to
determine the theoretical value of the
resistor. Table 1 shows the standard color
code for resistors

In theory, the internal resistance is
defined by the following relation in
accordance with Ohms Law

Equation 2.1 Total Resistance
2

Where
R
T
total resistance;
V
T
total voltage;
I
T
total current.

For parallel connections, the following
relation among each resistor element R
i

along the circuit is defined by

Equation 2.2 Parallel Resistors

Where
R
T
is total resistance;
R
1
, R
2
, R
n-1
, R
n
are the resistor elements.

For series connections, the total
resistance is simply defined as the sum of
each successive resistor element R
i
across
the circuit. In symbols,

Equation 2.3 Series Resistors
Where
R
T
is total resistance;
R
1
, R
2
, R
n-1
, R
n
are the resistor elements.

(Wag ka na maglagay ng percent error dito,
sa methodology na ito)

[Eq.2]

III. Methodology
The materials used for the
experiment consist of resistors, multimeter
and probes, a breadboard, and connecting
wires. In activity one, the standard color
code on a resistor was determined by getting
the values of each band color from Table 1.
The set-up of this activity is shown on
Figure 1, where the theoretical (R
T
) was
calculated by getting the measured voltage
(V) and current (I) using a multimeter. (?
Theoretical value to ng Resistor so dapat di
ka gagamit ng values obtained
experimentally. Kung ginamitan niyo lang
ng table, as is na yun. No need to use current
and voltage kasi given ka na agad ng
resistance.)

Figure 1. Measuring voltage and current
using the probes connected to the
multimeter
In activity 2, the set-up is similar to
Figure 2, where the resistors were connected
in series combination with a DC source
instead of a parallel combination. Again, the
R
T
was calculated by getting the measured
voltage and current using a multimeter. In
activity 3, the procedures for getting the
theoretical R
T
was the same in activity 2, but
the set up was in parallel combination as
shown on Figure 2. The percent error (%)
was determined after the experimental R
T

and the theoretical R
T
was obtained.
3

Figure 2. Parallel combination

IV. Results and Discussions
In activity 1: Determination of Resistance

Table 2. Theoretical Resistance
In Table 2, the group used the color code for
resistors to get the theoretical resistance
of

.
In activity 2:
Resistance Voltage Current

## 395 1.975V 0.005A

998 5v
Exp.

998
Theoretical

83 x 10
% Error 20.24 %
Table 3.1 Series Circuit
The table shows the values of the theoretical
and experimental total resistance of the
resistor and its % error. In table 3.1 shows
that the % error is higher than 10% max.
The source of error was due to human error
and on the values from the multimeter.
Resistance Voltage Current

## 330 4.95V 0.015A

833..33 5v 0.006A
Exp.

833
Theoretical

83 x 10
% Error 0.361 %
Table 3.2 Parallel Circuit
Table 3.2 shows the values for the parallel
circuit. Unlike Table 3.1 the group had
lesser % error in Table 3.2 and it is the ideal
number because it does not exceed 10%.
V. Conclusion

The group had determined the resistance
by the standard color code and through the
voltmeter-ammeter method. The laws on
series and parallel resistors were also
verified. (Wag ka maglagay ng mga the