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Amorite

• Group of semitics nomans, who captures the local city


• Refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium
BC, and also the god they worshipped, Amurru.

Semitic
• Means a member of any of various ancient and modern people originating in southwestern Asia, including Akkadians,
Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabs, and Ethiopian Semites.

• The word "Semitic" is an adjective derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible.

Akkadians
• Migrated into Mesopotamia in the late 4th millennium BC and amalgamate with non-Semitic Mesopotamia (Sumerian)
populations into the Assyrians and Babylonians of late bronze age.

Summerians
• “Land of the Lords of Brightness"
• Was a civilization and historical region in southern Iraq (Mesopotamia). It is the earliest known civilization in the world
and is known as the Cradle of Civilization.

Babylonians
• Was a civilization in Lower Mesopotamia (central and southern Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged
when Hammurabi created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad.

Assyrians
• Were Semitic people living in the northern reaches of Mesopotamia
• Tiglat-Pileser, who extended Assyrian dominance to Syria and Armenia.

Canaanite
• People in the area of the present-day Gaza Strip, Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon.
• A tribe which inhabited a particular locality of the land west of the Jordan before the conquest
• The Canaanites were descendants of Canaan.
• Their language was very similar to the Hebrew.

Phoenicians
• Name given by greeks from the greek word of the Ethiopian Civilization one theory which has existed many centuries in
the Ethiopians.
• Phoenicians (the Canaanites, or Sidonians, of the Bible) were Semitic people.
• Their country was a narrow strip of the Syrian coast, about 160 miles (260 kilometers) long and 20 miles (32 kilometers)
wide.
• The area now comprises Lebanon and parts of Syria and Israel.
• They became the most skillful shipbuilders and navigators of their time.

Sabaens
• Were an ancient people speaking an old South Arabian language who lived in what is today Yemen in Southwest Arabia
Peninsula.
• The first of all peoples who inhabited Syria; that they derived their faith from Seth and Idris
• They had seven times for prayer
• They prayed also for the dead, but without prostration; fasted thirty days from night to sunrise, and also if any new moon
rose badly, for the remaining day of the month;

Hebrews
• Meaning "descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber"
• Traditionally they are also known as the ancestors of the Israelites.
• Ethnic group descent from Abraham and Isaac (Especially from Isaac’s son Jacob) the nation whom god chose to make
a covenant (exodus 19)

Arabs
• Member of Semitic people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories who’s speaks Arabic and
who inhibits much of the Middle East and Northern Africa, usually referred to the intelligent riding horse native to arab.
Mesopotamia
• Mesos – Middle
• Potamus – River
• "land between the rivers"
• Four Major Cities:
~Sumerian
~Akkadian
~Babylonian
~Assyrian
• Widely considered as the cradle of civilization
• "Greater Mesopotamia" or "Syro-Mesopotamia" have been adopted to refer to wider geographies corresponding to the Near East or
Middle East.
• The urban history of Mesopotamia begins with the emergence of urban societies in northern Iraq in the early6th millennium BCE.
• Historical Mesopotamian leaders
~Ur-Nammu (king of Ur)
~Sargon (who established the Akkadian Kingdom)
~Hammurabi (who established the Old Babylonian state)
~Tiglath-Pileser I (who established the Assyrian Empire)
• Historically important cities
~Uruk, Nippur
~Nineveh
~Babylon
• "Ancient Mesopotamia" begins in the late 6th millennium BC, and ends with either the rise of the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th
century BCE or the Islamic conquest of Iraq in the 7th century CE.
• Mesopotamians believed that the world was a flat disc.

Primary gods and goddesses

• Anu was the Sumerian god of the sky. He was married to Ki, but in some other Mesopotamian religions he has a wife called Uraš.
Though he was considered the most important god in the pantheon, he took a mostly passive role in epics, allowing Enlil to claim the
position as most powerful god.

• Enlil was initially the most powerful god in Mesopotamian religion. His wife was Ninlil, and his children
were Iškur (sometimes), Nanna –Suen, Nergal, Nisaba, Namtar, Ninurta (sometimes), Pabilsag, Nushu, Enbilulu, Uraš
Zababa and Ennugi. His position at the top of the pantheon was later usurped by Marduk and then by Ashur.

• Enki (Ea) god of Eridu. He was the god of rain.

• Marduk was the principal god of Babylon. When Babylon rose to power, the mythologies raised Marduk from his original position as
an agricultural god to the principal god in the pantheon.

• Ashur was god of the Assyrian empire and likewise when the Assyrians rose to power their myths raised Ashur to a position of
importance.

• Gula or Utu (in Sumerian), Shamash (in Akkadian) was the sun god and god of justice.

• Ereshkigal was goddess of the Netherworld.

• Nabu was the Mesopotamian god of writing. He was very wise, and was praised for his writing ability. In some places he was believed
to be in control of heaven and earth. His importance was increased considerably in the later periods.

• Ninurta was the Sumerian god of war. He was also the god of heroes.

• Iškur (or Adad) was the god of storms.

• Erra was probably the god of drought. He is often mentioned in conjunction with Adad and Nergal in laying waste to the land.

• Nergal was probably a plague god. He was also spouse of Ereshkigal.

• Pazuzu, also known as Zu, was an evil god, who stole the tablets of Enlil’s destiny, and is killed because of this. He also brought
diseases which had no known cure.
Ethiopia (or Aethiopia) - 'the land of burnt faces'