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STRAIN ANALYSIS
UNDEFORMED DEFORMED
KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
Kinematic analysis is the reconstruction of movements
c f
A. Rigid Body
Translat ion
b a
f
a
B. Rigid Body
Rotati on
c f
c
d e
b a
c f
d
e
b
E. Nonrigid Defor mat ion
by Distor tion
C. Or iginal Object
e
b
d
a b
a
c
b
e d
f c
d
f
e
D. Nonr igid Def ormati on
by Dilati on
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
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TYPES OF STRAIN
H
I
H
B. Inhomogeneous strai n
A. Homogeneous strai n
H H
l =5cm o
L'=3cm
L
l 8
Fundamental Strain Equations
Strain
R e = n
Deformed State Undeformed State
R = 1

r =Sn
L
l =8cm f
L'=4.8cm
Extension (e) = (l
f
l
o
)/l
o
Stretch (S) = l
f
/l
o
= 1 + e
Lengthening e>0 and shortening e<0
Strain
B. Shear strain
Deformed State Undeformed State
A. Extension and stretch

T
R
e tan s = 1/2 t

=tan

Shear Strain ( )
Quadratic elongation () = S
2
= 1/ = 1/S
2
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S
1
Strain Ellipsoid
S
1
= Maximum Finite Stretch
S
3
= Minimum Finite Stretch
S
2
S
2
S
3
S
3
S
3
S
1
S
1
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
Mohr Strain Diagram
A
d

d
=+15
S
1
1 Unit
A
S
1
B
/
.49
1.0 1.0
2 =+30
d
( ', / )
C
Distorted Clay Cake
/
1.0 1.0
2
d


2
' '
3 1
'
3.0
.56
0
C
d
' 2.4
3
= '
1
= .42
2.0 1.0
A
=

.
2
2
/
' '
SIN
3 1
d
'
3
3.0
Minus
C
' + '
2
1 3
2.0 1.0

.
2
2
' '
COS
3 1
d
0 A'
'
1
Equals
'
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
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HOMOGENOUS DEFORMATION
O
N
Simple Shear
(Noncoaxial Strain)
A B
M L
Pure Shear
(Coaxial Strain)
Progressive Deformation
M
S1
25%Flattering
S3
S1
S3 S1 +22
+31
S3
S1 S3
30%Flattering
S3
S3
S1
S1
+45
40%Flattering
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
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A. Regional scale
100 m
perpendi cu lar
t o l ayer
^
^
^
S1
S2
S
3
S1
^
^ ^ ^
S
2
< 1 S
2
= 1 S
2
>1
STRAIN HISTORY Scale Factor
100 m
B. Out crop scale
10 mm
C. Hand sample scale
D.
A.
perpendi cu lar
t o l ayer
perpendi cu lar
t o l ayer
C. B.
^
^
S1
^
S1
^
S2
^
S2
^
S
2
S3
^
S3
^
S3
D. Microscope scale
E. F.
Structural development in competent layer
based on orientation of S
1
, S
2
and S
3
Strain Measurement
Geological Map
Geologic Cross-section Geologic Cross section
Seismic Section
Outcrop
Thin Section
Knowing the initial objects
Shape
Size
Orientation
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Field of
Expansion
Field of
No St rain
St rating Size
and Shape
S
3
Strain Field Diagram
Field of Compensation
Field
of
Linear
Shortening
1.0 Field of Linier Strecthing
1.0
Field
of Contract ion
S
1
Z
X
Y
A
Z
K = 1
k =
Special Types of Homogenous Strain
X
Z
Y
Y
X
B
^
1
S2
^
a =
S
S
1
2
^
K = 0
Constrictional
Strain
Flattering
Strain
P
la
n
e

S
t
r
a
in
S
i
m
p
l
e

E
x
t
e
n
s
i
o
n
Simple Flattering
1
X
b =
S
S
2
3
^
A. Axial symmetric extension (X>Y=Z) or Prolate uniaxial
B. Axial symmetric shortening (X=Y>Z) or Oblate uniaxial
C. Plane strain (X>Y=1>Z) or Triaxial ellipsoid
Flinn Diagram
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Strain Measurement from Outcrop

= gap
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STRESS vs. STRAIN
Relationship Between Stress and Strain
Evaluate Using Experiment of Rock
Deformation
Rheology of The Rocks
Using Triaxial Deformation Apparatus
Measuring Shortening g g
Measuring Strain Rate
Strength and Ductility
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C
M
P
a
)
Repture
400
300
Yield
Strength
Ultimate
Strength
Yield Strength
After Strain
Hardening
D
A
E
B
Stress Strain Diagram
2 3 4 6 1
S ( %)
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
i
n

MRepture
Strength
5
100
200
Strength
Strain (in %)
A. Onset plastic deformation
B. Removal axial load
C. Permanently strained
D. Plastic deformation
E. Rupture
140
130
2000
25C
Effects of Temperature and Differential Stress
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
D
if
f
e
r
e
n
t
ia
l

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

M
P
a
300
200
100
70
20
CrownPoint Limestone
40
60
80
1500
1000
800C
700C
500C
300C
500 D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
i
n

M
P
a
)
25 C
Strain, percent
5 10 15
0
Strain (in %)
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Deformation and Material
A. Elastic strain
B. Viscous strain
C Viscoelastic strain
(Modified from Park, 1989)
C. Viscoelastic strain
D. Elastoviscous
E. Plastic strain
Hookes Law: e = /E, E = Modulus Young or elasticity
Newtonian : = , = viscosity, = strain-rate
Effect increasing stress to strain-rate
(Modified from Park, 1989)
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Stress Strain
Limitation of The Concept of Stress in Structural Geology
No quantitative relationship between
t d t t i stress and permanent strain
Paleostress determination contain
errors
No implication equation relating
stress to strain rate that causes the
deformation
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