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Your English teacher has asked you to write a story.

Your story must have this title.


An exciting journey.
Write your story in about 100 words.
Audioscript
Harry Oh, thats not so good then. What about
clubs Have joined any?
Ella
Harry
Ella
Harry
Ella
Harry
Cood idea, then you can go to university
the year alter and do a Spanish degree.
Youll be much better than everybody else.
1 love la nguages but 1 wa nt to study them
as a hobby. I'm hoping to do chem istry at
u niversity.
They do a good chemistry course at my
university. Why dont you try the re?
Thanks, but Im consideri rig applying to a
few universities abroad.
Really Where are you thinking ofi
Ive been looking at universities in the US
or maybe in Canada.
Ella I was in the photography club and the art Ella
club, but thev used IO Illt Harry
Harrv TOat's a rna I shame I th in k Il I join the
What about Spain?
Well, my Spanish is good, but it isnt
that good. I couldnt study chemistry in
Spanish at the moment.
film club when I go to universit v. Ella After a year in South America you might
be able to !
Harry
Ella
Harry
I dont think so.
Well, Im sure wherever you go you'll have
a great time!
Thanks ! Im sure I will too !
bul Reference
Unit 1
Holidays
by air / land / rail / roail ip
taxi (rank)
Unit 2
Hobbies and leisure
abroad
accommodation
backpack
baggage
brochui e
camp(ing)
campsite
capital city
cabin
car
catch
change
check in / out (v)
checkiii (n)
coach
customs totficerJ
terminal
traffic (jam / lights)
train
tram
underground
ve1a icle
voyage
archaeology
camera
chess
club
collecI (or) / collection
computer
cookery
dancing
cru I se (ship)
tacit it res
foreign
guest (house)
guide (book)
hotel
immigration
luggage
on h oliday / vacation
reserve / reset vatioii
safari
sighlseei rip
suitcase
sunbath Ing
tent
visa
visit(or)
youth hostel
Travel and transport
(aero)plane
(bi)cycle / bike
(bus) service
airline
airport
board (v)
boarding pass
boat
bus (station / stop)
cyclist Cou ntryside
scooter
drama
drawing
dressmak ing
fiction
keep fit
gal let y
guita i
jogging
join in
keen on
member(ship)
iiiodel
museu in
music
paint(rug)
photogi aphy
playing cai ds
wildlife
Education
arithmetic
biology
certificate
chemistry
class(room)
coach
col lege
composition
course
curriculum
degree
desk
diploma
economics
dea r
deposit
(at a) discouiit
pullover
put on
PyJ
educate / education exchange rat ncoat
essay (in)expensive shirt
geography wire shoe
li istory luxui y shorts
handw riti iig money silk
homework order size
insti uctor
Py
skii I
IT price sleeve(less)
labor atoi y i easoiiablo siriart
language receipt sock
leai n(er) rec1uce(d) stockings
lect ure(r) reserve sit it
lesson return sweater
mark sale(s) sweatsli irt
mathematics / maths save swiiniiiiiig costume
music soil T-slurt
physics take off
primary school O/ hS
professoi bloii se tights
pupil boot 1tdCkSU11
qualify / qualification bra ti ainers
regl stei casual trousers
rev ise coat sweatshirt
science collar sw Pursuit
secondary school cotton ti y on
state school dress u ndei wear
subject elegant wear (out)
study fashionable wool(ten)
technology
undergi aduate
fasten
fit (v)
Accessories
university formal melt
get dressed bi acelet
Unit 3 go with eari ing
Unit 4
Animal parts
beak
claw
Weather
Shopping
bargain
buy
cash
change
cheap
cheque
complai ii
cost (n and v)
credit card
jacket
jeans
jumper
leather
match
water ia1
oldfashioned
pants
pattern
plastic
pocket
glove
hat
glasses
handbag
liaiidkeichief
jewellery
necklace
scan I
fur
hair
hoof
paw
skin
tail
tooth
wing
,4nimals
bii d
cat
clii inpanzee
8
dolphin
duck
elephant
hsli
gi raffe
horse
insect
kitten
lion
monkey
mouse / mice
P"P2y
r a b b i t
shark
snake
spidei
ta i I
tiger
whale
zebra
Parts of the body
a1kte
chest
elbow
eye
finger
foot
trait
hand
head
mouth
nail
neck
nose
shoulder
skin
stomach
thumb
toe
tooth / teeth
Films
act(ion)
actor / actress
adventure
aninn ation
cartoon
comedy / comedian
costume
documentary
fantasy
film (iriaker / star)
(computer) graphics
hero / heroine
historical (dra ma)
horror
i oinantic
scene
science fiction
screen
speci a I effects
star
I laril ler
western
Unit S
Health and sport
acne
cut down on
diet
1ee1 better / il I / sick
ht(ness)
get better / worse
give up
hurt
injure
keep fit
medicine
recover
stress
take eXI Cue
take up
6p OI I S
athlete / at hletics
baseball
basketball
bat
boxing
champion
coach (n and v)
diving
football
goal
golf
gym(nastics)
helmet
hit (n and v)
(ice) hockey
horse riding
iceskating
jogging
judo
kick (n and v)
mask
match
motor racing
net
player
prac lice / practise
racket
referee
riding
rugby
running
sail(ing)
score
scubadiving
skiing squash
stick (n)
surfing
swim ining
tabletennis
take part (i n)
tennis
tracksu it
tra in (ing)
volleyba 11
water skiing
Sports places
court
pitch
stadium
track
Unit 6
Places to live
apartment (block)
bungalow
cast I e
city (centre)
cottage
(block of) flats
palace
town (centi e)
village
Parts of a home
balcony
basement
bat laroom
bedroom
ceiling
eel lar
chimney
corridor
dining room
fence
garage
gate
gi ound (floor)
kitchen
lavatory / toilet / WC
living room
lounge
patio
roof
showei
sitting room
stairs
st udy
Unit 7
Entertainment
audience
ballet
lianc1
ci rcus
comedy / coinedian
concert
costume
dance
drain a
entrance
exhibition
exit
festival
(classical / jazz / rock /
folk) music
interval
opera
orchestra
performance
ri
y
poem
review
scene
stage
star
Unit 8
Things in the home
air-conditioning
armcliair
blanket
bookshelf
carpet
chest of d rawers
cooker
cupboard
curtain
cushion
dish(washer)
dustbin
fan
fork
freezer
fridge
frying pan
furniture
handle
iron
jug
kettle
knife
lamp
microwave (n)
mug
oven
pan
pillow
plate
i efrigerator
saucepan
shelf
sink
spoon
table(cloth)
tap
towel
vase
washbasin
washing machine
wastepaper basket
Weather
blizzard
boiling
centigrade
cloud(y)
cool
cold
degrees
drought
dry
flood
forecast
frost
fg/ 8yJ
freezing
gale
hail
heat
hot
humid
hurricane
ice / icy
light ning
inild
rain(y)
shower
snow(y)
snowfall
storm(y)
sun(ny) / sunshine
temperature
thermometer
thunder(storm)
tornado
wet
wind(y)
Unit
TeChnoloqy
calculator
CD / CDRom / CD player
computer
connect(ion)
digital
clisc / disk
DVD (player)
electronic(s)
email
equipment
(the) Internet
invent(ion)
IT
keyboard
laptop
laser
machine
mobile phone
mouse (mat)
network
online
print(er)
prograiri(me)
screen
software
switch on / off
turn on / off
Work and jobs
architect
artist
athlete
banker
businessman /
businesswoman
butcher
cameraman
captain
cai penter
chef
chemist
clerk
cook
dancer
dentist
designer
detective
director
disc jockey
diver
doctor
engineer
farmer
fireman
(green)grocer
hairdresser
instructor
interpreter
journalist
judge
lawyer
lecturer
libraiiaii
manager
mechanic
model
musician
novelist
nurse
officer
photographer
pilot
policeman / policewoiua n
/ police officer
politician
postman
presenter
producer
reporter
sailor
salesman / saleswoman
scientist
secretary
shop assistant
soldier
taxi driver
teacher
waiter / waiti ess
writer
Unit 10
Family members
aunt
brother
child
cousin
ddUhter
father
grandchild / daughter /
father / mother / parent
/ son
mother
nephew
niece
sister
son
uncle
sand
scenery
sky
spicy
spoonful
sugar
sweet
Unit 14
Communicating
address
Personality adjectiv$ soil
bossy wild (life)
brave
vegetable
vegetarian
by post
call
chat
clever
cowardly
cruel
fun ny
genei oiis
gentle hard
working intel
ligeiit jealous
keen
kind
lazy
lucky
patient
pleasant
polite
positive
punctual
realistic
reliable
rude
selfish
serious
sociable
stupid
Unit 11
Unit 12
Food and drink
apple
banana
bar
biscuit
bitter
bowl
bread
butter
can
carrot
cereal
cheese
chicken
cup
curry
dessert
dish
fish(y)
fruit (juice)
grape
hot
lemon
menu
milk
nut
oil
Ways of cooking
bake
barbecue
boil
fry
grill
roast
Unit 23
TV and media
advert / advertisement
cameraman
channel
chat show
commentator
DJ (disc jockey)
documentary
editor
journalist
ma gaziiie
news(paper)
paparazzi
photographer
presenter
programme
quiz
reality TV
reporter
communicate /
communication
email
message
parcel
postcard
ring up
ttele)phone
text (message)
Personal feelings
angry
annoyed
anxious
ashamed
bored
cheerful
confident
curious
delig hted
depressed
clisappointed
embarrassed
excited
ft ightened
glad
guilty
happy
jealous
The natural world onion
bottle bank orange
climate (change) packet
continent pasta
earth pastry
environment pea
land raisin
litter recipe
petrol rice
planet salt(y)
plant slice
pollution sour
rainforest
series
soap oper a
studio
television
weather forecast
keen
lonely
miserable
nervous
positive
reasonable
i ealistic
relaxed
sad
satisfied
serious
surprised
tired
pay
prove
paid
proved
paid
proved
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
repny repaid repaid
rethilJk rethought rethought
rewl ite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
rite
ring
rode
rang
ridden
rung
risc rose risen
ri n ran run
saw
say
see
sawed
said
saw
sawn
said
seen
seek sought sought
sell
seit
set
sold
sent
set
sold
sent
set
sew sewed sewn, sewed
mana ference
Irregular verbs
Infinitive Past tense Past participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was/ were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
lei1cl bent bent
bet bet, betted bet, betted
bid bid bid
binrl bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
hreed bred bred
Li i ig brought brought
Lroadcast broadcast broadcast
li i Id built built
lurn burnt, burnt,
burned burned
burst burst burst
hust bust, bust,
busted busted
buv bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
biy dug dug
hwe dived divel
do did done
dra\v drew d rawn
J rean1 dreamt, dreaant,
dreamed dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall
feed
fell
feJ
fallen
fed
feel felt felt
Grammar Reference
I nfinitive Past tense Past participle
hht fought fought
fi nJ found found
flee tied tied
fling flung flun
fly flew flown
f0rlirl forbade, forbidden
forbad
forecast forecast forecast
foresee
forget
foresaw
forgot
foreseen
forgotten
for we forgave forgiven
forgo forwent forgone
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got got;
(L/ 5) gotten
g've gave given
go went gone
grinJ ground ground
gi ow grew grown
hang hung,
hanged
hung,
hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
\ue hid hidden
hit hit hit
l1oId held held
hirt
keep
hurt
kept
hurt
kept
kneel knelt; knelt;
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant, leant,
leaned leaneJ
leap leapt, leapt,
leaped leaped
learn learnt, learnt,
learned learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
Infiiitive Past tense Past participle
light lighted, lit lighted, lit
lose lost lost
nakc made made
meal1 meant meant
nen met met
inislay inislaid inislaid
inisleal misled misled
i1isrcad misread misread
nJlsspcll misspelt, misspelt,
misspelled misspelled
iJistake mistook mistaken
otdo outdid outdone
outgrow outgrew outgrown
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overheai overheard overheard
overpay overpaid overpaid
override overrode overridden
cvcrrrin overrun overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversleep overslept overslept
overtake overtook overtaken
overtlJ rowoverthrew overth rown
Infinitwe Pasttense PastparticipleJ nhnitive Past tense Past participle have pnst tense (all persons)
shake
shel
shook
shed
shaken
shed
tear
tell
tore
told
torn
told
had Id
you'd
hadn't
shine shone shone think thought thought etc.
slJoe shod shod throw threw
thrown
do present tense
slool shot shot thrust thrust
thrust
I do I don't
slow showed shown, tread trod
trodden
you do youdon't
showed uiJrJcrstand understood
understood
hedoes he doesnt
shrink shrank, shrunk unlo undid undone
she does she doesn't
shrunk upset upset upset
it does it doesn't
shit shut shut wake woke woken
we do we don't
sing sang sung wear wore worn
you do you dont
sulk sank sunk weep wept wept
theydo they dont
sat wet wet, wet,
slain wetted wetted
do past tense (all persons)
slept
slid
win
wiiJ rl
won
wound
won
wound
dit didn't
be do have
slung wi ttbraw w'lthdrew withdrawn
present being doing having
slunk
slit
with hoI rl
vrite
withheld
wrote
withheld
written
participle
past participle been done had
smelled smelled
sew sowed sown, sowed
speak spoke spoken
speeded speeded
spell spelt, spelt,
spelled spelled
spend spent spent
spi II spilt, spilt,
spilled spilled
spi iJ spun spun
spit spat spat
sjlit split split
s;oil spoilt, spoilt,
spoiled spoiled
sjrcal spread spread
sjrii1 sprang sprung
stancl stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
stuig stung stung
sti iJ k stank, stunk
stunk
strile strode
strike struck struck
stii rg strung strung
sti we strove striven
swear swore sworn
swee| swept swept
swell swelled swollen, swelled
swinJ swam swuin
swii swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
Be, do, have
be preseit tense
I ain I'm
you are you're
he is he's
she is she's
it is its
we are we're
you are you're
they are they're
he past ten se
I was
you were
hewas
she was
it was
wewere
you were
theywere
have present tense
I have Ive
you have you've
he has he's
she has she's
it has it's
we have weve
you have you've
they have they've
Negative
I'm not
you'renot/ youaren't
he's not/ he isn't
she'si1ot/ she isn't
its not/ it isn't
were not/ we aren't
you're not/ you aren't
they're not/ theyarent
I wasnt
you weren't
he wasn't
she wasn't
it wasnt
we weren't
you weren't
they weren't
I havent/ Ive not
you haven't/ you've
not
he hasn't/ he's not
she hasn't/ shes not
it hasn't/ it's not
we haven't/ weve not
you havent/ you've not
they haven't/
theyve not
The negativefull formsareformed
byaddingnot.
$uestionsinthe present aidpast
thesubject:
am I? isnt he?
'osI? werent we?
do I ? didn't I ?
hcve I ? hadn't I hey?
etc.
Auxiliaryverbs
Dois usedtoformquestionsand
negativesinthepresent andpast
simple. Notethat theauxiliaryverb
andnot themainverbshowsthe
negativepasttense
5he washed.
5he didnt wash.
Have is usedto form the perfect tenses:
I haventfnished.
Hcs he arrived yet?
Theyhadnt seen each other for
a ton time.
Beisusedtoformthecontinuous
tensesandthepassive:
Im studying Italian.
\Ye were watching TV.
Verbs
Regular verbs: the si inpletenses
Present simpie
I/ we/ you/ they work
he/ she/ it works
Past simple
I/ we/ you/ they/ he/ she/ it
worked
Futuresimple
I/ we/ you/ they/ he/ she/ it
will work {he'll work)
Present perfect
I/ we/ you/ theyhaveworked
(I'veworked)
he/ she/ it hasworked
(she'sworked)
Past perfect
I/ we/ you/ they/ he/ she/ it
hadworked(theyd worked)
Conditional
I/ we/ you/ they/ he/ she/ it
would work (I'dwork)
do not work (don't work)
does not work (doesn't work)
did not work (didnt work)
will not work (won't work)
havenotworked
(haven'tworked)
hasnotworked
(hasn't worked)
hadnot worked
{hadn'tworked)
wouId not work
(wouIdnt work)
DoIwork?
Does hework?
Didtheywork?
Will hework?
Hassheworked?
Hadtheyworked?
WouIdyou work?
Regular verbs. the conti nuoustenses
0T The continuoustensesaresometimes calleJ the progressivetenses.
Present continuous
I ainworking (I'mworking)
you/ we/ theyareworkin
8
(you're working)
he/ she/ it isworking
(hes working)
Past continuous
I/ he/ she/ it was working
we/ you/ they were working
Future continuous
I/ we/ you/ they/ he/ she/ it
will beworking
{hell be workin)
amnot working
(I'mnot working)
are not working
(aren'tworking)
is not working (isnt working)
wasnot working
(wasn't working)
were not working
(weren't working)
will not beworking
(wont be working)
Areyouworking?
Isheworking?
Was he working?
Were you working?
Will hebeworking?
TaI ki in ahout the present
You usethe present continuous
totalk about anactionthat is
happeningnow:
Y/ ere waitin$for a train.
\Yhat are you doin$?
5/ es / / stewing to the radio.
to talk about somethingthat is not yet
finished, evenif you are not d0i ngit at
the moment when you are taIking:
Imlearning the$uitar.
Hes writing a book about fashion.
with always, to talk about something
that happensoften, andthat you find
annoying:
ties atwoys asking to borrow money.
5hes always phoning her friends late
at night.
N0Tr Some verbs are not used inthe
continuous tenses, for example need,
want, know, hear, smell, agree, seem,
appear, understand, etc. These verbs
refer to astate, not an action:
I need a holiday.
She hates the new house.
Theylove Indianfood.
lie wants to bealone.
Do you kriow Lucy Johnston?
Other verbs are used in the present
continuous when they refer to an
action, and the present simple when
they refer to a state:
5hes tasting thecheese.
firecheesetastessalty.
Hes being noisy today.
Hes a notsy dog
that areyou thinking about?
Do you think I should leer ve?
You use the present simple
to talk about a permanent situation
He lives in 5cotlond.
5he works th local government.
to taIk about somethingthat isalways
true:
Oranges dont gro vv this Jo r north.
What temperature does wolerJ reeze at?
totalk about thingsthat happen
re u la rl
5hegoes to yoga every Mondoy.
don 'I o ten go to the theatre.
Ta I king a bout the past
You usethe past simple
to talk about an action that took place
in the past:
- Heturned round, dropped theba$ and
ron o\ 'oy.
I didnt write to her, but I rang her.
there did you stay in Glasgow?
NOTF Often a specific ti me is mentioned:
- Did you see Rory yesterday?
to talk about a state that continued for
sometime, but that is now finished:
I went to sc hool in I reland.
D id she rem ly work there J or ten y ears?
totalk about actionsthat happened
regularly inthe past:
I hey oJlen played chess together.
5he cilways won.
We alwa ys went to Devon Jor our
summer holidays when I was a child.
You can also usedto for actions that
happened regularly or continued for some
time i nthe past:
I / sed to / / / e chocolate, but I don't eat
it now.
Did you use ta live i n Australia?
Yori use the present perfect
totalk about somethingthat happened
duringaperiodof time that isnot yet
fi n islied:
The train has been lotethreetimes
this week.
Hestill hasnt visited her
when the time is not mentioned,
or is not i in porta nt:
when the action finished i n the past,
but the effect is still felt in the present
ties lost his wallet
(and he still hasnt found it).
with for and since to show the d u ration
of an action or state up until the
present:
inBritish Englishwithjust, ever,
a I ready a nd yet:
I vejust arrived.
Have you ever been here be]ore?
Hes a trendy packed his suitcases.
Havent you[wished yet?
You usethe past continuous
to talk about something that was
already in progress when something
elsehappened-
The telephone ran$ while we were
having dinner.
has it raining when you leJt the
house?
noTr Aswith the present
continuous, thistensecannot beused
withstate' verbs:
jamies cake tasted delicious.
[x o+ was tasting)
You usethe past perfect
totalk about somethingthat happened
beforeanother action inthe past:
YYhen I ot ta the airport,
the plane had already left.
- They hadjust bou$ht aflat
when]oe lost his job.
You usethe past perfect continuous
to talk about an activity that went on
for a period of time further back i nthe
past than something else:
M y finnds were dirty beca use I had
been digging thegarden.
5he hadnt been working at theshop
very long when they sacked her.
Ta I ki ng aborit the fritu re
There are several ways of tal king about
thefuture.
You use begoingtowith the infinitive
to talk about what you intend to do in
the future:
Im yoing rosee afilm tonight.
W/ ro/ oreyorr going toda whenyou
leave school?
to makepredictions basedonapresent
situation'
It'saImost J 0am. We'regoi/ / g/ omiss
the train.
You use the future simple
(will with the infi n it we)
to talk about adecisionthat you make
asyou arespeaking:
Its warm in here. Ill open a window.
I ll have the salad, please.
to tn I k about what you know or thin k
will happen in the future (but not about
you r own intentions or plans):
5hell be25 on her next birthday.
1t/iJf he pass tire exom , do you I hin k?
This job wonI take l ong.
for requests, promises, and offers:
Will you buy some milk on your
wey horne?
Well be back soon, dont worry.
I ll help you with your homework.
You use the present conti nuous
to ta I k a bout futu re pla ns where the
ti me is mentioned:
lie's]lying to Thailand in June.
that areyou doing this weekend?
I m not itrfing my new job till next
Monday.
You use the present simple
to talk about future planswhere
something has beenofficiallyarranged,
for exainpieonati metable or
progra inme:
be leavePia$tie aI 10 end arrive in
London aI 11.50.
5chool starts on 3rd 5eptember.
to refer to a future ti me after when,
as soon as, before, until, etc.
Plug rue as soon as you hear any news.
I ll look aJter 7imuntil you get back.
Youll remember Dito when you see her
Cond it iona Is
Sentences with i/ express possibilities.
somethingthat isalwaystrue or
wasnlwaystrueinthepast(zero
conditional):
- If you pour oil on water, it floats.
Present simple in both parts of the
sentence.
(first conditional) possibleit might
happeninthefuture:
If I win IOO, I will take you to Paris.
If I pass the exam, Ill go to medical
school.
Present tense after / / , future tense in
the mainclause.
(second conditional) improbable it is
u n I ikely to ha ppen in the futu re:
I f I non i00, I would take you
to Pens.
I f I passed the exam, I won/ dgo / o
medical school.
Past simple after i/ , conditional tense
in the main clause.
Mod a I verbs
Ability
cai could be afile to
Ciii heswim?
My sister could read when she wasJon.
I couldnt ]ind iny shoes this morning.
I could ha ve run J aster, bet I didnt want
to get tired.
5hehas not been ableto walk since the
accident.
tiewas ableto speak to Tracey beJ ore
sheleJt.
\ YiI l people beableto liveon themaon
one day
Possibility
cohid may in ight can
ould/ Migh I you heve leJt it on the bus?
- 5he miiy/ miglit/ coiiJd be ill. I ll phone
her.
I may ha ve/ migh I have
I heshop.
Liz might/ may know where it is.
I riiight/ may not go i] ltn tired.
He might ha ve enjoyed thepart y iJ hed
gone.
Permission
can cou lJ n1ay
Can wecomein?
Could wepossibl y sts y at your[lat?
5taJJ rnay taketheir breok between 12
and 2. forma[
- May I sit here? forma[
Prohibition
can not n1ny not must not
You cant get up until youre better.
You mustnt tell anyone I m here
Crockery may not be taken out oJ ftse
canteen. (written)
You must not begin until I tell you.
/ ormo
Obligation
hnve (got) to must
All visitors must report to reception
on nrrvn/ .
I iriust get thot letter written today.
Do you have to writeyour age
on theJorrn?
She had I o wait an hour J or the bus.
You will have to ring back later,
I iri aJro id.
Advice andcriticism
ouglt to should
- Ought I to/ Should I wear ci jacket?
5he ought to/ should get her heir cut.
You ought to/ should havegone
to bed earlier.
Yoti ought noI to/ shouldnt borro w
the car wilhou t asking.
I ought to/ should go on a diet.
I ought to have/ should ha ve osked
her[rst.
No necessity
Jont have to shou Id n't lave
diJ i1't need to need i1't II ave
- You donI have I o cook, we con gel a
tcikeaway.
They didnt have to show their
You shouldnt have bought inc
o present.
I Ie didnt need to have any fillings
at thedentists.
They neednt have waited.
Requests
ca n could will woilJ
Can you help melift this box?
Could you pass me thesalt?
Bill you buy me a puppy, Dad?
Y/ ouI dyou post thisletter for me,
please?
Could and would are more formal
than can and will.
Dffere and suggestions
sha11 w i 11 can
5hall I make you o sondwich?
I ll (I will) drive you to the station.
5hall w'e go now?
Can I help you ?
The passive
Inanactivesentence, thesubject isthe
personor thingthat performstheaction:
Nl asked thieves stol e a void abl e painting
Jrora the m useum last night.
When you makethis into a passive
sentence the object of the verb becomes
the subject:
A valuablepainting was stolen Jrom the
museumlast night.
The passive is made with the auxiliary
verb to be and the past participle of
the verb:
present simple Thepainting is valued
by expens ct 2 m ill ion
dollars.
present
conti nuous
have / get something done
You use have/ get something done witha
passivesense, meaningthat thesubject
arrangesfor someone elsetodothe
action:
She had her house decorated last year.
\Yhere doyouget your hair cut?
Reported speech
Reported (or indirect) speech is the term
used for the words that are used to report
what someone has said.
Itthe reportingverb(say, ask, etc.) isin
the present or present perfect, thenthe
tenseof thesentencedoes not change:
Im$oin$ home.
Bob says hes oing home.
Bob'sjust rofdmehes$oin$home.
last week becomestheweek before/
the previous week, etc.
The modal verbs should, would, might,
could, must, andought toare not
usuallychanged:
Y/ emight get a do$.
Theysaid they migf/ / gel o do .
Reporting requests and commands
When you report a request or an order,
you usually usea to-infinitive:
Pleasewill you wash I hedishes?
Sheasked meto wash thedishes.
Dont eat a!I the cabe!
She told thechildren not to eat
all thecake.
Reportingquestions
Notice that you use if or whether to
report yes/ no questions:
present perfect
past simple
past perfect
past continuous
Other museums have been
warned to take extra care.
Thepainting was kept
in a special room.
The l ock had been broken.
This morning everything
Reporting statements inthe past
Whenyoureport somebody'swordsusing
said, asked, etc., you usuallychan
8
ethe
tensetoonefurther backi nthe past:
9 esea i si in ple I dont know whether
Nell wants an ice cream.
Areyou ready?
5he asked iJ7whether I was ready.
With wh- questions, the wh- word
stays in the sentence:
\ Yhen areyou leaving?
She asked me when I was leaving.
possible was being done to
fiad thethieves,
future 5taJJ at themuseum will
bequestioned tomorrow.
You use the passive
when you want to save new
information until the end of the
sentence for emphasis:
Thepicture was painted by Turner.
when you do not know who performed
the action, or when this information is
not important. It is common in formal
writing, for example scientific writing:
The liquid is heated to 60 and then
filtered.
If you want to say who performed the
action, you use by at the end of the
sentence:
The painting was stol en by m asked
thieves.
It is possible to put a verb that has two
past simple
present
contil1uous
past co itin uoris
present perfect
past simple
past perfect
will
wou I d
can
coul I
hesaid hedidnt know
whether Nell wanted
an icecream.
'5h s ho g o n
. '
Hesaid she was hoping / o
rent a car / / rc/ o/ / o+ing day.
He asked whether she had
brought her licen ce.
I passed my driving test
yesterday.
tie said he had passed his
driving test the day beJ ore.
I ll ringJiorri theairport.
She told me she would ring
Jrom I heairport.
I can pl ay the jlute.
he so id he could pl ay
theflute.
The word order in these sentences
is the same as a normal statement,
not as in a question :
Didyou seethem?
he asked me iJ I had seen them.
Verb patterns
Whenoneverbisfollowedbyanother,
youneedtoknowwhat formthesecond
verbshouldtake. The meaningof the
verbcansometimes makeonepattern
more likely thananother. The following
points can help you to make agood guess:
Manyverbsthat suggest that anaction
will follow, or will be completed
successfully, arefollowed byto do:
(can) aJJord to do sth
agreetodo sth
decide to do sth
hopeto do sth
intend to do sth
objects into the passive:
An Am eric an m il l ionaire gnve the
irtuseurri the painting.
The m useum was given the painting
by an Am eric an m il l ionaire.
Other changes:
I/ you/ webecomeshe/ she/ they, my/
your becomeshis/ her, etc.
Time referenceschange:
tomorrow becomesthe following day,
yesterday becomesthedaybefore,
oJJer to do sth
plan todosth
manage to do sth
ieinember to do sth
I nto do sth (or try dong sI h)
volunteer to do sth
ask (sb) to do sth
expect (sb) to do sth
hel p (sb) to d o sth
need (sb) to do sth
unit (for sb) to do sth
we n 1 [sb) to do sth
would like (sb) to do sth
advise sb to d o sth
al l ow sb to do sth
encourage sb to d o sth
enabl e sb to 4o sth
get sb to do sth
persuade sb to do sth
remind sb to do sth
teach sb to do sth
tell sb to do sth
But notetheseverbs, which havea
similar meaning but adifferent pattern:
tel sb do sth
make sb do sI h
consider doihg sth
think about doing sth
suggest doing sth
recommend doing sth
lookJorwaid to doing sth
succeed in d oing sth
Several verbs that suggest that anaction
is unlikelyto follow, or to becompleted
successfully, arefollowed byan-ing
form, sometimeswithaprepositiontoo:
avoid doing sI h
resist doing sth
put sb oJJ doing sth
save sb (from) do/ ng itd
prevent sb Jrom doing sI h
advise sb against doing sI h
(or advisesb not to do stir)
But note these verbs:
use to dosth
Several verbsthat refertopast events
or actions arefollowed byan-ingform,
sometimeswithapreposition:
ad m it doing sth
cel ebrate d oing sth
m iss doing sth
rem em ber doing sth
regret d oing sth
thank sbfor doiny sth
Verbsthat refer tostarting, stopping
or continuing areoftenfollowed byan
-ing form:
begin doing sth
contin ue doing stti
carry on doing sI h
Jinish doing sI h
put ofJ doing sI h
go on doing sth
start doing sI h
But notethat you canalsosay:
begin I o do sth
continue to do sth
start todo sth
Yerbs meani ngIileand dislike are
usuallyfollowed byan-ingform:
l ike d oing sI h
l ove d oiitg sth
re erdoin$sth
hate d oing sth
d read d oirtg sth
But notethat you canalsosay:
hate todo sth
like to do sth
prefer to do sth
Phrasalverbs
Phrasal verbs are verbs that havetwo
partsaverb (sit, give, look, get, etc.)
and a particle (down, up, after, etc.).
Some phrasal verbs (come down with,
put up with, etc.) have two particles.
sit down give up
look after get alongwith
Manyphrasal verbsareeasyto
understand. For example, if you know
thewordssit anddown, you canguess
the meaningof sit down. But some
phrasal verbsaremoredifficult because
they havespecial meanings. For example,
give up smoking" means stop smoking",
but you can't guess this, even if you know
thewords giveandup.
The four types
Therearefour maintypesof phrasal verb:
Type 1
Phrasal verbs without an object
Please sit down.
J home to $et upearly tomorro.
Inthe dictionary, these verbs are written
likethis: sit down; get up.
Type2
Phrasal verbs that can be separated
byanobject
If the object isa noun, it can go either
after both parts of the phrasal verb or
between them:
5he tried on the red sweater.
5he tried I he red s neater on.
If the object isapronoun, it muS
8
between the two partsof the phrasal verb:
She tried it on. [ or She tried onit.)
Inthe dictionary, thisverb iswritten like
this: trysthon. Whenyouseesthor sb
betweenthetwopartsof the phrasal verb,
you knowthat theycanbeseparatedby
an object.
Type 3
Phrasal verbs that cannot be
separated byanobject
Thetwopartsof the phrasal verb must
go together:
Could you look after my do$ while Im
an holiday? [uoi Could you look my do$
oJter while Im on holid a y? .
Could youlook after it while Im on
holiday? [uoi Could you look it after
while Im on holiday?)
Type 4
Phrasal verbs with three parts
The three parts of the phrasal verb must
go together:
I c ant put up with this noise any m ore.
Nouns
Countable and uncountable
nouns
Mountable nounscanbesingular or
pluraI:
afriendltvvo friends
one bookl Jive books
[UJ
Uncountable nouns cannot have a plural
andarenot usedwitha/ an. They cannot
becounted. It is possibletosaysome rice
but not ariceor two rices.
Abstract nouns like importance,
luck, happiness are usually uncountable.
[!
Some nounshavebothcountableand
uncountable meanings.
cheese coffee paper friendship
[U] have some cheese!
[C] Theysell a varietyof cheeses.
(=types of cheese)
[U] I dont drink much caffee.
(L) She ordered twocoffees.
(=cupsof coffee)
[U] I havenI gel any more paper.
(C) Can you buy mea paper?
(=a newspa per)
[U] T-riendship is more important
than wealth.
[C] None of these were lasting
friendships. [ relationships)
Some nounsareonlysingular. They
cannot be usedinthe plural.
the countryside the doctorS a I JJ 8h
betove walking in I hecountryside.
I mgoing to I hedoctors loday.
Thepart y wasagood laugh.
Other wordsareonlyplural.
jeans sunglasses scissors
You cannot say a sunglasses. To talk about
individual items, you say a pain
Words like headphones, clothes. and
Which is longer, theRhineor the
Danube?
therearetheSeychelles?
Menorca is oneoJ theBalearic I slands.
The indefinite article
You usethe indefinitearticle,
a (an before a vowel sound), when
the other persondoesnot knowwhich
personor thingyou aretalkingabout
or whenyou arenot referringtoa
particular thingor person:
Hes got a new bike.
(I havent mentioned it before.)
Con / borrow a pen?
(Anypenwill beokay.)
You also usea/ antotalkabout atypeor
classof peopleor things, suchaswhen
you describeaperson'sjob:
Shes anaccountant.
You usea/ aninprices, speeds, etc:
$!00 a day
50 cents a pack
70kilometres an hour
three times a week
Noarticle
You do not useanarticlewhenyou are
talkingingeneral:
I loveflawers (all flowers).
honey is sweet (all honey).
Lawyers are well paid (lawyers in
General).
You donotusethewith most names
of countries, counties, states, streets,
iny brothers computer
Spains beaches
When the word already ends in a plural s,
you add an apostrophe after it:
the boys roorris
theSmiths house
The possessive adjectives are my,
your, his, her, its, our, your, their. The
possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his,
hers, ours, yours, theirs. The possessive
question word is whose.
You use possessive pronouns when you
do not need to repeat a noun:
My book is here. Where's yours?
$uantity
Muchisusedwith uncountable nouns,
usuallyin negativesentencesand
q uestions:
I ha veiit got much money leJI .
sentences:
There will bemuch discussion be ore
a decision is made.
Manyisusedwith countable nouns,
usuallyinnegativesentencesand
questions:
There arent m ain tourists here in
December.
Are theremany opportunities Jor young
people?
In affirmative sentences, it is more
formal than a lot of:
goods canonlybeusedinthe plural:
or lakes:
Many people p er to eray at home.
I need to buysome new clothes.
Nounswhich describe groupsof people,
such asthe poor are plural:
Articles
Thedefinitearticle
You usethe definite article, the, when
you expect the personwho islistening
to knowwhich person or thing you are
talking about:
Thank youfor theflowers
(=theonesthat you brought me).
The teacher said rriy essay was the be.st
(=our teacher).
You usethewiththe namesof riversand
groupsof islands:
I mgoing I o Turkey.
a house in Walton Street
Shes Jrom Yorkshire.
Lake Louise
They livein I owa.
or with a person's title when the name is
mentioned:
President Kennedy
a ui I he President oJ the United 5tates
Possessive forms
You can add s to a word or a name to
show possession. It is most often used
with words for people, countries and
animals:
Anns job
thechildren's clothes
themanagerssecretary
thedo$s basket
A lot of or (in/ ormo lots of is used with
countable and uncountable nouns:
A lot of tourists visit the castle.
lies been herelots of times.
I vespent a lot of money.
You need lots of patience ta makemodel
oircro/ / .
Notethat inthesesentences, the
meaning ispositive. Fewand little
without ahaveanegative meaning.
Adjectives
Comparatives and superlatives
To form comparatives and superlatives:
Adjectives of onesyllableadd-er, -est:
cool cooler coolest
high higher highest
Adjectives that already end in -e
only add -r, -st:
nice nicer nicest
Some words double the last letter:
wet wetter wettest
hig bigger biggest
Adjectivesof threesyllablesor more
take more, most:
changeable more changeable
most changeable
interesting more interesting
most interesting
Some adjectives of two syllables are
like cool, especially those that enJ in
-er, -y, or -Iy:
clever cleverer cleverest
Wordsthat endin-ychangeit to-i:
suiny sunnier sunniest
friendly friendlier friendliest
Other adjectivesof twosyllables
are like interesting:
harmful moreharmful
most harmfuI
Some adjectives have irregular forms:
good better best
b4d worse worst
Adjectives with nou ns
Most adjectives can be used before
the noun that they describe or after
a I inki 8rb:
I need a new bike.
This bike isnt new.
I ts an interesting book.
5hesaid I he[lir sounded interesting.
Some adjectives cannot come before
a noun. You can say:
Dont make him hes asleep.
but or: on aslee thild
Someadjectives can only be used
before a noun.
You ca n say:
That was thechief disadvantage.
Adverbs
Comparatives andsuperlatives
The comparative andsuperlative formsof
short adverbsare madewith-er and-est:
fast faster fastest
Thecomparative andsuperlative forms
of most adverbsaremadewith moreand
most:
quickly more quickly most quickly
Some common adverbs haveirregular
comparative andsuperlative forms:
well better best
bndly worse worst
hard harder hardest
little less least
much more most
Adverbs of frequency
You put adverbs of frequency after be and
auxiliary verbs, and before other verbs:
She is always on time for lessons.
He has never ridden a horse.
You can put usually, oftenandsometimes
at the beginning or end of a sentence:
Usually I get up at 7am.
I get upat7amusually.
Prefixesand suffixes
Prefixes
a- o. atypical
ante- bcfor: antenatal[ bfr lirtl)
circu m- arond circumnavigate
{=sail around)
counterproductive
decentralise
disembark, discom
e- using electron 1 rorn in a r ma tion
e com m erce
hexa- n. huegon a shap ii st siiei)
in - i I -, inn -. ii- oi incorrect, invalid. illegal,
illegible, im rnorol, itnpotient, impossible,
irregular, irreI evant
rniscal cul a te, m isund erstood
non- non non-alcoholic, nonsense
non smoker, non-stop
tlllt- more, to a grea ter degree: outdo.
0iit Lttti (= run tauter or 0eiier iha n siiJ
over more tba a r or n a 1 , too in u f . o verca t
o versl eep (= sleep too long)
penta- hv pentagon (= a sha pe ivub tive si4es),
te- again. rewrite, rebuild
4f- of, to or by yourself: 3el] tangh t
sew i- hait. sem ic iicl e, sem ic onsc ious
tl- fa r, over a long distance.
telecommunications, telephoto lens
tra ns- aross, thouyh. transatlantic,
transc ontinental
vice-president
Suffixes
to. acceptabl e, noticeabl e, convertible,
-ance, ence, -ancy, -ency (to =i rown
an action, process or state: appearance,
per[oimance, existence, intelligence,
pregnant y, eJ ]iciency
-ant,-ent (to make noun) a person who doer sth:
assistant, immigrant, student
-illI HH (tn ma fe iou us) a state or a n action:
examination, imagination, oiganmation
-d (to make adjectives) having a particular srat or
quality bored, patterned
-be (to make nouns) a person to whom sth is done
painter, bonkei, d river, teacher
waitress,actress
- f t l f (to ma ke a6 Jectives) having a part rent a r q ualin:
hel pful , useJul , beoutiJul
- h00d (to make couns) 1 a siatc, often durirg
a particular pcrod of tin: 6hjldhaod,
motherhoodz agropwith sth in common
sisterhood, neighbourhood
-ian (to rake rouns) a person who dos sth as a job or
hobby. historian, comedian, politician
-ical (io makeadjectives from noons cnrlirg
in y or re) roanertd with: economical,
mathematical, physical
iriod ernize, general ize
beautiJull y, completed y
-fftI ll (tomake noucs) astate, an action
oa gun i ii' development, arrangement,
excitement, achievement
ness to verouns) astateor quality. kindness,
happiness, weakness
-ology {to mak nouns) the study of a
svh|i. biology, psychology, zoology
-0t (to make roun) a prson who does sth, often as a
i.actor.conductor, sailor
-ous (tomakadjectives) havingaparticular quality.
dangerous, religious, ambitious
cl ockwise, ed gewise
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ACNNOWI6DGMNTS
fIJtiitintioiis i'y: ]aiiette Borniiiai 1 er pp.13, 107; Tint bia 1 for d pp.25, ?b, 6 0:
Mark Dell:in j p.64, 6 9 (weather syni1 o1 s), Sally E1t'ord pp 16 , 33, 8.1. 83, 93:
Job Gosney pp. 11, 14. 20, 22, 6 2, 80. 97; Tim Mai is pp.10. 17, 57, 6 7. 77: Willie
.yn pp.49, 6 8. 70, 82, 99; Myles Ta 1 1 ot pp.6 6 , 90.
Dr-a df or iJI1 1 usti-ationweb.coin pp.29. 52, 73 (suiloi- etc), 87, 95; F:i-ica Burns(
I1lustrationweb.cont pp.18. 78, 79: Jesse Ford)C1/\ pp.81. 108; Chris Ga it utt
)/\renawoi ks.cont pp.72, 91, 10J , Petei- Mac pp.26 , 58, 75 (create), 96 : Glen
McBetli pp.21. 34, 44. 109; MCKIBIttO pp.6 2 (face), 6 5. J00; Clan-e Rollet(
Il1 ustr a tionwe1 .coin pp.55, 89: Robert Sliadbolt p.47 (watch); Magic Totcli
p.6 9 (bar-ometer); Car oIc \er bystJNP Jllusti-ation p.41; Neil We1ib)Debutai I
pp.23, 47 (rae rug car). i 03.
We wcu J4 !ike to hmm tIic(oiIouiiig(a r J cr iiiissieii to i-cpi-cdnc piintoy i;iis: Ataniy
pp.9 (C(F:ric Nat h:in), 3 3 (Art Kowalslcy), 19 (C(D:we Staniboiilis), 20 (13(NigeI
Pavitt(Jo1in Wat-1 ui-ton-Lee Photography), 23 (B)i4iniages premium), 25
(Mario and uci:i(4026 0.coin), 34 (D)A1ex $egrc), 37 (archaeology9oiiy Swan).
37 (Brussels arcadeJlan Dagnall). 44 (iabrice Bcrtex), 48 (3)G1uslain a nd
Mario David ie Lossy(Cii1tui'a), 50 (A(Jeff Gr eenL ei g)8oberr Ha iding Picture
Library Ltd), 30 (0)Steven /\iiisworr1i(Stock Connection Blue), 50 (C(Clii is
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