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Chapter 7: Really Old Stuff

600 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
I. Chapter Overview
I. Chapter Overview
II. Stay Focused on the Big Picture
III. Review of History Within Civilizations
A. The Rise of Islam
B. Developments in Europe & the Byzantine Empire
C. Developments in Asia
D. The Rise & Fall of the Mongols
E. Developments in Africa
F. Developments in the Americas
IV. Review of Interactions among Cultures
A. Trade Networks & Cultural Diffusion
B. Expansion of Religion & Empire: Culture Clash
C. Other Reasons People Were on the Move
V. Technology & Innovations
VI. Changes & Continuities in the Role of Women
VII. Pulling it All Together
VIII. Timeline of major developments

II. Stay Focused on the Big Picture
1. Do cultural areas, as opposed to states or empires, better represent history?
cultural areas: share common culture, no geographical limitations
states: political boundaries
2. How does change occur within societies?
trading, migrations, invasions
internal developments
3. How similar were the economic and trading practices that developed across cultures?
monetary systems
trade routes
trade practices
4. How does the environment impact human decision making?
raiding parties

III. Review of History Within Civilizations 600 1450 C.E.
collapse of Classical civilizations
interactions b/n new states
Silk Routes
Indian Ocean sailors

across Sahara to West Africa
Mediterranean trade
A. The Rise of Islam
7th century
Muslims: followers of Islam
Mohammad: faithful prophet
Allah: God
Quran (Koran): record of Gods words
salvation through submission to will of God
Five Pillars of Islam:
confession of faith
pray five times a day
charity to needy
fasting during month-long Ramadan
pilgrimage to Mecca at least once
jihad: to struggle; to be a better Muslim, against non-believers
prophets: Abraham, Moses, Jesus
all people are equal before God
split: who should succeed Mohammad as leader of faith; Shia & Sunni
Allah Be Praised: Islam Takes Hold
grew up in Mecca in Saudi Arabia
exposed to many beliefs
Mecca: trade routes b/n Mediterranean & Indian Ocean
came into conflict w/ Meccas leaders (polytheistic)
persecuted & threatened w/ death
hijra: fled to Medina in 622 C.E., year 1
returned & destroyed pagan shrines in 630
did not destroy Kaba, focal point of pilgrimage
spread throughout Arabian Peninsula & beyond
Dar al Islam: House of Islam, where Islam was practiced
The Empire Grows as the Religion splits
Mohammad dies in 632
Abu Bakr: became caliph
caliph: political, military, judiciary, & religious leader
theocracy: govt. ruled by divine guidance
caliphate: ruled by caliph
growth of Islam linked to growth of empire
caliphs began to be more like hereditary rulers, but there was no clear line of


Umayyad Dynasty:
after Hasan relinquished title
enlarge Empire
intensify conflict w/ Byzantine & Persian Empires
capital moved to Damascus, Syria
spiritual center: Mecca
Arabic: official language
gold & silver coins: standard monetary unit
conquered subjects encouraged to convert
tax on those who did not convert
extended as far as northern Africa & Spain (e.g. Cordoba)
attacked Constantinople numerous times
Charles Martel: Frankish leader, stopped Muslim advance toward Paris
built the Dome of the Rock
Shiite (Shia): holds that Ali (Mohammads son in law) was rightful heir
Sunnis: leaders should be drawn from broad base of people
downfall of Umayyad:
Shia began to assert themselves more
Abu al-Abbas: descendent of Mohammads uncle
replaced by Abbasid Dynasty in 750 in all areas but Spain
The Abbasid Dynasty: Another Golden Age to Remember
750 to 1258
defeated by Mongols
golden age: early/mid 9th century
Baghdad: new capital
built around trade
idea of credit, receipts
manufacturing: steel
medicine & mathematics
Mohammad al-Razi: massive medical encyclopedia
Battle of Talus River in 751: defeat Tang Chinese Army
fight for control of Silk Road in central Asia
figured out how to make paper
preserving Western culture:
translate Greek & Roman writings into Arabic
Levant (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon): source of fight for control
tolerant, except in Levant
Sufis: Islamic mystics, most effective missionaries
stressed personal relationship with Allah
no standard rituals


Women & Islam: For Better, For Worse
no property/inheritance rights
viewed as property themselves
female infanticide
subservient to men
treated w/ more dignity
some legal rights
equal before Allah
if man divorced, he would have to return dowry
forbidden infanticide
considerable influence w/in home
Khadija: Mohammads first wife, successful businesswoman
Islamic society:
men: permitted to have 4 wives
women: permitted to have 1 man
treated unequally, e.g. testimony in court
restrictions in clothing: veiled in public
over time: more structured, more patriarchal
Decline of the Islamic Caliphates: Internal Rivalries & Mongol Invasions
internal struggles & civil war
differences b/n Sunni & Shia
ethnic differences
destabilize central authority at Baghdad
cut tax revenues
final blow: Turkish warrior slaves revolt
established new capital at Samarra in central Iraq
carving out pieces: Shia dynasty (northern Iran), Seljuk Turks
external foes: Persians, Europeans, Byzantine
1258: Mongols destroyed Baghdad
Muslims flee to Egypt
Ottoman Turks: reunite Egypt, Syria, & Arabia in new Islamic state
B. Developments in Europe & the Byzantine Empire
Middle East: after fall of Rome, before Renaissance
Byzantine Empire: more centralized & organized
Byzantine & Western: Christian, but not in same way
The Byzantine Empire: The Brief Details
Byzantine Empire:
distinctive domes
culture: Eastern cultures

Orthodox Christianity
absolute authority, esp. economy
coined money
527 to 565
restore glory & unity of Roman Empire
trade & arts
Justinian Code: codification of Roman law, kept Roman legal principles alive
flowering of arts & sciences; major buildings & churches
Hagia Sophia
mosaic art form
ambitious plan to reconquer lost provinces of Western half
halted at Italy
bankrupted him
differences b/n Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox:
patriarchs v. pope
sacrament of communion
priests & marrying
local languages
nature of God: as a trinity
placements of icons
1054 C.E.: Pope excommunicated patriarch & vice versa
East: secular empire w/ official religion
West: more religious empire w/ subservient political units
Impact of Orthodoxy on Russia: Feast in the East
9th century: Slavic people of southeastern Europe & Russia converted to Christianity
by St. Cyril, an Orthodox Christin
created Slavic alphabet w/ Greek alphabet
Vladimir: Russian prince from Kiev, abandoned pagan & converted
chose Christina Orthodoxy b/c of no restrictions about eating
Meanwhile Out West: The Franks versus the Muslims
Germanic tribes: throughout western Europe
converted to Christianity quickly
Franks: under King Clovis in late 5th c.
Germany through Belgium into France
converted into Catholicism
capital in Paris
declined after his Cloviss death
solidify western Europe under common culture
unified against Muslim
Charles Martel: led revolt against Muslim in 732
Battle of Tours: defeat Muslims
replaced Frankish Merovingian Dynasty w/ Carolingian Dynasty

son Pepin the Short: chose to have succession certified by pope
Charlemagne: The Empire Strikes Back
after breakup of Roman Empire: no true empire in western Europe
Charles: Pepins son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Holy Roman Empire: upon coronation of Otto the Great in 962
recentralized power
Rome thinks of itself as world center
relatively small to Roman Empire
strong focus on arts & education w/ religious bent
Charlemagne: not absolute rule
feudalism: power in local lords
did not levy taxes
empire not strong & united
Treaty of Verdun in 843: empire split among 3 grandsons
The Vikings: Raiders from the Norse
Vikings from Scandinavia
most successful
beginning around 800
highly maneuverable, multi-oared boats
raiders, merchants, fisherman
settlements: Newfoundland, Canada, inland Russia, northern France
Normans: name for Vikings in France, influence on English language
converted to christianity
Magyars from Hungary
European Feudalism: Land Divided
feudalism: social, economic, & political system
strict hierarchy
top: king, power over kingdom
nobles: exchange military service & loyalty for power over sections
vassals: lesser lords
peasants (serfs): worked the land, tied to land, became highly skilled
fiefs/manors: estates granted to vassals, self-sufficient
agricultural advancements: three-field system (fall, spring, not-seeded fallow harvest)
code of chivalry: honor system, condemned betrayal, promoted respect
land = power
title passed down via primogeniture: to eldest son
artisans chipped away at manor system
emergence of middle class: urban craftsmen & merchants
11th century: re-engaging with world


Height of the Middle Ages: Trading & Crusading
towns w/ wealthy merchants arose
controlled by feudal lands, chartered
burghers: middle-class merchants, politically powerful
great deal of independence, but more independent than manors
alliances: Hanseatic League, economic basis
controlled trade in northern Europe
effects of interdependence of towns:
drive toward nationhood
increase social mobility & flexibility
architecture: cathedrals,
bulky Romanesque style to Gothic style
draw worshippers closer to God
flying buttresses
music became an intrinsic part in ceremonies
Crusades: military campaigns by Christians of 11th through 14th centuries to take
over Holy Land
broaden perspectives of insular people
question organized religion, heresies
founding of universities, scholasticism: reliance on reason (v. faith)
Pope Innocent III: issued strict decrees on church doctrine in 13th c.
heretics & Jews persecuted
fourth, unsuccessful crusade: motivated by greed
Pope Gregory IX: Inquisition: interrogation & persecution process of heretics
punishment: excommunication, exile, torture, execution
church referred to as Universal Church or Church Militant
Thomas Aquinas: famous Christian realist, wrote Summa Theologica
outlined that faith & reason are not in conflict
Bubonic Plague (Black Death):
originally from china
35 million deaths
spread through commerce
obsolete feudal systems
intensified religious hatred, loss of faith
commercial economy, individual freedoms, developing new industries
The Emergence of Nation-States: Power Solidifies
western Europe began to organize along cultural & linguistic lines
emergence of nations
Germany: reigning family died out w/o successor
entered interregnum (time between kings)
decentralized in a group of strong, independent townships & kingdoms
more powerful merchants & tradespeople

England: faster unification
strong monarchy since William the Conqueror
Magna Carta: during rule or King John
reinstated feudal rights of nobles
extended rule of law to growing burgher class
foundation for Parliament: assembly of nobles
House of Lords (nobles & clergy): advise king, legal issues
House of Commons (knights & wealthy burghers): trade, tax
France: formation bound up w/ England
King Hugh Capet: ruled small area in Paris
subsequent kings expanded territory
12th c.: England claim large parts of France
revolts: led to French statehood
Joan of Arc: farm girl, liberate France from England
divinely inspired to lead men into battle
forced British to retreat from Orleans
burned at stake by French
influenced Hundred Years War (1337-1543): Englands withdrawal
Bourbons: series of monarchs, unified France
Queen Isabella: ruler of Castile, one of 3 independent kingdoms
married Ferdinand, heir of Aragon
unite Spain in single monarchy
enlisted Catholic Church as ally
Spanish Inquisition: force non-Christians to leave
peasants split among religion (Christian & Muslim)
What About Russia?
Eastern Orthodox
succumbed to Tatars (Mongos) under Genghis Khan in 1242
cultural rift: split eastern & western Europe
Russian princes of Muscovy expanded Russia
self-proclaimed czar
Moscow: Third Rome
Ivan the Terrible (House of Rurik): mid-1500s, centralized power over Russia
ruled ruthlessly, secret police
C. Developments in Asia
1. China & Nearby Regions
Tang (618-907)
Song (960-1279)
Ming (1368-1644):
Golden Ages

Ming came to power after brief period of domination by Mongol invaders
A Quick Review of the Rise & Fall & Rise & Fall & Rise
Tang Dynasty:
Emperor Xuanzong: expand Chinese territory to Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet,
local warlords gained more power
poetry: daily life
bureaucracy w/ civil service exam
focus on Confucianism
extensive transportation & communication
new business practices: paper money & credit
military garrisons along central Asian trade routes
capital: Xian (Changan)
tribute system
Song Dynasty:
Emperor Taizu
long period of peace & prosperity
feel to Jurchen & Mongols
more practical applications of words: encyclopedias, histories
printing process
bureaucracy w/ civil service exam
focus on Confucianism
under pressure from northern nomads
withdrew to south
capital at Hangzhou: southern end of Grand Canal
build industrial society
moveable types, printed books
population growth, powerful navy
military technologies: gunpowder, compass, watertight bulkheads, sternpost
rudders, junks (Chinese ships)
iron production
rice from Vietnam: fast-ripening, doubling population
Yuan Dynasty:
Mongol dynasty
Ming Dynasty:
restore traditional Chinese Rule
repeat tribute system
Chinese Women: One Bound to Lead, Most Just Bound
Wu Zhao: first & only Empress of China
Tang Dynasty
able ruler, but ruthless towards adversaries & compassionate towards peasants
vast majority: inferior; beauty & femininity
foot binding: keep feet small

Religion in China: Diverse Beliefs
Nestorians, Manicheans, Zoroastrians, Islam
Mahayana: peaceful & quiet existence apart from world
Chan (Zen): meditation & appreciation of beauty
won converts in educated class
persecuted under Emperor Wuzong
Neo-Confucianism in China
borrowed Buddhism
soul & individual
in Song Dynasty
basis for civil service
approach to heavens & role of individual
filial piety, maintenance of proper roles, & loyalty to superiors
2. Japan
4 main islands off coast of Asia
relatively isolated
Yamato: first important ruling family
international connections
leaders in 5th c.
first & only dynasty
emperor a descendant of sun goddess
Shinto: the way of the gods
worshipped kami: nature
become part of kami through rituals & customs
obedience & proper behavior
Cant Get Enough of China? Go to Japan.
6th century: increased Chinese influence
Buddhist missionaries went to Japan
early 7th century: Chinese influence increased again
Prince Shotoku borrowed bureaucratic & legal reforms from Tang
new capital modeled after Tang capital
large rejected Confucianism & civil service
education not as important as birth
Here Come the Fujiwara: At Home in Heian
794: capital moved to Heian
era of Japanese consciousness
power of aristocrats increased
Fujiwara: powerful family, held real power over country
golden age: esp. women, literature
12th c.: power spread among more families
devolved into feudal system

Feudal Japan
1192: Yorimoto Minamoto as shogun (chief general)
daimyo: owners of large tracts of land, below shogun
powerful samurai
part warrior, part nobility
divide lands to lesser samurai
peasants & artisans
Code of Bushido: loyalty, courage, honor
women still inferior
lost any freedom
harsher, more demeaning lives
less of a legal arrangement, but a social arrangement
3. Vietnam & Korea
large scale Chinese campaigns of Tang
Korea became vassal-state of Tang
tributes, Chinese schools & imperial court
royal house & nobility prevented true bureaucracy
spread of Confucianism & Chan Buddhism
Vietnam: less willing to accept
maintained local traditions
active revolts
4. India
Hinduism, Buddhism
The Sultan Ate the Deli? Yes the Delhi Sultanate
Islamic invaders defeat disorganized Hindus
set up shop in Delhi under sultan
1206-1506: Islam spread throughout northern India
theoretically tolerant
individual sultans offended by Hinduism
special tax
destroyed Hindu temples
progress under sultans:
irrigation systems improved
mosques w/ Hindu architects & artists


D. The Rise & Fall of the Mongols
Mongols: nomadic
superb horsemen & archers
rivalries b/n tribes: prevent unification
Genghis Khan (Chingiss Khan): unified tribes in 1200s
1234: invasion of China, beginning of conquests
Mongol Empire:
from Pacific Ocean to eastern Europe
after Khans death: splintered into hordes
Golden Horde: modern-day Russia
Kublai Khan: ruled China
Pax Mongolica: relative peace after establishment of domain
illiterate, assimilated into cultures
Warning! You Are Now Entering a Golden-Age-Free Zone
empire: territory, infrastructure, conquest, not culture
did not force unified religion or way of life
no artistic & scientific advances
allowed exchange/spread of ideas
first pony express & postal system
tax breaks to teachers & clerics
initial raids: stifled cultural growth
Timur Wasnt Timid
leader: Timur Lang (Tamerlane)
conquered India
pulled out later
sultanate restored
Islam grew in India
How the Mongols Did It: No Rest Until Conquest
ruthless warriors, highly organized/mobile
90 miles per day
bows: launched from horseback, far range
motivated: traitors punished, courageous rewarded
stealthy: spies
resistance: destruction of entire village
The Mongol Impact
great diffusers of culture
in Persia: Mongols became Muslim
China: Kublai Khan dismissed Confucian, forbade intermarriage
Chinese not allowed to Mongolize
Russia: didnt unify/culturally develop as quickly as Europe
world trade, cultural diffusion & awareness grew

E. Developments in Africa
early civilizations: Egypt & Carthage in North Africa along Mediterranean
Interaction Kush, Axum, & the Swahili Coast
Kush: southward of Egypt
capital at Meroe
same time as Egypt
ironworks & trade center
decline around 200 C.E.
Axum: after Kush
frequent trade, esp. ivory & gold
converted to Christianity in 4th c.
converted to Islam in 7th c.
Swahili Coast: Bantu-speaking
farmers, merchants, fishermen
trade w/ Muslims
enormous wealth
powerful kingdoms & trading cities
converted to Islam
The Other Side of the Sand: Ghana, Mali, & Songhai
west Africa, south of Sahara
Islamic traders
west Africans searched for salt
Ghana (800-1000 C.E.)
Mali (1200-1450 C.E.)
gold in Africa
Ghana: subjected to a Holy War by Islam
defeated Islamic forces, but declined
Mali: peaceful, converted to Islam
Mansa Musa: Mali ruler
capital at Timbuktu
pilgrimage to Mecca w/ extravagance
Songhai: mid-15th century to 1600 C.E.
Sonni Ali: ruler
cultural center w/ university
The Arts in Africa
oral literature
sculpture, esp. pottery & bronze
Benin (Nigeria): bronze sculpting / clay mold


F. Developments in the Americas
Maya, Incas, Aztecs
Mayan Decline: Where Did They Go?
around 800 C.E.
environmental degradation
overuse of land
political dissension
social unrest
natural disaster
outside invaders
The Aztecs: Trade & Sacrifice
aka Mexica
central Mexico in mid 1200s
capital: Tenochtitlan
expansionist, professional army
heavy taxes & captives
social structure: warriors at top
allowed self-govt., tribute system
roads, trade
women: subordinate public role, can inherit property
human sacrifices
The Incas: My Land is Your Land
in Andes Mountains in Peru
professional army, bureaucracy, unified language, roads & tunnels
human labor, peasants
surpluses, large cities
women: fields, cloth, household
can hold on to property, role in religion
polytheistic, sun god
human sacrifice, smaller numbers
moral quality: reward & punishment
mummified after death
no concept of private property: ruler owned everything
builders, stone cutters, miners
Temple of the Sun: in Cuzco
Macchu Picchu: temples
no writing system
quipu: set of knotted string


IV. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
A. Trade Networks & Cultural Diffusion
world trade
Mediterranean Trade
Hanseatic League
Silk Road
Mongol land routes
b/n China & Japan, India & Persia
Trans-Saharan trade route
better boat/s roads
monetary systems, lines of credit, accounting methods
record keeping & money management
cultural diffusion, Bubonic Plague
Indian Ocean Trade
dominated by Persians & Arabs
connected western India to Persian Gulf to eastern Africa
boats more resilient to large waves
relatively safe (no wars)
sailors married local women
More on the Silk Road
connect China to Mediterranean
used heavily in Mongols
porcelain, paper, military, religions, food
East meet West
More on the Hanseatic League
collection of city-states
in Baltic & North Sea regions
banded in 1241
common trade practices, fight off pirates/foreign govt., establish trade monopoly
results: substantial middle class, large European trade operations, esp. Dutch &
Was There a Global Trade Network?
Europe trade w/ Islamic world & Russia
Islamic world trade w/ Africa, India, China
India trade w/ China & eastern Africa
China trade w/ Japan & southeast Europe
web of connected but independent parts
B. Expansion of Religion & Empire: Culture Clash
Mongol expansion Russia, Persia, India, & China
Germanic tribes into southern Europe & England
Vikings expansion from Scandinavia into England & Western Europe

Magyars push from eastern into western Europe
Islamic Empires push into Spain, India, Africa
Buddhist missionaries to Japan
Orthodox Christian missionaries into eastern Europe
The Playground isnt Big Enough for Two Bullies: Crusaders & Jihad
1096: First Crusade, initiated by Pope Urban
response to Seljuk Turks who took control of Holy Land
some initial success, but Antioch & Jerusalem fell back into Arabs
1204: 4 crusades, failures
further separation b/n Orthodox & Catholic
4th Crusade: Catholics sacked Constantinople
economic & political incentives
put Europe back into sphere of Eastern Mediterranean
fueled trade & exchange of ideas
rediscovery of ancient past
C. Other Reasons People Were on the Move
population growth, e.g. Germanic tribes
cities established as centers of civilization, e.g. Constantinople
pilgrimage: Mecca
V. Technology & Innovations
many: China & India, filtered through Islamic world
Islamic world: paper mills, universities, astrolabe & sextant, algebra, chess, modern
soap, guns & cannons, mechanical pendulum clock, distilled alcohol, surgical
China: gunpowder cannons, moveable type, paper currency, porcelain, terrace
farming, water-powered mills, cotton sails, water clock, magnetic compass, state-run
trade networks move agricultural products
VI. Changes & Continuities in the Role of Women
restrictions based on status
upper most: could overcome status & assume leadership if no male heir
further restricted as status rose
e.g. veiling, foot binding, young age of marriage
nomads: egalitarian
sedentary: great deal of freedom
commanded bride-price
considered valuable source of wealth
Mother of the King: political office
participated in religion
women: less eager to convert to Islam & Christianity


VII. Pulling It All Together
spread & growth of religion
centralization v. noncentralization

Europe Islam India China
strict & patriarchal equality in religion,
separate in mosque
strict patriarchy strict Confucianism
could inherit land &
take oaths of vassal-
age, property
belonged to husband
received half
inheritance of males
child marriages access to dowries,
own businesses
could bring court
case, but not in
testimony: less
sati for widows widow to remain w/
son; no property if
division of labor;
women in textiles
family textile labor silk weaving
Christian monogamy concubines, seclusion
in harems
marriage limited to
caste members
see Islam
education limited to
literate limited education literate, state
education limited to
not recognized all children are seen
as legitimate

veiling veiling purdah: