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Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.0 Introduction

This part will cover all the related concerns and area about the project title: Learning molecular structure in chemistry using augmented reality approach. In this chapter, is all the resources needed for developing this project.

  • 2.1 Learning

    • 2.1.1 Learning definition

Learning is one of the most important activities in which humans engage. In general learning is the core of educational process, although most of what people learn occurs outside the school. Learning defined as changes in behaviour that effect from knowledge or mechanistically as changes in organism that result from experience (Houwer J. D., Holmes D. B. and Moors A., 2013). In other words, learning is defined as an effect of experience on behavior.

  • 2.1.2 Learning style

A learning style is a student’s regular way of responding to and using stimuli in the learning context. Keefe (1979) stated that learning styles as the mixing of individual cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning atmospheres. Stewart and Felicetti (1992) define learning styles as an academic conditions under which student is most likely to learn. Thus, learning styles concern on how they prefer to learn rather what leaners learn.

According to Vester (1998), there are four different types of learning. • Learning type 1: auditive learning (eg: “by speaking and listening“), • Learning type 2: visual learning (eg: by watching or through the eyes”), • Learning type 3: haptic learning (eg: “by feeing and touching”), • Learning type 4: learning through the intellect.

2.1.3 Learning theories

There are many different theories of how people learn. A learning theory is an attempt to define how people learn, thus helping us understand the characteristically complex method of learning (Hill, 2002). There are three main categories in learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism.

  • 1. Behaviourism Behaviourism was mainly developed by the behaviourist school of psychology, B. F. Skinner (Laird 1985, Burns 1995). Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior. For behaviorism, learning is the achievement of new behavior through conditioning. There are two types of conditioning:

    • a) Classic conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus.

    • b) Behavioral or operant conditioning occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system.

This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behaviour.

  • 2. Cognitivism According to Piaget cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes (Fritscher L. 2014). Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person's thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world. According to Piaget, children progress through a series of four key stages of cognitive development marked by shifts in how they understand the world (Cherry. K. 2014). The four stages are:

    • i) Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old)The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. This is the stage where a child does not know that physical objects remain in existence even when out of sight. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7)The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Concrete operations (ages 7-11)As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. For example, arithmetic equations can be solved with numbers, not just with objects.

ii)

iii)

iv)

Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15)By this point, the child’s cognitive structures are like those of an adult and include conceptual reasoning.

3.

Constructivism

2.3 Chemistry

  • 2.3.1 Chemistry definition

According to (Helmenstine A. M), chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Chemistry focus on the properties of substances and the interactions between matter and the reactions involving electrons. Based on (HA Campbell, 1998-2011), chemistry is a science that concerns on the following:-

The composition and characteristic of atoms(elements)

The structure and properties of compounds

The reactions between substances with their energy exchange

The laws that combine these phenomena into a complex system

Understanding chemistry will helps us understand the world around us. Almost everything that we touch, taste or smell is a chemical. Studying chemistry can help us understand about how things actually work.

  • 2.3.2 Chemistry structure

A chemical structure is the combination of molecular geometry, electronic and crystal structure of molecules. Chemistry structure refers based on arrangement of atoms inside the molecule and the bonds that bind the atoms. The structure usually represented using a structural formula. According to (Butlerov A.), a chemical structure is a structure with definite order made by the combination of valency and composing atoms.

2.3.3 Molecular structure in chemistry

According to (Helmenstine A. M.) a molecule structure is a combination of two or more atoms that binds together by a chemical bonds, such as ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Molecular structure is a three dimensional shape or configuration of a molecule and the shape is depend on the spatial orientation of covalent bonds to atoms having two or more bonding partners and can be presented in 2D represantation. There are some important definitions inside the molecular structure:

Molecule, is a neutral group of atoms that are binds by covalent bonds

Diatomic molecule, is a molecule containing only two atoms

Molecular compound, is a compound with molecules as the simplest units

Chemical formula, indicates the number of atoms for each kind of chemical

compound using atomic symbols. Molecular formula, how the atoms’ types and numbers in one molecular compound

The figure 1 below show the example of molecular structure which is water molecule structure. Water consist of small V-shaped molecules with the molecular formula of

H 2 O.
H 2 O.
The figure 1 below show the example of molecular structure which is water molecule structure. Water

(Figure 1)

2.3.3.1 2D molecular strcuture

2D molecular strcuture is a strcuture that presented using 2D diagram usually using letter and line. Figure 1.2 below is and example of 2D strcuture:

The figure 1 below show the example of molecular structure which is water molecule structure. Water

2.3.3.2 3D molecular strcuture

3D molecular strcuture is the real represantation of molecule structure using layout structure and rendering. Figure 1.3 below is an example of 3D structure:

2.3.3.2 3D molecular strcuture 3D molecular strcuture is the real represantation of molecule structure using layout

(Figure 1.3)

2.3.4 Issues in learning molecular strcuture

In education purpose, to visualize the synthesis process, chemist will draw the structures of reactants, draw arrows, symbols and equation that explain the chemical process (Kozma et al., 2000). The chemical representation will be an imagery of particles and their structure will be in two dimensions. These kind or presentation using 2D (Figure 1.1) may not easily understood and chemists need to think visually and present the information more efective through a form of visual display (Larkin and Simon, 1987).

2.3.3.2 3D molecular strcuture 3D molecular strcuture is the real represantation of molecule structure using layout

(Figure 1.1 water molecular structure in 2D)

This is a limitation of such formulas that are drawn on 2D paper screen, whereas molecules strcuture have a 3D shapes. Moreover, to identify gemetric isomers, students are requires to translate a chemical formula into its molecualar structure by visualize the possible 3D configurations and compare these configurations. Therefore, to allow students to understand the concept, a comphrehensive visualization of chemical representation is critical.

2.5 Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality is a technology that enables devices to recognize live objects and then activate video or graphics (Katherine Rosman, 2014). AR is different from Virtual Reality (VR), a visualization technology that has been around for several decades. Unlike VR, AR does not completely replace the real world, rather the real world is supplemented with relevant synthetic information, and thus real and virtual objects coexist in an augmented space (Azuma, 1997). Figure 1 and 2 below is the example of virtual reality and augmented reality.

2.5 Augmented Reality Augmented Reality is a technology that enables devices to recognize live objects and

(Figure 1: Virtual Reality example with virtual chairs and a virtual lamp.)

2.5 Augmented Reality Augmented Reality is a technology that enables devices to recognize live objects and

(Fugure 2: Augmented Reality example with augmented plants.)

Figure 3 below is the Reality Virtuality Continuum (Milgram, P.H Takemura, 1994) the augmented environment is closer to real world, meanwhile virtual environment is totally simulated by computer. Between augmented reality and augmented virtuality is the Mixed Reality environment which is a real scene and virtual scene object are present merge of the scene into one single display.

Figure 3 below is the Reality Virtuality Continuum (Milgram, P.H Takemura, 1994) the augmented environment is

(Figure 3.)

2.5.1 Augmented Reality components Scene Generator

The scene generator is software or device that is use to render the scene. Rendering is not actually a big issues in AR, because only few virtual object need to be drawn, and they did not necessarily have to be realistically rendered in order to serve the purposes of the application

Tracking System

The tracking system is among of the most important problems on AR systems, this is because of the registration system. The objects in the real and virtual worlds must be perfectly aligned with respect to each other, or the illusion that the two worlds exist will be compromised.

Display

The technology for AR is still in development and solutions depend on design decisions. Most of the Displays devices for AR are HMD (Head Mounted Display), but other solutions can be found.

2.5.2

Augmented Reality software

In order to build Augmented Reality application, the following tools are needed:

FLARToolkit(Flash Augmented reality Toolkit), is a code library using flash to build

AR applications. It detects the AR marker using the webcam from device and calculate the position through there dimensional space and generate interactive 3D model display. Papervision3D, is a 3D rendering engine for flash that provides 3D scenes. The

combination of FLARToolkit with papervision3D makes it possible to create an AR system. ARToolKit Marker Generator is used to save marker as a pattern file that is used by

the FLARToolkit to detect the 3D model. Adobe Flex Builder, is used as a tool for coding and designing desktop and Internet applications.

  • 2.5.2 Augmented Reality in education

Nowadays, application designer are using Augmented Reality as an educational purpose. Augmented Reality technology has been used in fileds such entertainment, gaming and

education (Chang G. and Morreale P.) AR is a new growing technology where the computer generated sights and sound modified and improve our real life perspective. AR can be use

through PC or mobile application. The device’s camera will detect the AR tools and generate

3D animation or video to generate learning material. The method implement AR technology in books called AR books. Figure 2.4 below is an example of AR books that help students with their learning.

2.5.2 Augmented Reality software In order to build Augmented Reality application, the following tools are needed:

(Figure 2.4)

SMART (System of augmented reality for teaching) is an example of educational system with was developed in Portugal by Rubina Freitas and Pedro Campos that allow teacher to teach 2 nd grade-level students about the concept about transportation and types of animals. The system consist of three dimensional models and prototypes such as car, track and airplane shown to the whole students.

  • 2.5.3 Why use Augmented Reality?

Children nowadays are surrounded by visual images from the television, advertisements, video games, etc. Within this context, it will be difficult to grab and hold the student’s attention in teaching and learning process just by using textbook methods. The use of visually interactive imagery may improve recall of facts, and improve experimenting with new ideas. In education with Augmented Reality, based on the result of the students' abilities who interacted with AR, it is suggested that students can learn better and remember more information than students who learned from textbooks (Jeong K and Shim Jinwook). Based on another study, it is proposed that students who not good at reading are easy to remember information when they use AR material to learn rather than using textbooks (R. Moreno et al., 2001).

  • 2.3.4 Augmented Reality in chemistry education

According to (Medicherla P. S., Chang G. and Morreale P) a recent study show how chemistry students interact with AR and the physical device and evaluate the result about student perceptions on learning amino acids using these the two representations. The result show even though most of the students like to use AR to learn about amino acids because it was fun, portable, easy to use and allowed students to observe the structure in more detail but others felt uncomfortable of using this new technology and prefer the original method which is textbooks. The application show in Figure 2.5 below is and example of suing both AR marker and physical device.

(Figure 2.4) SMART (System of augmented reality for teaching) is an example of educational system with

(Figure 2.5)

Students can chose from the AR marker or the physical device to learn about the different type of acids.