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Chapter 1
The Problem
Introduction
Today, people are introducing a wide array of baked food such as cake and pastries
displayed in bakeshops, malls and other outlets. But sensitivity to taste and preference are one
the consideration for nutritional value and sanitation and are strong factors with regards to
stability of cupcake products. One of the goals of a product test with consumers is to increase
product acceptance in the actual marketplace.
Cupcakes are small cakes designed to serve one person which may be baked in a small
thin paper or aluminum cup. standard cupcake uses the same basic ingredients as standard si!e
cakes" butter, sugar, eggs and flour. #early any recipe that is suitable for a layer cake can be used
to bake cupcakes. Because their small si!e is more efficient for heat conduction cupcakes bake
much faster than a normal layered cake.
The researchers came up with the idea of formulating a cupcake with the combination of
mango pulp and malunggay e$tract, a uni%ue combination of taste but a nutritious one. &ango
'Mangifera indica( is always available in the market. )t is generally sweet, although the taste and
te$ture of the flesh varies across cultivars. *ome has soft, pulpy te$ture similar to an overripe
plum, while others firmer, like cantaloupe or avocado and some may have a fibrous te$ture. )t
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contains a variety of phytochemicals and nutrients. The variety of mango used in the study is
manga+Cebu.
On the other hand, &alunggay which is very nutritious and known to be a miracle plant
have a big role in people,s health. The &oringa tree is very common in )ndia and *outh+east
sia. The two most commonly used parts of &oringa are the leaves and the young pods.
'Barbara, -../(
This e$perimental formulation of cupcake with a combination of a sweet and bitter taste
aim to prove that the two contrasting taste will find their way to complement each other and
produce a nutritious product that will fit into the modern market.
0e intend to research the acceptability of cupcake using mango and malunggay. By
ad1usting the amount of our variables use in the mi$ture, which was mango and malunggay, we
will create a formulation as samples to test. These samples consisted of varying amounts of
mango and malunggay. The criteria of the survey were the acceptability of flavor 'taste and
aroma(, te$ture 'appearance( and color. 0ith the results of the sensory test, we were able to
determine which formulation was the most acceptable in terms of its sensory attributes and
which among the samples was the most preferred by the respondents.
*tatement of the Problem
3
The study seeks to develop a formulation of mango+malunggay cupcake was highly
acceptable and most preferred by the consumer. *pecifically, it seeks to answers the following
problems.
1. 0hat is the level of acceptability of the four formulations mango+malunggay
cupcake in terms of "
2 roma
2 Color
2 Taste
2 Te$ture
-. 0hich of the four formulations of mango+malunggay cupcake were preferred by
the respondents3
Conceptual Framework
4
)ndependent variable 4ependent variable


Figure 1. Conceptual framework for the determination of cceptability and Preference of
the 5our 5ormulations of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake.
The acceptability of the four formulations was based on the result given and what
samples is preferred by the panelists. The final products were assessed by 6. panelists on a 7+
point hedonic scale with 1 being the 8dislike e$tremely, and 7 being the 8like e$tremely,. The
aroma, color, taste and te$ture of the 6 formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by
statistically linking, i,e, mapping the liking of the respondents. )t could actually drive out
preference of the panelist to get the most preferred formulation.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
5our formulations
of &ango+
&alunggay Cupcake
Consumers
acceptability of the
&ango'mangifera
indica),&alunggay
'Moringa oleifera)
cupcake in terms
of"
roma
Color
Taste
Te$ture
The most preferred
formulation of
&ango+&alunggay
Cupcake
5
The study aimed to determine the consumer acceptability and preference ratings of the
four formulations of mango+malunggay cupcake. )t focused on the development of &ango+
&alunggay Cupcake, determining the acceptability of the different samples presented to attain
the most desirable product formulation based on the result given by the panelist. The aroma,
color, taste and te$ture of the cupcake were the attributes to be sub1ected to hedonic scale rating.
The panelists would be the 6
th
year 5ood Technology students of Bukidnon *tate 9niversity,
&alaybalay City who had taken *ensory :valuation sub1ect and who are familiar with the
sensory evaluation test.
Significance of the Study
The researchers believe that the study was relevant to the consumers and the panelists. )t
aims to promote new flavored cupcake that was not yet available in the market.
The study benefited by the panelist who rated the product were used the hedonic scale
rating, and if they like the product had a better acceptance to consumer also.
The consumer would have new options to choose from other flavored cupcake products if
this will be sold in the market.
efinition of !erms
6
The following terms used in the study were defined for the better understanding of the
readers.
Food "ccepta#ility test. 5ood cceptability test is often referred to as liking, preference,
en1oyment, selection and consumption of a food or drink or food %uality. 5ood acceptability
represents different forms of behavior to food products. ';uirien :.. van Oirschot and <eith ).
Tomlins, -..-(.
Color. Color is a visual attribute of bodies or substance that depends on the spectral
composition of the wavelengths stimulating the retina and its associated neural structure
'0agnalls *tandard 4esk 4ictionary, vol.1, 177=(.
Cupcake. Cupcake is a small cake designed to serve one person, which may be baked in a
small thin paper or aluminum cup. s with larger cakes, frosting and other cake decorations,
such as sprinkles, are common on cupcakes '*immons, 17>?(.
Formulations. 5ormulation in this study is a mi$ture of ingredients prepared in a certain
way and used for a specific purpose '0agnalls *tandard 4esk 4ictionary, vol. 177=(
$edonic Scale %ating. @edonic *cale Aating is a rating scale and a test procedure. The
scale has nine points, and these points are given word description ranging from Bdislike
e$tremelyC to Blike e$tremelyC. 5urther, the instructions are designed to direct the test sub1ect,s
attention to his feeling about the foods rather than the food itself 'Peryam, 17D-(.
Malunggay &Moringa oliefera.). &alunggay is the most widely cultivated species of the
genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. :nglish common names
include MoringaE drumstick tree, from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed podsE
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horseradish tree, from the taste of the roots which resembles horseradishE or ben oil tree, from the
oil derived from the seeds. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to
appro$imately 1.m in height 'Courter F Ahodes, 17?7(
Mango 'Mangifera indica(. &ango refers to a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus
&angifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family
nacardiaceae. This fruit is popularly known to be yellow in color obtained addictive taste
through its meticulous harvest procedure '*usser, -..1(
'anelist. Panelist is a person serving on a panel. panelist can be a member of a
committee or in legal arenas, 1ury '5arle$, -.11(. )n this study there are 6. panelists who rated
the sample formulation using the 7+point hedonic scale rating with 1 being the 8dislike
e$tremely, and 7 being the 8like e$tremely,.
'aper cup is an accordion+sided paper or foil cup in which cupcakes and muffins are
baked and then removed for individual serving. )t also called cupcake liner, cupcake cup.
'Bryan, -..1(
'reference test. Preference test refers to consumers test in which the consumers are given
a choice and asked to indicate their most liked product were used to determine whether a specific
consumer group like or prefer a particular product 'Gawless, 1??-(.
Sensory ()aluation . *ensory :valuation refers to a scientific discipline that applies
principles of e$perimental design and statistical analysis for the purpose of evaluating consumer
products 'Gawless, -..D(.
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!aste. Taste is the sense by which the %ualities and flavor of the substance are
distinguished by the taste buds '0illiam Collins *ons, -..7(.
Chapter -
Aeview of Giterature
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Mango
&angoes have been cultivated in *outh sia for thousands of years and reached :ast
sia between the fifth and fourth centuries BC, where an appropriate climate allowed its growth.
The mango originated in *outheast sia where it had been grown for over 6,... years. Over the
years mango groves have spread in many parts of the tropical and sub+tropical world, where the
climate allowed the mango to grow best. &ango trees are evergreens that will grow to ?. feet
tall. The mango tree will fruit 6 to ? years after planting. &ango trees re%uire hot, dry periods to
set and produce a good crop. &ost of the mangoes sold in the 9nited *tates are imported from
&e$ico, @aiti, the Caribbean and *outh merica. Today there are over 1,... different varieties
of mangos throughout the world 'Gaurence, 1776(.
The ripe fruit varies in si!e and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or
green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which
does not separate easily from the pulp. Aipe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous,
sweet smell.
Bakery products were varied by addition of value added ingredients. mong the added
ingredients, dietary fiber had gained tremendous attention. &angoes were one of the most
commonly sold in the market and it is rich in fiber. They were not only consumed as raw or
cooked as a meal, but were also processed into various food products, including chips, flakes
1ellies, 1uices, puree, nectar and processed into fruit leather. )n this study the researchers decided
to bake product such as cupcake, using mango as one of its main ingredients.
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Malunggay
&alunggay &'Moringa oleifera( the &oringa tree is native to the foothills of @imalayas.
There are many other names for the &oringa in different countries. The name &oringa is most
common derived from the B&uringaC a &alay Term, one of the many dialects of )ndia. )n )ndia
alone there are so many different names for it. )n the Philippines it is called &alunggay. )t is
called kelor in )ndonesia, and kalor in &alaysia. The Chinese name is Bla muC, in &andarin or
BlatmokC in Cantonese, which means Bchilli+hot woodC. &oringa tree was regarded as the
B&iracle TreeC. Other elevated names were BTree of GifeC and BTree of ParadiseC. The &oringa
trees are very common in )ndia and *outh+east sia. The two most commonly used parts of
&oringa are the leaves and the young pods 'Barbara, -../(.
&alunggay baked products has been out in the market place for %uite a period of time.
Though the product already e$ists, it is not usual for a bakery to make it a front line. )n this study
the researchers wanted bake products using malunggay as one of its main ingredients.
Cupcake
cupcake is known in British :nglish as fairy cake, and in ustralian :nglish it is
known as patty cake or cupcake.
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Cupcake is a small cake designed to serve one person, which may be baked in a small
thin paper or aluminum cup. s with larger cakes, frosting and other cake decorations, such
as sprinkles, are common on cupcakes '&ackley F Gesley, 177-(.
The first mention of the cupcake can be traced as far back as 1>7?, when a recipe
notation of Ha cake to be baked in small cupsH was written in "merican Cookery by melia
*immons. The earliest documentation of the term cupcake was in H*eventy+five Aeceipts for
Pastry, Cakes, and *weetmeatsH in 1=-= in :li!a GeslieIs %eceipts cookbook 'Byrn, -..D(.
)n the early 17th century, there were two different uses for the name cup cake or cupcake.
)n previous centuries, before muffin tins were widely available, the cakes were often baked in
individual pottery cups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cups they were baked
in. This is the use of the name that had remained, and the name of HcupcakeH is now given to any
small cake that is about the si!e of a teacup. The name Hfairy cakeH is a fanciful description of its
si!e, which would be appropriate for a party of diminutive fairies to share. 0hile :nglish fairy
cakes vary in si!e more than merican cupcakes, they are traditionally smaller and are rarely
topped with elaborate icing '<livans F :linor, -..D(.
The other kind of HcupcakeH refers to a cake whose ingredients were measured by
volume, using a standard+si!ed cup, instead of being weighed. Aecipes whose ingredients were
measured using a standard+si!ed cup could also be baked in cupsE however, they were more
commonly baked in tins as layers or loaves. )n later years, when the use of volume measurements
was firmly established in home kitchens, these recipes became known as 1*+, cakes or -uarter
cakes, so called because they were made up of four ingredients" one cup of butter, two cups of
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sugar, three cups of flour, and four eggs. They were plain yellow cakes, somewhat less rich and
less e$pensive than pound cake, due to using about half as much butter and eggs compared to
pound cake. The names of these two ma1or classes of cakes were intended to signal the method
to the bakerE HcupcakeH uses a volume measurement, and Hpound cakeH uses a weight
measurement '5arrow, -..D(.
Chapter /
Aesearch &ethodology
This chapter presented the e$perimental study of the acceptability and preference of
&ango+&alunggay Cupcake. )t also presented the research locale, research design, and the
%uality rating of the sensory attributes of the cupcake
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%esearch esign
This study used the e$perimental research design and development. The researchers
conducted several product developments to come up with four samples of mango+malunggay
cupcake, after which these will be tested for acceptability and preference test. The panelists will
be given evaluation sheet for a better understanding of what they are going to do in the product
evaluation test. They will assess the acceptability of four formulations of the mango+malunggay
cupcake and will choose the most preferred sample.
This is a developmental study where the mango and malunggay is processed into a
cupcake. @ere, the researchers have four formulations. The variables were manipulated the
amount of mango and malunggay, while the amount of other ingredients used were the same.
%esearch Locale
The study was conducted at -
nd
5loor, 5ood Technology Gaboratory CC:)T #ew
Building, Bukidnon *tate 9niversity, &alaybalay City. The researchers conducted a sensory
evaluation of the four formulations. *pecifically the researchers have these activities at school in
order to have their desired panelist with knowledge of what is being researched.
Ingredients
14
The ingredients for the preparation of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake were mango,
malunggay e$tract, sugar, flour, egg, water, dairy cream, powdered milk, cheese, baking powder,
and cream of tartar. The mangoes were bought from the market of &alaybalay City. The other
ingredients were bought from the convenient stores.
5ormulation of &ango and &alunggay Cupcake
The four formulations stated in the table below seek to find the most acceptable and
preferred cupcake formulations.
Table 1. .aria#les to #e controlled are the Mango puree and Malunggay e$tract
5ormulations &ango 'g( &alunggay 'g(
1 1// +/
15
* +/ 1//
+ 0/ 1/
, 1/ 0/
These sets of variables controlled were chosen by the researchers. They intend to develop
a new flavored cupcake product. The cupcake was evaluated by the panelists in terms of their
sensory attributes 'aroma, color, taste and te$ture(. The panelists were the one to choose the
samples they preferred the most.
!a#le *. !he Constant .aria#les of the Mango2 Malunggay Cupcake
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)ngredients ;uantity
*ugar 1..g
5lour >.g
:gg D.g
0ater 1D.ml
4airy cream 1..g
Powdered milk /.g
Cheese -Dg
Baking powder -g
Cream of tartar -g
Baking time 1Dmin.
Temperature 1?. C
(-uipment and Materials
The utensils, e%uipment and apparatuses used in the preparation of &ango+&alunggay
Cupcake were kitchen utensils, processor, and stove, oven, weighing scale, cupcake molder and
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paper cup liner. Aipe mangoes and malunggay leaves were bought from the local market of
&alaybalay City, Bukidnon.
'rocessing 'rocedure
)n the processing of mango+malunggay cupcake all dry ingredients were sifted together,
such as flour, sugar, powdered milk, baking powder and salt. 0hile beating the egg whites, the
cream of tartar was added in a little amount to make it frothy and adding gradually the white
sugar while beating continuously until the peaks form. )t was followed with the combination of
the wet ingredients malunggay e$tract, egg yolks, water, mango puree and dairy cream. Beating
the mi$ture at moderate speed, the dry ingredients are added until batter 'the combination of
mi$ture( is free of lumps. The mi$ture was folded into beaten egg whites mi$ture with dry
ingredients and is poured into paper+ lined baking cups and cooked in the oven at 1?.C, for 1D
minutes.
Aeceiving of raw
materials
0ashing
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&i$ing of dry
ingredients
&i$ing of wet
ingredients
ddition of wet
and dry ingredients
Pouring
Figure *. Process flow of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake
Sensory ()aluation
*ensory evaluation of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake was evaluated through acceptability
test by hedonic scale rating. This sampling techni%ue was used because the ob1ective is to
determine the most acceptable formulations using different amount of mango and malunggay and
having the same amount used for other ingredients. The selected panelists rated the product
Cooking
Cooling
*erving
19
according to their sensory attributes 'aroma, color, flavor and te$ture( and determined ultimately
what formulation was the most preferred one. The researchers used purposive sampling in
choosing who would be the panelists based on who they think would be %ualified for the study.
'anelists
The &ango+&alunggay Cupcake was carried out with 6. panelists who were composed
of 5ood Technology *tudents The panelists chose re%uested to rate the product for the aroma,
color, taste, and te$ture. The researcher will have the panelists who were all 5ood Technology
*tudentE because they have the background of what was the study all about.
Sampling 'rocedure
The sample products of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake are taken fresh from the oven. fter
an hour of preparation, the samples will be sub1ected to evaluation for the acceptability of the
product and to determine which of the samples presented is most preferred. The samples will be
presented to the panelists in a tray with four formulations. :ach sample is coded to avoid bias.
Scoring 'rocedures
The hedonic scale method was used in the scoring procedure. The respondents were
given an evaluation sheet that contained specific parameters for the sensory attributes of the
products. 5actors to evaluate were aroma, color, taste, and te$ture of the &ango+&alunggay
Cupcake. ;uality of the product will be rated according to the degree of liking by the
respondents. The hedonic scale rating was carried out for the scoring of mango+malunggay
20
cupcake. The result of samples evaluated were the basis to know what sample was preferred by
the panelists.
#ame" Product"
Judge #o" 4ate"
:valuate the 6 formulations of mango+malunggay cupcake. 9se the corresponding scale
that describes your feeling about the characteristics mentioned.
7+Gike e$tremely ?+Gike slightly /+4islike slightly
=+Gike very much D+#iether neither like nor dislike -+4islike very much
21
>+Gike moderately 6+4islike moderately 1+4islike e$tremely
5ormulations roma Color Taste Te$ture
>-=
?=>
7D-
=/?
Of the 6 formulations which do you prefer3
Comments and *uggestions"
Chapter 6
The chapter shows the result of the acceptability of the four formulations of &ango+
&alunggay Cupcake, and the preferred formulation by the respondents.
Le)el of accepta#ility of Mango2Malunggay Cupcake
)n this study, there were four parameters in the level of acceptability of four formulations
of &ango+&alunggay Cupcake that the researcher wanted to know. These are aroma, color, taste
and te$ture.
22
23
Figure 1. 5re%uency ratings of 5our 5ormulation of the &ango+ &alunggay Cupcake
)n evaluating the sample, these forty panelists 1> out of 6. were preferred formulation 6
in terms of its all sensory attributes. )t contained D.g mango puree with =.g e$tracted malunggay
which was like very much by the panelist with consideration to the color. 5ormulation 1 was like
very much by the panelist in terms of taste but only there was a difficulty in increasing its
volume due to the mango puree which was too heavy in weight and vice versa to the formulation
- which contained less mango puree, but all of its attributes were like moderately by the panelist.
)t was proving that everyone had different preferences in terms of aroma, color, taste and te$ture.
3ualitati)e rate of the respondents
*ince cupcake is already available in the market with varied flavors, the researcher came
up with an idea of processing a new combination of flavor which is not yet available and that is
&ango+&alunggay Cupcake. The product was evaluated by respondents so that the researchers
can determined which of the four samples will be preferred by the respondents. t first the
respondents were little in perspective on the study, because cupcake was already a common
baked product. Gater on, they analy!ed that the taste of this product is different from the common
one sold in the market. *ome think that it,s 1ust normal taste of a cupcake. 0hen the researcher
24
e$plained this new flavored cupcake the respondents were interested on what would be the taste
of the &ango+malunggay cupcake. The respondents were confident that the new flavored
cupcake is delicious because the ingredients have higher nutritional value were it is uni%ue for a
cupcake product.
Chapter D
Summary
The researcher had two problems in this study these are the level of acceptability in terms
of aroma, color, taste and te$ture, and what is most preferred in which the respondents need to
choose which of the 6 formulations they prefer most. The data were gathered through sensory
evaluation in which the researcher has 6. respondents who evaluated the four samples. These
were the students of Bukidnon *tate 9niversity, specifically all 6
th
year 5ood Technology
*tudents. They were the ones who evaluated the level of the acceptability of the product
according to their preferences.
25
The statistical instrument used is @edonic *cale Aating. This were evaluated the rate of
parameters of 'aroma, color, taste, te$ture(. This is used for better understanding of the study.
Findings
The following results were revealed after analy!ing the data.
1. mong the sensory attributes of the four formulations, aroma, color taste and te$ture, the
aroma of the formulation 1 and - were like moderately and formulation / and 6 were like
)ery much. The formulation 1 and - was slightly yellow in color were evaluated as like
moderately by the panelist, while formulation / and 6 was slightly brown in color and it
were like moderately.
-. 5ormulation 6 has the highest level of acceptability and most preferred among the
panelists.
Conclusion
The formulation which was presented to the panelists, formulation 6 which contain more
grams of &alunggay e$tract showed most preferred and accepted product in terms sensory
attributes and the product has a potential to the commerciali!ed.
%ecommendation
26
1. The use of mango and malunggay against the commercially available cupcake flavor can
enhance cost reduction.
-. Promote good health due to its nutritional value.
/. Pure volume of mango puree produces a %uality product, which resulted in 5ormulation
6.
Aeference
Bryn and nne '-..D(. Cupcakes" 5rom the cake mi$ 4octor. 0orkman Publishing.pp.7=+
1...)*B# .+>?11+/D6=+.
Aetrieved from http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiK*pecial"Book*ources.
5arrow Joana '-..D(, Cupcakes" Lancouver" 0hitecup Books. Pp.6.+61.)*B# 1+DD-=D+?-?+>
Aetrieved from http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiKCupcake
@arry T. Gawless and @ildergarde @eyman '-.1.(, *ensory :valuation of 5ood" Principles and
Practices. 5ood *cience Te$t *eries. Chapman F @all 5ood *cience Book.
http"KKwww.google.com.phKbooks.
<livans and :linor '-..D(. Cupcakes. *an 5rancisco" Chronicle Books. Pp.=.+=1
Aetrieved from http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiK*pecial"Book*ourcesK.+=11=+6D6D+1
Gawless '1??-(. *ensory :valuation of 5ood. Principles and Practices '-
nd
.ed(
Aetrieved from http"KKwww.google.com.phKbooks.
27
&ackeley and Gesley '177-(.The Book of fternoon Tea, Gos ngeles" @P Books. Pp. ?7. )*B#
.+>?11+/D6=
Aetrieved from http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiK*pecial"Book*ourcesK1+DD>==+.6?+=.
*immons, '17>7(. 0ebster #ew 0orld College 4ictionary '/
rd
ed.(
&acmillan Company 1?// Broadway #ew Mork City.
*usser '-.1.(. The Nreat &ango Book" Nuide with Aecipes.
Aetrieved from http://www.amazon.com/The-Great-Mango-Book Aecipes.
0ebsite
Barbara, '-../(, B@orse AadishC. &other :arth #ews.
http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiK@orseradish
Courter,J.0.E Ahodes,'17?7(, @istorical notes on @orse Aadish. :conomic Botany.
http"KKen.wikipedia.orgKwikiK@orseradish
5arle$, '-.1.(, 0orld :nglish 4ictionary. Panelist for sensory evaluation.
http"KKdictionary.reference.comKbrowseKpanelist
0agnalls standard 4esk 4ictionary, vol.1, 177=.
Aetrieved from http"KKwww. &eriam 0ebster.com.
0illiam Collin sons, '-..7(. The Collins :nglish 4ectionary. Aetrieved from
Aetrieved from http"Kwww.&erriam 0ebster.comKmedical.
Journal
28
Gaurence, '1776(, The Oils and 5ats *pecialist Nroup of #ew Oealand )nstitute of Chemistry 1->
Pont 0ells Aoad, A4C 0arkworth, uckland .7=?, #ew Oealand.
Aetrieved from http"Kwww.oilsfats.org.n!Koilsfatsnews.htm
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rmed 5orces Chicago.
http"KKwww.pk.research.comKservicesKmediaKpaperndPublicationsKThe#inePoint@edoni
c*cale+Papers.pdf
;uirien :.. van OirschotP and <eith ). Tomlins, '-..-(. pplying analytical sensory
evaluationtechni%ues, which translate %ualitative perceptions to numerical data to research on
development issues. #atural Aesources )nstitute, 9niversity of Nreenwich, Chatham &aritime,
<ent &:6 6TB 9<.
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