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Wireless Communication

CSE 6057

Class Assignment # 5

Fall 2011

Mobility Management: Network and Transport Layer

Date: Friday, December 13, 2011

Q.1 Suppose the correspondent in the following Figure 1 were mobile. Sketch the additional network layer infrastructure that would be needed to route the datagram from the original mobile user to the (now mobile) correspondent. Show the structure of the datagram(s) between the original mobile user and the (now mobile)

correspondent as in Figure 2 .

user and the (now mobile) correspondent as in Figure 2 . Figure 1 Figure 2 Solution:

Figure 1

the (now mobile) correspondent as in Figure 2 . Figure 1 Figure 2 Solution: If the

Figure 2

Solution: If the correspondent is mobile, then any datagrams destined to the correspondent would have to pass through the correspondent’s home agent. The foreign agent in the network being visited would also need to be involved, since it is this foreign agent that notifies the correspondent’s home agent of the location of the correspondent. Datagrams received by the correspondent’s home agent would need to be encapsulated/tunneled between the correspondent’s home agent and foreign agent.

Q.2 In the following figure, fill up the packets with IP addresses:

Solution:

figure, fill up the packets with IP addresses : Solution: Mohammad Mamun Elahi Page # 1

Wireless Communication

CSE 6057

Class Assignment # 5

Fall 2011

Q.3 Consider two mobile nodes in a foreign network having a foreign agent. Is it possible for the two mobile nodes to use the same care of address in mobile IP ? Explain your answer.

Solution: Two mobiles could certainly have the same care-of-address in the same visited network. Indeed, if the care-of-address is the address of the foreign agent, then this address would be the same. Once the foreign agent decapsulates the tunneled datagram and determines the address of the mobile, then separate addresses would need to be used to send the datagrams separately to their different destinations (mobiles) within the visited network.

Q.4 Consider a scheme in which a mobile host travels to foreign networks while retaining its home IP address. To support this, mobile hosts advertise their home IP address to foreign routers , who then propagate this information to other routers during routing updates. Name at least three advantages and three disadvantages of this scheme compared to Mobile IP. Solution:

+ The new scheme enables more efficient routing than Mobile IP

(assuming that the routers receive timely route updates). Mobile IP

suffers the inefficiency of triangle routing.

+ The new scheme avoids the overhead of encapsulation.

+ The new scheme is more fault tolerant than Mobile IP, where the home agent in Mobile IP is a single point of failure.

+ In the new scheme the mobile host does not need to allocate an address in the foreign network.

- The new scheme would propagate routing updates slowly.

- The new scheme requires modifying routers. Routers would have to be modified to handle the new advertisements from hosts.

- If large numbers of mobile hosts use the new scheme, routing tables

would become very large. Every mobile host would create an entry in the routing table. Currently, this does not happen because all the hosts in a subnet can be aggregated into one routing table entry.

- The new scheme does not preserve location privacy. Anyone can use

traceroute to determine which network the mobile host is connected to,

which can provide the mobile hosts geographic location.

Q.5 How can a mobile host determine that it has moved from one network to another?

Solution: The MHs try to discover FAs and thus detect its movement. HAs and FAs periodically identify themselves by broadcasting agent advertisements. The MH receives these agent advertisements. That is how it can detect its own movement.

Q.6 What happens when a Mobile IP user moves from one foreign network to another? Can TCP connections be maintained through such a transition?

Solution: The MN registers with different FAs. HAs and FAs broadcast their presence on each network to which they are attached (Beacon messages via ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP)). MN listens for

advertisement and then initiate

different foreign network, it registers its COA with its HA. Registration control messages are sent via UDP to a well known port. Yes, the TCP connections can be maintained.

Q.7 Explain briefly how the standard TCP handles packet loss.

Solution: TCP assumes that: (i) packet loss occurs only due to congestion, and (ii) packet loss is rare. Thus, once a packet loss is detected, TCP reduces the congestion window size at the sender. (Note: The exact reduction depends on the version of TCP; it can be, for example, a reduction to 1 segment, or reduction to half of the current window size.

a

registration. When

MN moves

to

Wireless Communication

CSE 6057

Class Assignment # 5

Fall 2011

Q.8 Explain the effect of disconnection of a Mobile Host (running 802.11 and standard TCP) between two sessions (connections) with two Access Points (AP1 and AP2).

Solution: The Mobile Host (MH) moves out of range of AP1, at which point packets are not delivered to AP1 and the end node which MH communicates with via TCP. As a result, even if MH were the only node within range of the AP, the MH’s window is unnecessarily shrunk by TCP. When MH gets in range of AP2 and re-establishes its connection, it will resume transmitting with a small window size, thus achieving lower throughput than it could (again, assuming for example MH being the only node within range of AP2).

Q.9 Propose an interaction between the data link layer protocol and TCP (both running at the Mobile Host) that could improve TCP performance in the mobile and wireless environment. (Note: Please do not consider modifications at the access point.)

Solution: The

could provide

notifications to the MH’s TCP on the type of errors that cause packet loss. In particular, if the data link layer could inform that errors

are due to disconnection (e.g., the AP is not reachable) or due to wireless channel errors (e.g., low signal to noise ratio), then TCP would not be misled that such loss is due to congestion, and the MH sender window size would not be unnecessarily reduced.

Q.10 Consider two of the TCP variants that were developed for mobile, wireless environments, I TCP and MTCP, and the related congestion window of the sender. What is the objective of those protocols with respect to the sender window, when packet loss (due to channel errors or disconnections) occurs at mobile host’s wireless connection? (Note: Please give a brief answer; responses that simply explain how I TCP and MTCP work will not earn any credit.)

Solution: Both I-TCP and M-TCP try exactly to distinguish packet losses due to transmission or disconnection errors from those due to congestion. When a transmission or disconnection errors occur the protocols prevent sender’s window from shrinking and accordingly prevent throughput from suffering.

Q.11 (a) Give an example where the length of the roundtrip is 3 hops (triangle routing). Assign each node the necessary IP address(es). Indicate what Mobile IP functions do the intermediate nodes play. Draw the nodes as vertices, and use directed edges and numbers to show the packet flow and order of packets. (b) Give an example where the length of the roundtrip is 4 hops. Assign each node the necessary IP addresses. Indicate what Mobile IP functions the intermediate nodes play. Draw the nodes as vertices, and use directed edges and numbers to show the packet flow and order of packets.

Solution: (a) We assume basic Mobile IPv4.

data

link

layer

protocol of

the

MH

(a) We assume basic Mobile IPv4. data link layer protocol of the MH Mohammad Mamun Elahi

Wireless Communication

CSE 6057

Class Assignment # 5

Fall 2011

(b) Give an example where the length of the round trip is 4 hops. Assign each node the necessary IP addresses. Indicate what Mobile IP functions the intermediate nodes play. Draw the nodes as vertices, and use directed edges and numbers to show the packet flow and order of packets. For each directed edge, indicate whether the traffic is tunneled. Indicate which version of Mobile IPv4 you assumed.

Solution: We

assume basic Mobile

IPv4.

A

solution with the Reverse

Tunneling extension is also possible.

with the Reverse Tunneling extension is also possible. Q.12 A mobile node receives data from a

Q.12 A mobile node receives data from a fixed host using TCP. At some point in time t0 , the mobile node is disconnected. The mobile node reconnects after a few seconds at time t1 , and keeps the same IP address. Hence the TCP connection does not break. However, after the mobile node is reconnected, the fixed host resumes data transmission only at time t1 + τ , i.e., with a considerable delay τ . Explain why this happens , and propose a way to circumvent this problem.

Solution: Packets from the fixed host are lost, and after every time-out, the RTO is doubled. Hence, after the node re-connects, it will take a while before the fixed host attempts another retransmission. Example solution: after the mobile node re-connects, it can trigger a retransmission with a tripped duplicate ack.

can trigger a retransmission with a tripped duplicate ack. Q.13 Consider two variants of TCP for

Q.13 Consider two variants of TCP for mobile networks, ITCP and Snooping TCP . One of these variants preserves reliable end toend semantics, the other does not. Which variant preserves end to end semantics? Provide an example scenario which demonstrates that one variant does not preserve end toend semantics, and the other does. When giving the example, please list the entities involved and the packets exchanged. (List only, please avoid lengthy descriptions.)

Wireless Communication

CSE 6057

Class Assignment # 5

Fall 2011

Solution: Snooping TCP does, and I-TCP does not preserve reliable end-to- end semantics. Example scenario entities: Correspondent Node (CN), Foreign Agent (FA), Mobile Node (MN). I-TCP: 1) CN sends packet 2) FA receives packet 3) FA sends ack for packet to CN 4) FA crashes before it can forward the packet to the MN. Now, CN believes that the packet was delivered, but it was not – reliable end-to-end semantics are violated. Snooping TCP: The FA will not send an ack in step 3). The CN will time-out waiting for an ack for the packet, and hence realize that the packet was not delivered.

Q.14 Solved in the class.