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Last edited 13 Nov 2013
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Fit out is a term used to describe the process of making interior spaces suitable for
occupation. It is often used in relation to office developments, where the base construction is
completed by the developer, and the final fit out by the occupant. The occupant will generally
be leasing space as a tenant from the developer / landlord.
Depending on the degree of completion of the building, and the interior specification required
by the occupant, fit outs can take a range of different forms:
1 Shell and core
2 Category A fit-out
3 Category B fit-out
4 Turnkey developments
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Shell and core
Shell-and-core works will generally comprise the structure, cladding, base plant, completed
common areas and external works. It will include fitted-out main reception, lobbies,
staircases, toilets, lift shafts, basements, loading bays, car parking and so on.
Category A fit-out
Category A generally describes the level of fit out that tenant's own space is completed to by
the developer. There is no standard definition, but a category A fit out may include.
Raised floors and suspended ceilings.
Distribution of mechanical and electrical services.
Internal surface finishes.
If the tenant has very complex fit out requirements, this may impact on the category A fit out.
In this case, they may make a contribution to the costs of the category A fit out to ensure
that it meets their needs, and offset this against their own costs. This saves wasted time and
money modifying the category A fit out.
Category B fit-out
Category B completes the fit out of the internal space to the tenants requirements. This may
Final finishes and branding.
Installation of offices.
Installation of specialist facilities in meeting rooms, board rooms conference rooms and so
Fitting out reception areas.
Installation of specialist lighting.
Installation of ICT equipment.
Installation of audio visual equipment.
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Fit out of kitchen areas.
Installation of furniture.
The developer may make ask the tenant to carry out some of their more sensitive category A
works on their behalf during the category B fit out, when they may be less subject to damage.
The developer will pay the tenant a sum equivalent to the cost of the works had they carried
them out themselves.
Turnkey developments
A turnkey development provides the tenant with spaces that are fitted out by the developer so
that they are ready for use.
These categories do not have standard definitions, and so it is very important that contract
documentation sets out precisely what work is to be carried out and by who, rather than
relying on ambiguous short-hand terms.
An agreement to lease between landlord and tenant should clearly define:
What comprises the shell and core built by the developer, including space provision in
common areas for tenant equipment such as standby generators, extra chillers, or
uninterrupted power supply plant.
What constitutes category A fit out installed by the tenant but funded by the
What tenant equipment is to be installed in common areas.
Category A capital allowances might also be a factor in agreement to lease negotiations.
A rent-free period may be provided by the landlord as a notional contribution to the tenants fit
out. It not unusual for a tenant to start fitting out their areas before completion of the shell and
core works, although the rent-free period will be triggered by practical completion of the shell
and core works.
The tenants fit out may involve rectifying problems in the developer's works. In order to meet
the fit-out timetable these may be funded by the tenant who may then make a claim to
recover their costs.
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Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
Capital allowances.
Client commissioning.
Defects liability period.
First fix.
Handover to client.
Migration strategy.
Practical completion.
Rent free period.
Shell and core.
Soft landings.

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