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Respiratory System Questions and Answers

1. What is the difference between respiration meaning gas exchange and

cellular respiration?
Respiration meaning gas exchange is the process in which an organism
absorbs from the environment gases necessary for its cellular metabolism
and expels gases that are products of this metabolism. Cellular respiration
(aerobic or anaerobic) is the chemical reaction in which organic molecules
are degraded to make ATP molecules, the main energy source for the
metabolism.Gas exchange is fundamental for cellular respiration since the
supplying of some reagents (oxygen, in aerobic cellular respiration) and the
expelling of some products (e.g., carbon dioxide) of this chemical reaction
depends on gas exchange.

2. What is the chemical equation of the aerobic cellular respiration?
The chemical equation of the aerobic cellular respiration is the
following:C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 36 ADP + 36 P --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP

3. Considering the chemical equation of the aerobic cellular respiration
which molecules does the cell need and which molecules does it liberate in
the process?
Considering the chemical equation of the aerobic cellular respiration it is
observed that glucose and molecular oxygen are needed as reagents and
carbon dioxide and water are released. The process also spends ADP and
phosphate that turn into ATP.

4. What are the different types of gas exchange that occur in animals?
In beings from the kingdom Animalia the gas exchange may occur either by
diffusion, tracheal respiration, cutaneous respiration, branchial respiration
or pulmonary respiration.

5. Oxygen comes from the environment and carbon dioxide in the end
returns to the environment. How do small animals solve the problem of
taking away and bringing these molecules from/to their cells? Why isn't
that solution possible for larger animals?
Small animals whose tissues make direct contact or are very close to the
environment, like cnidarians and poriferans, make gas exchange by
diffusion.Larger animals with cells without direct contact with the
environment or far from it need special gas transportation systems. In
these animals the respiratory and the circulatory systems play this role.

6. Beings from four phyla of the animal kingdom breath (do gas
exchange) by diffusion. Which are those phyla? How is this type of
respiration associated to features present in those animals?
The phyla of the animal kingdom whose beings do gas exchange by
diffusion are the poriferans, the cnidarians, the platyelminthes (flatworms)
and the nematodes (roundworms). This type of respiration in these beings
is possible because their tissues and cells are relatively close to the exterior.

7. Which animals make tracheal respiration? Is there a blood-like fluid that
participates in this process?
Insects and arachnids are the arthropod animals that make tracheal
respiration. In the body surface of these animals there are many orifices
called spiracles that communicate with small tubules, the tracheae, through
which air penetrates and carbon dioxide is expelled. The tracheae ramify
into tracheoles that reach all tissues of the animal.In the circulatory system
of insects the blood only transports nutrients; gases are independently
transported by the tracheal system.

8. What is the difference between respiration by diffusion and cutaneous
respiration? Does blood participate in cutaneous respiration?
Cutaneous respiration is not as simple as diffusion. In diffusion the gases
diffuse directly between the external environment and the cells. In
cutaneous respiration molecular oxygen penetrates through the skin and it
is collected by the blood circulation that then distributes the gas to the
tissues. Carbon dioxide is also collected from the tissues by the blood and
taken to the skin to be eliminated to the environment. So there is
important participation of blood in cutaneous respiration.

9. Which animals make cutaneous respiration?
Terrestrial annelids and adult amphibians make cutaneous respiration (in
amphibians there is also pulmonary respiration).The thin skin and the need
for living in moist surrounds are typical features of these animals are.

10. What are branchiae? What are examples of animals that breath
through branchiae?
Branchiae, also known as gills, are small portions of richly vascularized
tissues internal or external to the body and in direct contact with the
surrounding water. The gills are organs that make gas exchange in aquatic
annelids, crustaceans, fishes and amphibian larvae (e.g., tadpoles).

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