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# ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 13

## Chapter III Contnd

Mechanical Rotational Systems:
Use Newtons second law to derive the differential equation of the system.

J

2

J: Moment of inertia of the object
: Angular displacement
: Applied torque
dt
d
= : Angular velocity
2
2
dt
d
= : Angular acceleration
(all torques acting on the object) = Moment of Inertia x (Acceleration of the object)
2
2
2 1
dt
d
J

=

Moment of Inertia:
The moment of inertia of an object about some rotational point is the measure of the object
resistance to a change in its angular acceleration due to the action of torque.
The moment of inertia depends upon how an objects mass is distributed relative to its pivot
point. The SI unit is (kg.m
2
).
For a solid of Mass M:

=
M
dm r J
0
2

dV dm = , where is the density function and dV is a differentially small volume.
For N point particles with mass m
i
:

=
=
N
i
i i
r m J
1
2

Parallel axis theorem:
If the moment of inertia about the center of mass is known, we can find the moment of inertia
about any other parallel axis at a distance d from the center of mass.
cm
p
I
cm
I
p
d

2
d M I I
cm p
+ =

ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 14
Moment of inertia of simple solids:

R

R

R

R

Solid sphere Spherical shell Solid cylinder Cylindrical shell
2
5
2
MR I
cm
=
2
3
2
MR I
cm
=
2
2
1
MR I
cm
=
2
MR I
cm
=

L

L

Thin rod about its center Thin rod about its end
2
12
1
MR I
cm
=
2
3
1
MR I
cm
=

Torsional spring:
The angular displacement of a spring is proportional to the applied torque.

K

K =
K is the stiffness coefficient.

Viscous friction:
Viscous friction produces a resistive torque which is proportional to velocity.

J

f
B

dt
d
B
f

=
B is the viscous damping coefficient.

Mass and spring:
K

s

J

ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 15
The torsional spring will produce a reaction torque which opposes the mass movement.

K
dt
d
J =
2
2

Problem 1:
Torsional Pendulum:
Find the transfer function between the applied torque and the angular displacement of the
pendulum.

K

J
B

The spring and the viscous friction will produce resistive torques that oppose the pendulum
movement.
dt
d
B K
dt
d
J

=
2
2

Taking Laplace transform with zero initial conditions gives:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
s Bs s K s s s J =

K Bs Js s
s
+ +
=
2
1
) (
) (

Problem 2:
Single axis of a robot arm:
Consider a robot arm as shown in the following figure. The arm is driven by a motor. Assume
that the robot base is fixed. Then the arm will be moving in a plane while holding a mass M
at its end.

Arm

M

ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 16
The arm and mass movement is equivalent to a pendulum as illustrated in the following
figure:

m

M
L
Mg sin
Mg

The component sin Mg of the mass weight will produce a resistive torque
( ) L Mg
r
= sin
dt
d
B MgL
dt
d
J
m

= sin
2
2

where, B is the viscous friction in the motor
J is the total inertia of the motor, arm and mass:
2
ML J J J
a m
+ + = .
If the motor and arm inertias are neglected:
2
ML J =

dt
d
B MgL
dt
d
ML
m

+ + = sin
2
2
2

The pendulum dynamic equation is nonlinear. To linearize the system, assume that the
angular position is small.
sin .
This approximation is valid with a reasonable accuracy for ( )
o o
30 30 .

dt
d
B MgL
dt
d
ML
m

+ + =
2
2
2

Taking Laplace transform with zero initial conditions gives:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
s Bs s MgL s s ML s
m
+ + =

MgL Bs s ML s
s
m
+ +
=
2 2
1
) (
) (

.

ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 17
IV. ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
The DC Motor
The DC motor is widely used as an actuator in many industrial control systems. Examples are
machine tools, robot manipulators, antenna positioning systems, etc.
To study the DC motor, it is important first to represent it by a mathematical model. The
dynamic equations of the DC motor can be constructed from the basic law of physics (see
Notes on DC Motor Principles).
The Linear DC Motor

V
R
+
-
e
+
-
t=0
B

L
i
Rail
Bar
Magnetic Field
F
x
v
a

+
-

Problem 1:
Lets find the transfer function between the voltage v
a
and the displacement x.

When the switch is closed, a current will flow from the battery through the rail and the bar.
The interaction of the current i with the magnetic field B will create a force F which will act
on the bar.
i L B F = (E1)
The bar will accelerate according to Newtons law. Assuming the bar has mass M and the
rolling friction is zero, the equation of movement is given by
F
dt
x d
M =
2
2
(E2)
The movement of the bar inside the magnetic field results in an induced voltage (emf) across
the bar. The emf is opposite to the direction of current so as to oppose its flow.
dt
dx
L B v L B e = = (E3)
Electrical equation:
Applying Kirchhoffs law to the electrical circuit we get
e i R v
a
+ = (E4)
Next Take Laplace transforms of equations E1-E4 assuming zero initial conditions.
) ( ) (
2
s I BL s X Ms =
) ( ) ( ) ( s BLsX s RI s V
a
+ =
Find I(s) the the 1
st
equation and substitute in the 2
nd
equation
) ( ) (
1
) ( s sX
R
BL
s V
R
s I
a
= ) (
) (
) ( ) (
2
2
s sX
R
BL
s V
R
BL
s X Ms
a
=

+
=
+
=
MR
BL
s s
MR
BL
s BL MRs
BL
s V
s X
a
2 2 2
) (
) ( ) (
) (
.
ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 18
The Rotary DC motor

The electric circuit of a permanent magnet brush type dc motor and the equivalent diagram of
the mechanical load are shown in the following figures:

i
a
-
R
L
e
-
+
v
a

+

m
J

r

B
Armature Circuit Mechanical Load

DC Motor Equivalent Circuit Diagram

The motor torque,
m
, is related to the armature current, i
a
, by a constant factor, K
t
. The back
emf, e, is related to the rotational velocity, , by a factor K
b
.
a t m
i K = (M1)
dt
d
K K e
b b

= = (M2)
in SI units K
t
(Nm/A) = K
b

From the equivalent circuit above we can write the electrical and mechanical equations using
Kirchhoffs law combined with Newtons law:
e
dt
di
L i R v
a
a a
+ + = (M3)
r m
dt
d
B
dt
d
J

=
2
2
(M4)
Transfer function:
Assume that the resistive torque
r
=0. Taking Laplace transform with zero initial conditions,
the above equations can be transformed as follows:
( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( s s K s I Ls R s V
b a a
+ + =
) ( ) ( ) (
2
s Bs s s Js
m
=
By eliminating I
a
(s) we can get the following transfer function between (s) and V
a
(s).
ELE 353 Control Systems Chap 2 19
) ( ) (
1
) ( s
Ls R
s K
s V
Ls R
s I
b
a a

+

+
=
( )
) (
1
) ( s I K
B Js s
s
a t
+
=

( )( ) [ ]
b t
t
a
K K Ls R B Js s
K
s V
s
+ + +
=
) (
) (
.

In this example, we were looking at the position as being the output. We can define also the
angular velocity as our output.
Since
dt
d
= ) ( ) ( s s s = , or ) (
1
) ( s
s
s =
The transfer function in this case is
( )( )
b t
t
a
K K Ls R B Js
K
s V
s
+ + +
=
) (
) (

For most PM DC motors, the inductance L is small and the viscous damping is negligible. If
these two terms are taken as zero, then the transfer function can be modeled as a first-order
system with one time constant
b t
t
a
K K JRs
K
s V
s
+
=
) (
) (

s T
K
s
K K
JR
K
m
m
b t
b
+
=
+
=
1
1
1

where K
m
is the equivalent motor gain:
b
m
K
K
1
=
and T
m
is the mechanical time constant.
b t
m
K K
JR
T =

m

+

B Js +
1

+

R Ls +
1

K
t

s
1

V
a

K
b

I
a

DC Motor Equivalent Block Diagram