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THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

• Long form of the periodic table


• The number of protons and electrons for atoms of elements can be obtained
from a periodic table but not the mass numbers because they are not unique
for an element

PARTS
horizontal rows of the
Periods
periodic table
Groups or vertical columns of the
Families periodic table

3 SCHEMES IN LABELING GROUPS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE


European system The European and
The most commonly used American systems differ in
American system
worldwide the use of letters A and B
International Union of
 Uses numbers 1 to 18
Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC)  Not been widely adopted

THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND PERIODICITY


• There is a periodic pattern in the properties of the elements when they are
arranged in order of increasing atomic number
• The atomic number of an atom is also the number of electrons in an atom,
and these electrons are located in specific sublevels
• There is a relationship between the periodic table and the electron
configuration of atoms
• Elements can be classified into four different categories according to their
electron configuration

CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR ELECTRON


CONFIGURATION
ELECTRON
REPRESENTATIO
GROUP LOCATION N DESCRIPTION
(n = outermost energy
level)
(m = n-1)
 Sometimes
called inert gases because they do
not readily participate in many
Noble chemical reactions
Group 8A
gases/ 8A ns2np6  Heavier noble
Inert gases gases form compounds usually
with oxygen and fluorine except
for helium (with a first energy
level; filled with two electrons, 1s2)
1A ns1
Representa 2A ns2
3A ns2np1  Its group number
tive
Group 1A – is equal to the number of electrons
elements/ 4A ns2np2
7A in the outermost energy level or
Group A 5A ns2np3
valence electrons
elements 6A ns2np4
7A ns2np5
1B ns1md10
2B ns2md10
3B ns2md1
Transition 4B ns2md2  Considered as
metals/ 5B ns2md3 alteration between the alkaline
Group B
Group B 6B ns2md4 elements and the nonmetals on the
elements 7B ns2md5 right
ns2md6
8B ns2md7
ns2md8
 Lanthanide
4F 6s24f_ series
Inner
transition atomic
• Elements
where 4f subshells are being
metals/ f number of
filled
transition 58 - 92 5F 7s25f_
elements  Actinide series
• 5f
subshells are being filled
Transurani
Atomic
c/  Created
number of
synthetic in the laboratory
93~
elements

GROUPS OF ELEMENTS
(The similarities in properties of groups of elements are due to the similarity in valence configuration)
• Group 1A – Alkali Metals
o Possess a single valence electron in the S orbital
o Has low ionization energy
 Loses its electron forming a +1 charge
o They are all soft that they could be cut by a knife
o They are stored in metal containers with oil because they are reactive
wit h water and air

ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
• Reacts moderate with water
• Used in the manufacture of
small rechargeable batteries
• Used in space
Lithium
communications and facilities and missiles
• Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3)
• Used to treat manic
depression, a type of mental disorder
• Found in ion form and in
living organisms
• Used in glass industry
• Glass with Sodium
Sodium • easily breaks with
pressure and extreme change in
temperature
• Sodium Hydroxide
• Used in soap making
produce hard or solid soap
• Found in ion form and in
living organisms
• Used in glass industry
• Glass with Potassium
• make the glass
Potassiu
resistant to pressure
m
• used in automobiles
and in ovens
• Potassium Hydroxide
• Produces soft or
liquid soap
Cesium
and • React positively with water
Francium
• Group 2A - Alkaline Earth Metals
o Less metallic than alkali metals
o Two valence electrons are readily lost in reactions and form 2+ charge

ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
• Most abundant in this group
Calcium • Used in limestone, in
marble and in chalk (CaCO3)
• Important structural metal
in alloy form
Magnesiu • Used as Magnesite (MgCO3)
m • Used in aircrafts,
automobile wheels, tools, and garden
furniture
• Emeralds are crystals of the
Beryllium
mineral beryl

• Group 3A - Boron Family

ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
• Boric acid
Boron • A weak solution
• Used as an eyewash
• Most important element of
the boron family
• Fairly stable
Aluminu
m • Used to make parts of
airplanes, soft drink containers, cooking
utensils, toothpaste tubes, packing materials
for juices and milk (tetrapak)

• Group 4A - Carbon Family

ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
• Forms numerous
compounds and occurs in all living organisms
• Exists in several forms
• Diamond
• Hard and sparkling
Carbon mineral whose carbon atoms are
arranged in little pyramids
• Graphite
• Dull and soft mineral
consisting of sheets of carbon atoms
in hexagons
• Revolutionized the
electronics industry
Silicon
and • They are made into
Germani semiconductors and integrated circuits or
um microchips for digital watches, television,
telephone systems, computers, and space
communications facilities
• Used to coat steel cans that
Tin become “tin cans” you see in supermarket
shelves
• Used in the manufacture of
Lead
lead storage batteries which are used in cars

• Group 5A - Nitrogen Group


ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
• Nonmetal
• Makes up about 80% of the
Earth’s atmosphere
• Not reactive
• Necessary to prevent rapid
oxidation of all materials exposed to oxygen
or to air
• Metabolic rate would
become faster without nitrogen
Nitrogen
• Nitrogen fixation
• Occurs naturally
when nitrogen fixing bacteria convert
nitrogen into ammonia
• Artificial Nitrogen fixation
• Occurs when N2 and
H2 are synthesized to produce ammonia
• Mostly used as a main
component for fertilizers
Phosphor
• nonmetal
us
Arsenic
and • semimetals or metalloids
Antimony
Bismuth • metal

• Group 6A - Oxygen Group

ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
S
Oxygen • Nonmetal
• Most abundant element
• Makes up 23% of the mass
of air, 89% of matter, and 46% of crustal
rocks
• Most readily available
source is the O2 molecules in the atmosphere
• Needed for respiration,
combustion, and burning
• Reactive
• Combines with most
elements to for oxides
• O3
• Ozone
• An air pollutant but
it also serves as a natural sunscreen to
ultraviolet radiation, which could be
harmful to living things
Sulfur • Nonmetal
• Largely used in the
production of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
• Used in lead storage
batteries and in the manufacture of
detergents, plastics, paints, insecticides, and
pharmaceuticals
Selenium • nonmetal
Tellurium • metalloid
Polonium • metal

• Group 7A – Halogens
o All are nonmetals and diatomic
ELEMENT
DESCRIPTION
S
• A pale yellow gas
• Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs)
• Used as
refrigerants
• Causes the ozone
hole in the atmosphere
• Used to make lubricants
and plastics like Teflon (PTFE-
F2 – polytetrafluoro ethylene)
Fluorine • Used in nonstick
frying pans and in gasketing, sealing,
packing, and insulating materials,
artificial arteries, and other repair
materials for the human body
• Added to toothpaste to
prevent tooth decay
• React with
hydroxyl-apatite enamel making the
enamel more resistant to acids that one
produced when bacteria in the mouth
react with certain foods
• A greenish yellow gas
• Added to drinking water to
Cl2 –
swimming pools as a disinfectant
Chlorine
• Used as a bleach, and in
manufacturing polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic and other chlorine compounds
Br2 – • A dark red-brown liquid
Bromine • Used in the manufacture
of fire retardants and pesticides
• A dark gray solid
• Used to make iodized salt
I2 – Iodine with KI and NaCl
• Used to make tincture of
iodine for treating minor cuts and scratches
At2 – • A rare elements whose
Astatine isotopes are all radioactive

• Group 8A - Noble Gases

ELEMENT
DESCRIPTION
S
• Used for filling balloons
and dirigibles because it is not combustible
• The coldest liquid
refrigerant
Helium • Used as a coolant in many
experiments
• Helium-Oxygen mixtures
• Used for breathing
by divers or those who word under high
pressure
Helium,
Neon, and • Used in “neon” signs
Argon
Krypton,
• Not very important
Xenon, and
commercially
Radon

SOME IMPORTANT TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE BODY


ELEMEN
DESCRIPTION
TS
Needed for strong bones and teeth, contraction of muscles fibers,
Calcium
regulation of heartbeat and blood clotting
Iron Needed for the formation of hemoglobin
Magnesiu Needed in the transfer of nerve impulses, involved in protein synthesis
m and in muscular and vascular relaxation
Cobalt Needed for growth and the formation of vitamin B12
Needed for growth; aids formation of red blood cells, bone, and brain
Copper
tissue
Zinc Needed for normal growth, enzyme function, and eye tissues
Mangane Needed for enzyme activity; reproduction; liver, eyes and bone formation;
se fat and carbohydrate metabolism
Sodium Needed for regulation and control of body fluids
Potassiu
Needed for regulation of body fluids and function of cells
m
Iodine Needed for production of thyroid hormone