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>> LTE FDD

User Guide
version 5.2.1
Copyright 2010
Mentum S.A. All rights reserved.
Notice
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Last updated October 15, 2010
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction I
Features of Mentum Planet ii
Project Explorer ii
Site Editor ii
Traffic Map Generator ii
Interference Matrix Generator iii
Neighbor List Generator iii
Network Data Import Wizard iii
Survey Data tool iii
Subscriber Settings iii
Data Manager iv
MapInfo Professional iv
Microwave Links iv
Using this documentation v
User documentation updates v
Online Help v
Online Help vi
Resource Roadmap vi
Knowledge Base vi
Printing vi
Library Search vii
Frequently Asked Questions vii
Whats This? Help vii
User Guides vii
Documentation library vii
LTE FDD User Guidei
Notational conventions viii
Textual conventions viii
Organization of this user guide ix
Contacting Mentum x
Getting technical support x
North America x
Europe, Middle East, and Africa x
Asia Pacific x
Send us your comments xi
Chapter 2 Overview Of Mentum Planet Planning 13
Network planning modeling best practices 14
Forecasting network traffic 15
Predicting the traffic of a target market 16
Traffic model outputs 16
Transforming census information into a traffic map 17
Geodata requirements 17
Workflow for WiMAXLTE network design using Mentum Planet 18
Chapter 3 Understanding The Fundamentals Of
Mentum Planet 21
Understanding projects 23
Understanding project data types 24
Understanding MapInfo tables 24
Understanding grids 24
What is a grid? 25
Understanding grid types 25
Numeric grids 26
Classified grids 27
ii LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding project geodata 28
Heights folder 29
Clutter folder 29
Clutter Heights folder 30
Polygons folder 30
Custom folder 32
Understanding project files 33
Site files 33
Workspaces 34
Understanding the Project Explorer 35
Understanding the Project Explorer data window 38
Using multiple data windows 39
Access to commands 39
Defining user preferences 41
To define user preferences 41
User Preferences 43
Project Explorer 44
Performance 45
Zoom Automatically 46
User Preferences 48
Project Wizard Defaults 49
Geodata 50
Understanding the project folder structure 51
Creating and using workspaces 54
To create a workspace 54
To open a workspace 54
To associate a workspace with a project 55
Attaching files to a Mentum Planet project 56
To attach a file to a project 56
To open an attached file 56
LTE FDD User Guideiii
To remove an attached file from a project 57
Working with site sets 58
Master site set 58
Site subsets 59
Active site set 59
Site table 60
To switch the active site set 60
To change the active site set 61
To merge a subset into the active site set 62
To create a shared site set 62
To update a shared site set 62
To remove a site set 63
To rename a site set 63
To viewthe site set description 63
To edit the site set description 64
Working with map layers 65
To manipulate map layers with the Project Explorer 66
To manipulate map layers with the Layer Control 67
Working with geodata folders 69
To manage geodata files 69
To group geodata files 70
Defining the coordinate systems to use in a project 71
To define the coordinate system for sites 71
Defining color profiles 73
To choose color profiles 73
To create a color profile 74
Color Profiles 76
Color 77
Chapter 4 Creating A Project 79
iv LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding projects 80
Creating projects 81
To create a project 82
To viewor edit project settings 83
Migrating projects 85
Improved data validation 85
Upgrade paths 85
Workflow for migrating Mentum Planet projects 87
To migrate projects from Mentum Planet 4.x or 5.x 88
Creating a network overlay 90
To create a network overlay 90
Opening and closing projects 92
To open a project 92
Restoring projects 94
To restore a project 94
Saving projects 95
To save a project 95
To back up a project 95
Chapter 5 Working With Propagation Models 97
Workflow for propagation modeling 99
Workflow for model tuning 100
Understanding the role of propagation models 102
Understanding propagation model types 104
Planet General Model 104
PGM-A model 106
CRC-Predict model 107
Universal model 109
Q9 model 109
Longley-Rice model 111
LTE FDD User Guidev
References 112
Understanding model tuning 114
Understanding clutter classes and clutter properties 115
Tuning the Planet General Model using AMT 116
To tune the Planet General Model using AMT 116
Planet Automatic Model Tuner 119
Toolbar 120
Tuner Type 121
Model Parameters 122
Correlation/Cross-Correlation Threshold Values 123
Tuning models using the Clutter Absorption Loss tuner 124
To tune a model using the Clutter Absorption Loss tuner 125
Clutter Absorption Loss Properties 127
Survey Distance 128
Number of Radials 129
Tuning a propagation model 130
Guidelines for model tuning 131
Creating and editing propagation models 132
To define a newpropagation model 132
To edit propagation model settings 133
To viewor hide unassigned propagation models 135
Chapter 6 Defining Network Settings 137
Understanding network settings 139
Technology types 139
Carriers 139
Modulations 140
Frame Setup 140
Workflow for defining network settings 142
Defining network settings 143
vi LTE FDD User Guide
To define network settings 143
To define frame configurations 144
Network Settings 145
Carriers 146
Network Settings 147
Modulations 148
CINR To Spectral Efficiency Specification 149
Network Settings 152
Frame Setup 153
OFDM 154
Frame Configuration 155
LTE FDD Frame Editor 156
Downlink 157
Cyclic Prefix 158
Control Channel 159
Overhead 160
LTE FDDFrame Editor 161
Uplink 162
Cyclic Prefix 163
Demodulation Reference Signal 164
Sounding Reference Signal 164
Control Channel 165
Chapter 7 Configuring And Placing Sites 167
Workflow for configuring and placing sites 169
Using site templates 170
To create a site template 170
To rename a site template 171
To set the site template as active 171
To viewa site template 171
LTE FDD User Guidevii
To delete a site template 171
Understanding sites and sectors 172
General site parameters 173
General sector parameters 173
Link parameters 174
Sector user data 174
Implementation parameters 174
Configuration parameters 175
Power parameters 175
Antenna Systems 176
Placing sites automatically 177
Determining site placement in the Basic mode 177
Determining site placement in the Advanced mode 178
To place sites in Basic mode 180
To place sites in Advanced mode 182
Automatic Site Placement Tool 184
Site Templates 185
Traffic 186
Automatic Site Placement Tool 187
Propagation Model 188
Frequency Band 189
Defining link configurations 190
Losses and gains 190
To define link configurations 193
To viewor hide unassigned link configurations 193
Link Configuration Editor 195
Uplink/Reverse 196
Link Configuration Editor 197
Downlink/Forward 198
Creating and editing sites 200
viii LTE FDD User Guide
To create a newsite 200
To edit site parameters 201
To create a newsite based on an existing site 202
Site Editor 203
Link 204
Antennas 205
Predictions 206
Mode 207
Information 208
Site Editor 209
Sector - Implementation 210
Filter 211
Quality 213
Site Editor 214
Sector 215
Configuration 216
Segment 217
Preamble 218
Channels 219
Site Editor 220
Sector - Powers 221
Uplink Interference 223
Other System Interference 224
Chapter 8 Adding Repeaters 225
Understanding repeaters 227
Types of repeater implementations 228
Using split sectors 228
Using distributed antenna systems 229
Repeaters and predictions 229
LTE FDD User Guideix
Workflow for adding repeaters to sectors 230
Adding repeaters to sectors 231
To add repeaters to sectors 231
Site Editor 234
Configuration 235
Carriers 236
Equipment 237
Site Editor 238
Donor 239
Type 240
Site Editor 242
Link 243
Service 244
Prediction 245
Isolation 246
Site Editor 247
Implementation 248
Filters 249
Quality 250
Locating repeaters in a Map window 251
To locate repeaters in a Map window 251
Chapter 9 Defining Subscribers 253
Understanding subscribers 255
Workflow for creating subscriber types 257
Defining subscriber equipment types 258
WiMAXLTE bearers 258
To define subscriber equipment types 258
Subscriber Settings 260
Equipment Types 261
x LTE FDD User Guide
Hardware 262
Subscriber Settings 263
Equipment Types 264
Bearers 265
Modulations 266
Defining subscriber services 267
To define subscriber services 267
Subscriber Settings 268
Services 269
Load 270
Input Load 271
Activity Factors 272
Subscriber Settings 273
Services 274
Quality of Service 275
QoS Class 276
Defining subscriber types 278
Example 278
To define subscriber types 279
Subscriber Settings 281
Subscriber Types 283
Configuration 284
Usages 285
Defining environment settings 287
To define environment settings 289
Creating a fixed subscriber database 292
To create a fixed subscriber table 292
Chapter 10 Generating Network Analyses 293
Understanding network analyses 294
LTE FDD User Guidexi
Prediction viewfiles 294
Workflow for generating an analysis 295
Defining default analysis layers 296
To define default analysis layers 296
Common LTE Analysis Layers 297
Carrier-Specific LTE Analysis Layers 303
Defining default analysis settings 308
To define default analysis settings 308
Creating and generating a network analysis 309
To create and generate a network analysis 309
Network Analysis Wizard 311
Analysis 312
Best Server 313
Best Server Selection Based On 314
Number of Uplink Resource Blocks per User 315
Uplink Power Control 316
Other System Interference 317
Network Analysis Wizard 318
System 319
Subscriber 320
Generating an existing analysis 321
To generate an existing analysis 321
Viewing analysis layers 322
To viewanalysis layers 322
Generating multiple analyses 323
To generate multiple analyses 323
Deleting analyses 324
To delete analyses 324
Recoloring best serving sector layers 325
To recolor best serving sector layers 325
xii LTE FDD User Guide
Examining layer statistics 326
Chapter 12 Generating Monte Carlo Simulations 327
Understanding Monte Carlo simulations 329
The phases of a Monte Carlo simulation 329
Placing subscribers in a random pattern 330
Sorting subscribers by priority 330
Analyzing the downlink and uplink 330
Generating operating points and subscriber information 332
Defining the number of Monte Carlo runs 333
Convergence method 333
Level of Convergence calculation 334
Factors affecting the required number of runs 335
Understanding Monte Carlo simulation layers 337
Workflow for generating a Monte Carlo simulation 341
Defining default Monte Carlo simulation settings 342
To define default Monte Carlo simulation settings 342
Creating and generating a Monte Carlo simulation 343
To create and generate a newMonte Carlo simulation 343
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 347
System 348
Subscriber Types 349
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 350
Analysis 351
Best Server Selection Based On 352
Uplink Power Control 353
Other System Interference 354
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 355
Monte Carlo 356
Generating an existing Monte Carlo simulation 358
LTE FDD User Guidexiii
To generate an existing simulation 358
Viewing simulation layers 359
To viewsimulation layers 359
Updating analysis cell loads with Monte Carlo results 360
To update analysis cell loads 360
Examining layer statistics 361
To calculate layer statistics 362
Layer Statistics Analysis 367
Analysis Settings 368
Layer Statistics Analysis 374
Layers 375
Layer Information 376
Classification Settings 377
Creating reports 379
To create reports 379
Deleting simulation layers 382
To delete simulation layers 382
Chapter 12 Generating Fixed Subscriber Analyses 383
Understanding fixed subscriber analyses 384
Before you generate an analysis 384
Howthe analysis is performed 385
Editing fixed subscribers 387
To edit fixed subscribers using the Subscriber Editor 387
Generating and viewing a fixed subscriber analysis 388
To generate a fixed subscriber analysis 388
To viewanalysis results 389
Fixed Analysis Wizard 390
Analysis 391
Best Server Selection Based On 392
xiv LTE FDD User Guide
Preamble CINRMeasurements 393
Probability of Collision 394
Prediction At 395
Analyzing a single fixed subscriber 396
To analyze a single subscriber 396
Chapter 13 Generating Frequency And
PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically 397
Understanding automatic frequency and physical cell ID
planning 399
Frequency planning 399
Cell IDplanning 399
Understanding frequency and physical cell ID planning
constraints and costs 400
Frequency, preamble, and perm base planning constraints 400
Frequency and physical cell IDplanning violation costs 400
Addressing frequency planning requirements 401
Single-channel PUSC subchannel group planning 401
Multi-channel frequency planning 402
Workflow for automatic frequency and cell ID planning 403
Creating a frequency plan 404
To create a frequency plan 404
To save current frequency and physical cell IDassignments 406
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 408
General 409
Interference Matrix 410
Plan Generation Option 411
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 412
Frequency 413
Interference Threshold 414
LTE FDD User Guidexv
Carrier Allocation Cost 415
Algorithm Ending 416
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 417
Physical Cell ID Planning 418
Optimization 419
Algorithm Ending 420
Setting up general frequency and physical cell ID planning
parameters 421
To set up general frequency and physical cell IDparameters 421
Generating and viewing a frequency or physical cell ID plan 423
To generate a frequency or physical cell IDplan 423
Applying a frequency or physical cell ID plan to sectors 424
To apply a frequency plan to sectors 424
Chapter 14 Working With The Tabular Editor 425
Working with the Tabular Editor 426
To edit sites, flags, or link configurations 426
Chapter 15 Importing And Exporting Data 429
Importing, replacing, and exporting project data 430
Importing data 431
Replacing data 431
Exporting data 432
To export project data 432
To import project data 434
Importing network data into Mentum Planet projects 437
Binding network data 437
Viewing the results of data binding 437
To import network data 438
Chapter 16 Establishing Height Benchmarks 441
xvi LTE FDD User Guide
Establishing height benchmarks 442
To establish height benchmarks for the closest point 442
To establish height benchmarks along multiple radials 443
Interpreting results 445
All_Radials.tab 445
Failing_Radials_Summary.tab 446
Site_Summary 446
Howto interpret radial color 446
HBM Analysis Settings 448
Appendix A Mentum Planet File Types 451
Understanding project folders and files 452
Project files 452
Output files 453
MapInfo files 454
LTE FDD User Guidexvii
Introduction
Chapter 1 Introduction
This User Guide provides an overviewof the full life cycle of a wireless
network, and includes information on the tools and procedures that are
common to all network technologies. Many procedures, for example
network analyses, are dependent on the technology being used, and are
not included in this User Guide. For more information on technology-
specific procedures, see the appropriate User Guide.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Features of Mentum Planet ii
Using this documentation v
Contacting Mentum x
LTE FDD User Guide i
Chapter 1
Features of Mentum Planet
Mentum Planet provides you with all the tools you need to accurately design,
analyze, and optimize wireless networks. You can add extensions and enable
additional technologies to support the planning functions that you require.
Belowis a list of some of the main features of Mentum Planet. This list is not
comprehensive. For a detailed feature list, go to the Mentum web site at
http://www.mentum.com.
Project Explorer
The Project Explorer organizes all components of a project into a hierarchical
structure, enabling you to easily manage all project-related data including
sites, project information, network analyses, network data, and surveys. You
can sort components such as sites and antenna patterns by their
characteristics and manage support documents such as census tract data,
capacity planning information, or RF design reviewdocuments. Shortcut
menus give you quick access to a wide variety of commands.
Site Editor
The Site Editor brings together all the parameters you need to specify when
defining base station technologies, sites, and sectors. This includes the link
configuration, the implementation settings as well as general site and sector
settings.
Traffic Map Generator
Using the Traffic Map Generator, you can create traffic maps based on various
sources of data, including market information, demographics, vehicular
traffic, and switch statistics. You can combine this information with clutter
information for your coverage area for an even more accurate assessment of
traffic loading for your wireless network. You can also scale traffic maps to
better meet your requirements.
ii LTE FDD User Guide
Introduction
Interference Matrix Generator
The Interference Matrix Generator analyzes the potential for co-channel
and adjacent-channel interference in your wireless network. If required,
you can include traffic map information in the interference matrix
calculations. Interference matrices are required input for the Neighbor
List Generator and the Automatic Frequency Preamble and Perm Base
Planning tool.
Neighbor List Generator
You can use the Neighbor List Generator to create, view, edit, and
compare neighbor lists for single-technology networks and for multi-
technology networks. Neighbor lists can be based on cell adjacency or
interference. Multiple user-defined criteria determine neighbor
selection. You can also import and export neighbor lists.
Network Data Import Wizard
You can import switch statistics for use in traffic maps, interference
matrices, neighbor lists, and other Mentum Planet analysis tools.
Performance-related data you can import includes dropped call rates,
blocked call rates, and traffic levels. The Network Data tool can also
produce a thematically mapped display of the imported data by sector.
Survey Data tool
Using the Survey Data node in the Project Explorer, you can import,
manage, and visualize survey data.
Subscriber Settings
The Subscriber Settings dialog box contains all the parameters you need
to define the characteristics of your network subscribers including the
LTE FDD User Guide iii
Chapter 1
mobile equipment and services they use as well as the Quality of Service
thresholds.
Data Manager
The Data Manager enables you to store data centrally and manage projects
more efficiently, thus facilitating project collaboration and data sharing.
MapInfo Professional
Mentum Planet includes a full version of MapInfo Professional, an industry
standard mapping tool that gives you access to a full suite of raster and vector
analysis tools, cartographic-quality tools, and advanced thematic mapping
capabilities. For a list of newfeatures in MapInfo 10.5, see the MapInfo
Professional User Guide.
Microwave Links
You can visualize microwave transmission links within the context of your
Mentum Planet projects and perform basic microwave planning tasks when
designing your wireless network.
A newMicrowave category in the Project Explorer provides access to Mentum
Ellipse Quick Link features through various shortcut commands. In addition,
you can create a microwave link between two sites by selecting the sites in the
Project Explorer Sites category and using the shortcut commands. You can
also viewlinks in the Map window.
For more information, see the Microwave Link Planning User Guide.
iv LTE FDD User Guide
Introduction
Using this documentation
Before using this documentation, you should be familiar with the
Windows environment. It is assumed that you are using the standard
Windows XP desktop, and that you knowhowto access ToolTips and
shortcut menus, move and copy objects, select multiple objects using
the Shift or Ctrl key, resize dialog boxes, expand and collapse folder
trees. It is also assumed that you are familiar with the basic functions of
MapInfo Professional. MapInfo Professional functions are not
documented in this User Guide. For information about MapInfo
Professional, see the MapInfo online Help and MapInfo Professional User
Guide. You can access additional MapInfo user documentation from the
Pitney Bowes Business Insight website at
http://www.pbinsight.com/support/product-documentation.
All product information is available through the online Help. You access
online Help using the Help menu or context-sensitive Help from within a
dialog box by pressing the F1 key. If you want to viewthe online Help for
a specific panel or tab, click in a field or list box to activate the panel or
tab before you press the F1 key. The following sections describe the
structure of the online Help.
User documentation updates
User documentation is continually evolving to address feedback or
introduce improvements. You can download the latest user
documentation from the Customer Care Product Downloads page where
it is available as a separate download from the software.
Online Help
From the Help menu, you can access online Help for Mentum Planet
software and for MapInfo Professional. This section describes the
structure of the Mentum Planet online Help.
The online Help provides extensive help on all aspects of software use. It
provides
LTE FDD User Guide v
Chapter 1
n help on all dialog boxes
n procedures for using the software
n an extensive Mentum Planet documentation library in PDF
format
Online Help
The following sections provide details about the resources available through
the online Help.
Resource Roadmap
When you first use the online Help, start with the Resource Roadmap. It
describes the types of resources available in the online Help and explains how
best to use them. It includes a step-by-step guide that walks you through the
available resources.
Knowledge Base
You can access the Knowledge Base maintained by the Customer Care group
by clicking the Knowledge Base button on the online Help toolbar. The
Knowledge Base contains current information on Mentum products such as
Frequently Asked Questions, HowTo procedures as well as solutions to issues.
Printing
You have two basic options for printing documents:
n If you want a good quality print of a single procedure or
section, you can print from the Help window. Click Print in the
Help window.
n If you want a higher quality print of a complete User Guide, use
Adobe Reader to print the supplied print-ready PDF file
contained in the Mentum Planet documentation library. Open
the PDF file and choose File Print.
vi LTE FDD User Guide
Introduction
Library Search
You can perform a full-text search on all PDF files contained in the
Mentum Planet documentation library if you are using a version of Adobe
Reader that supports full-text searches. The PDF files are located in the
Mentum\Planet\Help\User Guides folder.
You can also perform a search on all online Help topics by clicking the
Search tab in the Help window. Type a keyword, and click ListTopics to
display all Help topics that contain the keyword. The online Help
duplicates the information found in the User Guide PDF files in order to
provide more complete results. It does not duplicate the information in
the Release Notes, or Glossary.
Frequently Asked Questions
The Frequently Asked Questions section provides answers to common
questions about Mentum Planet. For easy navigation, the section is
divided into categories related to product functionality.
Whats This? Help
Whats This? Help provides detailed explanations of all dialog boxes.
User Guides
All User Guides for Mentum Planet software is easily accessible as part of
the online Help.
Documentation library
Mentum Planet comes with an extensive library of User Guides in PDF
format. You can access PDF versions of the user guides by navigating to
the Help/User Guides folder within the Mentum Planet installation folder
or by choosing the Guides command from the Mentum Planet Help
menu.
Additional documents, including Application Notes and Technical Notes,
are available at http://www.mentum.com.
LTE FDD User Guide vii
Chapter 1
Notational conventions
This section describes the textual conventions and icons used throughout this
documentation.
Textual conventions
Special text formats are used to highlight different types of information. The
following table describes the special text conventions used in this document.
bold text
Bold text is used in procedure steps to
identify a user interface element such as a
dialog box, menu item, or button.
For example:
In the Select Interpolation Method
dialog box, choose the Inverse Distance
Weighting Option, and click Next.
courier
text
Courier text is used in procedures to
identify text that you must type.
Courier text is used in procedures to
identify text that a user must type.
For example:
In the File Name box, type
Elevation.grd.
bright blue
text
Bright blue text is used to identify a link to
another section of the document. Click the
link to viewthe section.
viii LTE FDD User Guide
Introduction
Menu arrows are used in procedures to
identify a sequence of menu items that you
must follow.
For example, if a step reads Choose File
Open, you would click File and then
click Open.
<>
Angle brackets are used to identify
variables.
For example, if a menu item changes
depending on the chosen unit of
measurement, the menu structure would
appear as Display <unit Of
Measurement>.
Organization of this user guide
This user guide is organized according to the workflowthat you would
typically followto model and analyze a network and contains detailed
information related to all of the main steps in the workflow. Secondary or
optional steps in the workflowinclude references to manuals contained in
the Mentum Planet documentation library.
Each chapter in this guide provides details about howto perform a step in
the planning process and explains howit relates to the other steps.
Before you begin, you should read the Understanding... sections in
each chapter for an overviewof the planning process.
LTE FDD User Guide ix
Chapter 1
Contacting Mentum
Mentum is committed to providing fast, responsive technical support. This
section provides an extensive list of contacts to help you through any issues
you may have.
We also welcome any comments about our documentation. Customer
feedback is an essential element of product development and supports our
efforts to provide the best products, services, and support we can.
Getting technical support
You can get technical support by phone or email, or by visiting the Self-Service
Portal on the Mentum website at
http://www.mentum.com/index.php?page=customer-care&hl=en_US.
North America
Phone: +1 866 921-9219 (toll free), +1 819 483-7094
Fax: +1 819 483-7050
Email: support.americas@mentum.com
Hours: 9am 7pm EST/EDT (Monday-Friday, excluding local holidays)
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
Phone: +33 1 39264642
Fax: +33 1 39264601
Email: support.emea@mentum.com
Hours: 9am 6pm CET/CEST (Monday-Friday, excluding local holidays)
Asia Pacific
Phone: +852 2593 1287
Fax: +852 2593 1234
Email: support.apac@mentum.com
Hours: 9am 6pm HKT (Monday-Friday, excluding local holidays)
x LTE FDD User Guide
Introduction
When you call for technical support, ensure that you have your product
IDnumber and knowwhich version of the software you are running. You
can obtain this information using the About command from the Help
menu.
When you request technical support outside of regular business hours, a
Product Support Specialist will respond the next working day by
telephone or email, depending upon the nature of the request.
Send us your comments
Feedback is important to us. Please take the time to send comments and
suggestions on the product you received and on the user documentation
shipped with it. Send your comments to:
techpubs@mentum.com
LTE FDD User Guide xi
OverviewOf Mentum Planet Planning
Chapter 2 Overview Of Mentum Planet Planning
Using Mentum Planet, you can model networks designed for WiMAXLTE
communication. This chapter describes key planning processes and the
workflowyou should adopt.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Network planning modeling best practices 14
LTE FDD User Guide 13
Chapter 2
Network planning modeling best practices
As with any communication network, the cornerstones of the network planning
process are:
n balancing coverage, quality, and capacity
n minimizing costs and complexity
To design a network that successfully addresses these basic tenets of network
planning, you need to create an accurate model of the radio propagation and
of the subscriber traffic. The accuracy of the network model is highly
dependent on the accuracy of the data you use as the foundation of the
project.
When you create a Mentum Planet project, you must have:
n up-to-date geodata
n accurate and up-to-date survey data
n tuned propagation models that are appropriate for the
environment and data
n accurate and up-to-date site configuration information
14 LTE FDD User Guide
Forecasting Network Traffic
Forecasting network traffic
When analyzing a fixed WiMAX network, the traffic loading at each sector
is calculated based on the location of subscribers across the network,
their utilization of network resources, and the modulation assigned to
them. Higher modulation formats means that a subscriber can support
more traffic. For example, if a subscriber is assigned a modulation of
16QAM, they will support more traffic than a subscriber with a
modulation of QPSK.
Knowing the location of users within a WiMAX network is an important
network design element. A network is designed to support the expected
traffic and the quality of the design depends on howwell the demand
(i.e., the traffic model) and the capacity match. This is particularly true
for WiMAX, which uses adaptive modulation. For this reason, it is very
important that high-traffic areas are served with high signal quality in
order to improve the overall system capacity.
When designing a newnetwork, the traffic forecast typically comes from
marketing assessments while traffic models can be created from the
network traffic reports. There are various methods in Mentum Planet to
generate traffic so that all stages of network design are covered (i.e.,
from the early stages of a newgreenfield network to the later stages of a
live network).
When analyzing a network, the traffic loading at each sector is calculated
based on the location of subscribers across the network, their utilization
of network resources, and the modulation assigned to them. Higher
modulation formats means that a subscriber can support more traffic.
For example, if a subscriber is assigned a modulation of 16QAM, they will
support more traffic than a subscriber with a modulation of QPSK.
Knowing the location of users within a network is an important network
design element. A network is designed to support the expected traffic
and the quality of the design depends on howwell the demand (i.e., the
traffic model) and the capacity match. This is particularly true for LTE,
which uses adaptive modulation. For this reason, it is very important that
high-traffic areas are served with high signal quality in order to improve
the overall system capacity.
LTE FDD User Guide 15
Chapter 3
Predicting the traffic of a target market
The first stage of designing a network is to determine where the demand will
be (i.e., where potential subscribers are located). Using the GIS features of
MapInfo and Mentum Planet, you can identify regions where demand for
services exist.
There are various types of data upon which you can base your market
prediction:
n Census information: this data provides information such as
population, income, and age. This data is generally vector
based.
n Clutter data: this data provides land use information. This data
is generally raster based.
n Telecom related data: this data provides information such as
mobile phone subscriber density, Internet connection density,
and other related parameters that can be useful in identifying
the location of potential subscribers. The processing of this
data is very much dependent on the format (vector or raster)
and units.
Processing the data can take many forms and requires that you understand
some of the Mentum Planet GIS features. The proposed sequence of data
processing described here should be seen as an example and might not be
applicable to your situation.
Traffic model outputs
When modeling the traffic of a market, the objective is to spatially represent
the density of potential subscribers. Such values are continuous in nature and
will therefore be best represented by a numeric grid (.grd file). You can
generate a grid of the market demand using the GIS and traffic modeling
features of Mentum Planet.
16 LTE FDD User Guide
Forecasting Network Traffic
Transforming census information into a traffic map
Because census information is generally provided in a vector format
where attributes (such as the population) are attached to a region, you
will need to transform this information into a traffic map. For information
on generating traffic maps, see Chapter 9, Working with Traffic Maps,
in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Geodata requirements
Predicting network propagation accurately is highly dependent on the
quality and type of geographical data (i.e., geodata) you use. Table1.1
indicates the suitability of common data types for the different
technologies.
Table 1.1 Data requirements for various data types
Frequency Range (GHz)
Data Type (Meters)
2.5-3.6 GHz
Nomadic/Mobile
2.5-3.6 GHz
Fixed
Greater
Than 3.6
GHz Fixed
20-30 meter resolution
height and clutter (land
use) data
Acceptable Acceptable Not
sufficient
for LOS
estimation
5-meter resolution
Digital Terrain Model
(DTM)
Difficult to use
with standard
models
Difficult to
use with
standard
models
Ideal for
LOS
analysis at
lowcost
High-resolution 3D
model (i.e., vector
building models and
high-resolution clutter
data)
Ideal for urban
areas
Ideal for
urban areas
Ideal for
urban
areas
LTE FDD User Guide 17
Chapter 3
Workflow for WiMAXLTE network design using
Mentum Planet
The workflowoutlined in this section shows the typical order of steps only.
Depending on your work practices, you may not complete the steps in the
same order.
Step 1 Gather information about potential site locations, collect electronic
antenna patterns, and obtain required geodata.
Step 2 If required, prepare your data.
n Verify that your data is in a format that Mentum Planet 5 can use.
See the Grid Analysis User Guide for information on importing
grids.
n If you want to perform propagation model tuning or generate
merged predictions, you need to import survey data. See the
Mentum Planet User Guide for information on importing and
filtering surveys.
Step 3 Customize your Mentum Planet environment by specifying default
settings and actions for projects.
Step 4 Create a newproject or open an existing project. A Mentum Planet
project stores all the information required to simulate the network.
In other words, it contains the network and all details related to it.
You can create a project with as little as a DTMand later add a
clutter grid, propagation models, and so on. The Project Wizard
makes project creation simple.
Step 5 Define network settings.
Step 6 Configure and place sites.
At this stage of the workflow, you place sites using the default
propagation models. You can later create and fine tune propagation
models to suit your requirements.
18 LTE FDD User Guide
Forecasting Network Traffic
Step 7 Optionally, create the groups and flags you need to organize
and manage sites. See Chapter 2: Working with Sites and
Sectors in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 8 Define propagation models. Propagation models are the basis
of predictions.
Step 9 Optionally, compare and analyze survey data. See Chapter 5:
Managing Survey Data in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 10 Optionally, generate predictions. You can generate predictions
independent of network analyses or as part of the network
analysis process. See Chapter 8: Generating Predictions in
the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 11 Optionally, generate traffic maps for the services and area
that you plan to analyze. See Chapter 10: Working with
Traffic Maps in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 12 Define subscriber attributes including equipment and services.
Step 13 Define environment settings for each clutter class.
Step 14 Generate a nominal analysis or a Monte Carlo simulation and
viewresults.
Step 15 Generate and reviewlayer statistics.
Step 16 Optionally, generate interference matrices in order to
determine whether there is potential interference between
sectors. See Chapter 11: Working with Interference Matrices
in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 17 Optionally, generate neighbor lists in order to examine the
effect neighboring sites have on network coverage and
capacity. See Chapter 12: Working with Neighbor Lists in the
Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 18 Optionally, create a frequency plan and preamblephysical cell
IDplan.
LTE FDD User Guide 19
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Step 19 Optionally, create coverage map reports. See Chapter 15:
Generating Reports in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
20 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
Chapter 3 Understanding The Fundamentals Of
Mentum Planet
In order to work effectively with Mentum Planet, it is important that you
have an understanding of basic Mentum Planet concepts.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding projects 23
Understanding project data types 24
Understanding project geodata 28
Understanding project files 33
Understanding the Project Explorer 35
Defining user preferences 41
User Preferences 43
Project Explorer 44
Performance 45
Zoom Automatically 46
User Preferences 48
Project Wizard Defaults 49
Geodata 50
Understanding the project folder structure 51
Creating and using workspaces 54
Attaching files to a Mentum Planet project 56
Working with site sets 58
Working with map layers 65
Working with geodata folders 69
Defining the coordinate systems to use in a project 71
LTE FDD User Guide 21
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Defining color profiles 73
Color Profiles 76
Color 77
22 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
Understanding projects
A project contains and organizes all of the information pertaining to a
particular wireless network. This includes
n digital terrain models
n clutter information
n propagation models
n site locations
n sector equipment, including antennas
n sector groups
n link configurations
n flags
n traffic maps
n survey data
n network data
n any documents you want to attach to the project
A project also contains the results of predictions and network analyses
made on the basis of this information.
LTE FDD User Guide 23
Chapter 3
Understanding project data types
For GIS data, Mentum Planet uses MapInfo tables and grids. An understanding
of these types of data will help you to use Mentum Planet effectively.
Understanding MapInfo tables
Tables are like spreadsheets. Each rowin a table contains one record, and
each column in the record contains information about a particular field.
In Mentum Planet , MapInfo tables store
n site data, such as site name, sector name, and various site and
sector labels
n points, such as tower locations or survey result
n lines and polylines, such as roads
n polygons, such as bodies of water or county boundaries
Once you have opened a table, you can viewthe contents of each record by
choosing Window NewBrowserWindow.
Understanding grids
Grid data is the best way to represent phenomena that vary continuously
through space. Elevation, signal strength, path loss, and signal interference
are excellent examples of properties that are distributed in constantly varying
degrees through space and are best represented in grid format. Grids are part
of the raster data format. Regions, points, and lines are part of the vector data
format.
A grid can be used to effectively visualize the trends of geographic information
across an area. Grids enable you to quickly compare and query layers of
information, create newderived grids, or analyze grid layers for such unique
properties as visual exposure, proximity, density, or slope. There are two
types of Mentum Planet grids: numeric grids and classified grids. For more
information, see Numeric grids and Classified grids.
24 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
What is a grid?
A grid is made up of regularly spaced square cells, called bins, where
each bin has a value and a color representing the value. If there are
several bins between two known locations, the change in color between
these bins indicates howthe values change. All data that varies through
space is captured at discrete sample locations where the value is known.
For example, an RF engineer performs a survey to record the signal
strength from a sector. Readings are collected every second. In a vector-
based GIS system, there are limited ways to portray this kind of data.
Some of the more traditional ways are to label each individual sample
location with the known value, to create graduated symbols at each
sample site where the symbol size reflects the samples value, or to
generate contour lines or contour regions depicting locations of equal
value (see Figure 3.1). Another common method of displaying survey
data in a vector-based GIS system is to thematically shade points based
on signal strength.
Figure 3.1: Three examples of howa traditional vector-based GIS
system displaysdata that varies continuously.
The problem with these methods is that it is difficult to portray howthe
data changes between known locations. Grids, on the other hand, easily
display howthe data changes between locations.
Understanding grid types
Mentum Planet supports two types of grids:
LTE FDD User Guide 25
Chapter 3
n numeric gridsuse numeric attribute information
n classified gridsuse character attribute information
Numeric grids
One example of a numeric grid is a DEM, where each bin is referenced to a
value measured in units of height above sea level (see Figure 3.2). Numeric
grids are best used to define continuously varying surfaces of information,
such as elevation, in which bin values are either mathematically estimated
from a table of point observations or assigned real numeric values. For
example, in Figure 3.2 each bin was calculated (interpolated) from a table of
recorded elevation points. In Mentum Planet , numeric grid files are given the
extension .grd. Numeric grids have a corresponding .tab file containing
important metadata that describes the grid file.
Figure 3.2: Numeric grid showing the continuous variation of elevation across
an area
26 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
Classified grids
Classified grids are best used to represent information that is more
commonly restricted to a defined boundary. They are used in the same
way that a region is used to describe a boundary area, such as a land
classification unit or a census district. In this case, the grid file does not
represent information that varies continuously over space. In Figure 3.3
a land classification grid displays each bin with a character attribute
attached to it that describes the land type underlying it. A common type
of classified grid is a Best Serving Sector analysis layer. In Mentum
Planet , classified grid files use a .grc file extension. Classified grids have
a corresponding .tab file containing important metadata that describes
the grid file.
Figure 3.3: Classified grid representing land use (called a clutter file)
where each bin is referenced to a descriptive attribute
TIP: Grids can easily be converted to vector format by contouring and
vector-based data can be converted to grids. For more information, see
Creating Grids Using Other Methods, in the Grid Analysis User Guide.
LTE FDD User Guide 27
Chapter 3
Understanding project geodata
Project geodata includes digital terrain models, clutter files, building outlines,
region files along with other data required to accurately model a network. All
geodata files must be saved in a geodata folder (using the naming convention
of your choice) but the folder itself can be saved locally or remotely depending
on your work requirements. The geodata folder must, however, contain a
folder called Heights where the elevation file is saved and a folder called
Clutter. The Clutter folder can be empty if you are not using clutter.
In Mentum Planet , geodata is organized into categories that are reflected in
the following folder structure:
n Heightsa mandatory folder that contains DEMfiles used to
define the height of the terrain above sea level.
n Cluttera mandatory folder that contains files used to
describe land classification or land use. While its mandatory to
have this folder within the Geodata folder, you do not have to
associate a clutter file with the project.
n Clutter Heightsan optional folder that contains files used to
define the height of clutter Above Ground Level (AGL).
n Polygonsan optional folder that contains files used to define
3Dregions building models.
n Customan optional folder that contains geographic files that
do not fit into the other geodata folders. This folder is typically
used to store 2Dvector data such as streets and demographic
data.
Each folder can contain multiple files, each of a different resolution and/or
coverage.
TIP: Specialized geodata is available from Mentum. See the Mentum
Geodata web page at
http://www.mentum.com/index.php?page=geodata&hl=en_US.
28 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
CAUTION: Files in the Heights, Clutter, Clutter Heights, and Polygons
folder should use the same map projection. Files in the Custom folder do
not have to use the same map projection as other geodata files.
Heights folder
The Heights folder contains one or more Digital Elevation Models (DEMs).
Each grid (.grd) file contains, for each bin, the height in meters or feet of
the terrain above sea level. Using Mentum Planet , you can build height
files from point data or use many industry standard data formats. Each
height file has a corresponding .tab file that contains important
metadata about the grid file.
When the Heights folder contains multiple grid files, each grid file must
use the same coordinate system, but may have a different resolution.
The primary height file, defined on the Geodata tab in the Project
Settings dialog box, should geographically contain all of the other grid
files in the Heights folder.
Clutter folder
The Clutter folder contains one or more clutter files in classified grid
(.grc) format. Each classified grid file contains, for each bin, the clutter
class that covers the majority of the bin. Clutter files are derived from
aerial/satellite imagery or generated from digitized maps. Each clutter
file has a corresponding .tab file that contains important metadata about
the classified grid file.
You are not required to choose a clutter file when you create a project.
However, using clutter files is fundamental to increasing the accuracy of
predictions when using propagation models that support clutter
attenuation parameters (e.g., CRC-Predict and the Planet General
Model). Without land-use information, predictions cannot model the
effects of man-made structures or trees.
When the Clutter folder contains multiple classified grid files, each
classified grid file must use the same coordinate system, but may have a
LTE FDD User Guide 29
Chapter 3
different resolution. The primary clutter file, defined on the Geodata tab in the
Project Settings dialog box, should geographically contain all of the other
classified grid files in the Clutter folder.
Clutter Heights folder
The Clutter Heights folder is an optional folder that contains one or more
clutter height files in numeric grid format. Each grid (.grd) file specifies, for
each bin, the mean height above ground level of the clutter specified in the
clutter file over the bin. Height values must always be greater than or equal to
-400m.
Clutter height files are particularly useful in urban environments, for high
resolution clutter files, to describe the height of buildings at the bin level. It is
also useful for lower resolution clutter files to describe clutter heights with
more granularity wherever the height of a clutter is not uniform over the
covered area. In this case, you would use a lower resolution grid file to specify
average clutter height, and a higher resolution grid file to provide more
precise clutter height information.
When the Clutter Heights folder contains multiple grid files, each grid file must
use the same coordinate system.
NOTE: You must add files to the Clutter Heights folder manually. See To
manage geodata files.
NOTE: Not all propagation models use clutter height information. If the
model you are using does not support clutter height data, you can create a
classified grid from the clutter height data and merge it with the clutter file.
Polygons folder
The Polygons folder is an optional folder that contains one or more polygon
files in MapInfo table (.tab) format. Each rowin a table file specifies a polygon
or region object. Typically, individual polygon files are used to define polygons
30 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
of different types (e.g., one polygon table defines building contours, and
another defines vegetation contours).
Polygon table files must contain at least the columns specified in Table
2.1, while 3Dpolygon tables files must also contain either of the columns
specified in Table2.2. Tables may contain other columns such as street
address, building population, attenuation factor, or other user-defined
or model-specific columns.
Table 2.1 Required polygon table columns
Field
name
Type Comment
Polygon_
ID
Character
(64)
Unique IDto represent each polygon
object
Polygon_
Type
Character
(256)
Descriptive information about a polygon;
such as, Building, Vegetation, or
Water.
Height values for 3Dpolygons are specified in either this AMSL or AGL
column. Polygons are considered 2Dwhen a polygon table file does not
contain either the AMSL or AGL columns.
Table 1 Table 2.2 Required 3Dpolygon table columns
Field
Name
Type Comment
AMSL Float A floating point number representing the
height above average mean sea level.
AGL Float A floating point number representing the
height above ground level.
NOTE: The measurement unit used by values in the AMSL and AGL
columns are specified in the metadata associated with the .tab file. Use
the following integer values to specify measurement units:
n 2Inches
n 3Feet
LTE FDD User Guide 31
Chapter 3
n 5Millimeters
n 6Centimeters
n 7Meters
When the Polygons folder contains multiple table files, each table file must use
the same coordinate system as the primary heights file.
NOTE: You must add files to the Polygons folder manually. See To manage
geodata files.
Custom folder
The Custom folder is an optional folder that contains one or more geographic
files that do not fit in the other geodata folders. The following are some
examples of geographic files that you would add to the Custom folder:
n boundaries
n road networks
n railway networks
n water ways
n aerial or satellite photos
Mentum Planet can display custom data if it is a MapInfo grid or table file. For
other types of custom data, Mentum Planet will use an appropriate application
with which to display the chosen custom data.
NOTE: You must add files to the Custom folder manually. See To manage
geodata files.
32 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
Understanding project files
When you create a project in Mentum Planet , you are prompted to
select a project folder, specify the project heights grid file and,
optionally, a project clutter file. You must also define the project
technologies, the default settings files, and the coordinate system. The
site set is automatically created.
Site files
When you create a project, a default site set is added to the Project Data
category of the Project Explorer as shown in Figure 3.1. A site set defines
a collection of sites and contains the site data. You can create multiple
site sets within a Mentum Planet project but only one site set is active at
any one time. It is the active site set that you modify when you change
site parameters. Using multiple site sets enables you to have several
versions of the same network available and offers more flexibility to
create and analyze What-If scenarios. See Working with site sets.
The site information required to display sites in the Map windowis
duplicated in the site table (i.e., in the .tab file) as shown in Appendix A:
Site Table Format. Additional site table columns are also available if you
want to query the site data using MapBasic functionality; however, you
cannot update site data by modifying the .tab file as this data is always
updated from the internal Mentum Planet project,which is held in-
memory and stored in the project file.
You can update site sets using the Tabular Editor or Import/Export
Wizard.
CAUTION: To update the site table (.tab) file, right-click the Sites node
and choose Update Site File. Site updates are not automatically added to
the site table.
CAUTION: Do not update the site table manually using MapBasic or
MapInfo functionality.
LTE FDD User Guide 33
Chapter 3
Workspaces
A workspace (.wor) file records which MapInfo files are open, the position of
each Map windowand the properties of each layer it contains. You can save
your working configuration to a workspace file whenever you want. This
feature is particularly useful for features such as print layouts. If you associate
a workspace with a project, that workspace is opened whenever you open the
project.
Use of a workspace is optional. If you do not use a workspace, Mentum Planet
will automatically save the initial workspace configuration when you close your
project. The initial workspace configuration will be restored when you reopen
the project unless you choose to use a workspace and have enabled the
Workspace Autosave feature.
For more information on workspaces, see Creating and using workspaces.
34 LTE FDD User Guide
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Understanding the Project Explorer
The Project Explorer simplifies viewing and manipulation of Mentum
Planet project data. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as
groups and sites, sites and sectors, analyses and analysis
layers
n an indicator showing the number of sites and sectors
contained in the Sites node and individual Group nodes;
for example, if a group name is followed by [10/25/76/5]
(see Figure 3.1), then there are 10 sites, 25 base
stations, 76 sectors, and 5 repeaters contained in the
group.
n Data Manager status bar, indicating the project status in
Data Manager (if applicable)
n easy access to all information about a site, sector, or
group
n right-click access to relevant commands
n mouse operations (e.g., drag and drop) for tasks such as
adding a site to a group
n copy and paste operations
n easy access to Restore functionality where minimized
dialog boxes (e.g., the Prediction Generator dialog box
and the Point-to-Point dialog box) can be maximized
again.
The Project Explorer is present whenever a project is open, and is initially
docked at the left side of the application window. You can also dock the
Project Explorer on the right side of the application windowby dragging it
to the right side of the screen. Drag the Project Explorer to the left side
of the screen to once again dock it on the left side of the application
window. When docked, only the width of the Project Explorer is resizable.
LTE FDD User Guide 35
Chapter 3
You can also undock the Project Explorer by dragging it to any location on the
screen. When undocked, both the height and width of the Project Explorer are
resizable. Drag the Project Explorer to the left or right side of the screen to
once again dock it with the application window.
TIP: If you want to hide the Project Explorer from view, choose View Hide
Project Explorer. Choose View ShowProject Explorer to once again view
the Project Explorer.
36 LTE FDD User Guide
Understanding The Fundamentals Of Mentum Planet
Figure 3.1: Project Explorer
The Project Explorer can contain one, two, or three data windows. The
Data Windowcontrol buttons, located just belowthe title bar, control
howmany data windows the Project Explorer displays.
LTE FDD User Guide 37
Chapter 3
Button Function
Adds another data windowat the bottom of the Project
Explorer. The button is unavailable when there are
three data windows.
Removes the bottom data windowin the Project
Explorer. The button is unavailable when there is only
one data window.
Updates the content of the Project Explorer. To
reorder items in the Sites category, right-click the
Groups, Repeaters, or Sites node and choose Refresh.
Understanding the Project Explorer data window
Project information is divided into several broad categories:
n Network Analyses
n Operational Data
n Project Data
n RF Tools
n Sites
n Microwave
n Windows
A data windowdisplays a single category of information as a tree view. You
select the category from the Category list.
The items in the tree vieware generically called nodes. Specific nodes are
always referred to by name. A node can be
n a collection of nodes of one type, such as the Groups node,
which is a collection of Group nodes
n an item that contains subordinate items, such as a site that
contains sectors
38 LTE FDD User Guide
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The tree viewrepresents hierarchical relationships graphically. You can
expand or collapse nodes to reveal or hide subordinate nodes as needed.
You can define some relationships by dragging nodes. For example:
n To add a site to a group, drag the site into the group from
the Sites node.
n To change the order of layers in a Map window, drag the
layer to where you want it in the list of map layers.
Using multiple data windows
If you configure the Project Explorer with multiple data windows, you can
n viewmultiple categories of information at once
n viewdifferent parts of a lengthy tree viewso that you can
easily perform mouse drag operations between them
By default, a category can only be viewed in one data windowat a time.
For information on howto viewthe same category in more than one data
window, see Defining user preferences.
Access to commands
When you right-click on any node, you access a shortcut menu of
commands that apply to that type of node. For example, the following
menu appears when you right-click on a site node.
LTE FDD User Guide 39
Chapter 3
Figure 3.2: Right-click commands
Each shortcut menu has a default command that appears in bold. For
example, the default command for a site node is Edit. You can access these
default commands quickly by double-clicking a node.
You can make multiple selections by holding the Shift or Ctrl key while clicking
nodes, and then right-click to perform a command on all of them. In this case,
the shortcut menu contains only commands that are valid for multiple nodes.
For example, if you right-click on multiple sites, the NewSector command is
not available. You can add a sector to only one site at a time.
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Defining user preferences
In the User Preferences dialog box, you can specify default settings and
actions for Mentum Planet . These defaults are maintained between
Mentum Planet sessions and upgrades and preserved across all projects.
Preferences are user-specific so in a centralized work environment (such
as when using Citrix or Windows Terminal Server), user preferences are
unique to the individual who defines them.
User preferences are divided into the following categories:
n GeneralMentum Planet startup actions and project
data validation settings
n Unitsunits to be used across the project as well as the
project coordinate system.
n Project Explorerperformance, site selection, and
layer display settings
n Data Managerlogon settings and profile management
n Project Wizard Defaultsdefault folder settings and
geodata settings
n Miscellaneousprediction view, import/export, and
Monte Carlo simulation settings
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To define user preferences
CAUTION: The Transmitted Power, Height, Distance, and Coordinates
settings are global parameters that affect the interpretation of all the
values stored for sites. Use the same units of measure consistently
throughout your project to avoid inadvertently changing global
parameters.
LTE FDD User Guide 41
Chapter 3
1 Choose Edit Preferences.
The User Preferences dialog box opens.
2 Define your user preferences as required.
User preferences are maintained between Mentum Planet sessions.
CAUTION: You must restart Mentum Planet to apply value changes for any
user preference marked by an asterisk (*).
42 LTE FDD User Guide
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User Preferences
Use the User Preferences dialog box to specify default settings and
actions for Mentum Planet. These settings are maintained between
Mentum Planet sessions and upgrades.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
LTE FDD User Guide 43
Chapter 3
Project Explorer
Use this panel to define Project Explorer performance and selection settings.
For more information about the Project Explorer, see Understanding the
Project Explorer in the User Guide for the technology you are using.
44 LTE FDD User Guide
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Performance
CAUTION: Enabling any of the options in this section will impact the
performance of the Project Explorer.
Enable Duplicate Categoriesenable this check box to display the
same category in two Project Explorer data windows. When this check
box is cleared, categories are restricted to a single data window. Using
duplicate categories increases the time it takes to open a project and
unless you are working with projects that have less than 5 000 sectors, it
is not recommended.
Show Horizontal Scrollbar in Sites Categoryenable this check box
to add a horizontal scrollbar to the data windowdisplaying the Sites
category when the windowcontent surpasses the windowwidth.
Sort Project Explorer Nodes Automaticallyenable this check box
to sort the nodes in the Project Explorer when you add newitems to the
Project Explorer or rename existing items. When this check box is
cleared, newitems are added to the bottom of nodes, and you must
right-click the Groups, Repeaters, or Sites node and choose Refresh to
sort the chosen node.
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Zoom Automatically
On Located Siteenable this check box to set the zoom distance when using
the Locate command from the shortcut menu. To set the zoom distance, move
the slider until the desired zoom distance is displayed next to the slider.
On Viewed Site Selectionenable this check box to set the zoom distance
when using the Viewcommand from the shortcut menu. To set the zoom
distance, move the slider until the desired zoom distance is displayed next to
the slider.
Apply Translucency To Raster Layersenable this check box to apply
translucency to raster layers. Enable the check box next to each layer for
which you want translucency applied. Specify the degree of transparency by
dragging the slider until the desired percentage is displayed. When you set a
translucency level of 0 percent, the layer is completely opaque (i.e., you
cannot see through it). When you specify 100%translucency, the layer is
completely transparent.
NOTE: Translucency is applied when you viewa layer from the Project
Explorer or from a menu. When you change a translucency setting, you must
remove the layer and re-display it in order to see the effect of your changes.
TIP: Using a translucency value of 50%on network analysis layers will enable
you to see the geodata information or the aerial or satellite images through
the network layers.
Analysis Layer (Numeric)enable this check box to apply translucency to
numeric analysis layers and move the slider until the degree of translucency is
displayed.
Analysis Layer (Classified)enable this check box to apply translucency to
classified analysis layers and move the slider until the degree of translucency is
displayed.
Clutterenable this check box to apply translucency to clutter layers and
move the slider until the degree of translucency is displayed.
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Heightsenable this check box to apply translucency to the elevation
layer and move the slider until the degree of translucency is displayed.
Predictionenable this check box to apply translucency to predictions
and move the slider until the degree of translucency is displayed.
Traffic Mapenable this check box to apply translucency to traffic maps
and move the slider until the degree of translucency is displayed.
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User Preferences
Use the User Preferences dialog box to specify default settings and actions for
Mentum Planet. These settings are maintained between Mentum Planet
sessions and upgrades.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
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Project Wizard Defaults
Project Folderthis field displays the name of the default project folder
for newprojects. You can change this folder while using the Project
Wizard to create a newproject.
Browseclick this button to locate the a folder to use as the default
project folder for newprojects.
Global Folderthis field displays the name of the folder where default
project files such as antenna files or curve files are saved. If you do not
specify a global folder, the Global folder within the Mentum Planet
installation folder is used.
Browseclick this button to navigate to where the folder you want to
specify is located.
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Geodata
Use Default Geodataenable this check box to define a default location for
geodata. When you create a newproject, these defaults will be used.
Geodata Locationthis field displays the name of the folder where geodata
is saved. Geodata can be saved locally or remotely and the folder name can be
whatever best suits your needs; however, the geodata folder must contain a
Heights folder with the elevation grid and a Clutter folder, which can be empty
of you are not using clutter.
Primary Heights Filechoose from this list the elevation file you want to
associate with the project. All files contained in the Heights folder will be listed.
Primary Clutter Filechoose from this list the clutter file you want to
associate with the project or choose None if you do not want to define a
default clutter file. All files contained in the Clutter folder will be listed. You can
have more than one clutter file in the folder.
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Understanding the project folder structure
Each project folder contains many sub-folders. These are described in
Table2.3.
Table 2.3 Project folders
Folder Contents
Antenna Algorithm Files that are used to describe the algorithms
used in various configurations of multiple
antenna systems
Antenna Queries Antenna query files
Antennas Files for antennas used in the project
Areas Area classified grid files
Attachments Files you want to associate with a project. Only
shared files are saved in the Attachments folder.
These files will automatically be put into Data
Manager when you submit the project.
Backup project data backup
Bin Path loss files
CDMA2000_Analyses cdma2000 analysis files
CDMA2000MC_
Simulations
cdma2000 Monte Carlo simulation parameters
and results
Curves Curve files, which are used by the application to
configure relationships between performance
indicators
Environment
FCC Contours FCC region and point files
Field Strength Combined signal strength files, which are created
dynamically when viewing overall site field
strength
Filters Filter loss (.flt) files
FixedWiMAXFDD_
Analyses
Fixed WiMAX FDDnetwork analysis files
FixedWiMAXTDD_
Analysis
Fixed WiMAX TDDnetwork analysis files
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Folder Contents
FrequencyPlan WiMAX frequency plans
General Settings files (e.g., contour.set)
Geodata Mapping data including elevation, clutter, clutter
height, 2D/3Dpolygon, and other types of
mapping data files such as streets and
photographic imagery. The geodata folder must
contain a Heights folder and a Clutter folder. The
Heights folder must contain the mandatory
primary DTM. The Clutter folder can be empty.
InterferenceMatrix Interference matrix files
LTE_Analyses LTE analysis files
LTEMC_Simulations LTE Monte Carlo simulation parameters and
results
Model Propagation model and clutter property
assignment files
NeighborList Neighbor list files
Network_Data Imported network data files
PNOffsetPlanning PN offset plans
PredictionView Optimized pathloss storage used for network
analyses and Monte Carlo simulations
PreQualAnalyses Nth best server layers
Profiles Grid color profile files, point-to-point profile
settings files, and contour color profile files
Propagation_Model_
Analyses
Propagation model analysis files
Reports Report files
Scanner Data Scanner data files and templates
Scanner Survey Data Scanner survey data files and templates
ScramblingCodePlanningScrambling code plans
Sector Display Scheme Sector display schemes
Settings Files created by the Traffic Map Generator
SignalStrength Prediction files for individual sectors
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Folder Contents
Site Sets Local and shared site sets
Site Templates Local and shared site templates
SPT Files related to the process of merging surveys
and predictions.
Subscriber Data Fixed broadband wireless access database
Surveys Survey files
TDMA_FDMA_Analyses TDMA/FDMA network analysis files
Test Mobile Data Test mobile data files and templates
TrafficMaps Numeric grid and clutter relative weighting files
for traffic maps
WCDMA_Analyses WCDMA network analysis files
WCDMAMC_Simulations WCDMA Monte Carlo simulation parameters and
results
WiMAX_Analyses WiMAX network analysis files
WiMAXMC_Analyses WiMAX Monte Carlo simulation parameters and
results
WiMAXMC_Simulations WiMAX Monte Carlo simulation parameters and
results
Workspaces MapInfo workspace files including the default
ProjectOpening.wor file.
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Creating and using workspaces
A workspace (.wor) file saves the current settings for each Map windowand its
layers. At any time, you can save the current settings to a workspace file.
When you open a workspace, the Map windows and layers specified in the
workspace are re-created, opening any files that are required.
For more information about workspaces, see Using Workspaces in Chapter4
of the MapInfo Professional User Guide.
You can define a workspace in your project settings that Mentum Planet will
open when you open the project. By default, Mentum Planet does not
associate a workspace with your project; it stores the working configuration in
a default workspace. To automatically update a workspace file when you make
changes, you must use a defined workspace (.wor) file and enable the
Workspace Autosave check box on the General tab in the Project Settings
dialog box.
To create a workspace
1 Choose GIS Save Workspace.
2 In the Save Workspace dialog box, navigate to your project
folder.
3 Ensure that Workspace (*.wor) is selected in the Save As Type list.
4 In the File Name box, type a workspace name or accept the
default, and click Save.
To open a workspace
1 Choose GIS Open Workspace.
2 In the Open Workspace dialog box, navigate to your workspace
file, and click Open.
3 Ensure that Workspace (*.wor) is selected in the Files of Type list.
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TIP: You can also viewthe contents of a workspace file using a text
editor such as Notepad.
To associate a workspace with a project
You can specify a previously-saved workspace that Mentum Planet opens
each time you open this project. By doing this, you can have the project
open with the same configuration of windows and map layers every
time.
1 With a project open, choose Edit ProjectSettings.
The Project Settings dialog box opens.
2 Click the General tab.
3 In the Workspace section, click Browse beside the
Workspace box, navigate to the workspace you want to
use, and then click Open.
4 To automatically save the workspace each time you close the
project, enable the Workspace Autosave check box.
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Attaching files to a Mentum Planet project
You can attach files of any type to a Mentum Planet project and organize them
into folders for easy access. This is useful when you want to include support
documents in a Mentum Planet project such as census tract data, capacity
planning information, or RF design reviewdocuments. And, you can update
attached information that is saved as a .xls or .csv file using the Import
command.
NOTE: Files can be saved locally on your workstation or shared with other
users using the Data Manager.
To attach a file to a project
1 In the ProjectExplorer, in the ProjectData category, expand
the Attachments node and do any of the following:
n To attach a file that you want stored locally, right-click Local
and choose Add.
n To attach a file that you want stored in Data Manager, right-
click Shared and choose Add.
2 In the Open dialog box, locate the file you want to add, and click
Open.
The attached file is added to the Local or Shared attachments node in
the Project Explorer. Shared files are saved in the Attachments folder
within the project folder.
TIP: You can also double-click the Local or Shared node to attach a file.
To open an attached file
n In the ProjectExplorer, in the ProjectData category, right-
click the attached file and choose Open.
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To remove an attached file from a project
n In the ProjectExplorer, in the ProjectData category,
right-click the attached file and choose Remove.
The file is deleted from the Attachments folder.
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Working with site sets
A site set is a collection of sites. Every project has a Master site set, which
contains all the sites in a project. When you create a project, a Master site set
is created by default. Site sets can, for example, help you work more
efficiently on the region for which you are responsible by allowing you to
create a copy of the Master site set which contains only those sites you are
working on. When you make changes to sites in the subset, these changes are
only reflected in the project once you merge the subset into the Master site
set.
In contrast, when you work with groups, changes you make to sites in the
group are reflected in the project as soon as you apply them. For more
information, see Grouping sites in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
When you are satisfied with the results and the changes you have made to a
site subset, you can merge it back into the Master site set. And, if you are
working with the Data Manager, you can then submit the Master site set to the
server project so that others can access your changes. Site subsets are not
stored in Data Manager.
NOTE: To help you identify a site set, you can add a detailed description by
right-clicking on the site set and choosing Edit Description.
TIP: You can update site sets using the Tabular Editor or Import/Export
Wizard.
Master site set
When you create a project, a Master site set is automatically created. The
master site set contains all sites in the project and is identified with a green
plus sign. It is from the Master site set that you create site subsets in order to
perform specific planning and optimization tasks outside the production
environment (i.e., in a virtual sandbox). In other words, you can, for example,
generate and examine predictions or network analyses and then make
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modifications to site or network parameters without changing the Master
site set.
You can create a copy of the entire Master site set (i.e., all the sites in the
project) if you want to backup all site data. In the Project Explorer, right-
click the Master site set and choose Copy.
Site subsets
A site subset is a copy of specific sites contained in the Master site set. In
the Project Explorer, a site subset is identified with a green minus sign as
shown in Figure2.6. Using site subsets, you can test various site
configurations before applying these changes to the project.
Active site set
The sites in the Active site set are those you change when you make site
and sector modifications. The Active site set is identified with a green
arrowas shown in Figure2.6.
Figure 2.6 Icons identifies the active site set
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Site table
The site table (or site file) is used mainly for display purposes. It contains the
information required to display sites in the Map windowas well as additional
site table columns that can be used if you want to query site data using
MapInfo functionality.
You cannot permanently update site data by modifying the site (.tab) file as
this data is always updated from the internal Mentum Planet project, which is
held in-memory and stored in the project file. Site data saved in the site table
is not updated automatically when you make changes to site or sector
parameters. You can, however, refresh the site data stored in the site table
using the Update Site File command from the Sites node in the Project
Explorer but these updates are not saved. The site table is re-written each
time you open a project.
To switch the active site set
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, expand
SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or Shared node.
2 Right-click the active site set and do one of the following:
n To copy the entire site set, choose Copy.
n To copy a subset of the site set, choose Copy Subset.
3 If you are copying a subset, in the Select Sites dialog box, specify
the sites that you want to be part of the subset by choosing one of
the following options in the Sector Selection section:
n All Sites to include all sites in the subset.
n Current Selection if you have selected specific sectors in the
Map window.
n Flag Filtering if you have defined and assigned flags to
sectors. Enable the Invert Conditions check box to select those
sectors for which the applied conditions do not apply.
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n Group Selection if you have defined and created
groups.
n Query Selection if you have defined and created sector
queries.
4 In the Band Filtering section, enable the bands you want to
include in your sector selection.
The sites that will be included in the subset are displayed in the
Selected Sites list.
5 Click OK.
The newsite set is added to the Site Sets list.
NOTE: If the number of sites in a site set is high (i.e., greater than 5_
000 sectors), the action of switching between site sets can take some
time to complete.
To change the active site set
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
expand SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or
Shared node.
2 Right-click the site set that you want to set as the active site
set and choose Active.
The active site set changes, and the newsite set is displayed in the
Map window.
NOTE: When you change site sets, only the sites change. Defined flags,
groups, and link configurations are preserved. For example, flags you
have defined for the active site set will also be available for use with a
subset of the site set.
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To merge a subset into the active site set
CAUTION: It is recommended that you backup the site set before doing a
merge. Changes made to the original site set cannot be undone.
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, expand
SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or Shared node.
2 Right-click the subset site set and choose Merge To Active.
Site data in the original site set is overwritten with the data from the
subset.
To create a shared site set
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, expand
SiteSets, and then expand the Local node.
2 Right-click the site set you want to share and choose Create
Shared.
A copy of the selected site set is added to the Shared node.
To update a shared site set
You can only update a shared site set when the original site set is not the active
site set.
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, expand
SiteSets, and then expand the Local node.
2 Right-click the original site set used to create the shared copy and
choose Update Shared.
The shared copy of the selected site set is updated to match the original
site set.
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To remove a site set
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
expand SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or
Shared node.
2 Right-click the site set and choose Remove.
The site set is removed from the list, but the site set files are not
deleted from the project folder.
CAUTION: If you right-click a site set and choose Delete, the site set
files are deleted from the project folder.
To rename a site set
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
expand SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or
Shared node.
2 Right-click the site set, choose Rename, type a newname,
and press Enter.
To view the site set description
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
expand SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or
Shared node.
2 Right-click the site set for which you want to viewsite set
details, choose About.
3 Once you have read the description, click OK.
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To edit the site set description
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, expand
SiteSets, and then expand either the Local or Shared node.
2 Right-click the site set you want to edit and choose Edit
Description.
3 In the Edit Description dialog box, type the details you want to
associate with the site set and click OK.
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Working with map layers
You should be familiar with the concept of map layers when you work
with Mentum Planet . Each unique layer of information exists as a
separate file that can be added as a layer in a Map window.
Just as each layer can be visualized above or belowanother layer, layers
can be compared using spatial analysis functions.
When you open a grid, the Map windowconsists of a cosmetic layer and
individual map layers. You can manipulate these layers using the Project
Explorer or using the Layer Control.
Figure 2.7 Various map layers covering the same geographic area can
hold different types of information.
In the Windows category of the Project Explorer, you can
n viewthe names of the individual layers
n add or remove layers
n change the position of individual map layers
n make layers visible or invisible, editable or not editable
n open the layer in a newMap window
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n make layers selectable and/or editable
n enable automatic labeling of objects, such as sites
You can also manipulate map layers with the Layer Control. Right-click on the
Map windowand choose Layer Control. For more information about the Layer
Control, click the Help button in the Layer Control dialog box.
NOTE: For information on visualizing map layers as Microsoft Bing Aerial or
Microsoft Bing Hybrid layers, see the MapInfo Professional User Guide, located
by default in the \Program Files\Mentum\Planet 5\mapinfo\Documentation
folder.
NOTE: When you close a Map windowby choosing File Close Table, the grid
is not deleted or removed from the project, it is simply no longer visible.
To manipulate map layers with the Project Explorer
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Windows category, expand the
Map Windows node to see the individual map layers.
2 Do any of the following:
n To add newmap layers, right-click the Map windowname,
choose Add Layer, then choose the layers you want to add,
and click OK.
n To remove a map layer, right-click the map layer and choose
Remove.
n To remove a map layer and close the associated file, right-click
the map layer and choose Close.
n To move a map layer, drag it to the where you want it to
appear in the list of layers.
n To hide a layer, right-click the layer and choose Visible if the
check box is not already cleared.
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n To make a layer visible, right-click the layer and choose
Visible if the check box is not already enabled.
n To make a layer editable, right-click the layer and choose
Editable if the check box is not already enabled. The
Editable command is available only for layers that can be
made editable, such as vector and point layers.
n To make a layer non-editable, right-click the layer and
choose Editable if the check box is not already cleared.
The Editable command is available only for layers that
can be made editable, such as vector and point layers.
n To make a layer selectable, right-click the layer and
choose Selectable if the check box is not already
enabled. The Selectable command is available only for
layers that can be made selectable, such as vector and
point layers.
n To make a layer non-selectable, right-click the layer and
choose Selectable if the check box is not already
cleared. The Selectable command is available only for
layers that can be made selectable, such as vector and
point layers.
n To automatically label objects on a layer, right-click the
layer and choose AutoLabel if the check box is not
already enabled. The availability of automatic labeling
depends on the layer. Usually you use it on the site table.
n To viewa layer in a Browser window, right-click the layer
and choose Browse.
n To scale the Map windowto showthe full extent of a
layer, right-click the layer and choose ViewEntire
Layer.
n To open a layer in a newMap window, right-click the layer
and choose New Map Window.
To manipulate map layers with the Layer Control
1 Do one of the following:
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n In the Project Explorer, in the Windows category, right-click
a Map windownode and choose Layer Control.
n In the Project Explorer, in the Windows category, right-click
a Map windownode and choose Layer Control.
n Right-click in the Map windowand choose Layer Control.
2 In the Layer Control dialog box, do any of the following:
n To add a newmap layer, click the Add Layers button, choose a
layer, and then click OK.
n To remove a map layer, choose a map layer and click the
Remove Layers button.
n To move a layer up, choose a map layer and click the Move
Layers Up button.
n To move a layer down, choose a map layer and click the Move
Layers Down button.
n To make a layer visible, enable the Visible check box next to
the map layer.
n To make a layer editable, enable the Editable icon next to the
map layer. Some layers cannot be made editable.
n To make a layer selectable, enable the Selectable icon next to
the map layer.
n To add labels to the layer, enable the Automatic Labels icon
next to the map layer.
For more information about the functionality available in the Layer
Control dialog box, click the Help button.
3 Click OKto close the Layer Control dialog box.
NOTE: Move the cursor over the symbols above each column in the Layer list
to display the check box labels.
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Working with geodata folders
The Geodata node in the Project Data category of the Project Explorer
brings together all of the geographic data contained in a project to
enable you to manage different types of data in a consistent manner.
From the Geodata node, you can
n viewgeodata files by type or resolution
n add or remove files from geodata folders
n viewor hide geodata layers
The folder you define for geodata can be located within the project folder
although it doesnt have to be. In order to save disk space, the geodata
folder can be located on a server or in a common location where multiple
users can access it. At a minimum, it must, however, contain a Heights
folder and a Clutter folder. The Heights folder must contain the primary
DTMfile but the Clutter folder can be empty.
CAUTION: You must add the files you want in the Clutter Heights,
Polygons, and Custom folders manually.
To manage geodata files
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
expand the Geodata node to see the geodata folders.
2 Do any of the following:
n To add a file to a geodata folder, right-click the geodata
folder name, choose Add, choose the file you want to
add, click Open, then click OK. If the chosen file was not
in the appropriate Geodata folder, it will be copied to this
folder.
n To remove a file from a geodata folder, expand the
geodata folder, right-click the file and choose Remove.
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The chosen file is only removed the geodata folder, it is not
deleted from your computer.
n To hide a geodata file, expand the geodata folder, right-click
the file and choose Viewif the check box is not already
cleared.
n To make a geodata file visible, expand the geodata folder,
right-click the file and choose Viewif the check box is not
already enabled.
n To viewa geodata file in a Browser window, expand the
geodata folder, right-click the file and choose Browse. You can
only browse MapInfo tables, not grids or other custom data
files.
n To open the Grid Info tool, expand the geodata folder, right-
click the file and choose Grid Info.
n To create a legend for the geodata layer, expand the geodata
folder, right-click the file and choose Grid Legend.
n To viewthe colors associated with the layer, expand the
geodata folder, right-click the file and choose Grid Color.
To group geodata files
n In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category, right-
click Geodata, choose Group By, and then choose the type of
grouping that you want.
The geodata files are listed based on the type of grouping you chose.
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Defining the coordinate systems to use in a
project
You choose which coordinate system you want to use in a Mentum Planet
project when you create a project using the Project Wizard. You can
change the coordinate system on the Coordinate System tab in the
Project Settings dialog box as shown in Figure2.8.
Figure 2.8 Coordinate System tab
To define the coordinate system for sites
1 Choose Edit Project Settings.
2 In the Project Settings dialog box, click the Coordinate
System tab.
The coordinate system of the project height file is displayed in the
Terrain Coordinate System field and cannot be changed because it
is the coordinate system of the geodata itself. The geodata
coordinate system is used for display purposes.
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3 To change the coordinate system used for sites, click the Select
button next to the Network Coordinate Systemfield.
In order to create the highest quality network model, you should ideally
use the same coordinate system for the site database as is used for the
geodata. Using a different coordinate system for sites could introduce
inaccuracies in predictions.
For information on specific unit settings, press the F1 key.
4 Do one of the following:
n Click Apply to save the project settings without closing the
dialog box.
n Click OKto save project settings and close the dialog box.
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Defining color profiles
In order to improve the appearance and readability of map layers, you
can modify the default color schemes that Mentum Planet uses for
numeric grids. Changing the color profiles, affects the grids currently
open in Mentum Planet and the newprofiles will be used when creating a
newproject. Existing network analysis layers are not updated.
You can specify common color profiles that will be applied globally across
all project data, or you can choose a color scheme (a .vcp file) for specific
numeric grids. Color profiles are text files saved with a .vcp extension.
These files should be saved in the <Mentum Planet installation
folder>\Global\Profiles folder.
To choose color profiles
1 Choose Edit Color Profiles.
The Color Profiles dialog box opens.
2 In the Color Profiles dialog box, from the Analysis Type
list, choose the type of analysis for which you want to create
color profiles.
The values and colors defined in the profile are shown in the Colors
table.
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To create a color profile
1 If the Grid Manager is not visible, choose View Grid
Manager.
2 In the Grid Manager, choose a numeric grid (.grd).
3 Click the Color button.
4 Do any of the following:
n To add a color inflection point, click Add, define a value for the
inflection point, and click OK.
n To define a newcolor for the inflection point, double-click on a
color inflection point, choose a newcolor in the Color dialog
box and click OK.
n To move an inflection point, click a color inflection point and
drag it to the newlocation. This will update the value for this
inflection point in the Color Scheme list. The calculated values
in the Color Scheme List are automatically updated.
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n To change color values and percentiles, click an entry in
the Color Scheme List to make the value editable and
type a newvalue. This will move the inflection point to the
appropriate location on the color ramp.
5 In the Color Profile section, do any of the following:
n Enable the Solid Band check box if you want hard breaks
between colors instead of interpolated fading.
n Click Flip if you want the colors associated with inflection
points in reverse order.
n Click Revert if you want to return to the color pattern that
was in place before you clicked Flip.
6 If you want to redefine the grid colors based on howthey
would be illuminated by a single light source, in the Relief
Shading section, enable the Enabled check box, and click
Properties.
If you want this profile to be available for use with all Mentum
Planet projects, save the .vcp file in the <Mentum Planet
installation folder>\Global\Profiles folder. Otherwise, the default
location is the Profiles folder within the project folder.
NOTE: In deciding whether to save color inflection points by value or by
percentile, use the following guidelines:
n If it is more important to assign specific colors to specific values in a
series of related grid files, then save by value.
n If it is more important to assign a particular color range to a series of
related grid files where the value range may vary considerably, then
save by percentile.
TIP: You can add a color inflection point in the Grid Color Tool by
double-clicking on the color slider bar. Conversely, you can delete an
inflection point by clicking on an inflection point to highlight it and
pressing Delete.
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Color Profiles
Use this dialog box to assign color profiles to numeric grids. By default, color
profiles are saved in the Global\Profiles folder within the Mentum Planet
installation folder.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
Analysis Typechoose from this list the type of analysis for which you want
to define color profiles. The Common Analysis Type applies the color profiles to
analysis layers common to all technologies (i.e., path loss and signal
strength).
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Color
Profilesthis table displays the color profiles (.vcp file) used by numeric
grids. Click a color profile file name in the Color Profile Name column to
viewthe profile colors in the Profile list table.
Colorsthis table displays the color scheme of a chosen .vcp file.
Select Color Profileclick this button to choose a .vcp file from the
Select Color Profile dialog box to associate with the chosen layer type.
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Chapter 4 Creating A Project
A project can include any of the technologies supported by Mentum
Planet.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding projects 80
Creating projects 81
Migrating projects 85
Workflow for migrating Mentum Planet projects 87
Creating a network overlay 90
Opening and closing projects 92
Restoring projects 94
Saving projects 95
LTE FDD User Guide 79
Chapter 4
Understanding projects
A Mentum Planet project contains and organizes all of the information
pertaining to a particular wireless network. At a minimum, a project is created
from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) although you can also include clutter
information (i.e., land use) in a project.
A project contains:
n digital terrain models (i.e., digital elevation models)
n project clutter information
n clutter information for specific environments
n propagation models
n site locations
n sector equipment, including antennas
n groups
n flags
n traffic maps
n operation data (e.g., surveys, network measurement data,
neighbor lists, interference matrices, frequency plans, etc.)
n any documents you want to attach to the project
A project also contains the results of predictions and network analyses made
on the basis of this information.
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Creating projects
The Project Wizard leads you through the process of creating a project.
In order to streamline design work, you can specify that the Wizard
automatically displays when you start Mentum Planet. If you want
Mentum Planet to automatically open the last project, instead of the
Project Wizard, in the Startup Options section of the User Preferences
dialog box, choose the Open Most Recent Project option.
You can use remote project folders to store and access Mentum Planet
project data. For example, you can use shared project folders for the
following types of project files to conserve disk space on your
workstation:
n bin files
n signal (field) strength files
n prediction viewfiles
By default, these files are saved in the local project folder. If you use
shared project folders, the project files are stored in the shared folders,
instead of the local project folder. The shared folders must have
read/write access permissions for all Mentum Planet users accessing the
shared folders.
CAUTION: If you are using shared folders and do not enable the
corresponding check box in the Sharing section of the Advanced Options
tab in the Project Settings dialog box, the shared path is not stored in
Data Manager when you check in the project. For any Data Manager
users who perform a Get on the project, all data will be stored within
their local project folder.
When you create a project, you can choose to use a workspace to save
your map windowsettings, although this is not required. You can also
choose the coordinate system. For additional information about
projections, see Appendix B, Elements of a Coordinate System in the
MapInfo Professional User Guide.
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NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
CAUTION: Never save projects in the Mentum Planet installation folder.
To create a project
1 Start Mentum Planet.
By default, the Project Wizard opens when you start Mentum Planet. To
use the wizard at any other time, choose File New Project.
2 On each page of the Wizard, provide the required information and
click Next.
3 On the Choose Default Settings For Each Enabled
Technology page, specify those technologies you want to include
in the project and click Next.
Default settings are saved in the <Mentum Planet installation
folder>\Global\Technologies folder. If you want to customize the default
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settings to use each time a newproject is created, you can modify
the Excel file.
4 On the Choose Geodata That Covers All Of Your Site
Locations page, click the Browse button and navigate to
where the project geodata is saved and then click Next.
The folder you define for geodata can be located within the project
folder although it doesnt have to be. In order to save disk space,
the geodata folder can be located on a server or in a common
location where multiple users can access it. At a minimum, it must,
however, contain a Heights folder and a Clutter folder. The Heights
folder must contain the primary elevation file but the Clutter folder
can be empty.
5 Click Finish.
The project opens in a Map window.
NOTE: When you create a project, default propagation model (.pmf)
files are copied to the Model folder located within the project folder.
To view or edit project settings
1 Choose Edit Project Settings.
The Project Settings dialog box opens.
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2 Modify project settings as required.
NOTE: To open the Project Settings dialog box once a project is open, choose
Edit Project Settings, or click the Project Settings button on the Network
toolbar.
TIP: To make a copy of an existing project, close the existing project and
copy the contents of its project folder to a newproject folder. It is not
recommended that you create the newproject folder as subfolder of the
existing project folder.
TIP: In the newproject folder, you can delete large folders (e.g., Bin,
SignalStrength, PredictionView, and <technology>_Analyses) or you can elect
not to copy them because Mentum Planet automatically recreates these
folders.
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Migrating projects
Before installing Mentum Planet 5.2.1, it is important that you migrate
existing projects in order to take advantage of the newfeatures in the
latest release of Mentum Planet. Changes to the data storage and
management architecture in Mentum Planet 5.2.1 require that projects
created in previous versions of the software be migrated in order to
make it consistent with the newdata schema.
The migration of Mentum Planet projects from previous releases is an
automated process achieved using the Mentum Project Migrator utility
that is available in Mentum Planet .
CAUTION: After a legacy project has been migrated to Mentum Planet
5.2.1, it can no longer be opened in previous versions of Mentum Planet .
It is recommended that you create a complete project backup prior to
opening your project in Mentum Planet 5.2.1.
CAUTION: When migrating from Mentum Planet 5.x to Mentum Planet
5.2.1, ensure that the Master site set in your Mentum Planet 5.x project
is active.
Improved data validation
Mentum Planet includes stringent data validation controls aimed at
preserving data integrity and reducing the chance of error or data
corruption. As a consequence, project data must be free of
inconsistencies to ensure successful migration to Mentum Planet 5.2.1.
Upgrade paths
The Mentum Project Migrator supports the following upgrade paths:
n Mentum Planet 5.0 , 5.1, or 5.2 to Mentum Planet 5.2.1
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NOTE: If you are using versions prior to Mentum Planet 4.5, contact
Customer Care for assistance with project migration. If you are using Data
Manager and working in a multi-user environment, the software upgrade must
be coordinated such that Mentum Planet and Data Manager Server are both
the same version. In this deployment model, it is also critical to coordinate
data migration from previous releases.
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Workflow for migrating Mentum Planet projects
CAUTION: It is recommended that you create a complete project
backup prior to opening your project in Mentum Planet5.2. After a
legacy project has been migrated to Mentum Planet5.2, it can no longer
be opened in previous versions of Mentum Planet.
Step 1 Run Data Inspector on the project you want to migrate to
identify any issues prior to migrating the project to Mentum
Planet 5.2. If errors appear in the Project Status message
window, contact Customer Care for assistance. See Getting
technical support.
To run Data Inspector, choose Start Run. Type <Mentum
Planet 5 Installation folder>\DataInspector.exe /expert and
click Open. For example, C:\Program Files\Mentum\Planet
5\DataInspector.exe /expert
Step 2 Back up all local project data.
Step 3 Open the Mentum Planet Migrator, migrate the project, and
then save it. See To migrate projects from Mentum Planet 4.x
or 5.x
Step 4 Open your project in Mentum Planet 5.2.
Step 5 If issues arise, run Data Inspector on your local project to
identify any known issues. The Data Inspector shipped with
Mentum Planet may identify issues that are not detectable in
previous versions of the tool. If errors appear in the Project
Status message window, contact Customer Care for
assistance.
NOTE: When migrating a Mentum Planet project that contains network
analyses, the analysis files are copied to the Obsolete folder within the
Mentum Planet project folder. You can open these files and viewthe
LTE FDD User Guide 87
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associated analysis layers in Mentum Planet 5.2. See Viewing analysis layers
created in Mentum Planet 4.5.
NOTE: If you have any questions or concerns about the migration process,
contact Customer Care.
To migrate projects from Mentum Planet 4.x or 5.x
1 Click Start All Programs Mentum Planet 5.2 Mentum
Planet Migrator.
The Mentum Planet Migrator opens.
2 Choose File Migrate.
3 In the Open Project dialog box, navigate to the folder where the
project is saved and click Open.
4 Choose File Validate Project.
5 If validation is fine, choose File Save Project.
The project is saved with a .planet extension.
6 Choose File Exit.
Newproject files are created including the Mentum Planet project
(.planet) file and the associated .dat and .xml files.
7 Open the newly migrated project in Mentum Planet 5.2.
8 Choose Edit Network Settings.
9 In the tree view, choose the technology you are working with.
10 Verify all network settings values and click OK on you are satisfied
with the settings.
In particular, ensure that you define appropriate values for the Useful
Bits Per Symbols column as well as Amplifier Backoff (dB) columns.
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NOTE: The Migrate Files To command is used strictly when you want to
convert antenna files and propagation models contained in an existing
project for use with the Network Overlay tool. Only site and sector
information is migrated. If you do not migrate the project first, the
Network Overlay tool uses a default antenna file and propagation file.
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Creating a network overlay
Using the Network Overlay tool, you can add sites and sectors to a Mentum
Planet 5.2.1 project using the project data you exported from Mentum Planet
4.x or 5.0, 5.1, or 5.2. You can also create a network overlay within a Mentum
Planet 5.2.1 project. The Network Overlay tool supports all technologies
including CDMA/EV-DO, GSM, and W-CDMA/HSPA.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
CAUTION: If the exported worksheets or .csv files do not contain summary
information, data should use the same units and same coordinate system as
those defined in the User Preferences dialog box.
To create a network overlay
You can create a network overlay from comma-separated values (.csv) files or
from Excel (.xls) files. This procedure uses Excel files.
1 To export the data to an Excel file, do one of the following:
n In Mentum Planet 4.x, choose Data Export Project
Data.
You must export the following worksheets: Sites and Sectors
(with all fields selected).
n In Mentum Planet 5.x, choose Data Export Project
Data.
You must export the following worksheets: Sites and Sectors
(with all fields selected) as well as the Antennas worksheet.
2 Once the export is complete, in Mentum Planet, choose Tools
Network Overlay .
The Network Overlay Wizard opens.
3 On the first page of the Wizard, specify the following:
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n the version of Mentum Planet used to created the data
files.
n the format of the data files.
n the location of the data files.
4 Click Next and followthe prompts to complete the network
overlay.
5 When you have specified all required information, click
Finish.
The network overlay file contains three worksheets: Sites, Sectors,
and Antennas.
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Opening and closing projects
You must close an open project before opening a newone.
TIP: If you want Mentum Planet to automatically open the last project,
choose the Open Most Recent Project option on the General panel in the User
Preferences dialog box. If you do not want the last project to open, choose the
None option.
CAUTION: When you open a project, existing 4.x predictions are
automatically migrated. After predictions have been converted for use in the
latest version of Mentum Planet, you cannot use them or viewthem in
previous versions of Mentum Planet. You should create a backup copy of
legacy predictions before opening the project.
To open a project
1 Do one of the following:
n Double-click the Mentum Planet (.planet) project file to start
Mentum Planet and open the project.
n Double-click the Mentum Planet (.planet) project file to start
Mentum Planet and open the project.
n In Mentum Planet, choose File OpenProject and go to
Step 2.
n In Mentum Planet, choose File RecentProjects
<Project Name>.
The path to the project is displayed in the Mentum Planet
taskbar at the bottom of the application window.
2 In the Open dialog box, locate the project you want to open, and
click Open.
The project opens in a Map window.
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TIP: To viewtwo projects side-by-side, you can open multiple instances
of Mentum Planet on your workstation.
TIP: Create a shortcut to your Mentum Planet project (.planet) file to
quickly open projects that you use often.
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Restoring projects
Each time you save a project, a copy is stored in the Backup folder within the
project folder. When a project has been terminated abnormally, you can
choose to restore the last saved version of the project or the last opened
version of the project.
CAUTION: Do not open a .planet file saved in the Backup folder. Backup
.planet files should only be opened from the Restore Project Files dialog box.
To restore a project
1 Start Mentum Planet .
2 Choose File Restore.
The Restore Project Files dialog box opens.
3 Click the Browse button next to the Restore Project Files From
box and navigate to the .planet file saved in the Backup folder
within the project folder, and then click OK.
4 Click the Browse button next to the Restore Project Files To
box and navigate to the original folder where project files were
saved, and then click OK.
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Saving projects
You can save project data at any time without closing a project. It is
recommended that you save your project periodically in order to avoid
the loss of data in the event of a network or system failure. You can also
save a named backup of your project. This can be useful if you want to
save the project at various stages in the network development.
To save a project
n Choose File Save Project.
The project is saved in the project folder.
To back up a project
1 Choose File Back Up Project.
2 In the Backup Project dialog box, in the Name box, type a
name for the folder where the data will be saved and click
OK.
Project data is saved in the named folder within the Backup folder.
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Working With Propagation Models
Chapter 5 Working With Propagation Models
Using the Propagation Model Editor, you can adjust the parameters of
propagation models to account for the characteristics of the
environment.
A set of propagation models is installed with Mentum Planet and is copied
to the project folder when you create a newproject. This chapter
describes howto choose and edit a number of propagation models.
It also describes howto use the Model Tuning tool to automatically adjust
the parameters of a propagation model based on measurement data in
order to produce signal strength predictions that are as accurate and
realistic as possible.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Workflow for propagation modeling 99
Workflow for model tuning 100
Understanding the role of propagation models 102
Understanding propagation model types 104
Understanding model tuning 114
Understanding clutter classes and clutter properties 115
Tuning the Planet General Model using AMT 116
Planet Automatic Model Tuner 119
Toolbar 120
Tuner Type 121
Model Parameters 122
Correlation/Cross-Correlation Threshold Values 123
Tuning models using the Clutter Absorption Loss tuner 124
Clutter Absorption Loss Properties 127
Survey Distance 128
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Number of Radials 129
Tuning a propagation model 130
Guidelines for model tuning 131
Creating and editing propagation models 132
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Workflow for propagation modeling
Step 1 Create and edit propagation model.
Step 2 Tune the propagation model.
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Chapter 5
Workflow for model tuning
Step 1 Collect survey data and modify as required. See Workflowfor
surveys.
Step 2 Configure the model (e.g., matching the frequency used when
collecting the survey data with the frequency in the tuned
propagation model). See Workflowfor editing propagation
models.
Step 3 Tune the propagation model. See:
n If you are tuning the Planet General Model, see Tuning the Planet
General Model using AMT.
n If you are tuning any other propagation model, see Tuning
models using the Clutter Absorption Loss tuner.
Step 4 Validate the model.
n Generate predictions for the survey sites using the tuned model.
See Generating predictions.
n Viewa thematic map of survey points and compare them to the
prediction layer. See Displaying survey data.
Step 5 Investigate discrepancies between the survey data and the
prediction layer by comparing the survey data to the prediction
output and reviewing survey reports. Once you have examined the
differences, you may decide to remove additional points, modify the
clutter properties, or change the propagation model settings. See
Viewing survey statistics, Creating survey reports, and
Combining and comparing surveys.
The data in the model tuning report does not provide a comparison
between the survey data and the final prediction. In most cases, the
differences will be negligible; however, if required, you can
generate an additional prediction and use the Compare to Grid
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feature to viewfinal comparison statistics. See Combining
and comparing surveys in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
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Chapter 5
Understanding the role of propagation models
Propagation models simulate howradio waves travel through the environment
from one point to another. Because of the complex nature of propagation
modeling and the great amount of information needed to perform an accurate
estimation of path loss, there will always be differences between the path loss
estimation of a model and real-world measurements. Nevertheless, some
models are inherently more accurate than others in specific situations, and it is
always possible to refine a model (or its understanding of the environment) so
that it better matches the real world. There are several things you can do in
order to minimize discrepancies between the propagation model and the real
world, including choosing an appropriate model and calibrating it effectively.
To model the real-world behavior of a network and account for howradio
waves react to elevation changes and clutter (e.g., reflection, diffraction, and
scattering), you must account for features in the environment such as the
surface of the terrain (e.g., hilly or flat) and the presence of lakes. Ground
cover such as buildings and trees must also be taken into consideration
because of the influence they have on radio propagation, particularly at the
frequencies used by mobile networks.
Although it is possible to create predictions without a clutter file, using one will
produce much more accurate predictions. The clutter file (in the form of a
classified grid) details surface features that are classified into meaningful
categories (or classes). It is important to be flexible in defining the physical
properties associated with each clutter type. For example, land on the west
coast of North America categorized as forest may have physical properties
significantly different from similarly categorized land on the east coast.
Because of the vast differences possible between clutter classes, it is
important to create and tune a propagation model for each clutter class. For
example, for a large urban city center, you might create a dense urban model,
an urban model, and a suburban model each tuned to reflect a specific area of
the region. In order to improve the accuracy of predictions, it is common to
use three or four propagation models for a specific market. This is because
some models are inherently more capable of adjusting to changes in the
environment. Also, the more deterministic a model is, the more adaptable it is
as well.
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Propagation models are organized in the Project Data category of the
Project Explorer. The icons of propagation models that have been
assigned to a sector are displayed in color. The icons of propagation
models that have not been assigned to a sector, but are located in the
Model folder of the project, appear dimmed.
You can find more information in the following documents:
n Federal Communications Commission. Methods for
Predicting Interference from Response Station
Transmitters and to Response Station Hubs and for
Supplying Data on Response Station Systems. MM
DOCKET 97-217
n J. Epstein and D.W. Peterson. An experimental study of
wave propagation at 850 Mc., Proc. IRE, vol. 41, no. 5,
pp. 595-611, May, 1953
You can find detailed information about propagation models in the
following documents available in the <Mentum Planet installation
folder>\Help folder:
n CRC-Predict Technical Note
n An Investigation Into CRC-Predict 4 Emulation of CRC-
Predict2
n Planet General Model Technical Note
n Mentum PlanetUser Guide
n Universal Model User Guide
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Understanding propagation model types
This section describes the propagation model types that Mentum Planet
supports. Slope-based models, such as the Okumura-Hata model, take clutter
into account automatically when generating predictions. Deterministic
models, such as the CRC-Predict model, depend on the model of the
environment and the specification of clutter property assignments. Table4.1
rates howeach of the three main propagation models perform when used
under certain conditions.
Table 4.1 Ratings for popular propagation models
Used... CRC-Predict
Planet General
Model
Universal
Model
For macro-cell
planning
Good Good Excellent
For mini-cell planning Poor Fair Excellent
For micro-cell
planning
Very poor Fair Excellent
Over large
propagation distances
Excellent Fair Good
With no model tuning Fair Poor Good
With cluster tuning Fair Poor Good
On a per-sector basis Fair Fair Excellent
With merged
predictions
Good Fair Good
Planet General Model
The Planet General Model is a flexible hybrid model that can be used to model
many different kinds of propagation environments. This model has been
available for more than 10 years and enables you to migrate data from
versions as far back as Planet 2.8 to Mentum Planet and obtain the same
coverage results. The Planet General Model has become an industry standard
and can be used when migrating projects from other wireless planning
products.
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You can use the Planet General Model to model many different kinds of
propagation environments. The path loss equation incorporates losses
due to a number of models (such as Okumura-Hata), contributors, and
coefficients that can be pieced together to create a user-defined
propagation model. Some of these are defined by algorithms derived
from statistical data. These algorithms are quite accurate under specific
conditions, but become less appropriate as the terrain and clutter varies
from these conditions. Various correction factors exist to compensate for
these varying conditions, and it is very important for these values to be
assigned accurately in order to make models simulate the real situation.
The Planet General Model predicts the path loss for each element within
the prediction area. This is achieved by constructing a terrain and clutter
profile from the base station (transmitter) to each element and then
computing the path loss for that profile. In order to ensure that path loss
at each element within the prediction region is computed, a profile can
be constructed to each element on the perimeter of the prediction
region. Thus the number of radials, , is given by
However, for most practical applications, a fraction of the above number
of radials is sufficient. A corresponding signal strength at each element is
also computed using the antenna pattern.
One of the most visible differences between the Planet General Model
used with Planet2.8/Planet DMS and the one used with Mentum Planet is
the shape of the prediction area; Planet2.8/Planet DMS uses a square
prediction area, whereas Mentum Planet defines a circular prediction
area. Although the shape and the total area of the prediction areas are
markedly different, this has no effect on the computed path loss or signal
strength values. Using simple geometry, you can convert Planet2.8
Prediction Size to Mentum Planet Propagation Distance using
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The above equation overlaps the Mentum Planet circular prediction area with
Planet2.8 square prediction region, thus assuring total coverage of the
prediction zone.
For more information on the Planet General Model, see the Planet General
Model Technical Note.
You can use 3Dbuilding data with the Planet General Model. To do this, you
must first convert the 3Ddata into newclutter classes, which represent the
height of the buildings. Then, you need to define clutter properties such that
each class is assigned a height equal to the height of the building. Using the
model in this way can increase the accuracy substantially in urban areas. The
best resolution for this type of model is 5-10 meters.
PGM-A model
PGM-A is a variation on the Planet General Model and is useful when migrating
projects from other wireless planning products. Contact Customer Care for
support in determining when to use PGM-A.
Some of the characteristics that differentiate PGM-A from the Planet General
Model include the following:
n It may be unnecessary to retune models that you migrate from
another wireless planning product to PGM-A.
n There is some variation in the method for computing received
signal strength and diffraction loss.
n The Planet General Model allows you to specify howthe radio
wave is modeled over the horizon as a result of the earths
atmosphere.
n The Planet General Model allows you to apply Okumura
correction factors.
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CRC-Predict model
CRC-Predict is a general-purpose model intended for macrocell planning.
It is not a ray-tracing model and, as such, should not be used with high-
resolution data. Instead, it is best used with geodata with a resolution
between 20 to 30 meters. You can use it in most circumstances,
regardless of the kind of terrain, if detailed terrain or clutter information
or both are available. The following cases are exceptions:
n for very short paths, for example micro-cellular paths, in
which the locations of individual buildings are important
n for very short paths, for example micro-cellular paths, in
which the locations of individual buildings are important
n when a very rapid calculation is wanted, because the
CRC-Predict model is more computationally intensive
than most models
The path loss calculation in the CRC-Predict model is designed for the
VHF to UHF (30 MHz to 3 GHz) frequency range. The physical principles
used by the CRC-Predict model are also applicable up to 30 GHz.
However, accurate predictions for that range depend on very detailed
and accurate terrain data, and currently there are no supporting test
measurements. Also, above 10 GHz, rain attenuation becomes
significant. The principal algorithm is a diffraction calculation, based on
the Fresnel-Kirchoff theory that takes terrain into account in a detailed
way. An estimate of the additional loss for obstructions such as trees,
buildings, or other objects is included when data on clutter classes are
available. Tropospheric scatter is included for long paths. Estimates of
time and location variability can be made.
The diffraction algorithm samples the propagation path from the
transmitter to the receiver and determines the signal strength at many
points in space. First, the wave field is determined as a function of height
(a vertical column of many values) above a terrain point close to the
transmitter by an elementary calculation. Then, using the Huygens
principle of physical optics, each of these field points is regarded as a
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source of radiation, and from them, the signal strength is calculated a little
farther away. In this way, a marching algorithm simulates the progress of the
radio wave from the transmitter to the end of the path. Even though the signal
strength is calculated at many points, an efficient integration algorithm and a
choice of only the most important signal strength points permit the integration
calculation to be fast enough for practical use.
The CRC-Predict model also uses surface-type or clutter data in its
calculations. Because CRC-Predict is a deterministic model, the more precise
and physically realistic terrain and clutter information you use, the more
accurate the output tuned model will be.
Clutter interacts with the algorithm in two ways:
n As the wave propagates over the ground toward a distant
receiver, the effective height of the ground is assumed to be
the real height of the ground plus the assumed clutter height.
n As the wave propagates over the ground toward a distant
receiver, the effective height of the ground is assumed to be
the real height of the ground plus the assumed clutter height.
n Clutter close to the receiver is assumed to terminate close to
the receiver, e.g., 50 meters. That is, the receiving antenna is
not assumed to be on the doorstep of a building, or in the
middle of a forest, but rather on a street or in a road allowance
in the forest. Part of the calculation is an estimate of the
attenuation from the clutter down to street level.
In addition to the height and distance of solid (opaque) clutter, there is an
additional attenuation, entirely empirical, which takes into account trees and
other absorbing material adjacent to the receiving antenna. This attenuation
factor (expressed in decibels) is the parameter most easily used to make
median predictions agree with measurements in a particular area (model
tuning).
NOTE: For more information on the CRC-Predict model, see the CRC-Predict
Technical Note.
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Universal model
The Universal model is only available if you have purchased a license.
You can obtain detailed information about the Universal model by
pressing the F1 key from the Universal Model Parameters dialog box.
The online Help contains context-sensitive help and provides access to
the Universal Model User Guide.
The Universal model is a high-performance deterministic propagation
model that has been integrated into Mentum Planet . Unlike other
propagation models, the Universal model automatically adapts to all
engineering technologies (i.e., micro, mini, small, and macro cells), to all
environments (i.e., dense urban, urban, suburban, mountainous,
maritime, and open), and to all systems (i.e., GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS,
WIFI, WIMAX, LTE) in a frequency range that spans from 400MHz to
5GHz.
In addition, the Universal Model:
n uses a newAGL layer and a newpolygon layer where
modifications to the layers can be done directly in the Map
window.
n uses a newAGL layer and a newpolygon layer where
modifications to the layers can be done directly in the Map
window.
n outperforms other models in terms of the speed and
accuracy of predictions.
Q9 model
The Q9 propagation model is based on the Okumura-Hata model. Using
the variables shown in Figure 1, it calculates the expected pathloss
between the transmitter and the receiver using the terrain profile. In
other words, it considers a cross-section of the earth along a straight line
between the transmitter and the receiver. This propagation model is
most useful for frequency bands in the 150-2000 MHz range and works
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best within a radius of 0.2-100 km. The Q9 model is intended for use with high-
resolution elevation and clutter data.
Pathloss depends on frequency as well as the antenna heights of the
transmitter and the receiver. The Q9 model allows for both uptilt and downtilt
of antennas and takes into account the vertical antenna pattern.
There are three input values that the Q9 model considers:
n Okumura-Hatas wave propagation equations with modifying
parameters A0 to A3. See Equation 1. For more information,
press the F1 key in the Q9 Parameters dialog box for online
Help.
n Extra losses that occur when wave propagation is disturbed by
obstacles such as mountain peaks. When the distance between
the transmitter and receiver becomes sufficiently large, a
correction due to earths curvature is necessary.
n Land use code loss.
Figure 5.1 illustrates the variables that are taken into account to calculate
pathloss.
Figure 5.1: The process of calculating pathloss
The equation belowdetails the formula used to calculate pathloss.
110 LTE FDD User Guide
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Where:
L
b
is the pathloss
HOA (Hata Open Area) is a variant of Okumura-Hatas equation in dB as
shown in equation Equation 2
mk[mobile] is the land use code at the mobile in dB
is a parameter related to the knife-edge diffraction
KDFR is the contribution from knife-edge diffraction in dB
JDFR is the diffraction loss due to the spherical earth in dB
Longley-Rice model
You can use the Longley-Rice area calculation for rural (non-urban)
areas if little is known about the terrain and clutter.
The Longley-Rice model is applicable to point-to-point communication
systems in the 20 MHz to 10 GHz range over different types of terrain
(Rappaport, 1996). The Longley-Rice model operates in two modes. The
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point-to-point mode uses terrain information if it is available, while the point-
to-area mode uses techniques that estimate the path-specific parameters
when little terrain information is available.
In point-to-point mode, median path loss is predicted by using tropospheric
refractivity and terrain geometry. However, only some features of the terrain
are used. The terrain profile is used to find effective antenna heights, horizon
distances and elevation angles as seen from the antennas, the angular
distance for a trans-horizon path, and the terrain irregularity of the path. The
prediction is performed in terms of these parameters. A ray optic technique
using primarily a two-ray ground reflection model is used within the radio
horizon. The two or three isolated obstacles causing the greatest obstruction
are modeled as knife edges using the Fresnel Kirchoff theory. Forward scatter
theory is used to make troposcatter predictions for long paths and far field
diffraction losses are predicted using a modified Van der Pol-Bremmer
method (Rappaport, 1996). The Longley-Rice point-to-point model is also
referred to as the Irregular Terrain Model (ITM) (Hufford, et al. 1982).
Although the point-to-area mode is an old method, it is still perhaps the best
method of estimating path loss in open country if the only parameters known
about the ground are its irregularity and (less importantly at UHF) its electrical
constants.
The Longley-Rice model is best suited to the following parameters:
n Frequency: 20 MHz to 10 GHz
n Distance: 1 km to 2000 km
n Antenna Heights: 0.5 m to 3000 m
n Polarization: Vertical or Horizontal
References
For more information about the Longley-Rice model, see the following
references:
Rappaport, T.S. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice
Hall, 1996.
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Hufford, Longley, and Kissick. A Guide to the Use of the ITS Irregular
Terrain Model in the Area Prediction Mode, U.S. Department of
Commerce. April 1982.
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Understanding model tuning
The term model tuning applies generally to the process of adjusting the
parameters of a propagation model in order to generate predictions that are
as accurate and realistic as possible.
Model tuning is usually performed using measured signal strength data
collected during surveying. This survey data is used to change clutter
absorption loss values and other parameters in the propagation model. For
more information on collecting and working with survey data, see Chapter 5:
Managing Survey Data.
To tune a model in Mentum Planet , you can use:
n the Clutter Absorption Loss tuner which enables you to tune all
propagation model types
n the Planet Automatic Model Tuner (AMT) which enables you to
tune the Planet General Model
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Understanding clutter classes and clutter
properties
Propagation models perform path loss calculations based on the types of
clutter through which the signal passes. The terrain is classified into
clutter classes based on land use or ground cover, e.g., Industrial,
Residential, Forest. For each clutter class, a set of clutter properties is
specified, depending on the propagation model. All models (with the
exception of the Universal Model)specify clutter absorption loss. Some
models specify additional properties, such as average obstacle height.
For your project, the clutter file specifies the clutter class for each bin of
the coverage area. Before you can generate signal strength predictions
or do model tuning, you must define the values of the clutter properties
for each clutter class. These values are saved in the Propagation Model
File (.pmf). Your choice of ground type for each clutter class sets default
values for numeric properties, such as Clutter Absorption Loss. You can
edit these values. Usually this is done as part of model tuning.
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Tuning the Planet General Model using AMT
You can use the Planet Automatic Model Tuner (AMT) to automatically optimize
components of the Planet General Model using survey data from single or
multiple sites. You can tune the Planet General Model using one of the
following methods:
n Smartsimplifies the tuning process and is recommended if
you have little or no knowledge of model tuning
n Standardenables you to manually tune the model using a
complex, multi-step procedure. For detailed information on
using the Standard option, see Tuning the Planet General
Model using AMT in the Planet General Model Technical Note.
When you use the Smart option, all of the model parameters are set to
Optimize. When set to Optimize, the Planet AMT runs various correlation and
cross-correlation tests to determine which model parameters can be
optimized. If any parameters cannot be optimized, default values are used.
To tune the Planet General Model using AMT
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Operational Data category,
right-click a survey and choose Model Tuning.
The Model Tuning dialog box opens.
2 Provide the information for which you are prompted and, from the
Model To Tune list, choose a Planet General Model template.
3 From the Model Tuner list, choose Planet AMT Version 1.5.
4 To edit the AMT, click Edit Tuner.
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5 In the Tuner Type section, choose the Smart option.
For information on using the Standard AMT option, see Tuning the
Planet General Model using AMT in the Planet General Model
Technical Note.
Custom model parameter values will not be optimized. If a factor
cannot be optimized, a suitable default value is used.
6 To define custom correlation or cross-correlation values, in
the Correlation/Cross-Correlation Threshold Values
section, type values in any of the following boxes:
n Correlation P3T
n Correlation P4T
n Cross-Correlation P35T
n Cross-Correlation P45T
Defining a custom correlation or cross-correlation value is useful if
you want to optimize a particular factor that does not meet the
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threshold requirements. For example, if p4T=0.4, and p4 =0.15, K4
cannot be optimized. You can enable K4 to be optimized by setting p4T
to 0.1.
If you chose to define custom thresholds, the resulting factors might
produce an invalid model. Before applying the model, you must ensure
that the ranges you have specified are valid. For more information, see
the Planet General Model Technical Note.
7 Save the settings in a Planet AMT settings (.set) file if required and
click OK.
8 In the Model Tuning dialog box, click OKto begin the model
tuning process.
When the model tuning process is complete, the tuned model is added
to the Propagation Models node in the Project Data category of the
Project Explorer.
NOTE: You can edit the properties of the tuned model using the Propagation
Model Editor. To access the Propagation Model Editor, expand Propagation
Models in the Project Data category of the Project Explorer, right-click the
tuned model and choose Edit.
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Planet Automatic Model Tuner
Use the Planet Automatic Model Tuner Properties dialog box to define
model tuning parameters for the Automatic Model Tuner version 1.0.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
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Toolbar
Click this button to create a newtemplate. Newtemplates are added the
Templates list.
Click this button to open a Planet AMT Parameter file. The opened file is
added the Templates list.
Click this button to save the current parameters in a newPlanet AMT
Parameter file.
Click this button to save the current parameters.
Templateschoose from this list a template to load parameters from into the
Planet Automatic Model Tuner dialog box.
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Tuner Type
Smartchoose this option to use the Smart AMT method of setting K-
factor values. When you use the Smart option, all of the model
parameters are set to Optimize. When set to Optimize, the Planet AMT
runs various correlation and cross-correlation tests to determine which
model parameters can be optimized. If any parameters cannot be
optimized, default values are used.
Standardchoose this option to use the Standard AMT method of
setting K-factor values.
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Model Parameters
K1choose from this list an option to set the value of the K1 factor. The box to
the left of the list displays the value of the chosen option. Choose Optimize to
have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize the K1 factor. Choose User
defined to type a value for the K1 factor in the box to the left of the list. The
valid range is from -100 to 100.
K2choose from this list an option to set the value of the K2 factor. The box to
the left of the list displays the value of the chosen option. Choose Optimize to
have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize the K2 factor. Choose User
defined to type a value for the K2 factor in the box to the left of the list. The
valid range is from -120 to 0.
K3choose from this list an option to set the value of the K3 factor. The box to
the left of the list displays the value of the chosen option. Choose Optimize to
have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize the K3 factor. Choose User
defined to type a value for the K3 factor in the box to the left of the list. The
valid range is from -60 to 0.
K4choose from this list an option to set the value of the K4 factor. The box to
the left of the list displays the value of the chosen option. Choose Optimize to
have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize the K4 factor. Choose User
defined to type a value for the K4 factor in the box to the left of the list. The
valid range is from 0 to 1.
K5choose from this list an option to set the value of the K5 factor. The box to
the left of the list displays the value of the chosen option. Choose Optimize to
have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize the K5 factor. Choose User
defined to type a value for the K5 factor in the box to the left of the list. The
valid range is from 0 to 100.
Clutter Offsetchoose from this list an option to define howclutter is
optimized. The box to the left of the list displays the value of the chosen
option. Choose Optimize to have the Planet Automatic Model Tuner optimize
clutter. Choose User defined to type a value for Clutter Offset in the box to the
left of the list. The valid range is from -20 to 40.
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Correlation/Cross-Correlation Threshold Values
Use this section to set correlation and cross-correlation thresholds.
Correlation P3Ttype in this box a value for the Correlation P3T
threshold. The valid range is from 0.01 to 0.99.
Correlation P4Ttype in this box a value for the Correlation P4T
threshold. The valid range is from 0.01 to 0.99.
Cross-Correlation P24Ttype in this box a value for the Cross-
Correlation P24T threshold. The valid range is from 0.01 to 0.99.
Cross-Correlation P35Ttype in this box a value for the Cross-
Correlation P35T threshold. The valid range is from 0.01 to 0.99.
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Tuning models using the Clutter Absorption Loss
tuner
Using the Clutter Absorption Loss (CAL) tuner, you can determine the
appropriate clutter property assignment values for clutter absorption loss for a
single site. The CAL tuner can be used to optimize all propagation model types,
except for third-party models.
The Clutter Absorption Loss tuner enables you to calculate the mean error
between the predicted signal strength and the survey data for each clutter
class. The mean error is then used as the value for the clutter absorption loss
of each clutter class in the clutter property assignment file.
Tuning is different for slope-based models and deterministic models such as
CRC-Predict. Slope-based models take clutter into account automatically when
generating predictions. For example, when using the Okumura-Hata model,
you can choose from four clutter classes: Urban, Suburban, Quasi-Open, and
Open. Each clutter class implies a generalized clutter environment that affects
the slope of the models algorithm. When using the Planet General Model, you
can set many parameters.
The CRC-Predict model, however, depends on the model of the environment
and the specification of clutter property assignments. The CRC-Predict
algorithm interacts with a model of the clutter environment in a deterministic
fashion to predict path loss. Path loss is calculated by simulating the
propagation of a radio wave as it passes over various terrain features.
Model tuning with survey data for all models involves updating the clutter
absorption loss values. Model tuning for the CRC-Predict model involves the
additional step of adjusting the clutter property assignments for average
obstacle height and ground type.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
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To tune a model using the Clutter Absorption Loss
tuner
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Operational Data
category, right-click a survey and choose Model Tuning.
The Model Tuning dialog box opens.
2 Provide the information for which you are prompted and,
from the Model Tuner list, choose the Clutter Absorption
Loss Tuner.
3 To edit the CAL Tuner, choose Edit Tuner.
4 Modify Tuner settings as required and click OK.
5 In the Model Tuning dialog box, click OK to begin the tuning
process.
The Model Tuning dialog box opens and displays the progress of
the model tuning process.
6 When the process is complete, click Close in the Model
Tuning dialog box.
7 To viewa model tuning report in text format, click Yes in the
Mentum Planet dialog box.
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When the model tuning process is complete, the tuned model is added
to the Propagation Models node in the Project Data category of the
Project Explorer.
NOTE: If the calculated Clutter Absorption Loss (CAL) values are
overwhelmingly negative, lower the clutter heights and retune the model. CAL
values should normally fall between -3 dB and +12 dB.
TIP: You can edit the properties of the tuned model using the Propagation
Model Editor. To access the Propagation Model Editor, expand Propagation
Models in the Project Data category of the Project Explorer, right-click the
tuned model and choose Edit.
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Clutter Absorption Loss Properties
Use the Clutter Absorption Loss Properties dialog box to define model
tuning parameters for the Clutter Absorption Loss model tuner.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
Number Of Iterationschoose from this list the number of iterations
to perform on clutter absorption loss values. Usually, performing two
iterations will give acceptable values. An iteration is the process of
updating the clutter absorption loss values with the survey analysis
prediction values for each clutter class. For each iteration, a survey
analysis prediction is created. If more than one iteration is applied, the
updated values are applied to the .pmf file cumulatively.
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Survey Distance
Use this section to define the distance from the survey antenna that survey
points must fall within to be used by the Clutter Absorption Loss model tuner to
tune the model.
Computed Propagation Distancethis field displays the distance in meters
from the survey antenna location to the furthest survey point in the heights
file.
NOTE: If you choose more than one survey in the Project Explorer, only the
survey containing the survey point that is farthest from the survey antenna will
be used to tune the model.
Enable Survey Filtering By Distanceenable this check box to define the
distance from the survey antenna that survey points used to tune the model
must fall within.
Distancetype in this box or choose the distance from the survey antenna
that survey points used to tune a model must fall within. The Clutter
Absorption Loss model tuner will ignore any survey points further than this
distance from the survey antenna.
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Number of Radials
Use this section to define the number of radials originating from a site
along which to calculate predictions. More radials produce a more
accurate but slower calculation.
Computed Number Of Radialschoose this option to use the
computed number of radials to calculate predictions. Planet divides the
propagation distance by the bin distance to compute the number of
radials to use, which is displayed in the box to the right. For example,
Propagation distance: 15km (15000m)
Bin distance: 30m
Calculation: 15000m / 30m
Result: 500 radials
User Defined Number Of Radialschoose this option to define the
number of radials to use to calculate predictions. In the box to the right,
type or choose the number of radials to use.
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Tuning a propagation model
In order to model a network that is as close to the real-world network as
possible, you should calibrate the propagation model using survey
measurements. Once you have calibrated the model, you can apply the model
to other sites that share the same general type of environment, provided that
the model is not overly dependent on calibrations (empirical models generally
rely heavily on calibrations).
For detailed information about:
n using survey data with Mentum Planet, see Managing Survey
Data in the Mentum Planet User Guide. In particular, see the
Workflowfor surveys.
n model tuning, see Working with Propagation Models in the
Mentum Planet User Guide .
NOTE: If you are using the Universal Model, you can tune it using the
Universal Model Tuning algorithm.
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Guidelines for model tuning
n Followthe recommended guidelines for collecting survey
data. See Collecting survey data in the Mentum Planet
User Guide.
n Aggregate survey data in order to account for Rayleigh
fading. See Modifying survey data in the Mentum Planet
User Guide.
n Ensure that the frequency of the input model used in
model tuning is accurate and the receiver height
corresponds to measured data.
n Ensure that the clutter maps you use are accurate and
up-to-date.
n Verify that the model uses clutter heights that are
recommended or appropriate for the model.
n Ensure that ground types, if used, are appropriate. For
example, moist ground should be assigned to farmland.
n Create one model to cover all surveys with similar
characteristics. For example, for a given metropolitan
area, start with one input propagation model. Tune one
model for the sub-urban area. Using the same input
model, tune a second model for very dense urban and
downtown area. The tuned models will provide
reasonably accurate predictions for topologies of similar
clutter characteristics (such as neighboring regions). This
approach can be fine tuned by subdividing the
metropolitan area to more than two areas and
generating corresponding models for each area.
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Creating and editing propagation models
Propagation models are organized in the Project Data category of the Project
Explorer. The icons of propagation models that have been assigned to a sector
are displayed in color. The icons of propagation models that have not been
assigned to a sector, but are located in the Model folder of the project, appear
dimmed.
You can refine howa propagation model behaves by modifying the
propagation model settings using the Propagation Model Editor. Once you
have refined the model, you can apply the propagation model to an individual
site or sector. Propagation models saved in the <Mentum Planet installation
folder>/Global/Model folder will be available each time you create a project.
Models saved in the project folder are project specific.
To define a new propagation model
1 In the Project Explorer, in the ProjectData category, right-
click Propagation Models and choose New.
The Create NewPropagation Model dialog box opens.
2 From the Propagation Model Type list, choose the model on
which you want to base your newmodel, and then click OK.
3 In the Propagation Model Editor, on the Settings tab, click in
the Name field and define a name for the newmodel.
4 Modify the parameters of the propagation model to correspond to
your network design.
For detailed information on the settings available on these tabs, press F1
for online Help.
5 Click OK.
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To edit propagation model settings
1 In the Project Explorer, in the ProjectData category,
expand Propagation Models, right-click a propagation
model and choose Edit.
The Propagation Model Editor opens.
The tabs that are displayed in the Editor depend on the model you
have chosen.
2 In the Propagation Model Editor, modify the settings on
any of the following tabs:
n Settingsallows you to set frequency, receiver height,
and earth curvature. Enables you to use a different
resolution heights file or clutter file with the propagation
model than that which is specified in the project settings.
This is useful if you want to generate a prediction where
you are using a high-resolution grid in urban areas and a
lower-resolution grid in the rest of the project area.
n ClutterPropertiesallows you to specify whether or
not the model uses a clutter grid and allows you to define
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the physical properties of the environment that affect
predictions. The values assigned to the electrical and physical
properties for each clutter class are determined from
observations of the physical area and from data gathered
during surveys.
n Generalallows you to define model-specific parameters. The
parameters displayed on the general tab depend on the model
you chose.
n Path Clutterallows you to adjust the effect of clutter based
on four weighting functions. This tab is specific to the Planet
General Model.
n Troposcatter Effectallows you to specify howthe radio
wave is modeled over the horizon as a result of the earths
atmosphere. This tab is specific to the Planet General Model.
n Okumuraallows you to apply Okumura correction factors.
This tab is specific to the Planet General Model.
n Effective Antenna Heightallows you to define the effective
antenna height using one of seven algorithms: base height,
spot height, average height, slope, profile, absolute spot
height, or ground reflection slope. This tab is specific to the
Planet General Model.
n RainAttenuationdetermines whether or not rain
attenuation is calculated. If you choose to include rain
attenuation, you can define an attenuation rate or a rate of
rainfall. This tab is specific to the Planet General Model.
3 Click OKto save propagation model settings.
When you choose the ground type for the CRC-Predict model, the
Clutter Absorption Loss is set to 0. When you optimize survey results
using the Model Tuning tool, the tool calculates the Clutter Absorption
Loss.
TIP: You can also access the Propagation Model Editor in the Site Editor. To
edit the model for a sector, in the Site Editor, click the Link tab and click Edit
next to the Model list.
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To view or hide unassigned propagation models
n In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
right-click Propagation Models and do one of the
following:
n To display in the Project Explorer those propagation
models that have not been assigned to a sector,
choose Show Unassigned Propagation Models.
n To hide in the Project Explorer those propagation
models that have not been assigned to a sector,
choose Hide Unassigned Propagation Models.
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Defining Network Settings
Chapter 6 Defining Network Settings
After you create a project, you must define the network settings.
Network settings include the technology type, supported modulations,
frame configuration, and the spectrum allotment. This chapter describes
howto define network settings.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding network settings 139
Workflow for defining network settings 142
Defining network settings 143
Network Settings 145
Carriers 146
Network Settings 147
Modulations 148
CINR To Spectral Efficiency Specification 149
Network Settings 152
Frame Setup 153
OFDM 154
Frame Configuration 155
LTE FDD Frame Editor 156
Downlink 157
Cyclic Prefix 158
Control Channel 159
Overhead 160
LTE FDDFrame Editor 161
Uplink 162
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Cyclic Prefix 163
Demodulation Reference Signal 164
Sounding Reference Signal 164
Control Channel 165
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Defining Network Settings
Understanding network settings
Network settings define the technology type, supported modulations and
the frame configuration settings that apply to your network as well as
the spectrum definition. All network settings are grouped in the Network
Settings dialog box.
Technology types
Mentum Planet supports WiMAX TDD, Fixed WiMAX TDD, Fixed WiMAX
FDD, LTE FDD, cdma2000, and WCDMA technologies as well as a generic
technology. You define which technologies are available on the Spectrum
Allocation tab. It is important to configure bands correctly in order to
avoid cases where a single real physical band is defined to several sub-
bands; therefore, making it difficult to manage the channels correctly at
the sector level.
Carriers
Carriers define the frequencies available in your network and the
bandwidth of each. They are automatically calculated according to the
available spectrum and channel bandwidth specified on the Spectrum
Allocation tab. After carriers are calculated, you can assign them to
individual sectors. Once you do so, you cannot modify the spectrum
allocation or carriers. The start and end frequencies are read-only when
the carriers are in use. You can define multiple bands per technology and
overlapping between bands is allowed.
Each sector in the network is assigned to a single band but can be
allocated one or more carriers within that band. Subscriber equipment is
configured to support one or more bands.
You can viewdetails of all available carriers and specify carrier
availability on the Carriers tab in the Network Settings dialog box for the
selected technology. When carriers are reserved, for example, clear the
Availability check box.
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Modulations
System modulations define downlink and uplink modulation schemes used by
the network. Each modulation can be defined by either a single CINR/spectral
efficiency value or by a CINR to spectral efficiency curve. Each modulation can
be defined by its modulation efficiency (Useful bits per symbol) and required
CINR (C/(N+I)). You can also specify a downlink amplifier back-off level, which
represents the reduction of power used when using a specific modulation. This
is sometime required with higher order modulations in order to increase the
linearity of the amplifier given the higher required CINR of these modulations.
This applies, for example, in OFDMas the peak-to-average power ratio of
OFDMsignals is actually high.
Default modulations are provided depending on the configuration file that you
chose when you created a project. You must define any additional
modulations supported by your network.
Frame Setup
The configuration of the OFDMframe provides a means of controlling (in a
detailed way) the allocated frame structure and resources.
In the time domain, a channel is divided into frames.
On the Frame Setup tab in the Network Settings dialog box, you can define the
OFDMsampling factor. You can also add or remove the frame configuration or
edit the frame configuration using the Frame Editor. The Frame Editor
consolidates all parameters related to a frame configuration in one dialog box.
You can specify the cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is the fraction of each data
symbol that is copied from the end of the symbol and added to the beginning.
The cyclic prefix functions as a guard interval between OFDMsymbols in order
to limit the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) that is caused by the multipath
propagation of radio signals.
The standard defines two cyclic prefix values (i.e., Normal and Extended). The
choice you make for the cyclic prefix is based on the frequency band and the
radio environment. You can eliminate the ISI by selecting a guard interval that
is larger than the expected multipath delay spread. However, the larger guard
140 LTE FDD User Guide
Defining Network Settings
interval increases the symbol period, which leads to a loss of bandwidth
efficiency and a waste of transmit power.
Figure 6.1: Figure 5.10 LTE Frame Editor
You can define the cyclic prefix and duration as well as the number of
reference symbols per subframe and the frequency separation between
them. You can also specify various parameters related to the OFDM
symbols and the resource blocks.
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Workflow for defining network settings
Step 1 Specify the technologies supported by the network.
Step 2 Define the spectrum allocation.
Step 3 For each available technology, specify which carriers (or carriers)
are available, define supported modulations, and determine the
frame configuration.
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Defining network settings
When you define network settings, you specify the technology types for
the project. You also define the carriers supported, the available
downlink and uplink modulations, as well as the frame configuration.
To define network settings
1 Choose Edit Network Settings.
The Network Settings dialog box opens.
2 On the Network Technologies panel, enable the
technologies supported by the network.
3 In the tree view, choose Spectrum Allocation.
4 Click the LTE FDD tab and modify LTE parameters as
required.
5 In the tree view, choose LTE FDD.
6 Define carrier and modulation parameters as required.
7 Click the Frame Setup tab, define OFDMsettings.
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8 In the Frame Configuration table and click any of the following
buttons:
n Editto open the Frame Editor and modify frame
parameters for the selected frame configuration.
n Addto add a newframe configuration.
n Removeto delete a frame configuration.
To define frame configurations
1 In the LTE Frame Editor, define frame parameters as required.
2 Click OK.
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Network Settings
Use the Network Settings dialog box to indicate which technologies you
have in your network and to define settings and allocate spectrum for
each technology. It provides
n tree representation of technologies and spectrum
n easy access to network settings
n right-click access to relevant commands
For more information about working with network settings, see the User
Guide for the technology you are using.
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Carriers
Carrier Nametype in this field an alphanumeric string to identify the
carrier.
Band Namedisplays the band name. Band names are defined on the
Spectrum Allocation tab.
Downlink Center Frequencydisplays a value in MHz, at the mid-point of
the carrier bandwidth on the downlink.
Uplink Center Frequencydisplays a value in MHz, at the mid-point of the
carrier bandwidth on the uplink.
Bandwidthdisplays a value in MHz to define the carrier bandwidth.
Availabilityenable this check box to make the carrier an available network
resource. When you clear this check box, the associated carrier is not available
to any sector in the network and, as a result, is not available for LTE frequency
planning.
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Network Settings
Use the Network Settings dialog box to indicate which technologies you
have in your network and to define settings and allocate spectrum for
each technology. It provides
n tree representation of technologies and spectrum
n easy access to network settings
n right-click access to relevant commands
For more information about working with network settings, see the User
Guide for the technology you are using.
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Modulations
Use these tabs to define the downlink and uplink modulations and coding
schemes (MCS) supported by the network. Characteristics of a MCS can be
defined by its spectral efficiency and the required C/(N+I).
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CINR To Spectral Efficiency Specification
Use Single Valuechoose this option to define the spectral efficiency of
a MCS by a single value of useful bit per symbol. The useful bit per
symbol is the information bits carried by a modulated symbol after the
channel coding. For example, a MCS that uses a combination of 64-QAM
modulation and a 2/3 coding rate offers a spectral efficiency of 4 useful
bits per symbol.
Use Curvechoose this option to define the spectral efficiency of a MCS
using a useful bits per symbol to CINR curve. The curve represents the
variation of spectral efficiency under different channel qualities.
Downlink
Properly configuring the modulation for both the uplink and downlink
plays an important role in predicting performance in your wireless
network. The modulation parameters are used to define the required
C/(N+I) (and ultimately the threshold), the interference susceptibility,
and the spectral efficiency. Any system using adaptive (dynamic)
modulation will also require that each supported modulation be defined.
Nametype in this field a name for the modulation and coding scheme.
Useful Bits Per Symboltype in this field the spectral efficiency for the
modulation. When you generate analyses, this value is used to
determine the maximum achievable data rate when the modulation and
coding scheme is available. This option is only available when you choose
the Use Single Value option.
Required C/(N+I)type in this field the required minimum signal to
interference level to achieve the modulation. This value is computed as a
function of the Required Eb/No and vice-versa. Changing this value
automatically updates the Required Eb/No value accordingly. It is used to
determine whether a modulation scheme is available to a CPE at any
given location, according to the C/(N+I) level at that location. This option
is only available when you choose the Use Single Value option.
Amplifier Backofftype in this field the amount by which power is
reduced when this modulation is used. Typically, the higher the spectral
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efficiency of a modulation, the greater the amplifier backoff you should assign.
This value is used whenever the modulation type is applied in the generation of
analyses.
Mobile Speedchoose from this list the mobile speed to associate with the
modulation. You define mobile speeds in the Project Settings dialog box.
Curvedisplays the name of the curve file. This column is only available when
you choose the Use Curve option.
Browse(...)click this button to select a curve (.mcs) file. This column is only
available when you choose the Use Curve option.
Edit Curveclick this button to open the Curve Editor where you can edit
curve files. This column is only available when you choose the Use Curve
option.
Addclick this button to add a newmodulation to the table. This column is
only available when you choose the Use Curve option.
Removeclick this button to remove the selected modulation from the table.
This column is only available when you choose the Use Curve option.
Uplink
Properly configuring the modulation for both the uplink and downlink plays an
important role in predicting performance in your wireless network. The
modulation parameters are used to define the required C/(N+I) (and
ultimately the threshold), the interference susceptibility, and the spectral
efficiency. Any system using adaptive (dynamic) modulation will also require
that each supported modulation be defined.
Nametype in this field a name for the modulation and coding scheme.
Useful Bits Per Symboltype in this field the spectral efficiency for the
modulation. When you generate analyses, this value is used to determine the
maximum achievable data rate when the modulation and coding scheme is
available. This option is only available when you choose the Use Single Value
option.
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Required C/(N+I)type in this field the required minimum signal to
interference level to achieve the modulation. It is used to determine
whether a modulation scheme is available to a CPE at any given location,
according to the C/(N+I) level at that location. This option is only
available when you choose the Use Single Value option.
Mobile Speedchoose from this list the mobile speed to associate with
the modulation. You define mobile speeds in the Project Settings dialog
box.
Curvedisplays the name of the curve file. This column is only available
when you choose the Use Curve option.
Browse(...)click this button to select a curve (.mcs) file. This column is
only available when you choose the Use Curve option.
Edit Curveclick this button to open the Curve Editor where you can
edit curve files. This column is only available when you choose the Use
Curve option.
Addclick this button to add a newmodulation to the table.
Removeclick this button to remove the selected modulation from the
table.
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Network Settings
Use the Network Settings dialog box to indicate which technologies you have in
your network and to define settings and allocate spectrum for each
technology. It provides
n tree representation of technologies and spectrum
n easy access to network settings
n right-click access to relevant commands
For more information about working with network settings, see the User Guide
for the technology you are using.
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Frame Setup
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OFDM
This section displays the FFT size and Sampling frequency associated with a
carrier bandwidth supported by LTE technology. For other OFDMbased
technologies (e.g., WiMAX TDD), the two parameters are used to compute
subcarrier spacing. For LTE, the subcarrier spacing is fixed at 15KHz.
Use Interference Coordinationenable this check box to specify that the
network implements inter-cell interference coordination techniques.
FTT Sizedisplays the FTT sized used by the frame.
Sampling Frequencydisplays the sampling frequency for the channel
bandwidth.
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Frame Configuration
Nameclick in this field to define a name for the frame configuration.
Durationdisplays the duration of the frame in ms.
Number of Slotsdisplays the number of slots available in a frame.
Number Of Occupied Subcarriers (Downlink)displays the number
of subcarriers to use for downlink transmission. The number of occupied
downlink subcarriers is automatically determined by the carrier
bandwidth as defined in the Spectrum Allocation settings.
Number Of Occupied Subcarriers (Uplink)displays the number of
subcarriers to use for uplink transmission. The number of occupied uplink
subcarriers is automatically determined by the carrier bandwidth as
defined by the Spectrum Allocation settings.
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LTE FDD Frame Editor
Use the LTEFDDFrame Editor dialog box to define the cyclic prefix, reference
signal resource elements as other related frame parameters. For more
information about frames, see the LTE FDDUser Guide.
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Downlink
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Cyclic Prefix
Use this section to allowfor the cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is the fraction of
each data symbol that is copied from the end of the symbol and added to the
beginning. The cyclic prefix functions as a guard interval between OFDM
symbols in order to limit the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) that is caused by
the multipath propagation of radio signals.
The LTE standard defines two cyclic prefix values (i.e., Normal and Extended).
You can eliminate the ISI by selecting a guard interval that is larger than the
expected multipath delay spread. However, the larger guard interval
increases the symbol period, which leads to a loss of bandwidth efficiency and
a waste of transmit power.
Cyclic Prefixchoose from this list the type of cyclic prefix you want to use
(i.e., Normal, Extended). The cyclic prefix duration for both the normal and
the extended cyclic prefix types is displayed in the Cyclic Prefix Duration box.
Cyclic Prefix Durationtype in this box the duration of guard time in
microseconds. This box is only available when you have selected a user-
defined cyclic prefix.
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Control Channel
Number Of PDCCH Symbols Per Subframetype in this box the
number of symbols in a slot used for downlink control channel
transmission.
Number Of OFDMSymbols Per Slotdisplays the number of OFDM
symbols per slot.
OFDMSymbol Durationdisplays the duration of the OFDMsymbols in
a downlink slot, expressed in microseconds.
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Overhead
This table displays the calculated total downlink frame overhead as a
percentage of on the downlink frame duration. Downlink overhead accounts
for the duration of cyclic prefix, the resource elements allocated for Physical
Broadcast Channel (PBCH) and Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH),
as well as the resource elements used for reference signal transmission. The
number of resource elements allocated to the reference signal depends on the
number of transmit antennas.
LTE standards specify the number of reference symbols per slot and the
subcarrier separation between reference symbols required for transmit
antennas of 1, 2 and 4. The total overheads are calculated for each of the
antenna system configurations.
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LTE FDDFrame Editor
Use the LTE FDDFrame Editor dialog box to define permutation zones,
the frame overhead as well as other related frame parameters. For
more information about frames, see the LTE FDDUser Guide.
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Uplink
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Cyclic Prefix
Use this section to allowfor the cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is the
fraction of each data symbol that is copied from the end of the symbol
and added to the beginning. The cyclic prefix functions as a guard
interval between OFDMsymbols in order to limit the Inter-Symbol
Interference (ISI) that is caused by the multipath propagation of radio
signals.
The LTE standard defines two cyclic prefix values (i.e., Normal and
Extended). The choice you make for the cyclic prefix is based on the
frequency band and the radio environment. You can eliminate the ISI by
selecting a guard interval that is larger than the expected multipath
delay spread. However, the larger guard interval increases the symbol
period, which leads to a loss of bandwidth efficiency and a waste of
transmit power.
Cyclic Prefixchoose from this list the type of cyclic prefix you want to
use (i.e., Normal and Extended). The cyclic prefix duration for both the
normal and the extended cyclic prefix types is displayed in the Cyclic
Prefix Duration box.
Cyclic Prefix Durationtype in this box the guard time duration in
microseconds. This box is only available when you have selected a user-
defined cyclic prefix.
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Demodulation Reference Signal
Number of Symbols Per Slottype in this box the number of symbols used
to transmit the uplink demodulation reference signal, per slot.
Sounding Reference Signal
Number Of Resource Blockstype in this box the number of resource
blocks in which the sounding reference signal is carried. The sounding
reference signal is transmitted in one symbol per subframe for every second
subcarrier.
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Control Channel
Number Of PUCCH Resource Blockstype in this box the average
number of symbols carrying the uplink control channel in each subframe.
Number of SC-FDMA Symbols Per Slotdisplays the number of SC-
FDMA symbols per slot.
SC-FDMA Symbol Durationdisplays the duration of the SC-FDMA
symbol in an uplink slot, expressed in microseconds.
Overheaddisplays the calculated overhead on the uplink. Uplink
overhead is created by the cyclic prefix and the number of resource
elements allocated to the reference signal.
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Configuring And Placing Sites
Chapter 7 Configuring And Placing Sites
Once you have created a project and defined network settings you can
configure and place the sites in your network. This chapter describes how
to configure and place sites.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Workflow for configuring and placing sites 169
Using site templates 170
Understanding sites and sectors 172
Placing sites automatically 177
Automatic Site Placement Tool 184
Site Templates 185
Traffic 186
Automatic Site Placement Tool 187
Propagation Model 188
Frequency Band 189
Defining link configurations 190
Link Configuration Editor 195
Uplink/Reverse 196
Link Configuration Editor 197
Downlink/Forward 198
Creating and editing sites 200
Site Editor 203
Link 204
Antennas 205
Predictions 206
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Mode 207
Information 208
Site Editor 209
Sector - Implementation 210
Filter 211
Quality 213
Site Editor 214
Sector 215
Configuration 216
Segment 217
Preamble 218
Channels 219
Site Editor 220
Sector - Powers 221
Uplink Interference 223
Other System Interference 224
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Workflow for configuring and placing sites
Step 1 Create a newsite using one of the following methods:
n by defining a newsite
n based on the settings of an existing site
n based on a site template
Step 2 Define the supported antenna system.
Step 3 Define sector parameters.
Step 4 Define traffic settings.
Step 5 If required, edit placed sites and sectors.
Step 6 If required, save a site template.
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Using site templates
Site templates store the settings defined in the Site Editor and make it easy to
add sites with the same configuration at a later time. You can create a site
template from either a site or a repeater. You can create as many site
templates as required for your project. By default, the active site template is
used in site creation. When you export a site template, you can viewall the site
and sector parameters in Excel.
CAUTION: When the active site template is for a repeater, the donor sector
value in the template is not copied over to the newsite. You need to manually
set the donor sector for the newsite using the Site Editor.
To create a site template
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand the Sites
node, right-click the site upon which you want to base the
template and do one of the following:
n Choose Create Site Template Local if you want to save
the site template on your workstation
n Choose Create Site Template Local if you want to save
the site template on your workstation
n Choose CreateSiteTemplate Shared if you want to share
the site template with other users using the Data Manager
2 Type a name for the site template.
3 Enable the Set as Active Template check box to set this site
template as active.
The active site template is used when creating newsites. If there is no
active site template, default values are used.
4 Click OK.
The site template is added to the Project Explorer.
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To rename a site template
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand the
Site Templates node, right-click the site template you want
to rename, and choose Rename.
2 Modify the name as required.
To set the site template as active
n In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand
the Site Templates node, right-click the site template
you want to be active and choose Active.
The active site template is used when creating newsites. If there is
no active site template, default values are used.
To view a site template
n In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand
the Site Templates node, right-click the site template
you want to view, and choose View.
The site template opens in Excel.
To delete a site template
n In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand
the Site Templates node, right-click the site template
you want to delete, and choose Delete.
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Understanding sites and sectors
A site is a fixed geographical location. At the site, there are technology-specific
base stations, each with associated sectors as illustrated in Figure6.1. Hence,
antenna systems can be shared between sectors that support different
technologies.
Figure 6.1 Example of howa site, base stations, and sectors relate.
In the Site Editor, you can access all pertinent information about a site,
associated base stations and the sectors they support. This includes link
information, quality and performance criteria, as well as details about the
supported antenna systems as shown in Figure6.2.
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Figure 6.2 Site Editor
A unique name identifies each site. You can add additional identification
information about a site such as a detailed site name, descriptive site
details, and a Universal ID.
You can viewand update site and sector parameters using the Tabular
Editor.
General site parameters
On the General tab at the base station level, you select the modulations
that you want the site to support and define the maximum pooled
throughput allowed.
General sector parameters
On the General tab at the sector level, you define the flags and groups
that are applicable to the sector and you specify the frequency band
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supported.
Link parameters
The parameters on the Link tab focus on the settings required to model a
communication link between the user and the sector. This includes antenna
parameters, prediction parameters, and the link configuration (as defined in
the link configuration).
Sector user data
If you have an identification string that describes the sector more fully than
simply the sector name, you can define an additional universal IDon the
Sector User Data tab. Custom user data fields added by the Data Manager
Administrator also appear on this tab.
Implementation parameters
The parameters on the Implementation tab center around the performance
and quality of the signal provided by the sector. This includes filter loss
parameters and quality parameters (such as the best server coverage
threshold) as well as the phase jitter effect.
You can use filters to suppress unwanted interference from adjacent channels.
Filter characteristics are saved as filter (.flt) files. You can specify filters for the
downlink (i.e., the transmit mask) and you can also specify filters for the uplink
(i.e., the receive filter).
The filter loss table allows you to specify the frequency offset and the
associated filter loss parameter. The frequency is the difference between the
first and second channel away from the center frequency. Filter loss values
depend on the filter chosen by the equipment manufacturer. These values will
be used to determine the nature of the adjacent-channel interference.
You can save the values in the Filter Loss table as a .flt file using the options
from the File menu.
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Figure 6.3 illustrates a filter that models a channel with a 10 MHz
bandwidth. With a 5.45 MHz frequency separation, the excessive energy
transmitted outside the channel bandwidth is attenuated by 25 dB while
at 9.75 MHz, it is attenuated by 32 dB.
If your filter files are not configured correctly, this could result in an
excess or shortage of adjacent channel interference. The latter is a less
desirable situation because it could lead to overestimated coverage.
Figure 7.1: This figure illustrates a sample filter loss graph for the
transmit signal. In this example, the filter loss is specified as 32 dB for
9.75 MHz frequency separation. You can also define a separate filter loss
graph for the receive signal.
Configuration parameters
Configuration parameters include the channelcarrier and frame
configuration for the sector. You define the frame configuration in the
Frame Editor.
Power parameters
Power parameters define the power requirements for the sector. You
can viewthe power distribution.
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Antenna Systems
In the Site Editor, the antenna pattern, associated antenna parameters, and
location are grouped on the General tab making it easy to set up a non co-
located sector. You can also access the Antenna Editor where you can define
more detailed elements of the antenna system including the settings related
to the use of multiple antennas, the master antenna, or the antenna element.
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Placing sites automatically
Using the Automatic Site Placement Tool (ASPT), you can place sites in a
defined area quickly and easily. There are two modes that you can use
with the ASPT:
n Basicthe tool generates hexagons based on the criteria
you define and places a site at the center of each
hexagon using either the default site configuration or the
site template you specify. If you are using a clutter file,
you can exclude clutter classes such that no sites will be
placed within them.
n Advanced the tool generates complex shapes based
on the planning strategy you choose and the criteria you
define (including clutter-specific criteria) and places a site
at the center of the shape using the site template you
specify. Each site is given a level of priority that
determines whether it becomes a possible site candidate.
In Advanced mode, you can use a traffic map in order to
generate more accurate shapes. In addition, you can use
existing and candidate sites in the site placement process.
Determining site placement in the Basic mode
Step 1 The ASPT divides the selected polygon into a series of
hexagons based on the hexagon radius or the number of
hexagons you define in the generation options.
Step 2 A proposed site is placed at the center of each hexagon using
the site template that you specify.
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Step 3 When you create sites, sites are added to the Sites node in the
Project Explorer and placed on the map.
Determining site placement in the Advanced mode
Step 1 The ASPT divides the selected polygon into a series of shapes based
on the planning strategy you define. There are two types of planning
strategies:
n Greenfield, where there are no existing sites in the network
n Expansion, where there are existing sites
Step 2 Depending on the settings you define, the ASPT displays possible
site locations on the map. In Advanced mode, there are three types
of sites identified during the automatic site placement process:
n Existing Sitessites you have placed in the network at existing
locations.
n Candidate Sitessites you have placed in the network at
possible site locations.
n New Sitessites that will be placed by the ASPT automatically
based on the defined criteria to fill in any gaps.
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You can specify when to place a site in individual clutter classes
and which site template you use. You can also define
propagation model parameters including the site radius, the
minimum and maximum site radius, the Okumura class as well
as the frequency band (whether network-defined or user-
defined).
Step 3 A possible site is placed at the center of each shape using the
site template that you specify. If the planning strategy you
choose is "Expansion" with existing sites, then existing sites are
considered first in the planning process, candidate sites are
considered next, and newsites are placed to fill in any gaps. In
the illustration that follows, the blue sites are existing sites, the
green sites are candidate sites, and the purple sites are new
sites. Candidate sites are considered in order of priority
(defined in the Site Editor).
Step 4 When you create sites, candidate sites become permenant
sites and are added to the Sites node in the Project Explorer.
Newsites are placed in gap areas, added to the Project
Explorer and placed on the map. A newlocal group is also
created that contains the newly created sites.
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NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To place sites in Basic mode
1 To specify the boundaries of the area within which you want to
place sites, do one of the following:
n Make the cosmetic layer editable, drawa polygon using the
tools on the Drawing toolbar, and then select it.
n Create an area grid.
2 Choose Tools Automatic Site Placement.
The Automatic Site Placement dialog box opens.
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3 In the Mode section, choose the Basic option.
4 In the Region section, choose one of the following options:
n Polygonto identify the region within which you want to
place sites using a polygon. When you use this option, you
must create a polygon on the cosmetic layer using the
tools on the Drawing toolbar.
n Areato identify the region within which you want to
place sites using an area grid. When you use this option,
you must first have created an area grid.
5 Click the Settings tab and define howto place sites.
6 Click Generate.
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To place sites in Advanced mode
1 To specify the boundaries of the area within which you want to
place sites, do one of the following:
n Make the cosmetic layer editable, drawa polygon using the
tools on the Drawing toolbar, and then select it
n Create an area grid.
2 Choose Tools Automatic Site Placement.
The Automatic Site Placement dialog box opens.
3 In the Mode section, choose the Advanced option.
4 Define the required parameters on each of the following tabs:
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n Generalincludes network planning strategy (i.e.,
greenfield or expansion), existing and candidate site
selection, and region definition.
n Site Templatesincludes site template for each class,
ability to adjust antenna heights, minimum and
maximum antenna heights as well as minimum and
maximum traffic loads.
n Propagation Modelincludes Okumura class, site
radius as well as minimum and maximum site radius.
5 Click Generate.
Cells are placed across the region.
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Automatic Site Placement Tool
In order to facilitate the placement of sites, you can use the Automatic Site
Placement Tool to automatically place sites within a defined area. In the Basic
mode, sites are placed at the center of each hexagon and saved to the site
table. In Advanced mode, sites are placed based on the criteria you define
(although still placed at the center of the shape).
NOTE: If you are using a polygon to delineate the area where sites will be
placed, you must ensure that the cosmetic layer is editable and that you have
created an area object using the Drawing tools that identifies where you want
to place sites.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
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Site Templates
Indexdisplays the index number for the clutter class.
Class Namedisplays the clutter class name as defined in the clutter
grid.
Place Sitechoose from this list if you want sites placed in the
associated clutter class.
Site Templatechoose from this list the site template you want to use
to place site within the associated clutter class. You define site templates
in the Sites category of the Project Explorer.
Adjust Antenna Heightchoose from this list whether the antenna
height can vary. This parameter is visible only when you are using a
traffic map.
Minimum Antenna Heighttype in this box the minimum required
antenna height if you are allowing antenna heights to be adjusted. This
parameter is visible only when you are using a traffic map.
Maximum Antenna Heighttype in this box the maximum antenna
height if you are allowing antenna heights to be adjusted. This
parameter is visible only when you are using a traffic map.
Minimum Site Traffic Loadtype in this box the minimum site traffic
load. This parameter is visible only when you are using a traffic map.
Maximum Site Traffic Loadtype in this box the maximum allowable
site traffic load. This parameter is visible only when you are using a
traffic map.
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Traffic
Use Traffic Mapenable this check box if you want site placement to be
influenced by the distribution of traffic. Using a traffic map will reduce site
coverage. Choose the traffic map you want to use from the associated list.
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Automatic Site Placement Tool
In order to facilitate the placement of sites, you can use the Automatic
Site Placement Tool to automatically place sites within a defined area.
Sites are placed at the center of each hexagon and saved to the site
table.
NOTE: If you are using a polygon to delineate the area where sites will
be placed, you must ensure that the cosmetic layer is editable and that
you have created an area object using the Drawing tools that identifies
where you want to place sites.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
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Propagation Model
Indexdisplays the index number for the clutter class.
Class Namedisplays the clutter class name as defined in the clutter grid.
Class Weighttype in this box the weighting you want to assign to the class.
The class weight affects the calculated average radial distance used to
determine site placement. A lowclass weight will give less significance to the
clutter class while a higher class weight increases the significance of the clutter
class. This can be useful, for example, when a clutter grid includes roads and
buildings. If you assign a clutter weight of 0 to roads and a clutter weight of 50
to buildings, site placement will focus on placing sites on the buildings.
Okumura Classchoose from this list the Okumura class for which you want
to define site placement parameters.
Default Antenna Heighttype in this box the default antenna height to use
when placing sites. If you are using a traffic map, the default antenna height
must be between the Minimum Antenna Height and the Maximum Antenna
Height defined on the Site Templates tab.
Maximum Allowable Pathlosstype in this box the maximum allowable
pathloss for the clutter class.
Site Radiustype in this box the radius of the placed site.
Minimum Site Radiustype in this box the minimum allowable site radius for
site placement.
Maximum Site Radiustype in this box the maximum allowable site radius
for site placement.
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Frequency Band
Network-Definedchoose this option to select one of the frequency
bands defined in the Network Settings dialog box. Sites will use the
specified band.
User-Definedchoose this option to define the frequency band in the
associated box. Sites will use the specified frequency band value.
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Defining link configurations
Link configurations track the gains and losses that occur as a signal travels. In
other words, a link configuration calculates the radiated power for a sector
based on the power output of the sectors power amplifier (PA) plus or minus
system gains and losses. In Mentum Planet , you define link configurations in
the Link Configuration Editor. You can define several link configurations for a
project. When link configurations are assigned to sectors, the link
configuration icon is blue as shown in Figure6.3.
Figure 6.3 Assigned link configuration identified with a blue icon.
Losses and gains
For both the downlink and uplink, a default antenna gain value is added based
on the antenna type assigned to the sector. You cannot modify this value.
Initially, the value is 0 but will be updated once the link configuration is
assigned to a sector. A default Feeder value on both the downlink and the
uplink is added to account for cable and connector losses and a main feeder
loss is calculated by multiplying the cable length defined on the Link tab and
the main feeder loss per meter defined in the associated link configuration.
The main feeder value is always included in the link configuration calculations.
A default BTS Noise Figure is assigned to the uplink to account for base station
receiver noise gain. You should modify the BTS Noise Figure according to the
manufacturer's hardware specifications.
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You can add additional losses and gains as required. Because the Friis
noise formula (see Equation 6.1) is used to calculate the Uplink Noise
Figure, the order of the items in the Link Configuration Editor must
match the hierarchy of the sector hardware (see Figure6.4 ). By
default, the BTS Noise Figure is always the last item in the list.
Figure 6.4 Example sector hardware configuration
The Reverse Composite Noise Figure (Composite System Noise Figure
(NFs)) is calculated as follows, using the Friis noise formula:
Equation 6.1 Friis noise formula
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When you assign a link configuration to a sector, you can viewthe impact it has
in the Information section of the Link tab.
Figure 6.5 Information section on the Link tab in the Site Editor.
If you are using an Excel spreadsheet to import link configuration settings, you
must use the Index column to specify the order of the items in the Losses and
Gains list. For more information, see Importing and exporting project data in
Chapter 13, Working With Network and Project Data, in the Mentum Planet
User Guide.
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NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To define link configurations
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
right-click Link Configurations and choose New.
The Link Configuration Editor opens.
2 In the Name box, type a name to identify the link
configuration.
3 Click the Uplink/Reverse tab and define link configuration
parameters.
To view or hide unassigned link configurations
n In the Project Explorer, in the Project Data category,
right-click Link Configurations and choose one of the
following commands:
n Show Unassigned Link Configurationsdis-
plays in the Project Explorer those link con-
figurations that have not been assigned to a sector.
LTE FDD User Guide 193
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n Hide Unassigned Link Configurationshides in the
Project Explorer those link configurations that have not
been assigned to a sector.
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Link Configuration Editor
Use the Link Configuration Editor to define a common set of link settings
that you can apply to specific sites, sector groups, or flags. When a link
configuration has been assigned, the link icon is blue while unassigned
link configurations are gray.
For example, you could use the Link Configuration Editor with a newly
created project to define a common set of losses and gains according to
the hardware used most often in your network. Using these common
settings as a base, you could then define individual or unique sector
power settings as required.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
LTE FDD User Guide 195
Chapter 7
Uplink/Reverse
Use the Uplink/Reverse tab to define specific uplink/reverse link losses and
gains for the sectors that belong to sites, site groups, or flags. Losses and
gains defined for the uplink affect the total power for the sectors. The main
feeder loss is calculated based on the cable length you define on the Link tab
and is always displayed in the link configuration. You can add additional losses
and gains as required.
The Uplink/Reverse power settings initially display the power settings for the
first sector in the group, the first sector with the specified flag condition, or the
first sector chosen in the Project Explorer.
For both the downlink and uplink, the initial value is an antenna gain. This
value is determined by the antenna type assigned to each sector. You cannot
modify this value.
Nametype in this box a name for the link configuration. This box is only
available in the Link Configuration Editor.
Typechoose from this list whether the change to the sector's power is a loss
or a gain.
Nametype in this box a name for the loss or gain.
Value (dB)type in this box a constant value for the loss or gain.
Value (dB/m)type in this box a value per meter for the loss or gain, to be
multiplied by the cable length of the antenna.
Move Upclick this button to move a chosen power loss or gain up one
position in the list.
Move Downclick this button to move a chosen power loss or gain down one
position in the list.
Addclick this button to add a power loss or a gain to the list.
Removeclick this button to delete a power loss or gain from the list.
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Link Configuration Editor
Use the Link Configuration Editor to define a common set of link settings
that you can apply to specific sites, sector groups, or flags. When a link
configuration has been assigned, the link icon is blue while unassigned
link configurations are gray.
For example, you could use the Link Configuration Editor with a newly
created project to define a common set of losses and gains according to
the hardware used most often in your network. Using these common
settings as a base, you could then define individual or unique sector
power settings as required.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
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Downlink/Forward
Use the Downlink/Forward tab to define specific downlink/forward link losses
and gains for the sectors that belong to sites, site groups, or flags. Losses and
gains defined for the downlink affect the total power for the sectors. The main
feeder loss is calculated using the cable length you define on the Link tab in the
Site Editor and the MainFeeder loss (dB/m) you define in the link configuration.
This loss is always displayed in the link configuration. You can add additional
losses and gains as required.
The Downlink/Forward power settings initially display the power settings for
the first sector in the group, the first sector with the specified flag condition, or
the first sector chosen in the Project Explorer.
For both the downlink and uplink, the initial value is an antenna gain. This
value is determined by the antenna type assigned to each sector. You cannot
modify this value.
Nametype in this box a name for the link configuration.
Typechoose from this list whether the change to the sector's power is a loss
or a gain.
Nametype in this box a name for the loss or gain.
Value (dB)type in this box a constant value for the loss or gain.
Value (dB/m)type in this box a value per meter for the loss or gain, to be
multiplied by the cable length of the antenna.
Move Upclick this button to move a chosen power loss or gain up one
position in the list.
Move Downclick this button to move a chosen power loss or gain down one
position in the list.
Addclick this button to add a power loss or a gain to the list.
Removeclick this button to delete a power loss or gain from the list.
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Configuring And Placing Sites
LTE FDD User Guide 199
Chapter 7
Creating and editing sites
Once you have defined site and sector parameters, you can create a site
template based on these settings and use this template to add similar sites to
the network. See Using site templates.
Once a site has been placed, you can change any of the settings that have
been defined. If you have acquired GPS readings for all your sites and you
want to update the position of a sector, you can edit the site location manually.
For more information on general site, base station, and sector properties, see
Working with Sites and Sectors, in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
CAUTION: By default, site updates are saved in the site set. To update the
site table (.tab) file, you must right-click the Sites node and choose Update
Site File. Site updates are not automatically added to the site table.
To create a new site
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, do one of the
following:
n To use a specific site template, expand the Site Templates
node, expand the Local or Shared node, and right-click the
template upon which you want to base the site, then choose
New Site.
n To use the active site template, right-click the Sites node and
choose New Site.
The active site template is identified with a green arrow.
2 Click in the Map windowat the location where you want to place
the site.
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To edit site parameters
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, expand the
Sites node, right-click the site you want to edit, and choose
Edit.
2 Modify site parameters as required.
3 To change the antenna systems available for this site, do
one of the following:
n In the tree view, right-click the Antennas node, and
choose Add.
n Click the Add Antenna Systembutton at the top of the
dialog box.
A default antenna system is added.
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4 Choose the newly-added antenna system and modify antenna
parameters as required.
TIP: To define parameters for all sectors at the site, click the Tabular Edit
button.
TIP: You can also edit sites by clicking the Edit Site button on the Site toolbar,
and then clicking in the Map windowto select the sector.
To create a new site based on an existing site
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, right-click the site
that you want to copy and choose Place Copy.
2 In the Map window, click once on a location to place the site.
The created site is displayed in the Map windowand a site having the
name Copy of <site name>is added to the Sites category in the Project
Explorer.
3 In the Project Explorer, right-click the newly copied site and
choose Edit.
4 In the Site Editor, adjust site parameters as required.
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Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have
common attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There
can be more than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a
different direction. The Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand
modify site, sector, repeater, and antenna data.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
LTE FDD User Guide 203
Chapter 7
Link
You assign link configurations in the Site Editor; however, link configurations
are created using the Link Configuration Editor.
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Antennas
Antennachoose from this list the antenna system for the selected
sector. The antenna systems listed are those displayed in the Site Editor
tree view.
Power Splittype in this box howthe sector transmit power is to be
divided between multiple antennas. This field is only available if there is
more than one antenna.
Link Configurationchoose from this list the link configuration you
want to associate with the sector. Click the Viewbutton to viewthe
details of the link configuration.
Cable Lengthtype in this box the length of the feeder cable. This value
is used to calculate the main feeder loss in the associated link
configuration.
Addclick this button to add secondary antenna systems to the sector if
you are using split sectors. Split sectors use several directional antennas
to transmit the same signal.
Antenna Algorithmchoose from this list the antenna algorithm to use
with the selected smart or MIMO antenna. Antenna algorithms are
defined in the Antenna Algorithm Editor. Only antenna algorithms that
are compatible with the selected antenna system (smart antenna and
MIMO capabilities) are available. Antenna algorithms are not available
for cdma2000 sectors.
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Predictions
Modelchoose from this list the propagation model for the selected site.
Editclick this button to modify the current propagation model.
Distancetype in this box the maximum distance from the sector to calculate
signal strength.
Number of Radialstype in this box the number of radials originating from a
site along which to calculate predictions. More radials produce a more accurate
but slower calculation.
NOTE: If you are using the Planet General Model, the number of radials you
define is rounded up to the closest number divisible by four. For example, if
you set the number of radials to 357 then when generating predictions
Mentum Planet uses 360 radials.
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Mode
Use this section to specify the type of prediction to associate with the
sector. Propagation models cannot always account for the complexities
of signal propagation in urban environments. Hence, to predict more
accurately howa signal will behave, you can merge survey and
prediction data. This is valuable because survey data represents the
actual coverage provided by the network, improving the accuracy of your
predictions.
Prediction calculations are performed along radials at distance intervals
equal to the resolution of the heights file. At each bin, merged
predictions will perform a linear interpolation between the signal
strength measurement and the prediction. Only bins located within the
interpolation distance of a measurement point will be affected by the
measurement data.
Mergedenable this check box to merge model predictions with survey
data. Clear the check box to generate predictions using only the assigned
propagation model.
Interpolation Distancetype in this box the distance used to set the
survey weighting value used to calculate merged prediction values. The
survey weighting value is a value between 0 and 1 determined using
linear interpolation and the distance between a prediction point and the
nearest survey point. The weight of the prediction is 1 minus the survey
weighting value.
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Information
The Information section displays the power settings for the sector. The
calculations displayed are updated based on the link configuration you chose.
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Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have
common attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There
can be more than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a
different direction. The Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand
modify site, sector, repeater, and antenna data.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
LTE FDD User Guide 209
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Sector - Implementation
210 LTE FDD User Guide
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Filter
Use this section to open an existing filter loss (.flt) file or create a new
one. A .flt file instructs Mentum Planet howadjacent channels contribute
to the interference level. You can define a filter loss that increases as
frequencies move further from the center frequency, which results in
frequencies further from the desired frequency being filtered out more
effectively than frequencies close to the desired frequency.
NOTE: If no filter is specified, a perfect filter is used, which results in no
adjacent-channel interference.
Transmit Maskdisplays the filter loss file. The filter loss is applied to
the sectors transmit power when calculating adjacent carrier
interference power from the sector to mobile subscriber on the downlink.
Browseclick this button to open a filter loss (.flt) file.
New/Editclick this button to define or edit the values in a filter
loss (.flt) file.
Removeclick this button to remove this filter from the sector.
Removing the filter does not delete the .flt file. When no transmit
mask is specified, the interference caused by the excessive energy
transmitted outside the channel bandwidth is not accounted for.
Receive Filterdisplays the filter loss file. The filter loss is applied when
calculating adjacent carrier interference power received by the sector on
the uplink.
Browseclick this button to open a filter loss (.flt) file.
New/Editclick this button to define or edit the values in a filter
loss (.flt) file.
Removeclick this button to remove this filter from the sector.
Removing the filter does not delete the .flt file. When no receive
mask is specified, athe interference caused by the excessive
LTE FDD User Guide 211
Chapter 7
energy transmitted outside the channel bandwidth is not accounted for.
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Quality
Limit Best Server Coveragetype in this box the distance from the
sector that defines the outer limit of the best server coverage. Beyond
this distance, the server cannot be considered as the Best Server.
Maximum Number of Subscriberstype in this box the maximum
number of subscribers carried by the sector.
Maximum Uplink Noise Risetype in this box the maximum allowable
noise rise on the uplink for the sector.
Uplink Phase Jitter Effecttype in this box a value in dB for the
mismatch in frequencies at the BTS receiver due to hardware error. This
value is added to the generated interference in an interference analysis.
This value is typically 0.5 to 1 dB.
LTE FDD User Guide 213
Chapter 7
Site Editor
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
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Sector
LTE FDD User Guide 215
Chapter 7
Configuration
Use this section to define the frame configuration. To do this, you must have
defined the required frame configurations on the Frame Setup tab in the
Network Settings dialog box.
Frame Configurationchoose from this list the frame configuration you
want to assign to the sector. You create frame configurations in the Network
Settings dialog box using the Frame Editor.
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Segment
Use this section to specify the segmented zone usage. This section is only
available if the selected frame configuration supports segmentation.
Primary Groupchoose which primary subchannel group to assign to
the sector.
Secondary Groupenable the check box next to those secondary
subchannel groups you want to assign to the sector. This option is only
available when the FFT size used by the band is 2048 or 1024.
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Chapter 7
Preamble
Per Sectorchoose this option to assign preambles on a per-sector basis.
When you choose this option, the same preamble, IDcell, and segment IDare
assigned to all channels of each sector. This option is only available when the
sector band has more than one channel.
Preamble choose from this list the preamble value you want to assign to
the sector.
Cell ID displays the cell IDvalue you want to assign to the sector.
Segment ID displays the segment IDvalue you want to assign to the
sector.
Per Channelchoose this option to allowpreambles to be assigned on a per-
channel basis when the assignment reduces the total violation cost. This option
will reduce the violation costs when you have sectors that use multiple
channels. When you choose this option, Preamble, Cell ID, and Segment ID
columns are added to the Channels table.
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Channels
Statusclick this check box to set the status of the channel.
n A green check mark indicates that the channel is assigned
to the sector
n A red X indicates the channel is not supported by the
sector
n A cleared check box indicates the channel is defined in the
network settings but is not assigned to the sector
Downlink Loadingtype in this box the percentage of cell loading that
you want to target for the downlink. This box is available only if the
channel is assigned to the sector.
Uplink Loadingtype in this box the percentage of cell loading that you
want to target for the uplink. This box is available only if the channel is
assigned to the sector.
Uplink Noise Risetype in this box the total uplink noise rise for the
channel.
Uplink TDDDe-Synchronization Interferencetype in this box the
level of interference experienced at the sector due to TDDde-
synchronization. When you generate a network analysis, this value is
taken into account. This box is only available for channels assigned to the
sector.
Segment Zone Usagedisplays the percentage of traffic that can be
supported by segmented permutation zones.
AAS Usagedisplays the percentage of cell loading supported by
Advanced Antenna Systems (AAS) or multiple antennas.
Number of Required Channelstype in this box the required number
of channels. This value is used when generating automatic frequency
plans.
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Chapter 7
Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have common
attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There can be more
than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a different direction. The
Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand modify site, sector,
repeater, and antenna data.
Use the Site Editor to viewand manipulate site, sector, and antenna
information. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as sites,
sectors, and repeaters as well as displaying the list of project
antennas
n easy access to all information about a site, sector, repeater, or
antenna
n right-click access to relevant commands
NOTE: When you select an antenna beneath the Antennas node, sectors
using that antenna are highlighted in blue.
220 LTE FDD User Guide
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Sector - Powers
PA Powerclick in the box to define the PA power, in dBm. The PA
power value you enter should reflect the combined power of the
antennas. For example, if you have two Tx antennas with 43 dBm each,
enter 46 dBm in the PA power box.
Total Power (EIRP)displays the total EIRP. EIRP is calculated
according in the base station link configuration that includes the PA
power, the antenna gain and other losses such as cable and connector
losses.
Reference Signal Power Boostingclick in this box to define the
power offset (in dB) that is applied to the resource elements used to
transmit the reference signal.
Power Recyclingchoose from this list howyour equipment distributes
power on resource elements. When several transmit antennas are used
(e.g., MIMO), for a specific resource element, the reference signal is
transmitted on a single antenna port. The unused power on the other
antenna ports can hence be recycled. Possible choices are:
n Nonethe power is lost. In this case, the total power per
symbol carrying the reference signal will be lower than
the PA power.
n All Resource Elementsthe power is redistributed
across all resource elements.
n Reference Signal Resource Elementsthe power is
redistributed across reference signal resource elements
only, providing an additional boost to the reference
signal.
Power recycling is important in cases where there are several transmit
antennas (such as MIMO). When there is only one transmit antenna all
options result in the same outcome.
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Reference Signal Powerdisplays the reference signal power as the
portion of the PA power used for transmitting the reference signal.
Reference Signal Frequency Hoppingenable this checkbox if frequency-
hopping patterns are applied. Using Reference Signal Frequency Hopping
minimizes the risk of reference symbols from neighbor cells colliding.
Synchronization Signal Power Boostingtype in this box the power offset
(in dB) that is applied to the resource elements used to transmit the
synchronization signal.
Synchronization Signal Powerdisplays the synchronization signal power
as the portion of the PA power used for transmitting of the synchronization
signal.
Average Power Per Resource Elementdisplays the average power for
any resource element.
Average Power Per Reference Signal Resource Elementdisplays the
average power used to transmit the reference signal resource element. When
using a reference signal power boost, this value is greater than the average
power per resource element.
Average Power Per Synchronization Signal Resource Element
displays the average power used to transmit synchronization signal resource
element.
Average Power Per Physical Channel Resource Elementdisplays the
average power used to transmit on physical channels (i.e., Physical Downlink
Shared Channel, Physical Downlink Control Channel, etc.).
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Uplink Interference
Average PRACH Interference Powerclick in this box to define the
average power received by the sector on the random access channel.
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Chapter 7
Other System Interference
Downlinktype in this box the value attributed to other system interference
on the downlink.
Uplinktype in this box the value attributed to other system interference on
the uplink.
224 LTE FDD User Guide
Adding Repeaters
Chapter 8 Adding Repeaters
In order to increase network coverage, you can add repeaters to your
network. Repeaters are electronic devices that receive a signal, amplify
it, and then retransmit it at a higher power. This chapter describes how
to add repeaters to your project.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding repeaters 227
Workflow for adding repeaters to sectors 230
Adding repeaters to sectors 231
Site Editor 234
Configuration 235
Carriers 236
Equipment 237
Site Editor 238
Donor 239
Type 240
Site Editor 242
Link 243
Service 244
Prediction 245
Isolation 246
Site Editor 247
Implementation 248
Filters 249
Quality 250
LTE FDD User Guide 225
Chapter 8
Locating repeaters in a Map window 251
226 LTE FDD User Guide
Adding Repeaters
Understanding repeaters
Repeaters are used to retransmit signals received from donor sectors to
locations that have insufficient coverage. For example, repeaters can be
used to extend coverage or fill in shadowareas caused by hills, large
buildings, and other structures that obstruct signals.
A repeater receives a signal from the donor antenna of a donor sector,
and then amplifies and retransmits the signal through its service
antenna. Repeaters are primarily used to reduce path loss without
providing an increase in network capacity. Generally, repeaters add
noise and amplify noise in the uplink, which can limit their effectiveness;
however, a well placed repeater can reduce noise levels within a network
and enhance the overall capacity.
Implementing repeaters can be an efficient and cost-effective method of
increasing the received signal strength for mobiles in an area without
having to place additional sites.
A repeaters power is defined by its Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
(EIRP). EIRP measures the maximum radiated power in the direction of
the maximum gain relative to an isotropic antenna (typically in the
direction the antenna is pointing).
The EIRP of repeaters is based on the power of the first active carrier,
and is calculated as shown in Equation 7.1.
Equation 7.1 Repeater EIRP
LTE FDD User Guide 227
Chapter 8
Types of repeater implementations
There are several different ways to implement repeaters in a network. For
example, in areas where
n there are a lot of buildings, you could implement split sectors
where several directional antennas are used to transmit the
same signal. See Using split sectors.
n you want to extend indoor coverage, you could implement a
Distributed Antenna System (DAS). See Using distributed
antenna systems.
Using split sectors
When split sectors are used in the network, sectors use several directional
antennas to transmit the same signal. In Mentum Planet , you define split
228 LTE FDD User Guide
Adding Repeaters
sectors in the Site Editor by adding additional antennas on the Link tab
for the sector you want to use.
Using distributed antenna systems
When distributed antenna systems are used in the network, the
transmitted power is divided between several elements in the network
and consists of split sectors and repeaters depending on the maximum
distance between antennas.
Repeaters and predictions
When you generate predictions for a sector that has one or more
repeaters assigned to it, signal strength grid (.grd) files are generated
for the sector and for each repeater. The analyses use the separate
predictions for the donor sectors and repeaters.
A combined signal strength file is also generated, which merges the
separate sector and repeater signal strength files. Combined signal
strength predictions are used when the full coverage area of a sector is
required, such as when you generate a traffic map or interference
matrix, or analyze the interference between two sectors.
After you have generated predictions for a sector, you can choose to
viewa prediction for the donor sector or individual repeaters. You can
also viewa combined prediction that displays the combined signal
strengths of the donor sector and all of its repeaters. For information on
generating and viewing predictions, see Chapter 8: Generating
Predictions in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
LTE FDD User Guide 229
Chapter 8
Workflow for adding repeaters to sectors
Step 1 Configure and place sites.
Step 2 Add repeaters to sectors with insufficient coverage.
230 LTE FDD User Guide
Adding Repeaters
Adding repeaters to sectors
When you add a repeater to a sector, you define general settings, such
as the donor sector for which the repeater will retransmit a signal, and
the location of the repeater. You must also define settings for service
and donor antennas, predictions, repeater links, implementation criteria
(such as filters and quality limits), as well as configuration settings.
The gain of a repeater in Mentum Planet is maintained at a constant
level. Any changes to the donor sector and repeater system that affect
the power received by the repeater will result in a similar change in the
EIRP of the repeater. For example, a change in the masked pathloss
between the donor sector and the repeater, the donor sectors pilot
power, or the antenna system at the donor sector which results in a
change to the EIRP of the sector, will result in a similar change in the
EIRP of the repeater. The EIRP value at the repeater will also change in
line with a change in either of the repeaters antenna systems. As such, it
is important to reviewrepeater settings following any changes of this
nature.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To add repeaters to sectors
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, right-click
the sector to which you want to add a repeater, and choose
Add Repeater.
2 Click in the Map windowin the location where you want to
add the repeater.
A repeater is added to the Map windowand, in the Project
Explorer, a repeater node is added beneath the associated sector.
In addition, a newsite is added to the Sites node. This newsite
contains only the repeater location and repeater parameters. For
LTE FDD User Guide 231
Chapter 8
example, if you add a repeater to Site 2, sector 2, an additional site is
added.
3 To viewthe repeater settings, in the Project Explorer, double-
click the repeater node.
4 Define repeater parameters as required.
232 LTE FDD User Guide
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TIP: You can change the status of a repeater by right-clicking a
repeater node in the Project Explorer and choosing Active. A check mark
indicates that the repeater is online.
TIP: For maximum accuracy, enter a measured value of pathloss in the
Masked Path Loss From Donor box. The measured pathloss can be
determined by measuring the signal strength with a known EIRP from
the donor sector. If you choose to calculate the masked path loss, ensure
you specify an appropriate model. The most appropriate propagation
model will depend on the specifics of the environment between donor
sector and the repeater donor antenna. If you suspect obstruction at the
repeater location, choose a deterministic model with the correct receiver
height. You may need to create a model specifically for repeater
installations.
Mentum Planet will not update the stored masked pathloss
automatically, even if the current value is generated using the Calculate
Masked Pathloss dialog box. If there are changes to the network that
would impact the pathloss between the donor sector and the repeater,
you must apply a newvalue to the repeater, either by manually entering
a newvalue in the Repeater Settings dialog box or re-calculating the
value using the Calculate Masked Pathloss dialog box.
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Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have common
attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There can be more
than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a different direction. The
Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand modify site, sector,
repeater, and antenna data.
Use the Site Editor to viewand manipulate site, sector, and antenna
information. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as sites,
sectors, and repeaters as well as displaying the list of project
antennas
n easy access to all information about a site, sector, repeater, or
antenna
n right-click access to relevant commands
NOTE: When you select an antenna beneath the Antennas node, sectors
using that antenna are highlighted in blue.
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Configuration
LTE FDD User Guide 235
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Carriers
Statusenable the check box next to those carriers you want the repeater to
support.
Carrier Namedisplays the carrier name. The carrier name is defined in the
network settings.
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Equipment
Total EIRPdisplays the total EIRP.
Repeater Gaintype in this box the system gain experienced by the
repeater. The value in the Power EIRP box is updated based on the value
you enter.
System Lossestype in this box the system losses experienced by the
repeater. The value in the Power EIRP box is updated based on the value
you enter.
Downlink Maximum Power Per Carriertype in this box the
maximum power output per carrier.
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Chapter 8
Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have common
attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There can be more
than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a different direction. The
Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand modify site, sector,
repeater, and antenna data.
Use the Site Editor to viewand manipulate site, sector, and antenna
information. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as sites,
sectors, and repeaters as well as displaying the list of project
antennas
n easy access to all information about a site, sector, repeater, or
antenna
n right-click access to relevant commands
NOTE: When you select an antenna beneath the Antennas node, sectors
using that antenna are highlighted in blue.
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Donor
Use the Donor tab to define the parameters of the relationship between
the repeater and its donor sector, including the donor antenna (i.e., the
repeater antenna that receives the signal from the donor sector on the
downlink and transmits the amplified signal to the donor sector on the
uplink) for RF repeaters.
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Chapter 8
Type
RFenable this option to indicate that the donor antenna receives the signal
from a conventional RF signal.
Fiberenable this option to indicate that the donor antenna receives the
signal from a fiber-optic cable. When the Fiber option is enabled, the Donor
Antenna parameters are not available.
Donor Antennadisplays the name of the donor antenna.
Editclick this button to change the antenna parameters and location.
Link Configurationchoose from this list the link budget you want to
associate with the repeater.
View click this button to open the link configuration dialog box. Values are
read-only.
Cable Lengthtype in this box the length of the feeder cable. This value is
included in the main feeder loss calculated in the associated link budget.
Modelchoose from this list the propagation model with which to calculate
the masked path loss.
Editclick this button to open the Propagation Model Editor where you can
change the settings defined for the model.
Masked Pathlossclick in the box to define a masked pathloss value for the
donor.
Calculateclick this button to automatically calculate the masked pathloss for
the donor using the selected propagation model.
NOTE: For maximum accuracy, enter a measured value of pathloss in the
Masked Pathloss box. The measured pathloss can be determined by
measuring the signal strength with a known EIRP from the donor sector. To
calculate the masked pathloss, ensure you specify an appropriate model. The
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most appropriate propagation model will depend on the specifics of the
environment between the donor sector and the repeater donor antenna.
If you suspect obstruction at the repeater location, choose a
deterministic model with the correct receiver height. You may need to
create a model specifically for repeater installations.
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Chapter 8
Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have common
attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There can be more
than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a different direction. The
Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand modify site, sector,
repeater, and antenna data.
Use the Site Editor to viewand manipulate site, sector, and antenna
information. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as sites,
sectors, and repeaters as well as displaying the list of project
antennas
n easy access to all information about a site, sector, repeater, or
antenna
n right-click access to relevant commands
NOTE: When you select an antenna beneath the Antennas node, sectors
using that antenna are highlighted in blue.
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Link
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Service
Antennachoose from this list the antenna pattern that the service antenna
will use to retransmit the signal received from the donor sector.
Power Splittype in this box howthe power is to be divided between the
service antennas. This field is only available if there is more than one service
antenna.
Editclick this button to open the Antenna - General tab where you can
change the antenna parameters.
Removeclick this button to remove the antenna.
Link Configurationchoose from this list the link budget you want to
associate with the service antenna.
Cable Lengthtype in this box the length of the feeder cable. This value is
included in the main feeder loss calculated in the associated link budget.
Viewclick this button to open the link configuration dialog box. Values are
read-only.
Addclick this button to add additional service antennas to the link. When you
click add, a newAntenna section is added on the tab.
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Prediction
Modelchoose from this list the prediction model for the repeater.
Editclick this button to open the Propagation Model Editor where
you can modify propagation model settings.
Distancetype in this field the maximum distance from the repeater to
calculate signal strength.
Number of Radialstype in this field the number of radials originating
from a site along which to calculate predictions. More radials produce a
more accurate but slower calculation.
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Isolation
Additional Isolationtype in this box a value in dB that will be added to the
total isolation calculated.
Isolationdisplays the calculated isolation based on the masked pathloss
(including antenna gains) between the donor and service antenna as well as
the additional isolation value you define. The Isolation box is not available if
there is no defined donor sector (i.e., this is an orphaned repeater) or if the
donor type is fiber. If you are using split sectors, the isolation calculation is
based on the first service antenna.
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Site Editor
A site is the location where a sector is placed. Sites and sectors have
common attributes such as a geographic location and elevation. There
can be more than one sector at a particular site, each pointing in a
different direction. The Site Editor is a key editor where you can viewand
modify site, sector, repeater, and antenna data.
Use the Site Editor to viewand manipulate site, sector, and antenna
information. It provides
n tree representation of hierarchical relationships such as
sites, sectors, and repeaters as well as displaying the list
of project antennas
n easy access to all information about a site, sector,
repeater, or antenna
n right-click access to relevant commands
NOTE: When you select an antenna beneath the Antennas node,
sectors using that antenna are highlighted in blue.
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Implementation
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Filters
Use this section to open an existing filter loss (.flt) file or create a new
one. A .flt file instructs Mentum Planet howadjacent channels contribute
to the interference level. You can define a filter loss that increases as
frequencies move further from the center frequency, which results in
frequencies further from the desired frequency being filtered out more
effectively than frequencies close to the desired frequency.
Transmit Maskdisplays the filter loss file to be applied to the repeater
on the downlink.
Browseclick this button to open a filter loss (.flt) file.
New/Editclick this button to define or edit the values in a filter
loss (.flt) file.
Removeclick this button to remove this filter from the repeater.
Removing the filter does not delete the .flt file. When no transmit
mask is specified, the interference caused by the excessive energy
transmitted outside the channel bandwidth is not accounted for.
Receive Filterdisplays the filter loss file to be applied to the repeater
on the uplink.
Browseclick this button to open a filter loss (.flt) file.
New/Editclick this button to define or edit the values in a filter
loss (.flt) file.
Removeclick this button to remove this filter from the repeater.
Removing the filter does not delete the .flt file. When no receive
mask is specified, athe interference caused by the excessive
energy transmitted outside the channel bandwidth is not
accounted for.
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Quality
Limit Best Server Coveragetype in this box the distance from the
repeater that defines the outer limit of the best server coverage. Beyond this
distance, the server cannot be considered as the Best Server.
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Locating repeaters in a Map window
You can use the Project Explorer to locate repeaters in a Map window.
To locate repeaters in a Map window
n In the Project Explorer, in the Sites category, right-
click the repeater and choose Locate.
The repeater is selected in the Map window.
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Chapter 9 Defining Subscribers
Subscribers are categorized into types, which are used when you
generate an analysis of your network. Creating subscriber types that
account for the possible variations of subscribers enables you to
generate reliable and comprehensive analyses of your network.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding subscribers 255
Workflow for creating subscriber types 257
Defining subscriber equipment types 258
Subscriber Settings 260
Equipment Types 261
Hardware 262
Subscriber Settings 263
Equipment Types 264
Bearers 265
Modulations 266
Defining subscriber services 267
Subscriber Settings 268
Services 269
Load 270
Input Load 271
Activity Factors 272
Subscriber Settings 273
Services 274
Quality of Service 275
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QoS Class 276
Defining subscriber types 278
Subscriber Settings 281
Subscriber Types 283
Configuration 284
Usages 285
Defining environment settings 287
Creating a fixed subscriber database 292
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Understanding subscribers
Understanding where your subscribers are and howthey use the
network resources available to them plays a pivotal role in the network
you design. To make it easier for you to model subscribers and their use
of network resources, the characteristics of subscribers are defined using
the nodes in the Subscriber Settings dialog box. You can create a diverse
mix of subscribers by defining different services and equipment types
and assigning them to subscriber types.
Subscriber types are used in Monte Carlo simulations, while nominal
analyses require only the definition of equipment types.
The nodes within the Subscriber Settings dialog box represent building
blocks for subscriber types:
n Equipment Typesinclude the types of mobile
equipment and antennas that are available in your
network as well as the bearers available on each type of
equipment.
n Servicesrelate to the applications that a subscriber
uses and the level of service required. This includes the
activity factors used to calculate the effective amount of
time that a subscriber uses a service. This also includes
the quality of service requirements.
n Subscriber Typesconsolidate the information from
the other nodes in the Subscriber Settings dialog box into
various combinations to represent the mix of subscribers
in your network.
When you define subscribers, you begin at the top of the tree viewby
defining equipment types. You then define services and finally, you
define subscriber types. For each subscriber type, you must choose an
equipment type and traffic map. You can define multiple usage types,
each of which comprises weightings to spread subscribers within the four
different environments. You also define a service type.
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Chapter 9
For a detailed example of howto define a subscriber type, see Defining
subscriber types. This example shows you howto define usages, explains the
effect of weighting, and describes howthe settings that you specify for the
subscriber type translate into a real-world scenario.
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Workflow for creating subscriber types
Step 1 Generate traffic maps for the services and area that you want
to analyze. For information on creating traffic maps, see
Chapter10, Working with Traffic Maps, in the Mentum Planet
User Guide .
Step 2 Define equipment types including hardware and bearers.
Step 3 Define services including the load and quality of service
parameters.
Step 4 Create subscriber types and define the subscriber
configuration including priority, equipment type, and usages.
Step 5 Define environment settings.
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Defining subscriber equipment types
A mobile equipment type is a detailed definition of the equipment used by a
particular type of subscriber in the network. Each type of equipment has its
own particularities in terms of the technology it supports, the hardware
specification it has, and the bearers it can use.
Subscriber equipment types you define are added to the Equipment Types
node in the Subscriber Editor tree view.
WiMAXLTE bearers
Bearers represent the traffic channels in terms of their service data rate. You
first define the modulations used by the bearers in the Network Settings dialog
box. Standard WiMAXLTE bearers are configured with a direction (uplink or
downlink). Bearers are displayed on the Bearers tab associated with each
equipment type.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To define subscriber equipment types
1 Choose Edit Subscriber Settings.
The Subscriber Settings dialog box opens.
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2 In the tree view, right-click Equipment Types, and choose
Add.
A newsubnode is added to the Equipment Types node.
3 In the tree view, choose the equipment type you just added.
4 Define equipment type parameters as required.
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Subscriber Settings
The characteristics of subscribers are defined using the nodes in the
Subscriber Settings dialog box. You can create a diverse mix of subscribers by
defining different services, quality types, and user equipment types and
assigning them to subscriber types.
Subscriber types are used with Monte Carlo simulations. Nominal analyses
only require the definition of equipment types.
The nodes within the Subscriber Settings dialog box represent building blocks
for subscriber types:
n Equipment Typesinclude the types of mobile equipment and
antennas that are available in your network as well as the
bearers available on each type of equipment.
n Servicesrelate to the applications that a subscriber uses and
the level service required. This includes the activity factors used
to calculate the effective amount of time that a subscriber uses
a service as well as the quality of service requirements.
n Subscriber Typesconsolidate the information from the other
nodes in the Subscriber Editor into various combinations to
represent the mix of subscribers in your network.
For each subscriber type, you must choose a subscriber equipment type and
traffic map. You can define multiple usage types, each of which comprises
weightings to spread subscribers within the four different environments, and a
service type.
For more information about working with the subscriber settings, see the
appropriate User Guide for the technology you are using.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
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Equipment Types
Use the Equipment Types node to add or delete subscriber equipment
types.
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Hardware
Maximum PA Powertype in this box the power ceiling for transmission in
dBm.
Maximum Power EIRPdisplays the maximum power EIRP supported by
the equipment.
Noise Figuretype in this box the noise figure for the equipment.
Frequency Bandsenable the check box next to the frequency bands that
are supported by the equipment type. Only the frequency bands used by the
equipment type technology (specified on the Description tab) are available.
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Subscriber Settings
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
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Equipment Types
Use the Equipment Types node to add or delete subscriber equipment types.
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Bearers
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Modulations
Use this section to define downlink and uplink modulations for the bearer. Only
the modulations defined for the equipment type technology are available.
Downlinkfrom this list choose the downlink modulations supported by the
equipment type.
Uplinkfrom this list choose the uplink modulations supported by the
equipment type.
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Defining subscriber services
Service types are the applications that your subscribers are using.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To define subscriber services
1 Choose Edit Subscriber Settings.
The Subscriber Settings dialog box opens.
2 In the tree view, right-click Services, and choose Add.
A newsubnode is added to the Services node.
3 In the tree view, choose the service you just added.
4 Define service parameters as required.
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Chapter 9
Subscriber Settings
The characteristics of subscribers are defined using the nodes in the
Subscriber Settings dialog box. You can create a diverse mix of subscribers by
defining different services, quality types, and user equipment types and
assigning them to subscriber types.
Subscriber types are used with Monte Carlo simulations. Nominal analyses
only require the definition of equipment types.
The nodes within the Subscriber Settings dialog box represent building blocks
for subscriber types:
n Equipment Typesinclude the types of mobile equipment and
antennas that are available in your network as well as the
bearers available on each type of equipment.
n Servicesrelate to the applications that a subscriber uses and
the level service required. This includes the activity factors used
to calculate the effective amount of time that a subscriber uses
a service as well as the quality of service requirements.
n Subscriber Typesconsolidate the information from the other
nodes in the Subscriber Editor into various combinations to
represent the mix of subscribers in your network.
For each subscriber type, you must choose a subscriber equipment type and
traffic map. You can define multiple usage types, each of which comprises
weightings to spread subscribers within the four different environments, and a
service type.
For more information about working with the subscriber settings, see the
appropriate User Guide for the technology you are using.Services
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Services
Use the Services node to add or delete services.
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Load
Prioritychoose from this list the priority you want to associate with the
service. Priorities are defined in decreasing order, with 1 being the highest
priority.
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Input Load
Erlangs Per Subscribertype in this box the number of Erlangs per
subscriber. This value is used to convert a traffic map in subscribers/km
to the number of subscribers to spread in the Monte-Carlo simulation.
Throughput Per Subscribertype in this box the average throughput.
This value, along with the number of erlangs per subscriber, is used to
convert a traffic map in kbps/km to the number of subscribers to spread
in a Monte-Carlo simulation.
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Activity Factors
Use this section to define specify the downlink and uplink activity factors. The
activity factor is the percentage of time the mobile is transmitting during a
conversation. In a Monte-Carlo simulation, the downlink and uplink throughput
are calculated using the number of subscribers carried multiplied by the rate
used for each subscriber modified by the activity factor.
Downlink Activity Factortype in this box the percentage of time the
mobile transmits on the downlink.
Uplink Activity Factortype in this box the percentage of time the mobile
transmits on the uplink.
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Subscriber Settings
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Services
Use the Services node to add or delete services.
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Quality of Service
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QoS Class
Use this section to choose the QoS classes for which you want to define QoS
parameters. If both WiMAX and LTE are enabled in your network settings,
from the list, choose the technology you are using.
The table belowdescribes common QoS classes.
LTE QoS Class
WiMAX QoS
Class
3GPP QoS Class
1 UGS Conversational
2 UGS Conversational
3 UGS Conversational
4 rtPS Streaming
5 ertPS Streaming
6 ertPS Streaming
7 nrtPS Interactive
8 nrtPS Interactive
9 BE Background
Minimum Downlink Data Ratetype in this box the minimum downlink
data rate required by the service QoS class.
Maximum Downlink Data Ratetype in this box the maximum downlink
data rate required by the service QoS class.
Minimum Uplink Data Ratetype in this box the minimum uplink data rate
required by the service QoS class.
Maximum Uplink Data Ratetype in this box the maximum uplink data rate
required by the service QoS class.
Cell Edge Coverage Probabilitytype in this box a percentage to define the
probability of coverage required for a bin to be regarded as covered. The Cell
Edge Coverage Probability value is used to determine whether there is service
coverage.
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Body Losstype in this box a value to define the body loss that occurs
when the mobile is close to a users body.
Required Uplink FER/PERthe percentage of required FER/PER on
the uplink for cdma2000 Monte Carlo simulations.
Required Downlink FER/PERthe percentage of required FER/PER
on the downlink for cdma2000 Monte Carlo simulations.
Latency Targetchoose from this list the maximum number of slots
that are allowed for packet transmission in order to fulfill the QoS
requirements. EV-DO Rev. A reverse channel supports two transmission
modes (i.e., lowlatency and high capacity). A 16-slot frame is divided
into four 4-slot sub-frames. The lowlatency packet transmission is
achieved by transmitting the packet using less than four sub-frames. The
high capacity transmission typically uses all four sub-frames.
The latency target of a radio bearer is defined by the number of slots
over which the bearer will transmit to achieve a particular latency
requirement. For EV-DO Rev A reverse bearers, the latency target can
be set to 4, 8, 12 and 16 slots. For EV-DO Rev 0 bearers, the latency
target is fixed at 16 slots due to the fixed target latency supported by Rev
0.
NOTE: This box is not available for circuit-switched services.
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Defining subscriber types
Subscriber types are defined by:
n the subscriber equipment used
n the traffic map on which the subscriber type is based
n the different kinds of services that a subscriber uses and the
quality that applies to each service
n the environments where the usage takes place
The information contained in a subscriber type is used when you generate
Monte Carlo simulations or analysis layers. The environment weightings
defined for each subscriber type reflects the probability that a particular
subscriber type will use a specific service in a specific environment. For
example, if a WiMAXLTE Subscriber using a VoIP service is more likely to be
using this service indoors rather than while in a vehicle than you could set the
Indoor Weight to 2 and the Vehicular Weight to 1.
The total number of subscribers is defined by the traffic map and scaling, not
by the number of usage types or environments. The total number of
subscribers for each subscriber type is spread across the usage types and
environments defined for the subscriber type.
Example
You might create a subscriber type called Advanced Business that represents
subscribers who use mobiles as their primary business tools. The subscribers
represented by this type use their mobiles for everything from downloading
email to placing cellular calls. After you create the usage types, you can assign
a ratio to determine the proportion of the traffic that is in each of the available
environments. In addition, you can set the service type and quality type for
each usage type. For example, if you set up four usage types for the Advanced
Business subscriber type, you could assign the weightings, service types, and
quality types shown in Table 1.
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Table 1 Example usage type settings
Usage
type
Indoor
Deep
Indoor
OutdoorVehicular
Service
type
1 5 5 5 5 Voice
2 1 2 1 0 Video
3 2 2 4 0 WWW
4 2 2 4 0 Email
In this example, the total weighting value calculated across all usage
types is 40. Therefore, the Advanced Business subscriber type uses
Usage 1 50%of the time, Usage 2 10%of the time, Usage 3 20%of the
time, and Usage 4 20%of the time.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To define subscriber types
1 Choose Edit Subscriber Settings.
The Subscriber Settings dialog box opens.
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2 In the tree view, right-click Subscriber Types, and choose Add.
A newsubnode is added to the Subscriber Types node.
3 In the tree view, choose the subscriber type you just added.
4 Click the Description tab, define a name and specify any
additional comments required.
5 Click the Configuration tab and define the subscriber type
configuration as required.
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Subscriber Settings
The characteristics of subscribers are defined using the nodes in the
Subscriber Settings dialog box. You can create a diverse mix of
subscribers by defining different services, quality types, and user
equipment types and assigning them to subscriber types.
Subscriber types are used with Monte Carlo simulations. Nominal
analyses only require the definition of equipment types.
The nodes within the Subscriber Settings dialog box represent building
blocks for subscriber types:
n Equipment Typesinclude the types of mobile
equipment and antennas that are available in your
network as well as the bearers available on each type of
equipment.
n Servicesrelate to the applications that a subscriber
uses and the level service required. This includes the
activity factors used to calculate the effective amount of
time that a subscriber uses a service as well as the quality
of service requirements.
n Subscriber Typesconsolidate the information from
the other nodes in the Subscriber Editor into various
combinations to represent the mix of subscribers in your
network.
For each subscriber type, you must choose a subscriber equipment type
and traffic map. You can define multiple usage types, each of which
comprises weightings to spread subscribers within the four different
environments, and a service type.
For more information about working with the subscriber settings, see the
appropriate User Guide for the technology you are using.Subscriber
Types
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NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
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Subscriber Types
Use the Subscriber Types node to add or delete subscriber types.
Subscriber types are defined by:
n the subscriber equipment used
n the traffic map on which the subscriber type is based
n the different kinds of services that a subscriber uses and
the quality that applies to each service
n the environments where the usage takes place
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Configuration
Prioritychoose from this list the service priority number from 0-100 for this
subscriber type when network capacity is limited. Priorities are defined in
decreasing order, with 1 being the highest priority and 100 being the lowest
priority.
Traffic Mapchoose from this list the traffic map to associate with this
subscriber type. The traffic maps displayed in this list are stored in the Traffic
Maps node of the Project Data category in the Project Explorer. Only traffic
maps expressed in kbps/km or Subscribers/km are available.
Scaling Factortype in this box the factor to scale traffic from the traffic map
associated with this subscriber type. The traffic map associated with this
subscriber type is chosen from the Traffic Map list. For example, a value of
1.25 would multiply traffic from the associate traffic map by 1.25 times. Ratios
greater than 1.0 define that there is a greater number of subscribers of this
type than indicated in the associated traffic map.
Equipment Typechoose from this list the equipment type used by this
subscriber type. Equipment types are stored in the Equipment Types node of
the Subscriber Editor.
Editclick this button to edit the equipment type.
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Usages
Use this table to create and delete usages that define howa subscriber
type uses an application. Usages are associated with a Service. Services
are created in the NewService dialog box.
Nametype in this field a name for the usage. Names must be eight
characters or less.
Indoor Weighttype in this field the weighting for indoor usage as a
ratio between this and other usages defined for a subscriber type. Values
must be positive integers.
Example
For example, if you were to define the following four usages:
Usage Weighting Ratio Result
Streaming
video
2 10% of this subscriber type
uses streaming video
9.6
Conversational
Voice
10 50% of this subscriber type
uses 9.6 Conversational Voice
WWW browsing 4 20% of this subscriber type
uses WWW browsing
E-mail 4 20% of this subscriber type
uses E-mail
No usage of a certain service/environment combination should be
indicated by a zero weighting ratio for the usage object.
Deep Indoor Weighttype in this field the weighting for deep indoor
usage as a ratio between this and other usages defined for a subscriber
type. Values must be positive integers.
Outdoor Weighttype in this field the weighting for outdoor usage as a
ratio between this and other usages defined for a subscriber type. Values
must be positive integers.
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Vehicular Weighttype in this field the weighting for vehicular usage as a
ratio between this and other usages defined for a subscriber type. Values must
be positive integers.
Servicechoose from the list in this field a service type for the usage.
Mobile Speedchoose from the list the mobile speed to associate with the
usage. This parameters in only available for LTE subscribers.
Addclick this button to create a newusage. A newrowis added to the
Usages table for you to define usage settings.
Removeclick this button to delete a usage chosen from the Usages table.
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Defining environment settings
During a Monte Carlo simulation, subscribers are spread across the
analysis area based on the traffic map and then sorted according to:
n the subscriber type priority (defined on the Configuration
tab for each subscriber type)
n the service priority (defined on the Load tab for each
service)
n the QoS class priority (defined on the Quality of Service
tab)
Mentum Planet then determines in which clutter class a subscriber is
located and assesses the impact of environmental traits on the signal
and service using the environment settings you define as well as the
usage weightings specified for each subscriber type. For each usage
type, you can define a weighting indicating the amount of time that
usage type occurs in each environment (for example, you could define a
business subscriber who uses voice service in an outdoor environment
10%of the time). For all of the environments, you can define the
penetration loss and the required fast fading margin.
For each clutter type, you can define the characteristics of the
environments within that clutter type. The available environments are:
n Outdooropen air environments
n Vehicularmoving vehicles
n Indoorbuildings or structures (normally representing
areas where single wall penetration is required)
n Deep Indoorin-building areas where two-wall
penetration is required, or dense buildings where higher
than normal penetration losses are experienced
You can enable one or more of the environments for a clutter type.
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For each clutter class, you indicate which environments you want to account
for and then specify the following parameters:
n Downlink Orthogonalitythis value represents the signals
orthogonality factor in the environment of the clutter.
n Slow Fading Standard Deviationthis value is used to
model the shadowing from obstacles that cannot be handled by
a propagation model. Slightly higher values (approximately 8
dB) may be appropriate for high density urban areas, lower
values (approximately 6.5dB) for open areas.
n Outdoor Fast Fading Marginthis value represents the
extra margin required for fast power control to overcome
Rayleigh (fast) fading in the Outdoor environment of this
clutter type. Rayleigh fading is a variation of spatial path loss
that occurs on the scale of a fewwavelengths; the wavelength
of a 2 000 MHz carrier is about 15 cm (6 inches).
n Outdoor Penetration Lossthis value represents the
penetration loss to apply on received and transmitted signals in
the Outdoor environment for a specific clutter type.
n Vehicular Fast Fading Marginthis value represents the
transmit power headroom required for fast power control to
occur and overcome Rayleigh (fast) fading in the Vehicular
environment of this clutter type. Rayleigh fading is a variation
of spatial path loss that occurs on the scale of a few
wavelengths; the wavelength of a 2 000 MHz carrier is about 15
cm (6 inches).
n Vehicular Penetration Lossthis value represents the
penetration loss to apply on received and transmitted signals in
the Vehicular environment for a specific clutter type.
n Vehicular Speedthis value represents the typical moving
speed of a mobile subscriber in a vehicular environment for a
specific clutter type.
n Indoor Fast Fading Marginthis value represents the extra
margin required for fast power control to occur and overcome
Rayleigh (fast) fading in the Indoor environment of this clutter
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type. Rayleigh fading is a variation of spatial path loss
that occurs on the scale of a fewwavelengths; the
wavelength of a 2 000 MHz carrier is about 15 cm (6
inches).
n Indoor Penetration Lossthis value represents the
penetration loss to apply on received and transmitted
signals in the Indoor environment for a specific clutter
type
n Deep Indoor Fast Fading Marginthis value
represents the extra margin required for fast power
control to take place and overcome Rayleigh (fast) fading
in the Deep Indoor environment of this clutter type.
Rayleigh fading is a variation of spatial path loss that
occurs on the scale of a fewwavelengths; the wavelength
of a 2 000 MHz carrier is about 15 cm (6 inches).
n Deep Indoor Penetration Lossthis value represents
the penetration loss to apply on received and transmitted
signals in the Deep Indoor environment for a specific
clutter type
When you generate the analysis, you specify the subscriber environment
you want to model (i.e., Outdoor, Indoor, Deep Indoor, Vehicular).
When you generate a Monte Carlo simulation, if an environment does
not apply to a particular type of clutter (for example, if the deep indoor
environment does not apply to the Urban - Commercial clutter type, the
simulation will not place any subscribers in that type of clutter in that
environment.
To define environment settings
1 Choose Edit Environments.
The Environment Editor opens.
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2 For each clutter class, do any of the following:
n Double-click in a table cell and type a newvalue.
n Click the down arrowin a table cell and choose a newvalue.
n Enable or clear the check box for the chosen setting.
n Click the down arrownext to a table heading to display all the
data or a particular subset.
n Right-click in a table cell to copy and paste data.
3 To change the display, do any of the following:
n Click the Sort Ascending button to reorder the rows based on
the data in the selected column.
n Click the Sort Descending button to reorder the rows based
on the data in the selected column.
n Place the pointer between column headings to increase or
decrease the size of the column.
n Enable the Freeze Panes check box to lock rows and columns
in one area so that they remain visible when you scroll. This is
useful, for example, if you want to freeze a particular column
and then scroll through subsequent columns comparing the
values.
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4 To copy data to the clipboard, click the Copy To Clipboard
button.
5 To paste from the clipboard, click the Paste From
Clipboard button.
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Creating a fixed subscriber database
Before generating a fixed subscriber analysis, you must place subscribers on
the map and create a fixed subscriber database (i.e., fixed subscriber table).
For example, you can create a fixed subscriber table to address the specific
requirements of the IEEE802.16d standard. When you define the subscriber
settings, you will need to associate a directive antenna with the equipment
type.
To create a fixed subscriber table
1 In the Project Explorer, in the FixedSubscribers category,
right-click the technology node for which you want to create a
fixed subscriber table, and choose New.
A table is added to the Fixed Subscriber Tables node.
2 To change the default table name, right-click Table 1, choose
Rename and type a meaning subscriber table name.
3 To add subscribers to the table, right-click the fixed subscribers
table and choose Add Subscriber.
4 Click in the Map windowat the location of the subscriber.
5 Repeat Step 4 until you have placed all the subscribers.
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Chapter 10 Generating Network Analyses
WiMAXLTE analyses contain the information you require to determine
the coverage of your network. This chapter describes howto generate
WiMAXLTE analyses and viewresults. It also explains howto create
statistics that you can use to validate your network design.
For information on howto generate detailed subscriber information or
cell loads, see Generating Monte Carlo Simulations.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding network analyses 294
Workflow for generating an analysis 295
Defining default analysis layers 296
Common LTE Analysis Layers 297
Carrier-Specific LTE Analysis Layers 303
Defining default analysis settings 308
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Understanding network analyses
In Mentum Planet 5.x, you can generate an analysis with nothing more than
the equipment type defined in the subscriber settings. This decreases the time
required to prepare for network analysis and results in less time being
required to generate the analysis layers; however, this type of analysis does
not generate detailed subscriber information. The analysis runs only once and
generates analysis layers automatically.
NOTE: For information on generating WiMAX Pre-Qual analyses, see the
appendix "Generating Pre-Qual Analyses.
Prediction view files
Prediction viewfiles contain predicted signal strength values for all potential
servers at each bin and are created when you generate an analysis. Using
prediction viewfiles results in faster analyses because Mentum Planet only
reads one file to access information about signal strength for all potential
servers.
Prediction viewfiles work at a single resolution. If you are analyzing a large
area with mostly lowresolution data and small amounts of higher resolution
data, the disk space requirements can be significantly higher than the
combined disk space requirements of the prediction data if the analysis is
carried out at the higher resolution. This is because the prediction viewfiles will
be created at the higher resolution over the entire area. Also, separate
prediction views are created for each of the required analysis resolutions,
which can further add to disk space requirements.
For example, an area that is 100 km x 100 km with a 10-meter resolution and
an average of 10 overlapping predictions requires approximately 2 GB of disk
space for prediction viewfiles, whereas an area that is 200 km x 200 km with a
5-meter resolution and an average of 10 overlapping predictions requires
approximately 32 GB of disk space for prediction viewfiles.
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Workflow for generating an analysis
Step 1 If you want to use the same settings for a number of analyses,
define default analysis settings.
Step 2 If you want to generate the same layers for a number of
analyses, define default layers settings.
Step 3 Create and generate a newanalysis.
Step 4 Viewanalysis layers.
Step 5 Generate layer statistics for analysis layers.
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Defining default analysis layers
By default, all of the available analysis layers are generated. To avoid lengthy
generation times when working with a large project, you can exclude layers
from the analysis generation that you do not need. The analysis layer filter
enables you to define a default list of analysis layers that is available for all of
the WiMAXLTE analyses that you create for the current project.
To define default analysis layers
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Network Analyses category,
right-click WiMAXLTE Analyses and choose Default Layers.
2 In the WiMAXLTE Analysis Layers dialog box, enable the check
box next to those layers you want to generate by default, and click
OK.
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Common LTE Analysis Layers
LTE Analysis layers are grouped into common layers and carrier-specific
layers. The Common layers represent the performance of sectors on the
best carrier or the composite plots of multiple channels (e.g., downlink
best carrier layer). Table 1 details the common layers.
Table 1: Common Layers
Layer Description
Best Server This layer displays the best server on the downlink for
the best carrier. This layer is based on the downlink
reference signal power values.
Composite Best Server This layer is the same as the best server layer, except
that for sectors with repeaters, the repeater and its
donor are treated as one combined sector.
Best Server Signal Strength This layer displays the best server signal strength for
the best carrier on the downlink at each bin. This layer
is based on the downlink PA power values.
Best Server Reference
Signal Strength
This layer displays the best server reference signal
strength for the best carrier at each bin.
RSRP This layer displays the best server Reference Signal
Received Power (RSRP) for the best carrier at each
bin. The layer includes both the slow fading standard
deviation and the cell edge coverage probability (as
defined in the LTE Analysis Settings dialog box).
Handover Status This layer displays whether the handover is possible
("Yes") or not. The status is determined using the A3
handover threshold defined on the Configuration tab in
the Site Editor.
Number of Potential
Handover Sectors
This layer displays the number of sectors that have a
signal strength within the number of dB defined for the
A3 handover threshold.
Handover Sector Priority This layer displays the sector that has the strongest
signal strength (ignoring the best server) and that has
a signal strength within the number of dB defined for
the A3 Handover Threshold parameter.
Best Synchronization Signal
Strength
This layer displays the best server received
synchronization signal power for the best carrier at
each bin.
<Nth> Best Server This layer displays the Nth best server on the downlink
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Layer Description
for the best carrier. This layer is based on the downlink
reference power values.
<Nth> Best Server
Reference Signal Strength
This layer displays the Nth best server reference signal
strength for the best carrier at each bin.
Best Server Carrier This layer displays the best carrier on which the
reference signal strength or reference C/(N+I) is the
greatest.
Downlink Best Carrier This layer displays the name of the carrier where the
downlink C/(N+I) is the greatest.
Uplink Best Carrier This layer displays the name of the carrier where the
uplink C/(N+I) is the greatest.
Synchronization Signal
C/(N+I)
This layer displays the synchronization signal C/(N+I)
for the best carrier at each bin.
Reference C(N+I) This layer displays the reference signal C/(N+I) for the
best carrier at each bin.
RSRQ This layer displays the Reference Signal Received
Quality (RSRQ) value for the best carrier at each bin.
Reference Coverage
Probability
This layer displays the probability of coverage for the
signal for the best carrier at each bin. It depends on
the Reference Signal C/(N+I), as well as on the slow
fading standard deviation value.
Reference Coverage This layer displays whether there is reference signal
coverage for the best carrier. It depends on the
Reference Signal Coverage probability and the cell
edge coverage probability target.
MIMO Type The layer displays the type of MIMO technique used at
each bin, for the best carrier.
Three classes are defined:
n None
n Diversity
n MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing)
Diversity Gain This layer displays the downlink diversity gain at each
bin, for the best carrier. It depends on the antenna
systems of best server and CPE, and on the antenna
algorithm selected by the best server.
Spatial Multiplexing Gain This layer displays the downlink spatial multiplexing
gain at each bin, for the best carrier. It depends on the
antenna systems of best server and CPE, on the
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Layer Description
antenna algorithm selected by the best server and on
the downlink C/(N+I) level at the bin.
Interference Coordination This layer displays the interference coordination status
at each bin, for the best carrier:
n Inner cell
n Outer cell
Downlink C/I This layer displays the C/I ratio of the downlink traffic
data for the best carrier.
Downlink C/(N+I) This layer displays the C/(N+I) ratio of the downlink
traffic data for the best carrier.
Downlink Overall Maximum
Achievable Data Rate
This layer displays the total downlink maximum
achievable data rate, combining all carriers in the
frequency band.
Downlink Overall Average
Data Rate
This layer displays the overall average data rate on
the downlink, accounting for all available carriers.
Downlink Coverage This layer displays whether there is traffic coverage on
the downlink (if at least one downlink modulation and
coding scheme is available) for the best carrier.
Downlink Maximum
Achievable Spectral
Efficiency
This layer displays the maximum spectral efficiency
that can be achieved on the downlink. The maximum
spectral efficiency that can be achieved depends on
radio conditions. Subscribers (i.e., locations) that have
a high signal-to-interference ratio can achieve higher
spectral efficiency than subscribers/locations that
have a poor signal-to-interference ratio.
Downlink Best Available
Modulation
This layer displays the best downlink modulation and
coding scheme available at the bin, for the best
carrier. It is the best downlink modulation and coding
scheme whose coverage probability is above the cell
edge coverage probability target.
Downlink Margin This layer displays the difference between the actual
downlink C/(N+I) and the required C/(N+I) by the
best available modulation, expressed in dB. Diversity
gain and fade margins are also included.
CQI This layer displays the CQI value that corresponds
with the downlink maximum spectral efficiency value
(in useful bits/symbol) at each pixel.
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Layer Description
Downlink Coverage
Probability
These layers display the service coverage probability
for the downlink modulation. It depends on the slow
fading standard deviation.
Downlink Maximum
Achievable Data Rate
This layer displays the highest data rate that meets
coverage probability requirements. It depends on the
best available modulation and coding scheme. Spatial
multiplexing gains are also included.
Downlink Average Data Rate This layer displays the average data rate on the
downlink, for the best carrier. It is calculated by
averaging all possible data rates with their coverage
probabilities. It depends on the coverage probability of
all downlink modulation and coding schemes.
Uplink Overall Maximum
Achievable Data Rate
This layer displays the overall maximum achievable
data rate in the uplink, accounting for all available
carriers.
Uplink Overall Average Data
Rate
This layer displays the overall average data rate in the
uplink, accounting for all available carriers.
Uplink C/I This layer displays the C/I ratio of the uplink traffic
data for the best carrier.
Uplink C(N+I) This layer displays the C/(N+I) ratio of the uplink
traffic data for the best carrier.
Uplink Coverage This layer displays whether there is traffic coverage on
the uplink (if at least one uplink modulation and coding
scheme is available) for the best carrier.
Uplink Best Available
Modulation
This layer displays the best uplink modulation and
coding scheme available at the bin, for the best
carrier. It is the best uplink modulation and coding
scheme whose coverage probability is above the cell
edge coverage probability target.
Uplink Maximum Achievable
Spectral Efficiency
This layer displays the maximum spectral efficiency
that can be achieved on the uplink. The maximum
spectral efficiency that can be achieved depends on
radio conditions. Subscribers (i.e., locations) that have
a high signal-to-interference ratio can achieve higher
spectral efficiency than subscribers/locations that
have a poor signal-to-interference ratio.
Uplink Margin This layer displays the difference between the actual
uplink C/(N+I) and the required C/(N+I) by the best
available modulation, expressed in dB. Diversity gain
and fade margins are also included.
Uplink Coverage Probability This layer displays the service coverage probability for
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Layer Description
the uplink modulation. It depends on the slow fading
standard deviation.
Uplink Maximum Achievable
Data Rate
This layer displays the maximum achievable data rate
on the uplink, for the best carrier. It depends on the
best available uplink modulation and coding scheme.
Spatial multiplexing gains are also included.
Uplink Average Data Rate This layer displays the average data rate in the uplink,
for the best carrier. It depends on the coverage
probability of all uplink modulation and coding
schemes.
Uplink Transmit Power This layer displays the required transmit power on the
uplink at each bin.
Composite Coverage This layer displays the coverage status for the best
carrier.
Four classes are defined:
n both downlink and uplink (i.e. there
is coverage)
n downlink only (coverage is
therefore uplink limited)
n uplink only (coverage is therefore
downlink limited)
n none (no coverage)
Worst Margin This layer displays the lowest margin on the downlink
and the uplink for the best carrier expressed in dB.
Worst Co-channel
Interfering Sector
This layer displays the name of the sector that creates
the highest level of co-carrier interference on the best
carrier.
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Carrier-Specific LTE Analysis Layers
LTE Analysis layers are grouped into common layers and carrier-specific
layers. The carrier-specific layers represent the performance of one
carrier. Table 1 details the carrier-specific layers.
Table 1: Carrier-Specific Layers
Layer Description
Best Server This layer displays the best server on the downlink. This
layer is based on the downlink reference signal power
values.
Composite Best Server This layer is the same as the best server layer, except
that for sectors with repeaters, the repeater and its
donor are treated as one combined sector.
Best Server Signal
Strength
This layer displays the best server signal strength on
the downlink at each bin. This layer is based on the
downlink PA power values.
Best Server Reference
Signal Strength
This layer displays the best server reference signal
strength at each bin.
RSRP This layer displays the best server Reference Signal
Received Power (RSRP) for the best carrier at each bin.
The layer includes both the slow fading standard
deviation and the cell edge coverage probability (as
defined in the LTE Analysis Settings dialog box).
Best Synchronization
Signal Strength
This layer displays the best synchronization signal
strength at each bin.
<Nth> Best Server This layer displays the Nth best server on the downlink.
This layer is based on the downlink reference power
values.
<Nth> Best Server
Reference Signal Strength
This layer displays the Nth best server reference signal
strength at each bin.
Synchronization Signal
C/(N+I)
This layer displays the synchronization signal C/(N+I)
at each bin.
Reference C(N+I) This layer displays the reference signal C/(N+I) at each
bin.
RSRQ This layer displays the Reference Signal Received
Quality (RSRQ) value at each bin.
Handover Status This layer displays whether the handover is possible
("Yes") or not. The status is determined using the A3
handover threshold defined on the Configuration tab in
the Site Editor.
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Layer Description
Number of Potential
Handover Sectors
This layer displays the number of sectors that have a
signal strength within the number of dB defined for the
A3 handover threshold.
Handover Sector Priority This layer displays the sector that has the strongest
signal strength (ignoring the best server) and that has a
signal strength within the number of dB defined for the
A3 Handover Threshold parameter.
Reference Coverage
Probability
This layer displays the probability of coverage for the
signal at each bin. It depends on the Reference Signal
C/(N+I), as well as on the slow fading standard
deviation value.
Reference Coverage This layer displays whether there is reference signal
coverage. It depends on the Reference Signal Coverage
probability and the cell edge coverage probability
target.
MIMO Type The layer displays the type of MIMO technique used at
each bin.
Three classes are defined:
n None
n Diversity
n MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing)
Diversity Gain This layer displays the downlink diversity gain at each
bin. It depends on the antenna systems of best server
and CPE, and on the antenna algorithm selected by the
best server.
Spatial Multiplexing Gain This layer displays the downlink spatial multiplexing
gain at each bin. It depends on the antenna systems of
best server and CPE, on the antenna algorithm selected
by the best server and on the downlink C/(N+I) level at
the bin.
Interference Coordination This layer displays the interference coordination status
at each bin:
n Inner cell
n Outer cell
Downlink C/I This layer displays the C/I ratio of the downlink traffic
data.
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Layer Description
Downlink C/(N+I) This layer displays the C/(N+I) ratio of the downlink
traffic data.
Downlink Coverage This layer displays whether there is traffic coverage on
the downlink (if at least one downlink modulation and
coding scheme is available).
Downlink Best Available
Modulation
This layer displays the best downlink modulation and
coding scheme available at the bin. It is the best
downlink modulation and coding scheme whose
coverage probability is above the cell edge coverage
probability target.
Downlink Best Available
Modulation
This layer displays the best downlink modulation and
coding scheme available at the bin, for the best carrier.
It is the best downlink modulation and coding scheme
whose coverage probability is above the cell edge
coverage probability target.
Downlink Maximum
Spectral Efficiency
This layer displays the maximum spectral efficiency
that can be achieved on the downlink. The maximum
spectral efficiency that can be achieved depends on
radio conditions. Subscribers (i.e., locations) that have
a high signal-to-interference ratio can achieve higher
spectral efficiency than subscribers/locations that have
a poor signal-to-interference ratio.
Downlink Margin This layer displays the difference between the actual
downlink C/(N+I) and the required C/(N+I) by the best
available modulation, expressed in dB. Diversity gain
and fade margins are also included.
CQI This layer displays the CQI value that corresponds with
the downlink maximum spectral efficiency value (in
useful bits/symbol) at each pixel.
Downlink Coverage
Probability
These layers display the service coverage probability
for the downlink modulation. It depends on the slow
fading standard deviation.
Downlink Probability This layer displays the service coverage probability for
the best available downlink modulation and coding
scheme. It depends on the slow fading standard
deviation.
Downlink Maximum
Achievable Data Rate
This layer displays the maximum achievable data rate
on the downlink. It depends on the best available
modulation and coding scheme. Spatial multiplexing
gains are also included.
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Layer Description
Downlink Average Data
Rate
This layer displays the average data rate on the
downlink. It depends on the coverage probability of all
downlink modulation and coding schemes.
Uplink C/I This layer displays the C/I ratio of the uplink traffic
data.
Uplink C(N+I) This layer displays the C/(N+I) ratio of the uplink traffic
data.
Uplink Coverage This layer displays whether there is traffic coverage on
the uplink (if at least one uplink modulation and coding
scheme is available).
Uplink Best Available
Modulation
This layer displays the best uplink modulation and
coding scheme available at the bin. It is the best uplink
modulation and coding scheme whose coverage
probability is above the cell edge coverage probability
target.
Uplink Maximum Spectral
Efficiency
This layer displays the maximum spectral efficiency
that can be achieved on the uplink. The maximum
spectral efficiency that can be achieved depends on
radio conditions. Subscribers (i.e., locations) that have
a high signal-to-interference ratio can achieve higher
spectral efficiency than subscribers/locations that have
a poor signal-to-interference ratio.
Uplink Margin This layer displays the difference between the actual
uplink C/(N+I) and the required C/(N+I) by the best
available modulation, expressed in dB. Diversity gain
and fade margins are also included.
Uplink Coverage
Probability
These layers display the service coverage probability
for the uplink modulation. It depends on the slow fading
standard deviation.
Uplink Probability This layer displays the service coverage probability for
the best available uplink modulation and coding
scheme. It depends on the slow fading standard
deviation.
Uplink Maximum Data Rate This layer displays the maximum achievable data rate
on the uplink. It depends on the best available uplink
modulation and coding scheme. Spatial multiplexing
gains are also included.
Uplink Average Data Rate This layer displays the average data rate in the uplink.
It depends on the coverage probability of all uplink
modulation and coding schemes.
Uplink Transmit Power This layer displays the required transmit power on the
uplink at each bin.
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Layer Description
Composite Coverage This layer displays the coverage status.
Four classes are defined:
n both downlink and uplink (i.e., there
is coverage)
n downlink only (coverage is therefore
uplink limited)
n uplink only (coverage is therefore
downlink limited)
n none (no coverage)
Worst Margin This layer displays the lowest margin on the downlink
and the uplink expressed in dB.
Worst Co-Channel
Interfering Sector
This layer displays the name of the sector that creates
the highest level of co-carrier interference.
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Defining default analysis settings
If you want to use the same settings for a number of analyses, you can define
default settings. When you create a newanalysis, these defaults are
automatically used.
To define default analysis settings
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Network Analyses category,
right-click WiMAXLTE Analyses and choose Default Analyses
Settings.
The WiMAXLTE Analysis Settings dialog box opens.
2 Define the default settings that you want to use, and click OK.
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Creating and generating a network analysis
When you create a newanalysis, it is displayed in the Project Explorer in the
Network Analyses category under the WiMAXLTE Analyses node. You can
create any number of analyses for a project.
When you finish creating a network analysis, you can generate it immediately
or save the analysis settings without generating it.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To create and generate a network analysis
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Network Analyses category,
right-click WiMAXLTE Analyses and choose New.
The Network Analysis Wizard opens.
2 On each page of the Wizard, provide the required information
and click Next.
3 On the Systempage, provide the required information and click
Next.
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4 On the Analysis page, provide the required information, and click
Next.
5 On the last page of the Wizard, complete the final step and click
Finish.
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Network Analysis Wizard
The Network Analysis Wizard steps you through the process of generating a
network analysis (i.e., a nominal analysis). A nominal analysis enables you to
perform a preliminary analysis of your network and is quicker than a Monte
Carlo simulation because it does not use multiple runs to distribute
subscribers. Instead, this analysis method uses traffic power and noise rise
values to determine coverage and transmitted signal strengths.
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Best Server
Signal Strength Thresholdtype in this box the signal strength above which
a server can be considered the best server.
Nth Best Serverchoose from this list the number of the Nth Best Server for
which to generate a grid. For example, if you want to produce grids of the
fourth best server at all locations, choose 4.
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Best Server Selection Based On
Reference Signal Strengthchoose this option if you want the simulation to
select the best server according to the reference signal strength.
RSRQchoose this option if you want the simulation to select the best server
according to the reference signal receive quality.
Number Of Handover Candidateschoose from this list the number of
handover candidates to consider in the network analysis.
Interference Coordination Schedulingchoose from this list the type of
scheduler to use in order to efficiently coordinate interference. This box is not
available if the selected frequency band does not support interference
coordination. The following options are available:
n Basicoptimizes resource allocations through minimal
interaction between eNodeBs.
n Advancedoptimizes resource allocations through fast and
comprehensive communication between eNodeBs. As a result,
the Advanced scheduler reduces more efficiently the amount of
downlink interference.
Reference Signal Receive Quality (RSRQ)type in this box the reference
signal strength receive quality threshold used to determine the reference
signal coverage.
Mobile Speed (km/h)choose from this list the mobile speed for which you
want to create an analysis. The mobile speeds that are listed are those you
defined in the network settings.
Probability of Collision Curvedisplays the name of the mapping curve to
use for the probability of collision.
Browseclick this button to open a .cls file.
Editclick this button to open the Curve Editor.
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Number of Uplink Resource Blocks per User
All Available Resource Blockschoose this option to specify that all
resource blocks are used by each subscriber on the uplink.
User-Defined Number of Resource Blockschoose this option to specify
the number of resource blocks used by each subscriber on the uplink. If you
input a number that is greater than the total number of resource blocks, the
analysis will automatically use all resource blocks.
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Uplink Power Control
Fullchoose this option to use full power control on the uplink.
Fractional P0choose this option to use uplink fractional power control. You
must specify a power control value in dBm and define a pathloss compensation
factor. When you choose this option, the transmitted power used for the
mobile equipment is impacted and, hence, so is the uplink CNIR value.
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Other System Interference
Interference Griddisplays the interference grid that will be used during
the analysis. If you use an interference grid, the downlink other system
interference value defined in the LTE sector settings will be ignored by the
analysis. At each bin, the value will be replaced by the value provided in the
grid.
Browseclick this button to open a .grd file containing interference
values to use in place of the sector-based downlink interference values.
Remove click this button if you do not want to use an interference
grid.
Center Frequency (MHz)type in this box the center frequency of the
interference source.
Bandwidth (MHz)type in this box the bandwidth of the interfering signal.
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Network Analysis Wizard
The Network Analysis Wizard steps you through the process of generating a
network analysis (i.e., a nominal analysis). A nominal analysis enables you to
perform a preliminary analysis of your network and is quicker than a Monte
Carlo simulation because it does not use multiple runs to distribute
subscribers. Instead, this analysis method uses traffic power and noise rise
values to determine coverage and transmitted signal strengths.
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System
Frequency Bandchoose from this list the frequency band of the network
you want to analyze. You define frequency bands in the Network Settings.
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Subscriber
Equipment Typechoose from this list the equipment type for which you
want to generate an analysis. The equipment type is defined in the Subscriber
Settings.
Environmentchoose from this list the environment for which you want to
generate an analysis. You define environment settings (e.g., slowfading
standard deviation, penetration loss, fast fading margin, etc.) in the
Environment Editor.
Cell Edge Coverage Probabilitytype in this box the target probability of
coverage at the cell edge when determining the quality of service.
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Generating an existing analysis
You can generate an analysis after it has been created in the wizard. You can
generate an existing analysis as many times as required. If you edit a sector
in the Site Editor, your sector updates are used in subsequent analysis runs.
To generate an existing analysis
n In the Project Explorer, in the Network Analyses category,
right-click the analysis node for which you want to generate
analysis layers and choose Generate.
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Viewing analysis layers
Once you have generated your analysis, you can viewthe analysis layers that
it contains.
To view analysis layers
1 In the Project Explorer, choose the Network Analyses
category.
2 Right-click an analysis layer under the WiMAXLTE Analysis node
and choose View.
The analysis layer is displayed in the Map window.
TIP: To remove an analysis layer from the Map window, in the Project
Explorer, in the Network Analyses category, under the WiMAXLTEAnalysis
node, right-click an analysis layer, and choose Remove.
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Generating multiple analyses
You can use the Analysis Generator to select multiple analyses to generate
sequentially. Using this method you can, for example, select a series of
analyses to generate overnight.
You can update sector information that impacts a selected analysis, however
the analysis only uses the updated information if it has not yet started to
generate.
To generate multiple analyses
1 Choose Tools Analysis Generator.
2 In the Analysis Generator, specify which analyses you want to
generate and click Start.
Analyses are generated in the order displayed in the Analysis
Generator. Sector information for each analysis listed is collected when
the analysis starts. If you change sector parameters and the analysis
has not yet started, changes will be included in the results.
TIP: To reorder entries in the Analysis Generator, click the column title.
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Deleting analyses
Files generated from a network analysis can take up a lot of hard disk space.
You can delete analyses that are no longer required.
To delete analyses
1 In the Project Explorer, in the NetworkAnalyses category, do
any of the following:
n Choose one or more analyses, right-click and choose Delete.
n Expand an analysis node, choose one or more analysis layers,
right-click and choose Delete.
2 In the Mentum Planet dialog box, click Yes.
The analyses or analysis layers you chose are removed from the Project
Explorer and the files are deleted from the project folder.
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Recoloring best serving sector layers
The Best Serving Sector Recolor tool enables you to change the color scheme
used to display best serving sector analysis layers (classified grid files).
You can use the colors defined in a sector display scheme or choose from the
default color schemes used to display best serving sector analysis layers.
Sector display schemes enable you to display analysis layers based on sector
properties, such as the downlink load. When you use a sector display scheme
with the Best Serving Sector Recolor tool, only the colors that have been
defined for the scheme are used; other sector display scheme settings, such
as symbol and size, are ignored.
For information about defining sector display schemes, see Customizing
sector symbols for multiple sites in Working With Sites and Sectors, in the
Mentum Planet User Guide.
To recolor best serving sector layers
1 Choose Tools Best Serving Sector Recolor.
The Best Serving Sector Recolor dialog box opens.
2 Click Browse, navigate to the <technology>_Analyses folder
with the project folder, choose the best serving sector layer (.grc)
file that you want to recolor, and click Open.
3 In the Apply Scheme section, choose a color scheme and click
Apply.
The best serving sector layers are displayed in the Map windowusing
the newcolor scheme.
NOTE: You can modify an existing sector display scheme from within in the
Best Serving Sector Recolor dialog box by right-clicking a scheme and
choosing Edit.
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Examining layer statistics
You can calculate statistics on the individual analysis layers that you have
generated, including preamble plan analysis layers. You can calculate statistics
based on the entire numeric grid (.grd) file, an area grid, or a selection in the
Map window. You can further customize the statistics based on a clutter grid
file, traffic map, or a user-defined filter.
After you calculate statistics, you can export statistics to Excel or to .csv files.
In Excel, you can display statistics in a myriad of different ways as shown in
Figure8.1.
Figure 8.1 Example of layer statistics displayed in Excel.
For information on howto generate layer statistics, see To calculate layer
statistics.
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Chapter 12 Generating Monte Carlo Simulations
A Monte Carlo simulation generates information about sectors, channels,
and subscribers in your network. Using the information gathered through
a Monte Carlo analysis, you can establish cell loads and determine the
operating points of the base stations. This chapter describes howto
generate a Monte Carlo simulation and viewresults.
Because of the detail in Monte Carlo simulations, they can take some
time to generate. For quicker, but less detailed, analyses you can
generate a WiMAXLTE analysis. See Chapter 8: Generating Analyses.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding Monte Carlo simulations 329
Defining the number of Monte Carlo runs 333
Understanding Monte Carlo simulation layers 337
Workflow for generating a Monte Carlo simulation 341
Defining default Monte Carlo simulation settings 342
Creating and generating a Monte Carlo simulation 343
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 347
System 348
Subscriber Types 349
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 350
Analysis 351
Best Server Selection Based On 352
Uplink Power Control 353
Other System Interference 354
Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard 355
Monte Carlo 356
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Generating an existing Monte Carlo simulation 358
Viewing simulation layers 359
Updating analysis cell loads with Monte Carlo results 360
Examining layer statistics 361
Layer Statistics Analysis 367
Analysis Settings 368
Layer Statistics Analysis 374
Layers 375
Layer Information 376
Classification Settings 377
Creating reports 379
Deleting simulation layers 382
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Understanding Monte Carlo simulations
A Monte Carlo simulation uses Monte Carlo simulation techniques to
determine the characteristics of your network over repeated runs.
A run consists of the distribution of random numbers of subscribers
throughout the analysis area in a random pattern, and an analysis of the
uplink and downlink. On the last run, operating points and discrete
subscriber information are generated. Once the runs are complete, you
can viewsimulation layers and, if required, use the cell load information
for further analysis.
Statistically, individual runs are of little value. However, over many
Monte Carlo runs, the average result provides a realistic representation
of network performance. The results are averaged to create the
operating points that are used when you generate simulation layers.
The following sections describe the phases of a Monte Carlo run and
explain the methods for determining howmany runs are required.
The phases of a Monte Carlo simulation
There are four general phases in a Monte Carlo simulation. They involve:
n placing subscribers in a random pattern
n sorting subscribers based on their assigned priorities
n analyzing the downlink and the uplink
n generating operating points and subscriber information
Once convergence is reached, if there are any remaining network
resources available and you choose to use a Scheduler, the Scheduler
will allocate them based on subscriber priorities.
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Placing subscribers in a random pattern
Each run begins with the placement of subscribers in a random pattern
throughout the simulation area. This pattern is created using input values from
the channels defined for the band and the subscribers defined in the
Subscriber Editor. The random distribution pattern corresponds to the traffic
map, and is an efficient method for establishing transmission patterns when
the exact location of each subscriber cannot be established.
Sorting subscribers by priority
On each run, subscribers are served based on their assigned priorities. The
highest priority in each case is 1 while the lowest priority is 100. For each
subscriber type, you define the following priorities:
n a subscriber type prioritydefined on the Configuration tab for
each subscriber type.
n a service prioritydefined on the Load tab for each subscriber
service
n a Quality of Service prioritydefined on the Quality of Service
tab and organized around QoS classes
Analyzing the downlink and uplink
The goal of the uplink and downlink analysis phase is to determine the
subscribers who can be served, taking into account the impact of each served
subscriber on the network.
The analysis begins by considering the subscribers in the simulation, then the
serving sectors for each subscriber.
The downlink analysis
n determines whether the preamble signal strength and
preamble C/(N+I) are above the targets
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n allocates a downlink permutation zone to the subscriber
n analyzes whether the MAP C/(N+I) signal is above the
target
n calculates the received signal-to-noise ratio C/(N+I) and
checks that the required coverage probability is achieved
n checks that the user limit, downlink load and throughput
limit are not exceeded
n determines whether the preamble signal strength and
preamble C/(N+I) are above the targets
n allocates a downlink permutation zone to the subscriber
n analyzes whether the MAP C/(N+I) signal is above the
target
n calculates the received signal-to-noise ratio C/(N+I) and
checks that the required coverage probability is achieved
n checks that the user limit, downlink load and throughput
limit are not exceeded
The uplink analysis
n determines the best uplink server that is also the best
downlink server
n determines the best uplink server that is also the best
downlink server
n allocates an uplink permutation zone to the subscriber
n calculates the received signal-to-noise ratio C/(N+I) and
checks that the required coverage probability is achieved
n calculates the noise rise and checks that the limit is not
exceeded on all sectors
n checks that the cell radius and uplink load are not
exceeded
The simulation also checks the quality thresholds defined for each sector.
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Generating operating points and subscriber information
On the last run, operating points and subscriber information are generated.
Operating points provide detailed information about each sector, channel, and
subscriber type in the simulation. The operating points are averaged and
stored. You can examine detailed operating point data by viewing the
generated layers.
Subscriber information provides details on the coverage status of subscribers
(also known as discrete subscribers). Snapshots of each subscribers status
are compiled on each run of the simulation. When the simulation is complete,
you can viewthe subscriber spreading layer as well as the service status of
each subscriber. You can also viewreports on the statistics collected. See
Creating reports.
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Defining the number of Monte Carlo runs
Before you generate a Monte Carlo simulation, you must define the
convergence criteria that determines when the simulation stops. If you
generate too fewruns, the results will not accurately reflect the
distribution of subscribers within the network. If you generate too many
runs, the processing time can be high unnecessarily. In order to avoid
either of these extremes, you define the level of convergence, which
considers the number of subscribers blocked during a single run. If this
number is stable over several runs, the simulation ends.
Convergence method
The distribution of subscribers is affected by the traffic density. When
there is greater traffic density, fewer runs are required.
Using this approach, the runs continue until the level of convergence
target is reached. After each run, the tool calculates the level of
convergence value (see Level of Convergence calculation). When the
level of convergence is within the specified range (e.g., by default, within
5%of the target values), the simulation ends.
To achieve results that are statistically valid, you must determine an
appropriate level of convergence. If you specify a lowvalue (for
example, 1%), more runs will be required for the solution to converge. A
lowlevel of convergence generally requires a higher resolution digital
terrain model (DTM) to ensure accurate results. If the DTMhas a low
resolution, small variations in the interference calculations between runs
might cause significant differences in the coverage area for a particular
site.
The required level of convergence option requires a minimum of five
runs to complete.
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Level of Convergence calculation
The following calculations are used to determine the level of convergence
during a run.
First, the number of blocked users is calculated using Equation 9.1.
Equation 9.1 Mean number of blocked users
Where:
is the mean number of blocked users for a particular run
is the number of simulation runs
The divergence of consecutive values is continually calculated using the mean
value. For example:
Equation 9.2 Divergence of consecutive values
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The value from Equation 9.1 and the divergence value from Equation
9.2 are then used to determine the level of convergence value, as shown
in Equation 9.3.
Equation 9.3 Level of convergence calculation
If the analysis does not achieve what you consider to be an accurate
model of the network using the number of runs that you specified, you
can generate additional runs. See Generating additional runs for a
WiMAX Monte Carlo simulation .
Factors affecting the required number of runs
The number of runs required to achieve a given level of accuracy can
vary dramatically based on several factors including:
n the number of bins in the simulation, which is directly
proportional to the simulation area and resolution. The
number of bins in the simulation has an impact as it will
provide the number of potential points for subscribers.
The more potential points for subscribers, the greater the
likelihood of variation.
n the number of subscribers to be spread. This, coupled
with the type of subscriber (for example, high data rate
subscribers) and the traffic map, has potentially the
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greatest impact on the number of runs required. If you spread
very fewsubscribers over a large area, then you need many
runs to get a good statistical representation. If these
subscribers are spread in a limited area, then fewer runs are
likely required.
n the impact of each individual subscriber on the simulation.
Higher data rate subscribers create a bigger load and have a
bigger impact in all respects.
n the potential variation in the locations of the subscribers in the
simulation according to the assigned traffic maps. A flat traffic
map will likely require more runs than a map where all of the
subscribers are concentrated.
n the number of sectors in the simulation. A greater number of
servers, coupled with the potential for overlapping coverage
areas, and gaps in coverage, results in a higher potential for
different sectors providing service, and more runs being
required.
In general, the greater potential variability then the greater the number of
runs required to ensure a reasonable level of accuracy. It is often useful to do
a single run first, especially for large simulation areas. A single run can identify
obvious errors quickly, for example, incorrect PA power settings for a sector.
TIP: To help determine whether additional runs are required, you can view
the subscriber spreading layer and use the Grid Info tool to see howmany
subscribers are spread across a bin. You can also viewthe service status layer
to see the served status of a subscriber.
You can also examine pre-defined reports to viewthe operating points. For
more information on reports, see Creating reports.
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Understanding Monte Carlo simulation layers
Two types of layers are generated after the final Monte Carlo run:
n the subscriber spreading layerdisplays howmany
subscribers are spread across a bin. This is the average
value over all runs.
n the service status layer (for each subscriber type)
displays the served status of each subscriber using the
colors shown in Table1
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Table 1 Subscriber status color map
Color Subscriber Status Displays When..
Served subscribers All simulation conditions are
met.
Blocked (preamble
coverage)
The sectors' signal strength is
belowthe signal strength
threshold defined in the
WiMAX analysis settings or
when there are no
permutation zones (as
defined in the network
settings) available.
Blocked (MAP
coverage)
There is no MAP coverage,
based on the required MAP
C/(N+I) threshold defined in
the WiMAX analysis settings.
Blocked (number of
users)
The number of subscribers
served by a given sector is
greater than the maximum
number of subscribers
defined in the Site Editor.
Blocked (downlink
power)
There are no downlink
modulation coding schemes
that can be achieved.
Blocked (uplink
power)
There are no uplink
modulation coding schemes
that can be achieved.
Blocked (downlink
resources)
There are no downlink
resources (i.e., subchannels)
left to serve a particular
subscriber.
Blocked (uplink
resources)
There are no uplink resources
(i.e., subchannels) left to
serve a given subscriber.
Blocked (uplink noise
rise)
The uplink noise rise for any
sector is greater than the
sector maximum uplink noise
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Color Subscriber Status Displays When..
rise value as defined in the
Site Editor when serving a
given subscriber.
Blocked (maximum
pooled throughput)
Serving a given subscriber
leads to a site pooled
throughput that is greater
than the maximum pooled
throughput value defined in
the Site Editor.
Blocked (coverage
distance limit)
The subscriber is outside the
limit best server coverage
value defined in the Site
Editor.
Color Subscriber Status Displays When..
Served subscribers All simulation conditions are
met.
Blocked (preamble
coverage)
The sectors' signal strength is
belowthe signal strength
threshold defined in the
WiMAX analysis settings or
when there are no
permutation zones (as
defined in the network
settings) available.
Blocked (MAP
coverage)
There is no MAP coverage,
based on the required MAP
C/(N+I) threshold defined in
the WiMAX analysis settings.
Blocked (number of
users)
The number of subscribers
served by a given sector is
greater than the maximum
number of subscribers
defined in the Site Editor.
Blocked (downlink
power)
There are no downlink
modulation coding schemes
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Color Subscriber Status Displays When..
that can be achieved.
Blocked (uplink
power)
There are no uplink
modulation coding schemes
that can be achieved.
Blocked (downlink
resources)
There are no downlink
resources (i.e., subchannels)
left to serve a particular
subscriber.
Blocked (uplink
resources)
There are no uplink resources
(i.e., subchannels) left to
serve a given subscriber.
Blocked (uplink noise
rise)
The uplink noise rise for any
sector is greater than the
sector maximum uplink noise
rise value as defined in the
Site Editor when serving a
given subscriber.
Blocked (maximum
pooled throughput)
Serving a given subscriber
leads to a site pooled
throughput that is greater
than the maximum pooled
throughput value defined in
the Site Editor.
Blocked (coverage
distance limit)
The subscriber is outside the
limit best server coverage
value defined in the Site
Editor.
The subscriber spreading layer and the service status layer are saved in the
<technology>MC_Simulations folder of your project. To ensure that these
layers are always generated during a Monte Carlo simulation, enable the
Generate Layers for 4GMonte Carlo Simulations check box on the
Miscellaneous panel in the User Preferences dialog box.
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Workflow for generating a Monte Carlo
simulation
Step 1 Ensure that you have defined a traffic map for the subscriber
types that covers the same area as your Monte Carlo
simulation.
Step 2 If you want to use the same settings for a number of
simulations, define default simulations settings.
Step 3 Create and generate a newMonte Carlo simulation.
Step 4 Viewsimulation layers.
Step 5 If required, generate additional runs.
Step 6 Generate statistical reports for simulation layers.
Step 7 Create reports for discrete subscriber information and
operating points.
Step 8 Optionally, generate a network analysis.
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Defining default Monte Carlo simulation settings
If you want to use the same settings for a number of Monte Carlo simulations,
you can define default settings. When you create a newsimulation, these
defaults are automatically used.
To define default Monte Carlo simulation settings
In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulations category, right-
click WiMAXLTE Simulations and choose Default Simulation Settings.
The Monte Carlo Simulation dialog box opens.
1 Define the default settings that you want to use, and click OK.
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Creating and generating a Monte Carlo
simulation
When you create a newsimulation, it is displayed in the Project Explorer
in the Monte Carlo Simulations category under the <Technology>
Simulations node. You can create any number of simulations for a
project. When you finish creating a Monte Carlo simulation, you can
generate it immediately or save the simulation settings without
generating it.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To create and generate a new Monte Carlo simulation
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulations
category, right-click WiMAXLTEFDDWCDMA Simulations
and choose New.
The Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard opens.
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2 On the System page, provide the following information and click
Next.
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3 On the Analysis page, provide the following information and
click Next.
4 On the Monte Carlo page, provide the following information
and click Next.
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5 On the last page of the Wizard, complete the final step and click
Finish.
A newsimulation node is created in the Project Explorer.
TIP: To viewthe settings of a simulation, in the Project Explorer, in the Monte
Carlo Simulations category, right-click the simulation and choose View
Settings.
TIP: To viewwhich sectors are part of a simulation, in the Project Explorer, in
the Monte Carlo Simulations category, right-click the simulation and choose
ViewSelected Sectors.
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Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard
A Monte Carlo simulation takes all subscriber parameters into account
when generating simulation layers. To do this, at each Monte Carlo run,
Mentum Planet:
n Creates a random pattern of subscribers. The simulation
places the subscribers at random locations using the
traffic map densities, and determines the subscriber
types from the definitions in the Subscriber Editor.
n Generates downlink and uplink analyses. This uses the
random subscriber pattern to determine the number of
subscribers that can be served, while taking into account
the impact of each served subscriber on the network.
n On the last run of the simulation, the simulation tool also
generates two additional types of data:
n Operating points These are the results of the sim-
ulation divided by sector, carrier, and subscriber
type. Mentum Planet averages these and uses
them to create reports.
n Discrete subscriber informationMentum Planet
compiles snapshots of each subscribers status on
each run of the simulation. When the simulation fin-
ishes, the coverage status of each subscriber is
stored in a MapInfo table (*.tab).
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System
Frequency Bandchoose from this list the frequency band you want to
simulate. You define frequency bands in the Network Settings.
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Subscriber Types
Use this section to specify the subscriber criteria to focus on when
generating the simulation. Enable the check boxes next to those
subscriber types you want to include in the simulation.
Subscriber Typedisplays the name of the subscriber type. The
subscriber type is defined in the Subscriber Editor.
CPE Typedisplays the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) type
associated with the subscriber.
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Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard
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Analysis
Signal Strength Thresholdtype in this box the signal strength above
which a server can be considered the best server.
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Chapter 12
Best Server Selection Based On
Use this section to specify howthe simulation determines the best server of
each subscriber.
Reference Signal Strengthchoose this option if you want the simulation to
select the best server of each subscriber according to the reference signal
strength.
RSRQchoose this option if you want the simulation to select the best server
according to the reference signal receive quality.
Interference Coordination Schedulingchoose from this list the type of
scheduler to use in order to efficiently coordinate interference. This box is not
available if the selected frequency band does not support interference
coordination. The following options are available:
l Basicoptimizes resource allocations through minimal interaction between
eNodeBs.
l Advancedoptimizes resource allocations through fast and comprehensive
communication between eNodeBs. As a result, the Advanced scheduler
reduces more efficiently the amount of downlink interference.
Reference Signal Receive Quality (RSRQ)type in this box the reference
signal receive quality threshold used to determine the reference signal
coverage.
Probability of Collision Curvedisplays the name of the mapping curve to
use for the probability of collision.
Browseclick this button to open a .cls file.
Editclick this button to open the Curve Editor.
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Uplink Power Control
Fullchoose this option to use full power control on the uplink.
Fractional P0choose this option to use uplink fractional power control.
You must specify a power control value in dBm and define a pathloss
compensation factor. When you choose this option, the transmitted
power used for the mobile equipment is impacted and, hence, so is the
uplink CNIR value.
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Other System Interference
Use Interference Gridenable this check box to specify an interference grid
to use during the analysis. If you use an interference grid, the downlink other
system interference value defined in the LTE sector settings will be ignored by
the analysis. At each bin, the value will be replaced by the value provided in
the grid.
Browseclick this button to open a .grd file containing interference
values to use in place of the sector-based downlink interference values.
Removeclick this button if you do not want to use an interference
grid.
Center Frequencyclick in this box to define the center frequency of the
interference source.
Bandwidthclick in this box to define the bandwidth of the interference
signal.
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Monte Carlo Simulation Wizard
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Monte Carlo
Minimum Number of Runstype in this box to define the minimum number
of runs in the Monte-Carlo simulation.
Maximum Number of Runstype in this box to define the maximum
number of runs in the Monte-Carlo simulation.
Required Level of Convergencetype in this box to define the required
level of convergence in order to end the Monte-Carlo simulation.
Schedulerchoose from this list the type of Scheduler you want to use. The
following options are available:
Noneresources that remain once subscribers have been served with
their minimum data rate are not allocated.
Priorityresources that remain once subscribers have been served
with their minimum data rate are allocated to subscribers based on the
priority defined in the subscriber settings.
Proportional Fairresources that remain once subscribers have been
served at their minimum data rates are allocated equally to all
subscribers such that subscribers in better conditions have better data
rates.
Proportional Demandresources that remain once subscribers have
been served at their minimum data rates are allocated to served
subscribers. Subscribers with lowdata rates are given more resources.
Maximum Capacityresources that remain once subscribers have
been served at their minimum data rates are allocated to served
subscribers. Subscribers with high data rates are given more resources.
User-Definedresources that remain once subscribers have been
served at their minimum data rates are allocated to served subscribers
according to the following weight:
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The larger the weight, the more resources are assigned to the
subscriber. Use the User-Defined Scheduler when you require a
compromise between fairness (as in the proportional demand scheduler)
and capacity (as in the maximum capacity scheduler).
Automatically Update Cell Loadsenable this check box to update
cell load values automatically at the end of the simulation.
Display Subscribers at Each Runenable this check box to display the
subscriber status in the Map windowon each simulation run.
Display Convergence Graphenable this check box to display a graph
illustrating the convergence process.
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Generating an existing Monte Carlo simulation
You can generate a simulation after it has been created in the wizard and can
generate an existing simulation as many times as required. After viewing the
simulation report and discrete subscriber information, you may determine
that additional runs are required to achieve greater accuracy. The additional
simulation runs are based on the operating points obtained from the existing
simulation. The newresults are generated using the statistics collected from
all simulation runs.
NOTE: If you edit a sector in the Site Editor, your updates are used in
subsequent simulation runs.
To generate an existing simulation
n In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulations
category, right-click the simulation node for which you want to
generate layers and choose Generate.
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Viewing simulation layers
Once you have generated a simulation, you can viewthe simulation
layers that it contains.
To view simulation layers
1 In the Project Explorer, choose the Monte Carlo
Simulations category.
2 Right-click a simulation layer under the WiMAXLTEFDD
Simulations node and choose View.
The simulation layer is displayed in the Map window.
NOTE: If you rename a simulation in the Project Explorer, any layers
currently open or displayed in the Map windowwill be closed.
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Updating analysis cell loads with Monte Carlo
results
Once you have generated a Monte Carlo simulation, you have the option of
using the results of the simulation to update the target values for the uplink
noise rise and downlink for each sector. These values are used in network
analyses.
To update analysis cell loads
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulation
category, right-click a Monte Carlo simulation and do one of the
following:
n To Update The Target Values For All Sectors In The
Chosen Group, Choose Apply Cell Loads.
n To update the target values for selected sectors within the
group, choose Apply Cell Loads to Selected Sectors,
specify the sectors to which you want to apply changes, and
click OK.
2 In the confirmation dialog box, click OK.
The values displayed in the Channels table on the Configuration tab are
updated. This includes the Downlink Loading (%), the Uplink Loading
(%), the Uplink Noise Rise (%), the Segment Zone Usage (dB), and the
AAS Usage (%).
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Examining layer statistics
You can calculate statistics on the individual analysis layers that you have
generated, including preamble plan analysis layers. You can calculate
statistics based on the entire numeric grid (.grd) file, an area grid, or a
selection in the Map window. You can further customize the statistics
based on a clutter grid file, traffic map, or a user-defined filter.
To evaluate howusing different types of antenna systems impacts
network performance:
n Create layer statistics for the Downlink Maximum
Achievable Data Rate layer.
n In the Layer Statistics Analysis dialog box, use the best
server classified grid to calculate statistics.
n In the Report Preview, filter on a given range and choose
the Percentage Sub Area column.
n Click the Generate Sector Display Scheme button and
define a sector display scheme to apply to the map.
After you calculate statistics, you can export statistics to Excel or to .csv
files. In Excel, you can display statistics in a myriad of different ways as
shown the figure.
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Figure 9.1 Example of graph displays in Excel.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To calculate layer statistics
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Network Analyses category,
choose the simulation layers that you want to add to the report,
right-click and choose Statistics.
2 To manually add additional simulation layers to the list, click Add
Layer, navigate to the file that you want to add, and click Open.
3 In the tree view, choose Analysis Settings.
4 On the Analysis Settings panel, define the analysis area.
5 Do any of the following:
n To remove bins with null values from the analysis layer
calculations, enable the Exclude Null Values check box.
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n To generate additional statistics, broken down by a
classification, enable the Use Classified Grid check box,
click Browse to navigate to the file, choose the file and
click OK.
Any classified grid can be used to perform different kinds
of statistical analysis. For example, to produce a
statistical breakdown for each sector, use a best server
layer as the classification grid. This breaks the statistics
down by best server area.
n To generate traffic statistics, enable the Use Traffic Map
check box and choose a traffic map from the Traffic
Map list.
n To generate additional statistics, broken down by a
classification, enable the Use Classified Grid check box,
click Browse to navigate to the file, choose the file and
click OK.
Any classified grid can be used to perform different kinds
of statistical analysis. For example, to produce a
statistical breakdown for each sector, use a best server
layer as the classification grid. This breaks the statistics
down by best server area.
n To generate traffic statistics, enable the Use Traffic Map
check box and choose a traffic map from the Traffic
Map list.
n To generate additional statistics, broken down by a
numeric classification, enable the Use Numeric Grid
check box, click Browse to navigate to the file, choose
the file and click OK.
6 To filter the analysis area based on a grid file, enable the
Apply Area Filter check box.
The area filter is applied globally to all layers.
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7 If you want to define individual area filters for each layer, enable
the Set Area Filter By Layer check box.
8 If you are applying area filters globally to all layers, do the
following:
n To define the area raster, click Browse, navigate to the grid
file, and click OK.
n To define the condition for the filter, type an expression in the
Condition box. For example, choosing the SignalStrength.grd
file and defining the expression would only consider pixels
within the analysis area that have a signal strength greater
than 100.
9 To discard statistical results that only contain zero values, enable
the Discard Result That Only Contains Zero Statistics check
box.
With this check box enabled, records where all columns contain zero
values will be removed from the statistical report.
10 In the tree view, expand the Layers node and choose the analysis
layer for which you want to obtain statistics.
11 If you want to define classification settings for the analysis layer,
define any of the available settings in the Classifications
Settings section.
12 If you want to define area filters for individual layers and have
enabled the Set Area Filter By Layer check box on the Analysis
Settings panel, click the Area Filters button.
Area filter settings are saved in LayerStatistics.set file located in the
Settings/Layer Statistics folders within the project folder.
13 Click Calculate Statistics.
The Report Previewdialog box opens
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14 Change the Report Previewdisplay as required using the
available toolbar buttons
15 To viewstatistics on column data, choose one or more data
columns and click the Generate Statistics button.
The Generate Statistics dialog box opens where you can viewthe
mean value, the minimum value, the maximum value, the median
value, the root mean square, and the standard deviation for each
column.
16 If the report statistics include the site and sector data, you
can create a sector display scheme to apply to report data by
doing the following:
n Choose the column of data for which you want to create a
sector display scheme.
n Click the Generate Sector Display Scheme button.
17 Define the sector display scheme name and ,in the Sector
Display Scheme dialog box, define the parameters upon
which you want the scheme to be based.
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18 To viewthe layer statistics upon which the scheme is based, click
the Data button.
19 Reviewthe data and click Close.
20 In the Sector Display Scheme dialog box, save or apply the
sector display scheme as required.
21 If the report includes site and sector data, you can display labels in
the Map windowbased on a selected data column by doing the
following:
n Choose the column of data that you want to use as the basis for
the site labels.
n Click the Generate Labels button.
22 To export the data to Excel, in the Report Previewdialog box,
click the Export Data To A File button and define export settings
as required.
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Layer Statistics Analysis
Use the Layer Statistics dialog box to define and calculate statistics for
the chosen layers in an analysis.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all
available parameters, see the online Help.
Add Layerclick this button to add a layer to the Layers node in the tree
view. Layer statistics are only calculated for the layers in the Layers node
when you click the Calculate Statistics button.
Remove Layerclick this button to remove a chosen layer from the
Layers node in the tree view. Layer statistics are not calculated for layers
that you remove from the Layer node. Removing a layer does not delete
it from an analysis in the Project Explorer.
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Analysis Settings
Use this section to define the geographic region used to calculate layer
statistics.
Analysis Areachoose from this list an area to define the geographic region
used to calculate layer statistics.
n Current Windowchoose this option to use the area
displayed in the current Map windowto calculate layer
statistics.
n Entire Layerchoose this option to use the area of the chosen
analysis layer or layers to generate layer statistics.
n Selected Rectanglechoose this option to use the area
enclosed by a chosen rectangle to generate layer statistics. Use
the MapInfo rectangle drawing tool to drawa rectangle on the
Cosmetic layer, then choose the rectangle with the MapInfo
Selection tool before generate statistics.
Exclude Null Valuesenable this check box to remove bins with null values
from the analysis layer calculations and exclude them from the statistical
report.
Use Classified Gridenable this check box to choose a classified grid (.grc)
file for which to calculate statistics.
The following columns are calculated:
n Percentage Sub Areadisplays the percentage of the sub
area covered by the clutter class.
n Percentage Total Areadisplays the total area covered by
the clutter class.
Classified Gridthis field displays the name of the .grc file chosen for layer
statistic calculation.
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Browseclick this button to locate a .grc file for which to calculate layer
statistics. This button is only available when the Use Classified Grid check
box is enabled.
Use Traffic Mapenable this check box to choose a traffic map for
which to calculate traffic statistics, which includes total traffic counts of
each category.
Traffic Mapchoose from this list a traffic map to use for calculating
traffic statistics. This list is only available when the Use Traffic Map check
box is enabled.
Typethis box displays the measurement units used by the traffic map
chosen from the Traffic Map list.
Use Numeric Gridenable this check box to choose a numeric grid
(.grd) file for which to calculate statistics. Statistics are calculated only
for bins defined in the analysis area. "Null" bins are excluded if the
Discard Results That Only Contain Zero Values check box is enabled.
The following columns are calculated:
n Percentage Sub Areashows the percentage of the area covered by
the clutter class.
n Percentage Total Areashows the total area covered by the clutter
class.
n Numeric Grid Sumshows the sum of numeric grid values. For
example, if the numeric grid selected is a traffic map and the grid used
as input is a best server grid, then for each sector this column shows the
amount of traffic served.
n Numeric Grid Meanshows the mean of the numeric grid values. For
example, if the numeric grid selected is an "average data rate" grid, and
the grid used as input is a best server grid, then for each sector this
column shows the average data rate over the best serving area of each
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sector.
n Numeric Grid Minimumshows the minimum numeric grid value. For
example, if the numeric grid selected is a traffic map, and the grid used as
input is a best server grid, then for each sector this column would showthe
minimum amount of traffic found in the best serving area of each sector.
n Numeric Grid Maximumshows the maximum numeric grid value. For
example, if the numeric grid selected is a traffic map, and the grid used as
input is a best server grid, then for each sector this column shows the
maximum amount of traffic found in the best serving area of each sector.
n Numeric Grid Medianshows the median numeric grid value. For example,
if the numeric grid selected is a traffic map, and the grid used as input is a best
server grid, then for each sector this column shows the median amount of
traffic found in the best serving area of each sector.
n Numeric Grid RMS Valueshows the RMS (Root Mean Square) of the
numeric grid values. For example, if the numeric grid selected is an "average
data rate" grid, and the grid used as input is a best server grid, then for each
sector this column shows the RMS of the average data rate over the best
serving area of each sector.
n Numeric Grid Standard Deviationshows the standard deviation of the
numeric grid values. For example, if the numeric grid selected is an "average
data rate" grid, and the grid used as input is a best server grid, then for each
sector this column shows the standard deviation of the average data rate over
the best serving area of each sector.
Numeric Gridthis field displays the name of the .grd file chosen for layer
statistic calculation.
Browseclick this button to locate a .grd file for which to calculate layer
statistics. This button is only available when the Use Numeric Grid check box is
enabled.
Apply Area Filterenable this check box to filter the analysis area using a
grid file and a condition applied to the grid file. This filter is applied globally to
all layers.
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Set Area Filter By Layerenable this check box when you want to
define individual filters for each layer.
Area Rasterthis box displays the name of the grid (.grc or .grd) file
chosen to filter the analysis area.
Browseclick this button to locate the grc or .grd file with which to filter
the analysis area. This button is only available when the Apply Area Filter
check box is enabled.
Conditiontype in this box an expression to apply to the chosen grc or
.grd file. This box is only available when the Apply Area Filter check box is
enabled and the Set Area Filter By Layer check box is cleared. The table
belowlists the operators that can be used in this box to define an
expression.
Operator Meaning
v Reserved character to stand for
"value"
== Equal
!= Not equal
> Greater than
>= Greater than or equal to
< Less than
<= Less than or equal to
&& And
|| Or
The table belowcontains some examples of typical conditions for
numeric grid files chosen to filter the analysis area.
Condition Meaning
v > 100 && v < 200 Only include pixels from the Area
Raster grid file that have a value
greater than 100 and less than 200
v > 200 || v < 100 Only include pixels from the Area
Raster grid file that have a value
greater than 200 or less than 100
v >= 100 Only include pixels from the Area
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Condition Meaning
Raster grid file that have a value of
no less than 100
The table belowcontains some examples of typical conditions for classified
grid files chosen to filter the analysis area.
Condition Meaning
v == "open" || v == "urban" Only include pixels from the
Area Raster grid file that
have a value of "open" or
"urban"
v != "open" && v != "urban" Only include pixels from the
Area Raster grid file that do
not have a value of "open"
or "urban"
v != "urban" Only include pixels from the
Area Raster grid file that do
not have a value of "urban"
Discard Result That Only Contains Zero Statisticsenable this check box
to delete rows from the report that contain a value of zero in every column.
Export Formatchoose from this list the format in which to output generated
statistics. The available output formats are as follows:
l Excelchoose this format to automatically display statistics in Microsoft Excel
after they are generated.
l HtmLchoose this format to save generate statistics in HTML (.htm) files.
These files are not displayed automatically. One .htm file is created for each
layer in the Layers node of the tree view. These files are stored in the
Reports\LayerStatistics\Html folder in the project.
l MapInfo Tablechoose this format to save generated statistics in MapInfo
table (.tab) files. These files are not displayed automatically. One .tab file is
created for each layer in the Layers node of the tree view. These files are
stored in the Reports\LayerStatistics\MapInfo folder in the project.
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If the generated statistics cannot be output in the chosen format, a text
file will be created and automatically displayed.
Calculate Statisticsclick this button to use the defined analysis
settings to calculate statistics for the analysis layers in the Layers node of
the tree view.
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Layer Statistics Analysis
Use the Layer Statistics dialog box to define and calculate statistics for the
chosen analysis layers.
NOTE: This section details key parameters. For descriptions of all available
parameters, see the online Help.
Add Layerclick this button to add a layer to Layers node in the tree view.
Layer statistics are only calculated for the layers in the Layers node when
Calculate Statistics button is clicked.
Remove Layerclick this button to remove a chosen layer from the Layers
node in the tree view. Layer statistics are not calculated for layers that you
remove from the Layer node. Removing a layer does not delete it from an
analysis in the Project Explorer.
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Layers
Each layer in the Layers node of the tree viewhas its own Layers panel.
Use these panels to viewinformation about and to define classification
settings for each layer.
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Layer Information
File Namethis box displays the file name of the chosen layer.
Data Typethis box displays the type of data that the chosen layer contains.
Layers can contain classified or numeric data.
Unitsthis box displays the measurement units used by the chosen layer.
Resolutionthis box displays the size of the bins in the layer chosen in the
tree view.
Areathis box displays the size of the geographic area covered by the chosen
layer.
Classificationsthis list displays the classifications contained in the chosen
layer. This list is only available when the Data Type of the chosen layer is
Classified.
Zminthis box displays the minimum Z value that the chosen layer contains.
This box is only available when the Data Type of the chosen layer is Numeric.
Zmaxthis box displays the maximum Z value that the chosen layer contains.
This box is only available when the Data Type of the chosen layer is Numeric.
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Classification Settings
Use this section to define classification settings for the layer chosen in the
tree view.
Split Classification To Get Site And Sector Namesenable this
check box to split classifications that combine Site_IDand Sector_IDinto
separate Site_IDand Sector_IDvalues in the analysis report. This check
box is only available when the Data Type of the chosen layer is Classified.
The table belowcontains an example of howclassifications that combine
Site_IDand Sector_IDwould be separated.
Split
Combined ID Site Sector
Site_1_1 Site_1 1
Site_1_2 Site_1 2
Site_1_3 Site_1 3
Site_2_1 Site_2 1
Site_2_2 Site_2 2
Site_2_3 Site_2 3
Threshold Definitiontype in this box a list of values separated by
semi-colons define the data ranges for which to calculate statistics. The
default thresholds are set by equally dividing the range of Z values
contained in the chosen layer. This box is only available when the Data
Type of the chosen layer is Numeric.
For example, if the Zmin box displays 0 and the ZMax box displays 100,
the default thresholds would be set to 25; 50; 75. Using the example
default thresholds, statistics would be calculated for the following four
data ranges:
n 0 (Zmin) ~25
n 25 ~50
n 50 ~75
n 75 ~100 (Zmax)
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If you have data that has a value that is the same as a threshold value, it will
be associated with the first range found in the threshold definition (based on
ascending order). Therefore, for example, a value of 25 goes to the 0 (Zmin)
~25 range instead of the 25 ~50 range.
Classification Nametype in this box a name for the classification to display
in the analysis report.
Area Filtersclick this button to define an area filter for individual layers. This
button is not available if you have not enabled the Set Area Filter By Layer
check box on the Analysis Settings panel.
Calculate Statisticsclick this button to use the defined analysis settings to
calculate statistics for the analysis layers in the Layers node of the tree view.
Layer statistics automatically open in the Report Viewer.
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Creating reports
After generating a Monte Carlo simulation, you can viewdetails of the
simulation in the Report Previewdialog box and export the reports to
Excel for further analysis.
To create reports
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulations
category, right-click a simulation and choose Generate
Reports and then choose one of the following options:
n Sector/Channelcontains analysis information sorted
by sector and channel including PA power, preamble
power, downlink load, uplink noise rise, etc.
n Subscriberscontains the reasons subscribers were
blocked on either a global or per sector/channel basis.
n Throughputcontains throughput information sorted by
subscriber type, service, and environment on either a
global or per subscriber basis.
n All Run Sector/Channelcontains analysis information
for each run performed in the simulation sorted by sector
and channel.
2 In the Report Previewdialog box, do any of the following:
n To change the columns displayed in the dialog box, click
the Change Options button.
n To sort the data in ascending order, click the Sort In
Ascending Order button.
n To sort the data in descending order, click the Sort In
Descending Order button.
3 To viewstatistics on a particular column in the report, choose
a data column and click the Generate Statistics button.
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The Generate Statistics windowopens where you can viewthe mean
value, the minimum value, the maximum value, the median value, the
root mean square, and the standard deviation.
4 If the report statistics include the site and sector data, you can
create a sector display scheme to apply to report data by doing
the following:
n Choose the column of data for which you want to create a
sector display scheme.
n Click the Generate Sector Display Scheme button and
define the sector display scheme settings you want to use.
5 If the report statistics include the site and sector data, you can
display labels in the Map windowbased on a selected data column
by doing the following:
n Choose the column of data that you want to use as the basis for
the site labels.
n Click the Generate Labels button.
6 To export the data to Excel, in the Report Previewdialog box,
click the Export Data To A File button.
The Export Options dialog box opens.
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7 In the Select Export format section, choose one of the
following options:
n Excelto export statistics to an Excel (.xls) file.
n CSVto export statistics to Comma Separated Values
(.csv) file.
8 If you are exporting to Excel, do the following:
n To open the file once the export is complete, enable the
Open File Or Folder Upon Export check box.
n In the Export Settings section, click Browse to define a
file name.
n To use a template, enable the Use A Template check
box and click Browse to specify the template file.
n If the template uses macros, enable the Use Macros
check box.
9 If you are exporting to .csv files, do the following:
n In the Export Settings section, enable the Export
Header Rowif you want to include a header in the
exported files.
n Click Browse to define a folder for the exported output.
10 Click OK.
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Deleting simulation layers
Files generated from a simulation can take up a lot of hard disk space. You can
delete simulations that are no longer required.
To delete simulation layers
1 In the Project Explorer, in the Monte Carlo Simulations
category, do any of the following:
n Choose one or more simulation layers, right-click and choose
Delete.
n Expand a simulation node, choose one or more simulation
layers, right-click and choose Delete.
2 In the Mentum Planet dialog box, click Yes.
The simulation layers you chose are removed from the Project Explorer
and the files are deleted from the project folder.
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Chapter 12 Generating Fixed Subscriber
Analyses
There could be many reasons for generating a fixed subscriber analysis.
It depends on the environment you are modeling and the resources at
hand. You could, for example, be modeling a fixed network. Or, due to
capacity requirements, you could be modeling a hybrid network with
support for both mobile users and fixed subscribers.
By generating a Mentum Planet fixed subscriber analysis, you can
evaluate and analyze network performance at discrete subscriber
locations with a variety of equipment configurations.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding fixed subscriber analyses 384
Editing fixed subscribers 387
Generating and viewing a fixed subscriber analysis 388
Fixed Analysis Wizard 390
Analysis 391
Best Server Selection Based On 392
Preamble CINRMeasurements 393
Probability of Collision 394
Prediction At 395
Analyzing a single fixed subscriber 396
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Understanding fixed subscriber analyses
An unprecedented demand for wireless data and many advances in mobile
communication technologies are behind the need to move third generation
(3G) networks to forth generation (4G) wireless solutions.
Two popular 4Gtechnologies, LTE and WiMAX, not only enable true mobile
broadband capabilities but also the convergence of fixed and mobile services.
The all-IP based packet core network architecture and the high-efficient
flexible air interface of 4Gnetworks offers operators great opportunities and
capabilities to deploy integrated applications that provide high-speed mobility
services, as well as fixed broadband wireless access services.
In addition to the nature of fixed locations, the services and applications used
by fixed subscribers, quality of service requirement, can be very different from
the ones that are typically used by mobile subscribers.
The behaviors and usage patterns of two types of subscribers can also be very
different. Therefore, when planning or optimizing a 4G-based system that
provides hybrid mobility and fixed access services, you need to ensure that the
network not only meest the performance requirement imposed by mobile
subscribers, but also supports and delivers the robust quality of service to fixed
subscribers.
Mentum Planet fixed subscriber analyses provide you with the tools you need
to evaluate and analyze network performance at discrete subscriber locations
with variety of CPE configurations.
Before you generate an analysis
The first step in creating a fixed subscriber analysis is to create a fixed
subscriber table. You then place subscribers on the map. Subscriber
information along with the equipment configuration is saved in a subscriber
table as a comma separated value file and stored in the Fixed Subscriber
Tables folder within the project. You can edit subscriber information using the
Subscriber Editor or by editing the subscriber table directly.
You can set the subscriber prediction type to be either ground level or
equipment antenna height. This enables you to model different types of fixed
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terminal equipment. The equipment antenna height type of prediction is
particularly useful when an external antenna is used on the Customer
Premise Equipment (e.g., when the equipment is mounted on top of a
building). For these types of predictions, point-to-point predictions are
generated on-the-fly from all the neighboring sectors to the terminal
equipment. Neighbors are those sectors with a prediction distance that is
greater than the distance between the sector and the terminal
equipment location.
TIP: You can import an existing fixed subscriber database or you can
define subscribers in the Tabular Editor or Excel worksheet.
How the analysis is performed
Instead of analyzing every bin in a area for a particular type of subscriber
equipment, service, and environment, and then generating a set of
analysis layers in a mobile network analysis, the fixed subscriber analysis
analyzes network performance at discrete subscriber locations defined in
the fixed subscriber table. If required, for each subscriber, you can
define a unique configuration (e.g., locations, CPE with integrated
antenna, or CPE with directional antenna mounted at roof top). For
example, at the same location, you may have multiple subscribers but
each subscriber is at a different height. This is a configuration that would
be required if subscribers, for example, in the same apartment building
are located on a different floor (i.e., at a different level).
For every subscribers, the analysis predicts the signal strengths at the
location, and determine the best parent server and the potential second
best server. The downlink and uplink performance, in terms of best
available modulation, maximum achievable data rate, coverage
probability, margins, etc. are then analyzed. The analysis results of each
subscriber are stored in the fixed subscriber table.
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Editing fixed subscribers
Before you can accurately analyze fixed subscribers, you need to ensure
that the subscriber configuration mirrors the real-world characteristics of
the users.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
TIP: To edit subscriber information for many subscribers, right-click the
subscriber table and choose one of the following commands:
n Edit to modify information in the Tabular Editor
n Open In Excel to modify information in Excel
To edit fixed subscribers using the Subscriber Editor
1 In the Map window, right-click a subscriber and choose Edit
Fixed Subscriber.
2 In the Subscriber Editor, define subscriber parameters as
required and click OK.
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Generating and viewing a fixed subscriber analysis
When you create a newfixed subscriber analysis, it is displayed in the Project
Explorer in the Fixed Subscribers category. You can create any number of
analyses for a project.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To generate a fixed subscriber analysis
1 In the Project Explorer, right-click the subscribers table and
choose Analyze.
2 In the Sector Selection dialog box, specify those sectors you
want to analyze and click Next.
3 On each page of the Wizard, provide the required information
and click Next.
4 On the Analysis page, provide the required information.
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5 Click Finish.
To view analysis results
n Right-click the subscriber table and choose Open In
Excel.
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Fixed Analysis Wizard
The Fixed Analysis Wizard steps you through the process of generating an
analysis. By studying a fixed subscriber analysis, you can determine the
network performance at a discrete location (i.e., at the point where the fixed
subscriber terminal is located).
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Analysis
Frequency Bandchoose from this list the frequency band you want to
include in the analysis.
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Best Server Selection Based On
Preamble Signal Strengthchoose this option if you want the simulation to
select the best server according to the preamble signal strength.
Preamble C(N+I)choose this option if you want the simulation to select
the best server according to the signal-to-interference ratio on the preamble
signal.
Uplink Coverage Requiredenable this check box if uplink coverage is
required in order for the simulation to determine the best server.
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Preamble CINRMeasurements
Reuse 1 Schemechoose this option if you want Preamble C/(N+I)
measurements only. Sector preamble assignments are not taken into
consideration.
Reuse 3 Schemechoose this option if you want Preamble C/(N+I)
measurements to be influenced by sector preamble assignments.
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Probability of Collision
Segmented PUSCCurvedisplays the name of the curve file selected for
segmented PUSC zones.
Browseclick this button to open a .cls file.
Edit click this button to open the Curve Editor.
Other Permutation Zones Curvedisplays the name of the curve file
selected for other permutation zones.
Browseclick this button to open a .cls file.
Edit click this button to open the Curve Editor.
394 LTE FDD User Guide
Generating Monte Carlo Simulations
Prediction At
Ground Levelchoose this option if you want to generate ground-level
predictions.
CPE Antenna Height Levelchoose this option if you want to generate
point-to-point predictions for each subscriber at their equipment
antenna height. The CPE Antenna Height Level prediction option is the
more accurate of the two options and is useful when the equipment uses
an external antenna that is mounted, for example, on the roof of a
building. When you choose this option, neighboring sectors are those
sectors with a prediction distance greater than the distance between the
sector and the equipment location.
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Analyzing a single fixed subscriber
In order to evaluate the impact of a subscriber, you can generate an analysis
of a single subscriber.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To analyze a single subscriber
1 In the Map window, right-click a subscriber, and choose Edit
Fixed Subscriber.
2 In the Subscriber Editor, click the Analyze tab, and specify the
frequency band, sector selection as well as the prediction
parameter, and then click Analyze.
The Values column is updated with data from the analysis.
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Chapter 13 Generating Frequency And
PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
This chapter explains howto create a frequency plan using the
Interactive Frequency and Preamble Planning tool.
This chapter explains howto create a frequency plan and physical cell ID
plan using the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning tool.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Understanding automatic frequency and physical cell ID planning 399
Understanding frequency and physical cell ID planning constraints
and costs 400
Addressing frequency planning requirements 401
Workflow for automatic frequency and cell ID planning 403
Creating a frequency plan 404
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 408
General 409
Interference Matrix 410
Plan Generation Option 411
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 412
Frequency 413
Interference Threshold 414
Carrier Allocation Cost 415
Algorithm Ending 416
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning 417
Physical Cell ID Planning 418
Optimization 419
Algorithm Ending 420
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Setting up general frequency and physical cell ID planning parameters 421
Generating and viewing a frequency or physical cell ID plan 423
Applying a frequency or physical cell ID plan to sectors 424
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Understanding automatic frequency and
physical cell ID planning
With the goal of increasing network capacity, the frequencies and
physical cell IDs used in a LTE network need to be reused efficiently.
Frequency planning
Building a frequency plan manually is a labor intensive, error-prone
process. Using the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning
tool, you can generate a frequency or cell IDplan automatically.
Cell ID planning
In an LTE network, reference signal symbols inserted on the downlink,
are used for channel estimation and signal demodulation. They are
combined with a pseudo-random sequence and a orthogonal sequence
in order to enable cell searches. It is during cell searches that the
primary synchronization signal provides the cell identity (i.e., 0, 1, or 2)
and the secondary synchronization signal determines the cell identity
group. In order to minimize interference, cells belonging to the same site
are assigned cell identities from the same cell identity group.
TIP: To achieve an equitable balance, you should plan frequencies and
cell IDs at the same time.
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Understanding frequency and physical cell ID
planning constraints and costs
Constraints and costs play a pivotal role in frequency and physical cell ID
planning.
Frequency, preamble, and perm base planning
constraints
The constraints considered by the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID
Planning tool include the settings in the Interference Threshold section and the
carrier separations (i.e., the spacing required to separate each carrier at the
site and sector level) defined on the Frequency tab.
Frequency and physical cell ID planning violation costs
Violation costs are the cost factors that are incurred whenever a frequency or
physical cell IDplanning constraint is not respected. Frequency or physical cell
IDplanning constraints are defined in the Automatic Frequency and Physical
Cell IDPlanning dialog box.
The violation cost values you enter in the Interference threshold section for
either co-channel or adjacent channel interference is multiplied by the
interference defined in the interference matrix. Each cost contributes to the
overall cost associated with the assignment of a specific channel to a sector.
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Addressing frequency planning requirements
Various planning scenarios exist, each having specific requirements in
terms of frequency or physical cell IDplanning. Using Mentum Planet and
the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning tool, you can
overcome the challenges of frequency and physical cell IDplanning in
each specific case.
You can choose to allocate frequencies or physical cell IDs to newsectors
only. In this case, the assignments for existing sectors are not changed;
however, they are considered in the newplan.
NOTE: The Automatic Frequency and Cell IDPlanning tool does not
support single channel, non-segmented frames or multiple channel,
segmented frames.
Single-channel PUSC subchannel group planning
In an OFDMA network, subcarriers are grouped into subchannels.
Subchannels are shared by multiple users in different time slots.
Subcarriers are assigned to subchannels using various permutation
schemes including the Partial Usage of Subchannels (PUSC) permutation
scheme where subchannels are divided into six groups. There is no
interference between sectors using different subchannel groups when
the same permutation scheme is used to form the subchannel groups
and there is perfect orthogonality amongst the subcarriers. Using a
PUSC scheme reduces interferences at the cost of sector throughput. To
counter the loss of throughput, you can use Fractional Frequency Reuse
(FFR) where users close to the base station operate on all available
subchannels while users at the edge operate on a fraction of all available
subchannels.
Assigning frequencies in this scenario in such a manner as to minimize
the possible interference between sectors using the same subchannel
groups presents challenges, which you can overcome using the AFPP
Planning tool.
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NOTE: In single channel scenarios, only segmented frames are supported.
Multi-channel frequency planning
One of the ways to reduce co-channel interference is to use make multiple
channels available across the network. The challenge of doing so is then to
plan and assign frequencies using the most optimal configuration; one where
both the co-channel and adjacent channel interference is minimized. Using the
AFPP Planning tool, you can achieve this goal.
NOTE: In multi-channel scenarios, only non-segmented frames are
supported.
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Workflow for automatic frequency and cell ID
planning
Step 1 Create a group of sites that you will use for your interference
matrix, neighbor list, and frequency or physical cell ID
planning. See Chapter 1, Working with Sites and Sectors, in
the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 2 Create an interference matrix and a neighbor list using the
same group of sites. See Chapter 7, Working with
Interference Matrices, and Chapter 8, Working with
Neighbor Lists, in the Mentum Planet User Guide.
Step 3 Define settings and create a frequency or physical cell IDplan.
See Creating a frequency or physical cell IDplan.
Step 4 Apply the frequency or physical cell IDplan to the sectors in
your network. See Applying a frequency or physical cell ID
plan to sectors.
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Creating a frequency plan
To create a frequency or physical cell IDplan with the Automatic Frequency
and Physical Cell IDPlanning tool, you must first choose a group of sites, and
an interference matrix, and a neighbor list. The Automatic Frequency and
Physical Cell IDPlanning tool looks at the weightings contained in the
interference matrix to determine the co-channel and adjacent channel
interference. It then assigns a violation cost when the thresholds you have
defined are breached.
You can save the current frequency or physical cell IDassignments for your
sectors as a plan, and make the plan available under the LTE Frequency and
Physical Cell IDPlans node in the Project Explorer.
For more information on howto create a group of sites, see Chapter 1,
Working with Sites and Sectors, in the Mentum Planet User Guide. For more
information on interference matrices, see Chapter 7, Working with
Interference Matrices, in the Mentum Planet User Guide. For more
information on neighbor lists, see Chapter 8, Working with Neighbor Lists, in
the Mentum Planet User Guide.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To create a frequency plan
1 In the Project Explorer, in the RF Tools category, right-click the
LTE FDD Frequency And Physical Cell ID Plans node and
choose New.
The LTE FDDAutomatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning dialog
box opens.
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2 Click any of the following tabs and define the required
parameters:
n Generalallows you to define the name, frequency band
and group to plan for. You can also specify the neighbor
list and interference matrix you want to use.
n Frequencyallows you to define the interference
thresholds, the carrier allocation costs as well as solution
criteria. This tab is only available when you choose the
Frequency Plan or Frequency Plan and Physical Cell ID
Plan option on the General tab.
n Physical Cell IDallows you to define the additional
constraints for physical cell IDplanning. This tab is only
available when you choose the Physical Cell IDPlan or the
Frequency Plan and Physical Cell IDPlan option on the
General tab.
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Chapter 13
n Progressallows you to viewthe progress and messages that
occur during the creation of the plan. You can also see the cost
associated with the initial plan as well as the cost associated
with the plan generated at each iteration. This is useful
because you can see whether the tool has completed sufficient
iterations to create a plan that meets your requirements.
3 Click one of the following buttons:
n To save the frequency or physical cell IDplan, click Save.
n To create a frequency plan or physical cell IDplan, click
Generate.
This button is not available when there are no interference
matrices in the project.
n To close the dialog box without saving a frequency or physical
cell IDplan, click Cancel.
TIP: You can copy an existing frequency or physical cell IDplan using the
Save Copy As command available by right-clicking an existing frequency or
physical cell IDplan and choosing Save Plan As. This can be useful if you want
to experiment with different scenarios.
To save current frequency and physical cell ID
assignments
1 In the Project Explorer, in the RF Tools category, right-click
LTE Frequency and Physical Cell ID Plans and choose Save
Current.
2 In the Save Current Network As dialog box, do the following:
n In the Plan Name box, type a name for the plan.
n From the Frequency Band list, choose the frequency for which
you want to create a plan.
3 Click OK.
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The frequency and physical cell IDplan is added to the LTE
Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlans node.
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Chapter 13
Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning
Use the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning dialog box to define
the settings you want to use to create a frequency plan. Automatic frequency
planning uses the settings that you define to create a plan automatically with
the lowest cost that violates the fewest constraints. An optimal frequency plan
efficiently reuses frequencies while minimizing the total interference
experienced in a network.
You can also create a physical cell IDplan. LTE supports 504 different physical
cell IDs ranging from 0 to 503. The generation of a frequency or physical cell
IDplan is realized through a series of iterations. Each iteration creates a plan.
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Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
General
Plan Nametype in this box a name for the frequency and physical Cell
IDplan. This box is unavailable when you are viewing the properties of
an existing plan.
Group to Planchoose from this list the sector group for which you
want to plan frequencies and/or physical cell IDs. To plan for all sectors,
choose All Sectors. This box is unavailable when you are viewing the
properties of an existing plan. Generally, the group to consider will
encompass a larger area then the group to plan but will include the area
covered by the sectors for which you are planning frequencies.
Frequency Bandchoose from this list the frequency band for which to
create the frequency plan.
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Chapter 13
Interference Matrix
Namechoose from this list the interference matrix you want to use in the
planning process.
Absolute Costchoose this option to use the affected area or the affected
traffic from the interference matrix as displayed. Using this option results in a
more optimal distribution of CNIR (weighted by area or traffic)
Relative Costchoose this option to use the affected area or the affected
traffic from the interference matrix as a percentage.
Neighbor Listchoose from this list the neighbor list to include in the
planning process.
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Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
Plan Generation Option
Frequency Planchoose this option to generate a frequency plan only.
Physical Cell ID Planchoose this option to generate a physical cell ID
plan only.
Frequency Plan and Physical Cell ID Planchoose this option to
generate both a frequency plan and a physical cell IDplan.
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Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID Planning
412 LTE FDD User Guide
Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
Frequency
Use this tab to define interference thresholds and carrier allocation costs
to be used by the frequency planning algorithm. The carrier spacing
between any two carriers is calculated according to their center
frequencies. A constraint is violated if the separation between two
carriers assigned to the same sector or site is less than the predefined
minimum separation. This tab is not visible when you choose the Physical
Cell IDoption on the General tab.
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Chapter 13
Interference Threshold
Use this section to define interference thresholds and associated violation
costs to be used by the frequency planning algorithm. These settings
represent the amount of interference between any two sectors in terms of co-
channel and adjacent channel interference. By default, the relative affected
area or relative affected traffic value is used to evaluate the level of
interference between a pair of sectors. If the plan you are creating is
encompasses more than a single carrier, the Adjacent Channel rowis not
available.
Threshold (%)click in this field to define the maximum amount of
interference allowed before a violation cost is incurred.
Violation Costclick in this field to define the cost incurred when the
threshold is surpassed.
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Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
Carrier Allocation Cost
Same Sectortype in this box the violation cost incurred when the
associated carrier separation is violated on the same sector. This setting
represents the minimum separation between carriers that are assigned
to the same sector. The separation unit is a carrier bandwidth (i.e., a
separation of 2 equals two carrier bandwidths). The minimum same
sector carrier separation is 1. If a sector needs more than one carrier ,
the minimum separation between carriers is 1 x carrier bandwidth. The
same carrier will not be used twice by the same sector.
Same Sitetype in this box the violation cost incurred when the
associated carrier separation is violated on the same site. This setting
represents the minimum separation between carriers that are assigned
to the same site. The separation unit is a carrier bandwidth (i.e., a
separation of 2 equals two carrier bandwidths).
Neighbortype in this box the violation cost incurred when the
associated carrier separation is violated between neighbors. This setting
represents the minimum separation between carriers that are assigned
to neighbor. The separation unit is a carrier bandwidth (i.e., a separation
of 2 equals two carrier bandwidths). If no neighbor list is selected on the
General tab, this column is not available.
Addclick this button to add a rowto the Carrier Allocation Cost table.
Removeclick this button to remove the Carrier Allocation Cost table.
Keep Existing Carrier Assignmentsenable this check box if you
want to keep the existing carrier assignments.
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Chapter 13
Algorithm Ending
Manualchoose this option to stop the planning process by clicking Stop or
when the maximum number of runs has been reached.
Convergencechoose this option to stop the planning process using the
convergence criteria you define. The algorithm will stop when one of the three
defined criteria is met.
Minimum Number of Runstype in this box the minimum number of
iterations you want to generate.
Maximum Number of Runstype in this box the maximum number of
iterations you want to generate whether convergence is reached or not.
Required Convergence Leveltype in this box the required level of
convergence in order to end the planning process.
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Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID
Planning
LTE FDD User Guide 417
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Physical Cell ID Planning
418 LTE FDD User Guide
Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
Optimization
Use Same Cell Identity Group for Co-Site Sectorsenable this
check box to assign the same cell identity group to co-site sectors.
Avoid Same Physical Cell ID for Neighbor Sectorsenable this
check box to eliminate or minimize instances where the same physical
cell IDis assigned to neighboring sectors.
Different Downlink Reference Signal Sequencesenable this check
box to use different reference signal sequences on the downlink. When
you choose this option, the algorithm assigns physical cell IDs so that
different downlink reference signal sequences will be used by interfering
sectors.
Different Uplink Reference Signal Sequencesenable this check
box to use different reference signal sequences on the uplink. When you
choose this option, the algorithm assigns physical cell IDs so that
different uplink reference signal sequences will be used by interfering
sectors.
Keep Existing Physical Cell ID Assignmentsenable this check box
if you want to keep the existing physical cell IDassignments.
Reserve Physical Cell IDtype in this box the Physical Cell ID
numbers you want to exclude from the planning process. You can type
reserved physical cell IDnumbers separated by a comma (e.g., 5,6,7) or
you can enter a range (e.g., 5-7).
LTE FDD User Guide 419
Chapter 13
Algorithm Ending
Manualchoose this option if you want to click Stop to end the planning
process. As the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell IDPlanning tool works
to generate a solution, the Generate button changes to a Stop button. Clicking
this button will end the planning process.
Convergencechoose this option to define the end point of the planning
process and define the convergence criteria.
Minimum Number of Runstype in this box the minimum number of
iterations you want to generate.
Maximum Number of Runstype in this box the maximum number of
iterations you want to generate whether convergence is reached or not.
Required Convergence Leveltype in this box the required level of
convergence in order to end the planning process.
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Generating Frequency And PreamblePhysical Cell ID Plans Automatically
Setting up general frequency and physical cell
ID planning parameters
Before generating a frequency or physical cell IDplan, you must define
general planning settings such as the plan name, specify the group to
plan for, as well as the neighbor list and interference matrix to use in the
planning process.
To set up general frequency and physical cell ID
parameters
1 In the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID
Planning dialog box, click the General tab.
2 In the Plan Name box, define a name for the plan.
3 From the Groups To Plan list, choose the group for which
you want to plan or, to plan for all sectors in the project,
choose All Sectors.
4 From the Frequency Band list, choose the band for which
you want to generate a plan.
5 In the Interference Matrix section, from the Name list,
choose the interference matrix that you want to use in the
planning process.
6 In the Interference Matrix section, choose one of the
following options:
n Absolute Costuses the affected area from the
interference matrix (in kilometers squared) and results in
a more optimal distribution of CNIR (weighted by area or
traffic)
n Relative Costuses the affected area from the
interference matrix (as a percentage).
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Chapter 13
7 To use a neighbor list, enable the Neighbor List check box and,
from the associated list, choose the neighbor list you want to use.
8 In the Plan Generation Option section, choose one of the
following options:
n Frequency Planto generate only a frequency plan
n Physical Cell IDPlanto generate only a physical cell IDplan
n Frequency Plan and Physical Cell IDPlanto generate both a
frequency plan and a physical cell IDplan
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Generating and viewing a frequency or physical
cell ID plan
Once you have generated a frequency or physical cell IDplan, you can
define display options, choose which reports to view, save a report, and
apply the plan to a project.
To generate a frequency or physical cell ID plan
1 In the Automatic Frequency and Physical Cell ID
Planning dialog box, click Generate.
The Generate button is unavailable if there are no interference
matrices in the project.
2 To manually stop plan generation, click the Stop button.
3 When the frequency or physical cell IDplan has stopped,
click Save to save the frequency plan and Close to close the
dialog box.
4 In the Project Explorer, in the RF Tools category, right-
click the frequency plan you just generated, and choose one
of the following commands:
n View in Map Windowto viewa display of carrier,
physical cell IDs, physical cell IDgroups, or physical layer
identities associated with each sector in the Map window.
n Display Reportto viewthe report in the Report
Previewdialog box.
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Chapter 13
Applying a frequency or physical cell ID plan to
sectors
After you create a frequency or physical cell IDplan, you can apply it to the
sectors in the group that you used to create the frequency or physical cell ID
plan. You can also remove any existing carrier assignments from the sectors in
the group.
To apply a frequency plan to sectors
1 In the Project Explorer, in the RF Tools category, right-click the
frequency plan you just generated, and choose Apply.
2 In the Information dialog box, click Yes.
TIP: To viewthe settings used to generate the frequency plan, right-click the
frequency or physical cell IDplan and choose Properties.
424 LTE FDD User Guide
Working With The Tabular Editor
Chapter 14 Working With The Tabular Editor
A key stage of network planning revolves around the analysis of network
data and the subsequent updates to network and site parameters that
eventually produce a network model with which you are satisfied. The
Tabular Editor is a powerful tool that you can use to globally edit project
parameters.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Working with the Tabular Editor 426
LTE FDD User Guide 425
Chapter 14
Working with the Tabular Editor
Using the Tabular Editor, you can quickly and easily modify project data. By
freezing panes, you can compare values and analyze results. Information is
organized on separate worksheets (see Figure 14.1). The worksheets and
columns that the Tabular Editor displays depends on howyou open the dialog
box. For example, you can open the Tabular Editor from the Sites node in the
Project Data category and viewall site, sector, and antenna information. Or,
you can open it from the Link Configuration node to viewonly the link
configurations contained in your project.
If custom data columns have been created by the Data Manager
Administrator, these columns will be available on the Sites and/or Sectors
worksheets in the Tabular Editor after you have connected to Data Manager
Server. You can add values or edit existing custom column data using the
Tabular Editor.
Figure 14.1: Tabular Editor displaying project worksheets
NOTE: If you want to globally edit network settings, you must use the
Import/Export Wizard. Network settings are not visible in the Tabular Editor.
To edit sites, flags, or link configurations
1 In the Project Explorer, do any of the following:
426 LTE FDD User Guide
Working With The Tabular Editor
n To edit site parameters, in the Sites category, right-click
the Sites node and choose Tabular Edit.
n To edit Flags, in the Sites category, right-click the Sites
node and choose Tabular Edit.
n To edit link configurations, in the Project Data category,
right-click Link Configurations and choose Tabular
Edit.
2 To modify data, in the Tabular Editor, do any of the
following:
n Double-click in a table cell and type a newvalue.
n Click the down arrowin a table cell and choose a new
value.
n Enable or clear the check box for the chosen setting.
n Right-click in a table cell to copy and paste data.
n Click the down arrownext to a table heading to display all
the data or a particular subset. When a filter has been
applied, the down arrowchanges to the filter icon.
3 To change the Tabular Editor display, do any of the
following:
n Click the Change Options button to specify which
worksheets and columns to display in the Tabular Editor.
n Click the Sort Ascending button to reorder the rows
based on the data in the selected column.
n Click the Sort Descending button to reorder the rows
based on the data in the selected column.
n Place the pointer between column headings to increase or
decrease the size of the column.
n Enable the Freeze Panes check box to lock rows and
columns in one area so that they remain visible when you
scroll. This is useful, for example, if you want to freeze a
LTE FDD User Guide 427
Chapter 14
particular column and then scroll through subsequent columns
comparing the values.
4 To copy data to the clipboard, click the Copy To Clipboard
button.
5 To paste from the clipboard, click the Paste From Clipboard
button.
6 To viewstatistics on column data, choose one or more data
columns and click the Generate Statistics button.
The Generated Statistics dialog box opens where you can viewstatistical
information for each column you chose.
7 To display labels in the Map windowbased on column data, click a
tab in the Tabular Editor that contains site or sector columns,
choose a data column, and click the Generate Labels button.
Labels are displayed in the Map windowat each site.
8 When you have finished modifying or examining the data, click
Close.
NOTE: There are some columns that you cannot edit in the Tabular Editor.
These columns are grayed out.
TIP: To quickly copy a value across all rows in a column in the Tabular Editor,
type the newvalue in the first cell of the column, click the column header to
select the column, and press CTRL+D. Then, click outside the column to make
the updates. Click Apply to save your changes.
TIP: To update displayed information with current data, click the Refresh
button. This update may be longer than when you click Apply because all data
is recomputed.
428 LTE FDD User Guide
Importing And Exporting Data
Chapter 15 Importing And Exporting Data
You can import and export project data using Microsoft Excel
spreadsheets (.xls or .xlsx) or comma separated value (.csv) files. This is
useful when you want to analyze data and, based on your analysis, edit
site, sector, and network parameters.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Importing, replacing, and exporting project data 430
Importing network data into Mentum Planet projects 437
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Chapter 15
Importing, replacing, and exporting project data
Using the Import/Export Wizard, you can viewproject data in Microsoft Excel
spreadsheets (.xls or .xlsx) or comma separated value (.csv) files. When you
export data from your project to a spreadsheet, individual worksheets are
created in the .xls file or .xlsx for each category of project data. When you
export project data to .csv files, a folder is created containing individual .csv
files for each project data category. You can choose the types of project data
that you want to import or export. For example, you could import or export
only site and sector location data, but not the detailed sector settings. You can
also import or export project data only for specific sectors.
You can use the Import/Export command-line utility (iecon.exe) to export
Mentum Planet data to an .xls file, .xlsx, .csv file, or database. You can then
make changes to the data and use iecon.exe again to import the data back
into Mentum Planet or Data Manager. The iecon.exe utility is useful if you want
to automate the import and export of data using scripts (e.g., if you want to
make Mentum Planet data accessible to other systems via a database or
import updates to projects from another source). See Appendix A:
Import/Export Command-Line Utility in the Data Manager Server
Administrator Guide. When you use the iecon utility to import sites and
sectors, you must always include the Summary.csv file in the data import.
TIP: To specify the Import/Export Excel file format, choose Edit
Preferences. In the User Preferences dialog box, in the tree view, choose
Miscellaneous. In the Import Export Settings section, choose the default Excel
file extension (i.e., the Excel 2007-2003 format (.xls) or the newExcel
Workbook format (.xlsx)).
CAUTION: If your project is stored in Data Manager, and you export it and
re-import it using the Import/Export tool, Data Manager will treat it as a new
project if you use the Replace All Data option. In this case, if you want to
continue using the existing project, you must merge the newproject into the
existing project. See Chapter 2, Using Data Manager in the Data Manager
User Guide.
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Importing And Exporting Data
Importing data
You can use .xls, .xlsx or .cvs files to add or remove sites, edit project
settings, and then import the newor updated data. Each worksheet in an
.xls file, .xlsx or each .csv file you use to import project data must
contain the required and mandatory columns, and must be formatted
correctly for the type of data in a column (i.e., text or numeric). Unless
you specifically request that data be replaced on import, data is never
removed from a project when you use the Import Wizard. For example,
if the worksheet or .csv file from which you are importing does not
contain all of the sectors currently in your project, only the sectors listed
in the worksheet or .csv file are updated in the project. The other sectors
in your project are not affected by the Import Wizard. If you are working
with a large project and only want to update specific project data, you
can import individual worksheets or .csv files, and include only the sites
or sectors that require updating or are being added.
For descriptions of worksheets or .csv files and the columns they contain,
valid values and ranges, and an indication of required and mandatory
columns, see the Import Export Table Parameters folder in the Mentum
Planet Help folder.
TIP: To ensure the proper worksheet or .csv file format when
importing, use previously exported .xls, .xlsx or .csv files to edit or
update project data.
Replacing data
When you import data, you can choose to replace specific data. This can
be useful, for example, if:
n you want to delete sites from your project. When you
delete a site, however, you must delete the site from all
dependent worksheets.
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n you want to change the prefix used in the site IDs (e.g., from
Site to Ott). When you change site IDs, however, you must
change the site IDon all dependent worksheets.
n you want to share and merge project data.
Exporting data
When you export data to a spread sheet, individual worksheets are created in
the .xls or .xlsx file for each category of project data. When you export data to
a .csv file, a folder is created containing individual .csv files for each category
of project data. In addition, a Summary worksheet or .csv file is also created
for the exported project. For descriptions of the data types that can be
exported, and the corresponding location (dialog box) of the field in the
Mentum Planet graphical user interface, see the Import Export Table
Parameters folder in the Mentum Planet Help folder.
By default, when you export data, the site coordinates are saved in the
Longitude/Latitude (WGS 84) projection and the sector coordinates are saved
in the projection specified when you originally created the project. If you
import an exported .xls file, .xlsx or .csv files, only the site and sector
coordinate systems are imported from the Summary worksheet or .csv file.
To export project data
1 Do any of the following:
n If you want to export project data for all sites and sectors,
choose Data Export.
n If you want to export project data for individual sites, sectors,
or groups, in the Project Explorer, in the Sites category,
choose one or more groups, sites, or sectors, right-click and
choose Export.
n If you want to export repeater data, in the Project Explorer,
in the Sites category, right-click the Repeaters node, and
choose Export.
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n If you want to export project data based on enabled flag
conditions, in the Project Explorer, in the Sites
category, right-click the Flags node, and choose Export.
The Export Wizard opens.
2 On the Data Selection page, in the Tables list, enable the
check boxes for each of the tables that you want to export.
Each selected table is exported to an individual worksheet in an
Excel file or a single comma separated value file. For example, if
you enable only Sites and Sectors, then only the basic site and
sector information will be exported. When you enable the Sectors
check box in the Tables box, by default, the Bin File Name, the Bin
Hash Code, the Signal Strength File Name, and the Signal Strength
Hash Code columns are not enabled (i.e., they are cleared).
3 In the Columns list, for each of the tables that you chose in
Step 2, enable the check boxes for each of the columns that
you want to export.
4 Click Next.
5 On each page of the Wizard define the required parameters.
6 On the last page of the Wizard, click Finish.
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To import project data
When you import data, the coordinate systems (along with the distance and
height units) are imported from the Summary worksheet or .csv file and, if
required, sites and sectors are reprojected automatically. A list of supported
projections is contained in the mapinfo.prj file located in the <Mentum Planet
installation folder>\mapinfo folder. Additional information about projections
can be found in Appendix B, Elements of a Coordinate System in the MapInfo
Professional User Guide.
CAUTION: All values in the Excel file from which you are importing must use
the default units indicated in the worksheet column names, and the file must
contain required and mandatory columns.
1 If you want to import general site, sector and project data, choose
Data Import Project Data.
The Import Wizard opens.
2 On the File Location page, do one of the following:
n If you want to import project data from an .xls or .xlsx file,
choose the Microsoft Excel option.
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n If you want to import project data from a folder of .csv
files, choose the Comma Separated Values Text Files
option.
3 Click Browse, and do one of the following:
n If you chose the Microsoft Excel option in Step 2,
navigate to the .xls or .xlsx file containing the data you
want to import, and click Open.
n If you chose the Comma Separated Values Text Files
option in Step 2, navigate to the folder containing the .csv
files you want to import, and click OK.
4 Click Next.
The Data Selection page lists the tables available to import and
options for replacing project data on import.
5 On the Data Selection page, enable the check boxes for
each of the tables that you want to import.
You can click Select All or Clear All to speed up the selection
process.
6 If you want to overwrite existing data or remove data from a
project, enable any of the following check boxes.
n All Datareplaces data in all categories listed in the
Replace section.
n Groupsreplaces data listed in the Groups category.
n Flagsreplaces data listed in the Flags category.
n Site Datareplaces site data including data in the
following categories: Sites, Sectors, Antennas, etc.
Frequency plans, Configuration Links, and Neighbor Lists
are also overwritten.
n Link Configurationsreplaces data listed on the link
budget worksheet.
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n Neighbor Listsreplaces neighbor lists.
n Network Settingsreplaces network setting parameters.
When you replace data, the selected data is first deleted from the
project and the newdata is then imported into the project. Once data
has been replaced, the original data cannot be recovered.
7 Click Finish.
The project data you chose will be updated or added to your project.
The Log dialog box displays the status of the import operation.
NOTE: Status messages are displayed cumulatively in the Log dialog box.
Click the Export button to save the log messages to a text file. Click the Clear
button to remove all messages from the Log dialog box.
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Importing network data into Mentum Planet
projects
Network data is data collected from wireless network switching
equipment. It contains information about network configuration and
performance. You use the Network Data Import Wizard to bind network
data to Mentum Planet data. The bound network data can then be used
in Mentum Planet in traffic maps, interference matrices, neighbor lists,
technology-specific features such as Automatic Frequency Preamble and
Perm Base Planning tool, and for display purposes.
Your network data must be in an Excel spreadsheet or tab-delimited text
file.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the
procedure or, if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
Binding network data
Binding network data means mapping columns in the network data to
Mentum Planet data columns. In the Network Data Import Wizard, you
only need to specify whether you want to bind data based both the site
IDand the sector IDor only on a sector property that contains unique
values for each sector.
Viewing the results of data binding
Once you have mapped the network data to the Mentum Planet data,
you can reviewit in the Report Previewdialog box. You can then create a
sector display scheme for statistical data in order to viewnetwork data
graphically on a map of your networks coverage area. Any numeric
metric, for example, dropped calls or carried Erlangs, can be displayed.
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To import network data
1 In the Project Explorer, in the OperationalData category,
right-click Network Data and choose New.
2 Read the introduction and click Next.
3 On the Choose How You Want The Data Bound page, choose
one of the following options:
n Bind To Site ID/Sector IDbinds the SiteIDand the Sector
IDto columns in the network data file.
n Bind To Unique Sector Propertybinds a sector property
when it contain unique values for each sector
4 Click in the header rowand, from the list, choose the Mentum
Planet data to which to bind the network data.
A valid selection displays a green indicator.
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5 Once the data has been successfuly bound, click Finish.
The Report Previewdialog box opens. The Mapping Status column
indicates whether the data is mapped or not in the project.
6 In the Report Previewdialog box, modify the report display
as required using the available toolbar buttons.
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7 If you mapped network data to a sector property, you can create
a sector display scheme to apply to network data by doing the
following:
n Choose the sector property for which you want to create a
sector display scheme.
n Click the Generate Sector Display Scheme button.
8 Define a name for the sector display scheme and, in the Sector
Display Scheme dialog box, define the parameters upon which
you want the scheme to be based.
9 To viewthe network data upon which the scheme is based, click
the Data button.
Network data is added to the Operational Data category in the Project
Explorer.
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Chapter 16 Establishing Height Benchmarks
Mentum Planet includes tools you can use to verify if sites or sectors in
the network comply with FCC regulations.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Establishing height benchmarks 442
Interpreting results 445
HBM Analysis Settings 448
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Establishing height benchmarks
The height benchmarking tools in Mentum Planet determine if sites or sectors
in the network comply with FCC regulation 27.1221 for interference
protection. The regulation defines the rules for the allowable site height based
on the proximity of a site to regulatory boundaries as well as HAAT
calculations.
Details of the height benchmarking are contained in the height benchmarking
tables (i.e., All_Radials.tab, Failing_Radials_Summary.tab, and the Site_
Summary.tab). See Interpreting results.
Two methods of height benchmarking are available:
n Closest pointusing this method you can establish the height
benchmarks from a sector or group of sectors to the nearest
edge of the selected polygon. The height benchmarking report
details which sites and sectors are non-compliant and lists the
reasons why. See To establish height benchmarks for the
closest point.
n Multi-radialusing this method you are able to analyze
compliance specifics of a given site and account for exclusion
zones such as water or political boundaries. This can be useful,
for example, in all areas where inland water or geo-political
boundaries comprise the boundary of the GSA service
boundary. The height benchmarking report details which
individual radials from sites and sectors are non compliant and
lists the reasons why. See To establish height benchmarks
along multiple radials.
NOTE: Descriptions of relevant parameters are listed after the procedure or,
if you are using the software, press F1 for the online Help.
To establish height benchmarks for the closest point
1 Do one of the following:
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n Drawa polygon that covers the area where you want
benchmarks calculated, double-clicking on the end point.
n Open a table that contains a polygon that depicts the
service area.
2 On the Main toolbar, click the Select button and click the
polygon.
3 Choose Tools FCCHeightBenchmarking Closest
Point.
The FCC_HeightBenchmark table opens in a Browser window.
To establish height benchmarks along multiple radials
Sectors must be within the service area. Radial calculations will stop at
the service area boundary.
1 Do one of the following:
n To generate height benchmarks for selected sites, in the
Map window, select one or more sites.
n To generate height benchmarks for a sector group,
choose Tools FCCHeightBenchmarking Multi
Radial.
2 In the Sector Selection dialog box, choose the sectors for
which you want to establish height benchmarks and click OK.
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3 In the HBM Analysis Settings dialog box, define required
parameters and click OK.
NOTE: To viewheight benchmarking details, choose Window NewBrowser
Windowand open the All_Radials, Failing_Radials, or Site_Summary tables.
TIP: In order to ensure that the exclusion area polygon has the identical
polyline construction as the target area, you can use MapInfo editing tools to
modify the polyline construction accordingly.
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Interpreting results
The Mentum Planet multi-radial height benchmarking tool produces the
following tables. Tables are saved in the HBMMulti-Radial Analysis folder
within the project folder. A user-defined prefix is appended to the table
name.
All_Radials.tab
This table provides a list of all radials in the calculation and related data.
The output radial lines are colored based on the field Delta. A positive
delta indicates the site is compliant along this radial. A negative Delta
indicates the amount (in meters) the site would need to be lowered to
become compliant. The color of the lines is provided to indicate the
degree of non-compliance. See Howto interpret radial color.
This table includes the following information:
n Site IDthe site identification
n Sector IDthe sector identification
n Longitude
n Latitude
n Radial_Incradial increments
n Elevation_mthe elevation (m) at the sector
n Antenna_Heightthe height of the antenna
n Boundary_Distance_kmthe minimum distance from
the sector to the boundary of the polygon
n Height_Benchmarkthe height benchmark is
calculated as where the boundary distance is in
kilometers.
n HAAT_mthe height above average terrain (HAAT) in
meters.
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n Deltathe difference between the HATT and the height
benchmark value.
n Failing_Radialsindication whether a radial from a site or
sector is non-compliant (T/F).
n Exclusion_Zoneindication whether a radial from a site or
sector is part of an exclusion zone.
Failing_Radials_Summary.tab
This table provides a list of non-compliant radials in the calculation and related
data. It includes all the information contained in the All_Radials.tab but
includes only those sites and sectors that are non-compliant.
Site_Summary
This table provides details on the site status (passed/failed). It includes the
following columns:
n Site IDthe site identification
n Sector IDthe sector identification
n Longitude
n Latitude
n Num_Radialsthe number of radials used in calculations.
n Failing_Radialsthe number of radials that are non-compliant.
n Passedidentifies those sites that are compliant and those that
are not.
How to interpret radial color
Height benchmarking results are color coded. The color of a radial indicates
the degree of infraction as shown in Table 1. Elongated dashed lines indicate
that the radial has crossed an exclusion zone. An example is shown in Figure
16.1.
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Figure 16.1: Example illustrating radial color-coding.
Table 1 Color codes for radials generated by the height benchmarking
tools
Color Code Degree of Infraction (Value of the Delta)
Green Greater than 0
Yellow -5 to -10
Light Orange -10 to -15
Orange -15 to -20
Light Red -10 to -25
Red -25 or less
TIP: MapInfo data can be visualized, queried and edited using standard
MapInfo GIS tools
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HBM Analysis Settings
Use the HBMAnalysis Settings dialog box to define howyou want benchmarks
calculated and displayed.
Number of Radialstype in this box the number of radials you want to
consider in the calculations.
Sample Intervaltype in this box the distance between sample points for
the HAAT calculation. The HAAT calculation is compared to the Height
Benchmark calculation to determine the result of the radial. The default value
is the resolution of the project DEM. When the sample interval is increased, the
number of sample points decreases along with the calculation time.
Service Area Tablechoose from this list the table that defines the target
area boundaries.
Exclusion Area Tablechoose from this list the table that defines areas such
as water or political boundaries that will automatically set the radial to pass the
Height Benchmark test. The exclusion area polygon must have the same
identical polyline construction as the service area.
Output Table Prefixtype in this box the prefix that will be appended to the
output tables.
Results To Displaychoose any of the following display options:
Table 1 Degree of Infraction
Color Code
Degree of Infraction (Value of the
Delta)
Green Greater than 0
Yellow -5 to -10
Light Orange -10 to -15
Orange -15 to -20
Light Red -10 to -25
Red -25 or less
TIP: To viewdetails of the height benchmarking for all radials, open the All_
Radials.tab in a Browser window.
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All Radialsif you want results for all radials to be displayed when the
FCC height benchmarking calculations are complete. Radials are color-
coded to reflect the difference between the HATT and the height
benchmark value (as shown in the Delta column of the All_Radials table).
The following color codes are used.
Failing Radials Summaryif you want only the radials that fail to be
displayed when the FCC height benchmarking calculations are complete.
Radials are color-coded to reflect the degree of infraction. Radials where
the delta is positive will not be displayed. The following color codes are
used.
Color Code
Degree of Infraction (Value of
the Delta)
Green Greater than 0
Yellow -5 to -10
Light Orange -10 to -15
Orange -15 to -20
Light Red -10 to -25
Red -25 or less
NOTE: To viewdetails of the failing radials summary, open the Failing_
Radials.tab in a Browser window.
Site Summaryif you want sites displayed and identified using a green
circle (pass) or a red star (fail) when the calculations are complete. To
viewdetails of the site summary, open the Site_Summary.tab in a
Browser window.
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Mentum Planet File Types
Appendix A Mentum Planet File Types
When you design a wireless network using Mentum Planet, you will
encounter the file types described in this appendix.
This appendix covers the following topics:
Understanding project folders and files 452
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Understanding project folders and files
When you design a wireless network using Mentum Planet, you will encounter
the file types described in the tables below.
Project files
File Description
.algr An antenna algorithm file saved, by default, in the Antenna
Algorithm folder with the project folder.
.curve A file created in the Curve Editor and stored in the Curves folder
within the project folder.
.flt A binary file containing the filter loss and frequency offset for
each sector and each equipment type as defined in the Filter
Loss dialog box.
.fpp A frequency plan file.
.paf A Planet Antenna Format file saved in the Antennas folder
within the project folder.
.pex A compressed file that contains at a minimum an .xml file with
the necessary instructions and structure.
.flt A binary file containing the filter loss and frequency offset for
each sector and each equipment type as defined in the Filter
Loss dialog box.
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Output files
File Description
.grd /.tab A numeric grid file that is always accompanied by an
associated .tab file. The .grd file contains the rawgrid and
color information. The .tab file is required by MapInfo
Professional to open and register the grid image. The .tab file
also contains metadata of the grid data.
.grc /.tab A grid file that contains integer (not numeric) data. It is also
referred to as a classified grid. The .tab file is required by
MapInfo to open and register the grid image. The .tab file also
contains metadata on the settings of the grid data.
.imx An interference matrix file.
.nl A neighbor list file.
.pfc A contour color profile with specific break points (ranges) that
are applied when you convert a grid to a vector contour map.
.pfr A text file containing point-to-point profile settings (including
data files), antenna pattern and azimuth, sector, and receiver
values.
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MapInfo files
File Description
.map Map file for objects associated with .tab files (see Output
files).
.id IDof objects associated with .tab file.
.dat Data file associated with .tab or .xml file.
.tda Intermediate file generated by MapInfo when edits have not
been saved. Serves as an intermediate save. Handled only by
MapInfo.
.tin Intermediate file generated by MapInfo when edits have not
been saved. Serves as an intermediate save. Handled only by
MapInfo.
.tma Intermediate file generated by MapInfo when edits have not
been saved. Serves as an intermediate save. Handled only by
MapInfo.
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