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# Maxwell 2D Application Note

## A 2D Eddy Current Problem

This application note investigates the classical jumping rings experiment using a 2D axisymmetric
eddy current model. In this example, three rings are stacked on top of each other around a common axis.
The bottom ring provides a 10 kHz excitation that induces eddy currents and losses in the other two
rings. These rings are repelled from ring1 and can be suspended by the magnetic field as the current in
ring1 is increased.
The model consists of three solid copper rings. The bottom ring (ring1) has a peak current of 1A, while
ring2 and ring3 have no excitation and are open-circuited. The open-circuit condition is simulated by
constraining the total current to zero. A physical layout of the actual device is shown in:

Figure 1
3-Ring Eddy Current Model
open points
in rings
I
1
ring3
ring2
ring1

After the problem is solved, you can do the following:
View the impedance matrix.
Calculate the power loss using two independent methods, and compare it to the loss in the
convergence table.
Calculate the induced voltage (V
2
) across the open ends of ring2 .
The analysis includes all skin and proximity effects in the calculation of the impedance matrix, power
losses, and voltage.

Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 1
Setting up the 2D Model
In this problem, create a project using the eddy current solver in the RZ plane. Set the drawing units to
centimeters and the drawing size to:
minimum R = 0
minimum Z = -10
maximum R = 20
maximum Z = 10
Set the grid spacing to 1 cm in each direction.
Draw the Model
A cross-section of the model is shown below. This is a 2-dimensional axisymmetric drawing; an
axisymmetric model is rotated 360 around the z-axis (displayed as the v-axis in the drawing).

Figure 2
Cross-section of 3-ring Eddy Current Model

The model consists of three donut-shaped rings.
To create the cross-section of the rings:
1. Draw a circle named ring1 with a center at (1,0), a radius of 0.1 cm, 36 segments, colored red.
2. Draw a circle named ring2 with a center at (1,0.5), a radius of 0.1 cm, 36 segments, colored green.
3. Draw a circle named ring3 with a center at (1,0.8), a radius of 0.1 cm, 36 segments, colored
yellow.
Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 2
Assign Materials
Assign copper to each of the three rings. The background should be vacuum.
Assign Boundaries and Sources
To assign current sources and boundaries to the model:
1. Choose Setup Boundaries/Sources from the Executive Commands menu, then select background
using one of the Pick menu commands. Assign a balloon boundary to the background.
2. Select ring1, and choose Assign/Source/Solid.
Choose Total current.
Assign a current of 1A, with a phase of zero. This is the peak current.
3. Select ring2 and ring3, and choose Assign/Source/Solid.
Choose Total current.
Assign a current of 0A, with a phase of zero.
This forces the total current flow around the rings to be zero in order to model the open-circuit
condition.
Setup Executive Parameters
The impedance matrix is necessary to compute the resistance and inductance of the rings. You can
view the matrix after the solution is complete by choosing Solutions/Matrix from the Executive
Commands window.
To assign parameters in the Impedance Matrix window:
1. Select all three rings from the object list.
2. Select Include in matrix.
3. Assign Default as the return path.
Setup Solution/Options
Set up the following conditions under Setup Solution/Options:
Starting Mesh Initial
Solver Residual 1e-005
Solver choice Auto
Frequency 10 kHz
Solve for Fields and Parameters
Percent Refinement per pass 15
Number of requested passes 13
Percent error 0.05

Choose Solve/Nominal Problem to start the solution process.

Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 3
Viewing the Results
You can examine the solution results by viewing the calculated matrix, and by viewing the results of the
simulation from the 2D Post Processor.
View the Impedance Matrix
After the project has solved, choose Solutions/Matrix to view the results of the impedance matrix.
Each term in the matrix will have the form (R, L), with R in ohms and L in henries. Thus, the 3x3
matrix produced by this problem will appear as:
R
11
L
11
, R
12
L
12
, R
13
L
13
,
R
21
L
21
, R
22
L
22
, R
23
L
23
,
R
31
L
31
, R
32
L
32
, R
33
L
33
,
The diagonal resistance terms represent the self-resistance of each coil due to the DC component
and skin effects, as well as the proximity effects in all other conductors. The off-diagonal
resistance terms result from proximity effect currents induced in one coil due to excitation in the
other coil.
The diagonal inductance terms represent the self-inductance of each coil, while the off-diagonal
terms represent the mutual inductance due to coupling.
The matrix results should closely resemble the results shown in the following matrix. The negative
resistance R
13
means that the current in ring1 induces a current in ring3, which actually reduces the
AC resistance of ring3:

ring1
ring2 ring3
ring1 4.006e-4, 3.267e-8 1.722e-5, 1.090e-8 6.872e-6, 6.726e-9
ring2 1.722e-5, 1.090e-8 4.273e-4, 3.234e-8 1.339e-5, 1.651e-8
ring3 6.872e-6, 6.726e-9 1.339e-5, 1.651e-8 4.214e-4, 3.242e-8
The diagonal term R
11
is made up of the following resistive components due to ring1, ring2, and
ring3. (The ring1 DC resistance is obtained by running a separate simulation a 0.1Hz. The R
11
term
as well as ring2 and ring3 proximity terms are taken from the matrix above. Finally, The ring1 skin
effect term is calculated as the difference between of all of these terms.)

ring1 DC resistance = 3.458e-004
ring1 skin effect = 4.445e-005
ring2 proximity effect from I
1
= 1.722e-005
ring3 proximity effect from I
1
= 6.872e-006
R
11
= 4.006e-004 ohms
In this example, with a 1 A peak current in ring1, and with both ring2 and ring3 open-circuited, the
total power loss can be calculated by hand from the impedance matrix using the following formula:
P = *I
2
peak
R
11
= *1
2
*4.006e4 = 2.003e4 (Watts)
This value also corresponds to the Total Power Loss in the convergence table.
Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 4
Plot the Fields
Now that you have generated a solution, you can analyze the data in the 2D Post Processor.
Specifically, what you want to calculate and display are:
The total power loss, total current flow, and rotational current flow in the rings.
Flux lines plot.
Current density plot for ring2 and ring3.
Induced voltage (V
2
) across the open-circuit point in ring2.
To plot and analyze the data:
1. Choose Post Process/Nominal Problem from the Executive Commands menu to access the Post
Processor.

2. Create an object list for the rings using: Geometry/ Create/ Object List/ Name: list1, and select
ring1, ring2, and ring3 and click on ok.

3. Choose Data/ Calculator and calculater the total power loss in all three rings for the +1, 0, 0 amp
excitation case.
Quantity
EM_loss
Geometry
Surface: list1
ok
RZ_Integral
Evaluate
The total power loss in all three rings is: 2.003e-004 (W). This number is equal to the power in the
convergence table, and also to the power calculated by hand from R11 in the impedance matrix.

4. View the flux lines plot.
First zoom into the three rings using: View / Zoom In.
Choose Plot/Field, then select:
Plot Quantity: Flux Lines(AtPhase)
On Geometry: Surface -all-
In Area: -all-
Phase = 0
ok
Uncheck filled and clicko on ok

Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 5

Figure 3:
Distortion in Flux Caused By Eddy Currents

5. Verify the total current flow around each of the rings. Choose Data/Calculator, then select:
Quantity
J
Scalar
Scalar_PHI
Complex
Real
Geometry
Surface: ring1
ok
Integrate
Evaluate

Note that the current in ring1 is close to 1 A. Repeating these steps for ring2 and ring3 yields a
net current ~ 0 A, which represents an open-circuited ring.

6. Calculate the rotational current flow along each incremental section of the rings. Since net
current flow in these rings is zero, the absolute value of J will return the current flowing locally in
each ring. Choose Data/Calculator, then select:
Quantity
J
Scalar
Scalar_PHI
Complex
Real
Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 6
Abs
Geometry
Surface: ring1
ok
Integrate
Evaluate

The magnitude of the total current in ring1 is displayed. Note that the current in ring1 is close to
1 A. Now repeat the above procedure for rings 2 and 3, yielding currents of 0.087 and 0.048A.
The current flowing along each side of ring2 is a rotational eddy current equal to * 0.087 =
0.044A. For ring3, the current flowing along each side of is * 0.048 = 0.024A. This current
flows in opposite directions on either side of ring2 and ring3 unlike the current flow in ring1,
which is only circumferential.

7. View the current density in ring2 and ring3. Choose Data/Calculator, then select:
Quantity
J
Scalar
Scalar_PHI
Complex
Real
Geometry
Surface: list1
ok
Plot
Under the plot settings, check "filled" and select "Use Limits" under Plot Scale.
Max = 53000
Min = 53000
Choose ok to display the plot.

Figure 4:
Current Density in the 3 Rings

Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 7
8. Rescale the current density plot to emphasize the skin and spirality effects in ring1, as opposed
to ring2 and ring3. Choose Plot/ modify and and select "Auto Scale" under Plot Scale. Then,
choose ok to display the plot. On ring1, the current density on the surface is higher due to skin
effect, and higher towards the axis of symmetry due to the DC spirality effect.

Figure 5:
Current Density in the 3 Rings showing Skin Effect in ring1

9. Calculate the voltage (V
2
) induced across the open-circuit point in ring2. This voltage is the
negative of the voltage that is required to ensure that the total current flow around ring2 is zero.
It can be calculated by hand from the impedance matrix using the following formula:

V
2
= I
1
* Z
12

= I
1
* (1.722e-5 + j(1.090e-8))
= 1* (1.722e-5 + j2*10000*1.090e-8)
= 1.722e-5 j (6.849e-4)
= 6.851e-4 91.4 (V peak)
The open circuit voltage (V
2
) can also be calculated by integrating the average electric field in
ring2 around its circumference using the following formula, where E = jA, = 2(10000),
and area = 3.1257e-6:

Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 8
) ( 4 85 . 6
1257 . 3
62800
1
1
6
'
2
peak V e
V d A j
e
V d A j
area
V d A j
area
V d E
area
L d E V
RZ
RZ
RZ
RZ
=
=
=
=
=
=

10. To calculate the complex magnitude of the voltage using the plane calculator, choose
Data/Calculator, then select:
Quantity

A
Scalar / Scalar PHI
Cmplx / CmplxMag, since A_vector is a complex number, the CmplxMag includes both
real and imaginary components. Note that the complex magnitude is equal to:

2
_
2
_ imag real
A A

+

To multiply by ; select:
Number
Scalar
2
Ok
Constant
Frequency
Constant
Pi
*
*
*
To divide by area; select:
Number
Scalar
1
Ok
Geometry
Surface: ring2
Ok
Integrate
Evaluate
Exchange
Pop
/
Finally, do an RZ integration to determine the voltage across the ends of ring2.
Geometry
Surface: ring2
Ok
RZIntegral
Evaluate
Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 9
Application Note AP030-9901
Rev. 6/24/02 pg. 10
The open circuit voltage induced across the open point in ring2 is 6.86e-004 V. This equals the
voltage calculated by hand from Z12 in the impedance matrix, as well as that calculated by
integrating the average electric field. This is the complex magnitude of the voltage. The real and
imaginary components can be individually determined by substituting Complex/Imag and
Complex/Real in the steps above. These voltages are: V
2
'(real) = -1.80e-005 and V
2
'(imaginary)
= -6.85e-004 which are nearly the same as the voltage calculated by hand in step 9 above.
References:
Prediction and Use of Impedance Matrices for Eddy-Current Problems, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,
Kent R. Davey and Dalian Zheng, vol. 33 pp. 2478-2485, 1997.