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INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY



ABOUT THE COMPANY
Adani Power Limited is the power business arm of Indian business conglomerate
Adani Group with head office at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The company is India's largest
thermal private power producer with capacity of 5280 MW and also it is the largest
solar power producer of India with capacity 40MW.
The company currently operates five supercritical boilers of 660MW each (as per
March 2012) at Mundra Gujrat & One 660MW out of 05 units at Tirora, Maharashtra.
It also operates a mega solar plant of 40MW at Surendra nagar, Gujrat. It is India's
first company to achieve the supercritical technology. The plant is the only thermal
power plant in india to be certified by UN under CDM.
The company is currently implementing 16500 MW at different stages of construction.
Its mission is to achieve 20000 MW by 2020. The company currently produces
electricity using only coal. 100MW of solar power station is also under advanced stage
of implementation at Surendranagar in Gujarat out of which 40MW is already
commissioned. The company has gone to long term PPAs of about 7200MW of its
9280MW with government of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana and Rajasthan

HISTORY
The company was changed to Adani Power Private Limited. The RoC issued a fresh
certificate of incorporation on 3 June 2002. The Company was, thereafter, converted
into a public limited company on 12 April 2007 and the name of the Company was
changed to Adani Power Limited.
Adani power was started as a power trading company 1996. It started generation in
July 2009 by implementation of its first 330MW of 4620mw at Mundra. The Mundra
super mega project is the largest coal based power project of India and fifth largest in
the world. The company commissioned another three 330 MW by November 2010 and
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country's 1st supercritical unit of 660 MW on 22 December 2010, making its capacity
1980 MW. 0n 6 June 2011 it synchronized its second unit of 660 MW bringing the total
generating capacity to 2640 MW and on 2 October 2011, it synchronized its third super
critical unit with national grid .With this,Adani power has become largest thermal power
generating company in the private sector and the Mundra plant has become India's
Largest Power plant with capacity 3300MW. In February 2012, it commissioned the
last unit of Mundra Project to take its capacity to 4620MW which makes the Mundra
TPP to be the largest privately held Thermal power plant of World and fifth largest on
an overall basis(As per March,2012).

OPERATIONS
The company currently operates 4620 MW coal based Mundra Thermal Power Station
at Mundra, Gujarat. It operates first power transmission project of 400KV Double
Circuit Transmission System from the Mundra plant to Dehgam (430 km). The
company operates India's first supercritical unit of 660MW. It also implemented
country's only private 1000 km HVDC transmission line for efficient transmission of
power to Haryana. The company produces 40MW of solar power in Gujrat showing its
interest in renewable energy.
The company is currently implementing thermal projects of 3300MW (5X660MW) at
Tiroda, Maharastra at Tirora one unit of 660 MW have been generating Power since
Mid of 2012 & another is going to commissioned in the end of 2012 and 1320MW
(2X660MW) at Kawai, Rajsthan, and a 100 MW solar project at Surendranagar
Gujrat(40MW commissioned).
FUTURE PROJECTS
As of January 2011, the company has 16500MW under implementation and planning
stage. A few of them are 3300MW coal based TPP at Bhadreswar in Gujarat, 2640
MW TPP at Dahej in Gujarat, 1320 MW TPP at Chhindwara in Madhya Pradesh, 2000
MW TPP at Anugul in Orissa and 2000MW gas based power project at Mundra in
Gujarat. The company is also bidding for 1000 MW of lignite coal based power plant
at Kosovo showing its international projects.

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1. INTRODUCTION TO THE POWER PLANT
Electricity is the only form of energy which is easy to produce, easy to transport, easy
to use and easy to control. So, it is mostly the terminal of energy for transmission and
distribution. Electricity consumption per capita is the index of the living standard of
people of place or country.
Electricity Demand and Supply in India: India is facing energy shortages of 11% of
demand and even higher peak shortages of 14%Demand-supply gap is more acute in
Western region (where 70% of the Projects power will be supplied) with energy deficit
at 16% and peak deficit at 21% Capacity additions of 160,000 MW required in the
next 10 years to meet Indias power demand. New capacity need to be added using a
combination of coal, hydro, gas, nuclear and wind projects
Types of Power Plants: Electricity in bulk quantities is produced in power plants, which
can be of the following types:
Thermal
Nuclear
Hydraulic
Gas turbine
Geothermal


IndiasInstalled Capacity (132,329 MW)
55%
10%
26%
3%
6%
Coal & lignite Gas Hydro Nuclear Other
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2. LOCATIONAL DETAILS OF MUDRA

Site Location
Latitude : 224835N
Longitude : 693253E
Nearest Village : Tunda, Taluka Mundra, Dist Kutch, Gujarat State.
Mean Sea Level : 5.1 m
Total area : 294 Ha

Highway Connectivity
State Highway : SH6 - 3.4 KM
National Highway : NH 8A extension - 5.7 km
Nearest port : Mundra Port 17.23 km

Airport
Bhuj : 52 KM
Kandla : 64 KM
Adani Pvt. Port : 25 KM

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3.OVERVIEW OF POWER PROJECT at MUNDRA
Mundra Thermal Power Project
Power Generation Capacity


Adani Groups foray into power sector
The Groups foray into power sector is natural extension for Adani Group, which has
emerged as Indias largest coal importer and second largest power entity in the
country.
Adani Power Ltd (APL) is setting up a 4620 MW power project at Mundra based on
imported coal. The execution will be done in the following stages;
2*330 Phase I (sub critical)
2*330 Phase II (sub critical)
3*660 Phase III (super critical)
2*660 Phase IV (super critical)



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4.A VIEW OF ADANI POWER LTD.

5.DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER STATION

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COMPONENTS
Main parts of the plant are

1. Coal conveyor..13
2. Stoker....13
3. Pulveriser......13
4. Boiler......16
5. Air preheater..32
6. Deaerator..34
7. Turbine..35
8. Condenser.41
9. Cooling towers..43
10. Electrostatic precipitator...45
11. Smoke stack45
12. Generator.46
13. Transformers...49
Conclusion..50








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1. COAL CONVEYOR-
Coal conveyor is a belt type of arrangement. With this coal is transported from coal
storage place in power plant to the place near by boiler. Adani Power Ltd. have the
longest conveyor in India of 7KM long which convey the coal from the port to the plant.
Phase I & Phase II
Capacity : 5.50 T/ Hr / 6.6 T/Hr
Phase III & Phase IV
Capacity : 10-104 t/h

2. STOKER-
The coal which is brought near by boiler has to put in boiler furnace for combustion.
This stoker is a mechanical device for feeding coal to a furnace. It is also called feeder
or hopper.

3. PULVERIZER OR COAL MILL-
The coal is put in the boiler after pulverization. For this pulverizer is used. A pulverizer
is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a power plant.
Phase I & II : 5/6 mills per unit
Phase III & IV : 6 mills per unit








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COAL MILL Phase I / Phase II

No. of coal mills : 5 Nos. / 6 Nos.
Maximum capacity : 38.7 TPH / 43.7 TPH
Mill speed : 26.4 rpm
No. of coal Bunkers : 5 Nos. / 6 Nos
Mill type : Medium speed vertical grinder roller
Make : Beijing Power Equipment Group
Coal fineness : 75
Capacity of Bunkers : 400 MT Each
Capacity of coal feeder : 50 TPH
Outlet PA / Coal temp. : 85 C

Coal Mill Phase III & IV

No of Coal Mills : 6 nos.
Mill Type : Medium Speed Bowl Mill
Maximum Capacity : 86 t/h
Mill Motor Rated Power : 950KW
Mill Speed : 27.7 r/min
No. of Coal Burners : 24
Type of Construction : Tangential type tilting burner
No. of Coal Bunkers : 6nos.
Coal Bunker Capacity : 979 m^3.
Outlet PA / Coal temp. : 85 C
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Working Of Coal Mill-
1. Anthracite coal from the coal wagons is transported to the coal handling plant.
2. Here coal is crushed in crushers and reduced to 1 inch size (approx.).
3. This crushed coal is transported to the coal bunkers with the help of coal conveyers.
4. With the help of coal feeders coal from bunkers is made to fall in Coal mill.
5. Coal is grounded to powdery form in bowl mill. This finely grounded coal is known
as pulverized coal. Bowl mill consists of a round metallic table and three rollers.
Rotating table is made to rotate with the help of a motor. There are three large rollers
which are at a spacing of 120.When there is no coal these rollers does not rotate but
when coal is fed to the table it packs between the table and the roller and this forces
the rollers to rotate. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between table and rollers.
6. This pulverized coal is taken to the burner in coal pipes with the help of hot and
cold air mixture from primary air (PA) fan.


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4.BOILER-
Now that pulverized coal is put in boiler furnace. Boiler is an enclosed vessel in
which water is heated and circulated until the water is turned in to steam at he
required pressure.Coal is burned inside the combustion chamber of boiler. The
products of combustion are nothing but gases. These gases which are at high
temperature vaporize the water inside the boiler to steam. Some times this steam
is further heated in a super heater as higher the steam pressure and temperature
the greater efficiency the engine will have in converting the heat in steam in to
mechanical work. This steam at high pressure and temperature is used directly as
a heating medium, or as the working fluid in a prime mover to
convert thermal energy to mechanical work, which in turn may be converted
to electrical energy. Although other fluids are sometimes used for these purposes,
water is by far the most common because of its economy and suitable
thermodynamic characteristics.
There are two types of boiler in the power plant subcritical & supercritical 330MW
unit have subcritical boiler and 660MW unit have supercritical boilers.

Supercritical Technology
The supercritical technology is the thermodynamic state where there is no clear
distinction between the Water and Steam phase in the Rankine Cycle
Water reaches to steam state at a critical pressure above 22.1 MPa at 374C.

Rankine Cycle
The efficiency of the thermodynamic process is the heat energy fed into the
Rankine cycle is converted into electrical energy.
Heat energy input to the Rankine cycle is kept constant, the output can be
increased by selecting high pressures and high temperatures.
The key components are supercritical once through boiler and high pressure &
high temperature steam turbine.
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RANKINE CYCLE SUBCRITICAL UNIT

1 2 > CEP work
2 3 > LP heating
3 4 > BFP work
4 5 > HP heating
5 6 > Eco. WW
6 7 > superheating
7 8 > HPT work
8 9 > Reating
9 10 > IPT work
10 11 > LPT work
11 1 > Condensing

RANKINE CYCLE SUPERCRITICAL UNIT

1 2 > CEP work
2 2s > Regenration
2s 3 > Boiler superheating
3 4 > HPT expantion
4 5 > Reheating
5 6 > IPT & LPT Expantion
6 1 > condenser Heat rejection



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Difference between Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Boilers









SUB-CRITICAL BOILERS SUPER-CRITICAL BOILERS

Operating pressure is below 225.5 bar. Operating pressure is above 225.5 bar.
circulation by pump assisted or natural
circulation.
Lower load start-up circulation: below 35%
NR load.
Power plant efficiency is around 35% Power plant efficiency is around 39%

Pressure : 169 bar
SH Temp : 538C
RH Temp : 538C
Pressure : 254 bar
SH Temp : 571C
RH Temp : 571C
Base Additional cost to manufacturing and
erection of furnace wall.
Vertical water walls. Spiral wounded tilted water walls ensures:
Heat distribution on each wall is more
uniform than vertical water walls. Avoid
higher thermal stresses in water- walls by
reducing the fluid temperature difference in
adjacent tubes.
Steam Drum: For separation of Water and
Dry-Steam.
Steam Drum is not used.

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Boiler Design

Boiler Components
Water Walls
Separator
Economiser
Superheater
Reheater





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A DETAILED VIEW OF SUPERCRITICAL BOILER


Water Walls /Evaporator
The furnace circuitry consists of a lower section with optimized, vertical rifled tubes
that extend up to transition headers located at an elevation below the furnace nose.
The transition headers are interconnected to provide pressure equalization to minimize
flow unbalances and provide circuit flow stability. Above the transition header location,
vertical smooth bore tubes extend up to the furnace roof, and also form the furnace
exit screen and part of the vestibule side walls. The tube panels that form the furnace
enclosure are of Monowall type construction. Risers pipes extend from the furnace
enclosure upper headers and are routed to a collection manifold from which the flow
is directed to a final evaporator zone that forms the furnace nose, vestibule floor and
approximately half of the vestibule sidewalls. The furnace enclosure tube size and
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spacing were selected to provide a low mass flux (nominally 1000 kg/m2-s at full load)
to provide a natural circulation flow characteristic (as will be described in a
subsequent section) to accommodate radial heat absorption variations around the
perimeter of the furnace. Tube sizes and spacing, membrane fin sizes, and materials
are all selected to provide for base load service as well as the defined cyclic operation
of the plant.
The final evaporator zone that forms the furnace nose, vestibule floor, and part of the
vestibule sidewalls is provided to act as a buffer circuit to minimize tube temperature
differentials between the furnace evaporator walls and the adjacent HRA enclosure
superheater panels during start-up and transient conditions. The interface between
evaporator and superheater tubes is positioned near the center of the vestibule to
avoid structural discontinuities such as enclosure corners where stress concentrations
are the greatest. From the vestibule enclosure, steam is directed to four in-line
steam/water separators connected in parallel, which are part of the start-up system,
which is described below.
Separator-
Subcritical boilers are consist of drum arrangement and supercritical boilers are
consist of separator. The separator are once through arrangement.

DRUM vs ONCE THROUGH








SH
STEAM TO
TURBINE
HEAT
DOWN
COMER
DRU
M
ECO
Water Wall
ORIFICE
CIRC. PUMP
SH
STEAM TO
TURBINE
ECO
HEAT
Water Wall
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Pressure Sub critical Sub & super critical
Steam separation Drum Separator(low loads)
Types Natural / assisted Sulzer / benson
Burner panel Straight tube Spiral tube / straight(MHI)
Load change Base Faster
Cold start 4-5 Hours 2 Hours
Hot start 1-2 Hours 0.5 Hours

Economiser
An economizer is a heat exchanger which raises the temperature of the feedwater
leaving the highest pressure feed water heater to about the saturation temperature
corresponding to the boiler pressure. This is done by the hot flue gases exiting the
last superheater or reheater at a temperature varying from 370`C to 540`C. The
throwing away of such high temperature gases involved a great deal of energy loss.
By utilizing these gases in heating feedwater, higher efficiency and better economy
were achieved.
The flue gases coming out of the
boiler carry lot of heat. An
economiser extracts a part of this
heat from the flue gases and uses
it for heating the feed water
before it enters into the steam
drum. The use of economiser
results in saving fuel consumption
and higher boiler efficiency but
needs extra investment. In an
economizer, a large number of
small diameter thin walled tubes are placed between two headers. Feed water enters
the tubes through the other. The flue gases flow outside the tubes.

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Superheater
The superheater is a heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to the saturated
steam to increase its temperature. It raises the overall cycle efficiency. In addition it
reduces the moisture content in the last stages of the turbine and thus increases the
turbine internal efficiency. In modern utility high pressure boilers, more than 40% of
the total heat absorbed in the generation of steam takes place in the superheaters.
So, large surface area is required to be provided for superheating of steam.
Superheaters are commonly classified as:
Ceiling Superheater:
Primary Superheater or the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH):
Convection Superheater:
Platen or pendent panel Superheater:
Ceiling Superheater: A panel of small bore tubes interconnecting long header at both
ends, forms the roof of the furnace and the second pass of flue gas path. From here
the steam flows through different stages of superheating.
Primary Superheater or the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH): A panel of
small bore tubes formed in U shaped coils is connected to long headers on either
ends and located horizontally in second Pass of the flue gas path above the
economizer. Superheated steam from Ceiling Superheater enters at inlet and gets
heated further, raising the steam temperature. It is located in the low temperature
region of flue gas path. The steam just gets superheated and the temperature range
to which the steam is heated is very low compared to the final outlet steam temperature
and hence called Low Temperature Superheater.
Platen or pendent panel Superheater: Steam from Primary Superheater enters the
Platen Superheater. The Platen Superheater is located just above the combustion
zone at the top of the furnace. Mainly it receives radiant heat from the furnace and the
steam is further superheated. They are hanging panels arranged in rows across the
width of the furnace. Each panel is connected with its own small inlet and outlet
headers, which are in turn is connected to the big and long common headers, on both
inlet and outlet sides.

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Convection Superheater: From Platen Superheater the steam enters the next stage
of superheating, which is called Convection Superheater. Convection Superheater is
located away from radiant zone of the furnace and the heat transfer takes place by
convection process, when the mass of flue gases pass through and across the
convection Superheater coils. The steam gets its final heat addition while flowing
through the final Superheater stage and flows out through main steam pipes, for the
end use.
Reheater :
Some of the heat of superheated steam is used to rotate the turbine where it loses
some of its energy. Reheater is also steam boiler component in which heat is added
to this intermediate-pressure steam, which has given up some of its energy in
expansion through the high-pressure turbine. The steam after reheating is used to
rotate the second steam turbine where the heat is converted to mechanical energy.
This mechanical energy is used to run the alternator, which is coupled to turbine , there
by generating electrical energy.





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Boiler Technical data:-

I. Manufacturer : Harbine boiler company

II. Model : HG 2115/25.4-HM15

III. Type : Supercritical once through, primary
inter-mediate reheating, single furnace,
II type suspended structure.

IV. Type of firing : Wall mounted tangential firing

V. Water volume capacity : Economizer system 65 m
3


Water wall system 70 m
3

Start up system 22 m
3

Super heater 227 m
3

Re-heater 435 m
3
DESIGN SPECIFICATION OF THE BOILER

No. Item Specification Unit
1 Model HG2115/25.4 HM15
2 Mode Once-through boiler with supercritical
pressure
3 Superheater steam flow 2115.5 t/h
4 Superheater outlet pressure 25.4 Mpa
5 Superheater outlet temperature 571 C
6 Reheated steam flow 1714.9 t/h
7 Reheater inlet pressure 4.794 Mpa
8 Reheater outlet pressure 4.604 Mpa
9 Reheater inlet temperature 328.6 C
10 Reheater outlet temperature 569 C
11 Feedwater pressure 28.87 Mpa(g)
12 Feedwater temperature 292.6 C
13 Separators steam temperature 421 C
14 Air preheaters outlet air temperature 153.3 C
15 Uncorrected after 147.2 C
16 Calculating thermal efficiency of boiler 92.62% (BMCR)
17 Guarantee thermal efficiency of boiler 92.17% (TRL)
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18 Pulverizing type Cold primary fan positive pressure
direct blowing system
19 Burner type Wall mounted tangential circle
combustion, dry ash extraction
20 Draft type Balanced ventilation
21 Design fuel Indonesian coal
22 Check fuel Indonesian coal
23 Coal-fired quantity of the boiler 338 t/h
24 Check fuel 300 t/h
25 Fuel oil startup and ignition LDO and HDO
26 Superheated steam temperature adjustment Ratio of coal and water, secondary
spray desuperheating


Furnace detail
Furnace dimension (widthheightheightdepth)= 2356717012616 mm43
Horizontal pass depth : 5322 mm
Back pass front duct depth : 8618 mm
Break pass back duct depth : 9098 mm
Water wall lower header elevation : 7000 mm








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DRAUGHT SYSTEM
Large amount of air is required for combustion of fuel. The gaseous combustion
products in huge quantity have also to be removed continuously from the furnace. To
produce the required flow of air or combustion gas, a pressure differential is needed.
The term draught or draft is used to define the static pressure in the furnace, in the
various ducts, and the stack.
The function of the draught system is basically two folds:
To supply to the furnace the required quantity of air for complete of fuel.
To remove the gaseous products of combustion from the furnace and throw
these through chimney or stack to the atmosphere.
There are two ways of producing draught:
Natural draught
Mechanical draught
Natural Draught: The natural draught is produced by a chimney or a stack. It is caused
by the density difference between the atmospheric air and the hot gas in the stack.
Mechanical Draught: Mechanical draught is produced by fans.
Induced and Forced Draught Fans:
Big fans may be used for sucking and throwing out the flue gas through the chimney,
thereby creating adequate draught inside the furnace. Such Fans are termed as
Induced Draught Fans. Forced draught Fans may also be deployed for supply of
required quantity of combustion air and maintaining a positive draught inside the
furnace. The flue gas will be pushed out the stack with the draught pressure available
in the furnace.
Forced Draught Fan:
Air drawn from atmosphere is forced into the furnace, at a pressure higher than the
outside atmosphere, by big centrifugal fan or fans to create turbulence and to provide
adequate Oxygen for combustion. Hence the system is known by the name Forced
draught system and the fan, used to push through combustion air under pressure, is
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called Forced Draught Fan. F D fan is normally located at the front or sideways of the
furnace.


Induced Draught Fan
Instead of drawing atmospheric air and pushing through furnace, a centrifugal fan can
be deployed to draw out the air from the furnace and throw out through the chimney,
thereby creating negative pressure in the combustion zone and maintain the negative
draught through out the furnace. The system is called Induced Draught system and
the fan deployed for this purpose is known as Induced Draught Fan.

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In the Induced Draught system, the fan is fitted at back end of the furnace or near the
base of the chimney. Due to the negative pressure created inside the furnace, by the
action of the fan, flue gas will not come out of combustion space i.e. Furnace. The
entry of air to Boiler is regulated through air registers and dampers.
For similar capacity boilers, the size of an induced draught fan will be more than the
size of the forced draught fan required for a forced draught system. This is because
the products of combustion is always much higher in volume than the volume of
combustion air handled by the forced draught fan. Further the flue gas is hotter and
the density is less. Hence the volume is much more. According to Charles Law, when
a gas is heated the volume will proportionately increase at constant pressure, with the
raise in temperature. According to Boyles Law, if pressure inside a vessel is increased,
the volume will proportionately decrease and the vice-versa is also true (P 1/V).


Primary air fan
These are the large high pressure fans which supply the air needed to dry and
transport coal either directly from the coal mills to the furnace or to the intermediate
bunker. These fans may be located before or after the milling equipment. The most
common applications are cold primary air fans, hot primary air fans.
The coal primary air fan is located before air heater and draws air from the atm. And
supplies the energy required to force air through air heaters, ducts, mills and fuel
piping. With a cold air system like this the FD fan may be made smaller as PA fan
supply part of combustion air.
For primary air fans boosts the air pressure from air heaters for drying and transporting
coal from pulverisers in these systems the total air has to be handled by FD fans and
each mill will be provided with a primary air fan at the mill inlet side the primary fan in
these case has to handle hot air probably with some amount of fly ash carried from
the air pre-heater.


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5.AIR PREHEATER:
Air preheater are in generally divided into following two types:
Recuperative
Regenerative

In Recuperative APH, heat is directly transferred from the hot gases to the air across
the heat exchanging surface. They are commonly tubular, although some plate types
are still in use. Tubular units are essentially counter-flow shell-and-tube heat
exchangers in which the hot gases flow inside the vertical straight tubes and air flows
outside. Baffles are provided to maximize air contact with the hot tubes.
Regenerative APH are also known as storage type heat exchangers, have an energy
storage medium, called the matrix, which is alternately exposed to the hot and cold
fluids. When the hot flue gases flow through the matrix in the first half of the cycle, the
matrix is heated and the gas is cooled. In the next half of the cycle when air flows
through the matrix, air gets heated and the matrix is cooled. The cycle repeats itself.

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6.DEAERATOR :
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air
and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of
the metal.
Generally, power stations use a Deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other
dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. A deaerator typically includes a vertical,
domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which
serves as the deaerated boiler feed water storage tank.

7.STEAM TURBINE
INTRODUCTION:-
Turbine is a machine in which a shaft is rotated steadily by impact or
reaction of current or stream of working substance (steam, air, water, gases etc) upon
blades of a wheel. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance
into mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance. When the
working substance is steam it is called the steam turbine.

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PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION OF STEAM TURBINE:-
Working of the steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of Steam. The
steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: doe to this fall in pressure
a certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the
steam is set moving with a greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam,
enter the moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion
which gives rose to change of momentum and therefore to a force. This constitutes
the driving force of the machine. The processor of expansion and direction changing
may occur once or a number of times in succession and may be carried out with
difference of detail. The passage of steam through moving part of the commonly called
the blade, may take place in such a manner that the pressure at the outlet side of the
blade is equal to that at the inlet inside.Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse
turbine.On the other hand the pressure of the steam at outlet from the moving blade
may be less than that at the inlet side of the blades; the drop in pressure suffered by
the steam during its flow through the moving causes a further generation of kinetic
energy within the blades and adds to the propelling force which is applied to the turbine
rotor.Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse reaction turbine.
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The majority of the steam turbine have, therefore two important elements,
or Sets of such elements.These are the nozzle in which the system expands from high
pressure end a state of comparative rest to a lower pressure end a status of
comparatively rapid motion.
The blade or deflector, in which the steam particles changes its directions
and hence its momentum changes . The blades are attach to the rotating elements
are attached to the stationary part of the turbine which is usually termed the stator,
casing or cylinder.

Description of Steam Turbines:-
HP Turbine:-
The HP casing is a barrel type casing without axial joint. Because of its rotation
symmetry the barrel type casing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick
change in temperature. The inner casing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint
flange are relieved by higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. Due to
this reason barrel type casing are especially suitable for quick start up and loading.The
HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages. The moving and stationary blades are
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inserted into appropriately shapes into inner casing and the shaft to reduce leakage
losses at blade tips.

IP Turbine:-
The IP part of turbine is of double flow construction. The casing of IP turbine is split
horizontally and is of double shell construction. The double flow inner casing is
supported kinematically in the outer casing. The steam from HP turbine after reheating
enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. The centre
flows compensates the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet temperature affecting
brackets, bearing etc. The arrangements of inner casing confines high steam inlet
condition to admission branch of casing, while the joints of outer casing is subjected
only to lower pressure and temperature at the exhaust of inner casing. The pressure
in outer casing relieves the joint of inner casing so that this joint is to be sealed only
against resulting differential pressure.
The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per flow. The moving and stationary
blades are inserted in appropriately shaped grooves in shaft and inner casing.
LP Turbine:-
The casing of double flow type LP turbine is of three shell design. The shells are axially
split and have rigidly welded construction. The outer casing consist of the front and
rear walls , the lateral longitudinal support bearing and upper part.
The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams on the base plates of
foundation. The double flow inner casing consist of outer shell and inner shell. The
inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement.
Steam admitted to LP turbine from IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both
sides through steam inlet nozzles.




35
STEAM FLOW DIAGRAM OF TURBINES AND HEATERS


LOSSES IN STEAM TURBINE
Friction losses
Leakage losses
Windage loss( More in Rotors having Discs)
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Exit Velocity loss
Incidence and Exit loss
Secondary loss
Loss due to wetness
Loss at theBearings(appx 0.3% of total output)
Off design losses

Features of 660 MW Mundra Steam Turbine
Combined HP & IP Section
Shorter Turbine Length More Efficient
Reduced No. of Bearings
Reduced No. of Packing segments
Opposite flow in HP & IP Turbines makes thrust force balanced
Casings upper & lower halves are nearly symmetrical


8.Condenser :
Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to condenser. Condenser refers here to
the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed at the outlet of
every steam turbine in Thermal power stations of utility companies generally.
These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its gaseous to
its liquid state, also known as phase transition. In so doing, the latent heat of steam
is given out inside the condenser. Where water is in short supply an air cooled
condenser is often used. An air cooled condenser is however significantly more
expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine backpressure (and therefore
less efficient) as a surface condenser.
The purpose is to condense the outlet (or exhaust) steam from steam turbine
to obtain maximum efficiency and also to get the condensed steam in the form of
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pure water, otherwise known as condensate, back to steam generator or (boiler)
as boiler feed water.

heat exchanger
Tubes sea water
steam water (condensate)
vacuum is created due to steam / condensate volume difference
vacuum is maintained by constant cool water circulation through the tubes




9.COOLING TOWERS :
The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at
high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers. It is a tower- or
building-like device in which atmospheric air (the heat receiver) circulates in direct or
indirect contact with warmer water (the heat source) and the water is thereby cooled.
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A cooling tower may serve as the heat sink in a conventional thermodynamic
process, such as refrigeration or steam power generation, and when it is convenient
or desirable to make final heat rejection to atmospheric air. Water, acting as the
heat-transfer fluid, gives up heat to atmospheric air, and thus cooled,
is recirculated through the system, affording economical operation of the process.










COOLING TOWER :
Inlet water temperature : 60 C
Outlet water temperature : 35 C
Output : 150 m3/h
Motor Power : 7.5 kW


10.ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR(ESP) :
It is a device which removes dust or other finely divided particles from flue gases by
charging the particles inductively with an electric field, then attracting them to highly
charged collector plates. Also known as precipitator. The process depends on two
steps. In the first step the suspension passes through an electric discharge (corona
discharge) area where ionization of the gas occurs. The ions produced collide with the
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suspended particles and confer on them an electric charge. The charged particles drift
toward an electrode of opposite sign and are deposited on the electrode where their
electric charge is neutralized. The phenomenon would be more correctly designated
as electrode position from the gas phase.


11.SMOKE STACK/CHIMNEY :
A chimney is a system for venting hot flue gases or smoke from
a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. They are typically
almost vertical to ensure that the hot gases flow smoothly, drawing air into
the combustion through the chimney effect (also known as the stack effect). The space
inside a chimney is called a flue. Chimneys may be found in buildings, steam
locomotives and ships. In the US, the term smokestack (colloquially, stack) is also
used when referring to locomotive chimneys. The term funnel is generally used for
ship chimneys and sometimes used to refer to locomotive chimneys. Chimneys are
tall to increase their draw of air for combustion and to disperse pollutants in the flue
gases over a greater area so as to reduce the pollutant concentrations in compliance
with regulatory or other limits.
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These are 220M tall RCC structures with single / multiple flues inside the concrete
shells (one flue per 330 MW units). The height of these chimneys varies depending on
the location of power plant.
Stage I Chimney: 220M (two flues inside the outer concrete shell)
Stage II Chimney: 275M (two flues inside the outer concrete shell)
Stage III Chimney: 275M (two flues inside the outer concrete shell)
Stage IV Chimney: 275M (three flues inside the outer concrete shell)

12.GENERATOR :
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy
to alternating current electrical energy. Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field.
Different geometries - such as a linear alternator for use with stirling engines - are also
occasionally used. In principle, any AC generator can be called an alternator, but
usually the word refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other
internal combustion engines.
Generator is connected with the all HP, IP and LP turbines so when the turbines
rotates by the pressure of the steam the generator also rotate and due to magnetic
field it generates electricity.



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In 330MW unit the generator is connected with one HP turbine ,one IP turbine and
one LP turbine but In 660MW unit the generator is connected with one HP turbine,
one IP turbine and two LP turbine.

13.TRANSFORMERS :
It is a device that transfers electric energy from one alternating-current circuit to one
or more other circuits, either increasing (stepping up) or reducing (stepping down)
the voltage. Uses for transformers include reducing the line voltage to operate low-
voltage devices and raising the voltage from electric generators so that electric
power can be transmitted over long distances. Transformers act through
electromagnetic induction; current in the primary coil induces current in the
secondary coil. The secondary voltage is calculated by multiplying the primary
voltage by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary coil to that in the primary.
After generating the electricity by the generator the electricity passes through the
transformers and this is how the electricity is generated.












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CONCLUSION
The first phase of practical training has proved to be quiet fruitful. It provided an
opportunity for encounter with such hardworking engineers.
The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and
the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering
is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines, but the
greater part is of planning proper management.
It also provides an opportunities to learn low technology used at proper
place and time can cave a lot of labour But there are few factors that require special
attention. Training is not carried out into its tree sprit. It is recommended that there
should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities
should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students
and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done.
However training has proved to be quite fruitful. It has allowed an
opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical
fundamentals.