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LIBRARY INFORMATION COMMON APA Citation Style GUIDE TO REFERENCES AND CITATIONS IN TEXT

LIBRARY INFORMATION COMMON

APA Citation Style

GUIDE TO REFERENCES AND CITATIONS IN TEXT

Several departments and courses at Red Deer College, including Psychology, Nursing, and Social Work, require the use of the American Psychological Association (APA) style for citing references in student papers. It is important to remain consistent within the paper and to use the style recommended by your instructor. This guide addresses citation style only. For information on manuscript formatting, including title pages and appendices, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The purpose of documentation is to:

Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.

Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper.

Numbers in parentheses refer to pages in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), unless otherwise noted. The examples in this guide cover frequently used citation forms only. For more detailed information refer to:

the RDC online APA guide at http://rdc.libguides.com/apa

the Publication Manual at the Information Desk.

General Guidelines for APA Citation Style

All sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited with parenthetical references in the text of your paper (p. 170). Example: (Walker, 2003).

To document your research throughout the text of your paper cite by author and date (p.174). If quoting directly from a source, include the page number on which that quote appears. Example: (Walker, 2003, p. 238)

Double-space your entire paper, including the References list and any block quotes (pp.171, 180).

List References entries with a hanging indent (p.180).

Arrange References entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or by title or first word if there is no author (pp.181-183).

Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name (p.184).

If the References list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first (p.182).

When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs. When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. When a work has 6+ authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text (p.175).

If the author’s name is unavailable, use the title of the article, book or Web source, including the appropriate capitalization and italics format (pp.176-177). Example: (Scientists say, 2000).

In titles and subtitles capitalize only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns, except in parenthetical (in text) citations (p.185).

Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers.

References cited in text must appear in the References list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works; they are cited in text only and are not included in the References list (p.174).

When the References entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point (p.192).

See over for examples of Citations

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Citations in Text

References

 
 

BOOKS

General format (Author Surname, Year) (Author Surname, Year, p. #) [direct quote]

General format Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

(p. 202-205)

 

Book One author (p. 203)

(Harris, 2001)

Harris, L. A. (2001). Canadian copyright law (3 rd ed.). Toronto, ON: McGraw Hill Ryerson.

 
 

Edited book

(Burley & Harris, 2002, p.

Burley, J., & Harris, J. (Eds.). (2002). A companion to genethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

(p.202)

153)

 

Article or chapter in an edited book Multiple authors/editors

(Lawrence & Dodds, 2003, p. 524)

Lawrence, J. A., & Dodds, A. E. (2003). Goal-directed activities and life-span development. In J. Valsiner, & K. Connolly (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 517-533). London, England: Sage Publications.

(pp.202,204)

 

Article in a reference book

(Lindgren, 1994, p. 468)

Lindgren, H. C. (1994). Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 468-469). New York, NY:

(p.202)

Wiley.

 

E-book

(Ochs, 2004)

Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com/corp/

(p.203)

 

JOURNAL/MAGAZINE

General format (Author Surname, Year) (Author Surname, Year, p. #) [direct quote]

General Format Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of periodical home page [if available].

ARTICLES

(pp.198-202)

For more information on DOIs see pp.188-192

 

Journal article 3 authors, paginated by issue, with DOI (p.198)

(Westhues, Lafrance, & Schmidt, 2001, p. 47)

Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20(1), 35-56.

 
 

doi:10.1080/02615470020028364

 

Journal article From article database, with DOI (p.198)

(Pettigrew, 2009)

Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65. doi:10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55

 

Journal article From online periodical [Internet only], no DOI

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006)

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au /index.php/ejap

(p.199)

 

Magazine article

(Henry & Mehta, 1990, p.

Henry, W. A., & Mehta, N. S. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

Print (p.200)

30)

 

Magazine article From article database, no DOI (p.200)

(Kuttner, 2003)

Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24-26. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/

 

Newspaper article Discontinuous pages

(Wallace, 2007)

Wallace, K. (2007, December 4). Passport applicant finds massive privacy breach. The Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A8.

(p.200)

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Citations in Text

References

AUDIOVISUAL

   

MEDIA (pp.209-210)

Motion picture (Video Recording)

(Davidson & Davidson,

Davidson, F. (Producer), & Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. United States: Davidson Films.

1999)

(p.209)

YouTube Video

(Wesch, 2007)

Wesch, M. (2007, October 12). Information r/evolution [Video file]. Retrieved from

(p.215)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CV05HyAbM

Audio Podcast

(Van Nuys, 2007)

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

(p.210)

Electronic Image* (adapted from APA Publication Manual)

(Di Carpi, 1540)

Di Carpi, G. (1540). The holy family [image]. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/art/collections

/objects/o707.html

WEB SITES

General Format (Author Surname OR Title, Year) (Author Surname OR Title, Year, page or para. #) [direct quote]

General Format (include available elements) Personal or Corporate Author (if known). (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.). Title of specific document. Retrieved from URL of specific document [include a retrieval date only if the information is likely to change over time]

General info (pp.187-192)

Web page

(Browning, 1993, ¶12)

Browning, T. (1993). A brief historical survey of women writers of science fiction. Retrieved from http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~tonya/Tonya/sf /history.html

General

Web page from a Wiki No author, retrieval date included

(Neurology, n.d.)

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 8, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

Web page University site, no date

(Johnson & Becker, n.d.)

Johnson, K. A., & Becker, J. A. (n.d.). The whole brain atlas. Retrieved from Harvard University Medical School website: http://www.med.harvard.edu /AANLIB/

(p.206)

Government Document

(Environment Canada,

Environment Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service. (2004). The 1995 peregrine falcon survey in Canada. U. Banasch & G. Holroyd (Eds). (Occasional Paper no. 110). Retrieved from http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/publications

/AbstractTemplate.cfm?lang=e&id=1067

(p.205)

2004)

Lecture Notes

(Mokry, 2007)

Mokry, J. (2007). Lecture 3: The wonders of APA [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Red Deer College ZOO 342 Blackboard site.

*Please note: Images in text are also generally accompanied by a caption that includes copyright information and a statement of permission for use. Please check with your instructor to see if this is necessary.

See over for Tips on Citations In Text

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Citations In Text

How to Cite Quotations (pp.170-171) When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. Fit quotations within your sentences, enclosed in quotation marks, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.

marks, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct. Gibaldi (2003, p. 109) indicates that, “Quotations are

Gibaldi (2003, p. 109) indicates that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively”. Remember that “[q]uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109). In 2003, Gibaldi wrote that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p. 109).

If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin.

How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher. For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be identified as follows:

When writing the research paper, students should use quotations judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

How to Cite Lecture Notes / Personal Communications (p.179) Letters, memos, e-mails, personal interviews, and the like are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite them in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible:

(Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)

How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source (p.178) Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested. [Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).]

How to Cite Information If No Page Numbers Are Available (pp.171-172) If a resource contains no page numbers, as can be the case with electronic sources, then you cannot include a page number in the parentheses. However, if the source indicates paragraph numbers, use the abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it.

As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it… (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)

More Tips for APA Citation When you need to leave out part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information, insert ellipses (pp.172-173). If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, indicate the change with square brackets (p.173).

clarity, indicate the change with square brackets ( p.173 ). For more information access the APA
clarity, indicate the change with square brackets ( p.173 ). For more information access the APA

For more information access the APA website at www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspx and click on Learning APA Style.

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