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University of Twente

Department of Electrical Engineering


Chair for Telecommunication Engineering
Ethernet over Passive Optical
Networks
by
Christiaan Boomsma
Master thesis
Executed from 01-10-2004 to 24-05-2006
Supervisor: prof. dr. ir. W.C. van Etten
Advisors: dr. ir. C.G.H. Roelozen
Rajeev Roy Msc
Summary
The need for triple play digital broadband services increases every day. Both service
providers and manufacturers of electrical equipment provide new techniques to the
end-user. Although there are a lot of possibilities nowadays, the development has not
been stopped yet. New products are sometimes based on a new technique, others are
an improvement of a previous version.
A new initiative in the Netherlands is the Freeband project. This national project
contains several smaller projects with a common purpose, improve the xed infrastruc-
ture in the Netherlands. One of this sub-projects is the Freeband Broadband Photonic
project. It is started to investigate the possibilities of providing a high speed, multiple
services access point to a commercial or private end-user. Services presented to the
user are for example internet, television and telephony. To achieve this, a so called
Passive Optical Network (PON) will be used. Designs for this PON network are
dened in three dierent standards delivered by the IEEE and ITU-T. Each standard
describes a PON network based on a dierent technique. Depending on the technique
the standards are called Broadband-PON (BPON), Gigabit-capable PON (GPON) and
Ethernet-PON (EPON). Every standard provides a certain interface to the user, how-
ever not every interface is suitable. If a user is confronted with a new technique the
migration to this should be easy and cheap.
In this thesis these three dierent standards analyzed by their performance, physi-
cal properties and implementation possibilities. The last chapter will provide some
suggestions for the Freeband Broadband Photonic project.
iii
iv Summary
Contents
Summary iii
Preface ix
1 Optical communication 1
1.1 Optical networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Passive Optical Network architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.2 Passive versus Active Optical Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Standardization of Passive Optical Networks 7
2.1 ITU-T G.983.x BPON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.1 BPON physical layer properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.2 BPON frame format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 ITU-T G984.x GPON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.1 GPON network architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.2 GPON Physical Media Dependent (GPM) layer . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.3 GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) layer . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2.4 GTC Downstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.5 GTC upstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.6 GTC upstream payload mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.7 GEM data mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 EPON IEEE 802.3ah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.1 EPON stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.2 EPON layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.3 EPON frame format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3 A comparison between standards 45
3.1 Possible network structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1.1 Network redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1.2 Additional broadcast services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.1.3 Multiple standards on a single physical ber . . . . . . . . . . . 49
v
vi Contents
3.2 Physical Layer overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2.1 BPON Timing constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.2.2 GPON Timing constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.2.3 EPON Timing constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.3 Available security and data protection options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.3.1 BPON reliability and security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.3.2 GPON reliability and security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.3.3 EPON reliability and security options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.4 Data encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.4.1 BPON interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.4.2 GPON interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.4.3 EPON interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5 ONU and OLT initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5.1 BPON ONU initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5.2 GPON ONU initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5.3 EPON ONU initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.6 Eective rate / overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.6.1 BPON performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.6.2 GPON performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.6.3 EPON performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4 Implementations and recommendations 63
4.1 Purposes of the Freeband Broadband Photonic project . . . . . . . . . 63
4.2 Implementations from a userpoint of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3 Available service protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.4 Implementation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4.1 An GPON example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4.2 An EPON example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.5 Which standard to implement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5.1 Bandwidth and users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5.2 The mapping of services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5.3 The physical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5 Conclusions and recommendations 69
5.1 General conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.1.1 Dierences between BPON, GPON and EPON . . . . . . . . . 69
5.1.2 Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.1.3 Plug-and-play options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.1.4 Physical dierences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.2 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Contents vii
5.2.1 Freeband Broadband Photonic implementations . . . . . . . . . 71
5.2.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bibliography 75
A List of Acronyms 77
B BPON Churning function 81
viii Contents
Preface
This thesis is the result of my Master assignment at the Telecommunication Engineer-
ing group at the University of Twente. During this period I had the possibility to focus
on a part of the telecommunication world which is in an active development.
Hereby I would like to thank some people who made it possible for me to write this
thesis and nalize my study. At rst I would like to thank my supervisors Wim van
Etten, Chris Roelozen and Rajeev Roy for their support, suggestions and feedback.
Furthermore I would like to thank my friends who have given me their supported. My
special thanks are going to my parents for their support and the given opportunity to
complete my study. And at last but not least I would like to thank Jonny Barelds for
his support during this period.
Christiaan Boomsma
Enschede,
May 2006.
ix
x Preface
Chapter 1
Optical communication
1.1 Optical networks
To transmit data from one point to another, some signal path is needed between those
points. To create such path a medium is needed to transfer the data. The choice of
this medium depends on the requirements and available infrastructure. Examples of
media which can be used are air, copper or optical bers. With these media, radio
networks, electrical networks and optical networks can be created.
In this thesis optical networks will be discussed. For an optical network three compo-
nents are very important namely lasers, detectors and bers. The detectors and lasers
are combined into a transceiver which is capable of converting an electrical signal to
optical and vice versa.
As in electrical networks, optical networks are built with switching and routing equip-
ment as well. With this switching and routing equipment optical networks can be
congured in dierent ways, two examples are a passive or an active conguration.
Active networks are built with routers and switches which have their own power sup-
ply. While in passive networks the routers and switches dont have external power
supplies. The standards which will be discussed in Chapter 2 dene such Passive
Optical Networks (PONs).
Optical networks are categorized into several types. Figure 1.1 on page 2 shows three
structures which are used as an illustration in standards of the ITU Telecommunica-
tion Standardization Sector (ITU-T) [1], [2] and Institute of Electrical and Electron-
ics Engineers (IEEE) [3].
1
2 Chapter 1. Optical communication
Fiber
Fiber
Copper
Copper
OLT
ONU
ONU
FTTHome
FTTBuilding/Curb
FTTCabinet
ONT
NT
NT
Fiber
WAN Home network
UNI SNI
Access network
SNI = Service Network Interface
UNI = User Network Interface ONU = Optical Network Unit
NT = Network Termination
WAN = Wide Area Network
ONT = Optical Network Termination
Figure 1.1: Optical network architecture
Depending on the infrastructure between Provider and User the congurations are
called:
Fiber To The Home (FTTH)
Fiber To The Building (FTTB)
Fiber To The Curb (FTTC)
Fiber To The Cabinet (FTTCab)
In Figure 1.1 several components are shown. The access-point to the network is called
a Service Node Interface (SNI) at the provider side and a User Network Interface
(UNI) at the user side. The SNI to the network consists of an Optical Line Termi-
nation (OLT) which is the optical interface to the network. The optical ber is a
physical link between SNI and UNI and is called the Optical Distribution Network
(ODN). The termination point at the UNI can be an Optical Network Termination
(ONT) or Network Termination (NT). If a NT is used at the UNI, somewhere else in
the network an Optical Network Unit (ONU) has to be placed. This ONU has to ter-
minate the optical ber and convert the signal from optical to electrical. For an ONT
these two components, NT and ONU, are integrated into a single device. As shown in
Figure 1.1 each conguration has its own name, this will be explained on the next page.
1.1. Optical networks 3
FTTCab/FTTCurb/FTTB
In this conguration the ber will end up in a cabinet or patch-box where the optical
signal is converted to an electrical signal by the ONU. The distance between ONU and
NT is bridged by copper cables. Examples are large oce buildings, TV distribution
points in a residential area, telephone distribution or xDSL. In these congurations
bers provide the high capacity bandwidth to an area where individual copper cables
will deliver the signal to the end-user.
FTTH
Fiber to the home implies that the ber will enter the house where it is connected to
an ONU. The ONU converts the optical signal and presents a SNI to the end-user.
In this section the Passive Optical Network (PON) has been introduced. The
next section will discuss his type of network in more detail.
1.1.1 Passive Optical Network architectures
A PON consists of three main components as shown in Figure 1.2. A headend, repre-
sented by the OLT, and an ONU at the user-side. To connect them a single ber from
the OLT is split by a passive splitter to serve each ONU.
splitter 1:N
Passive optical
ONU
ONU
ONU
Subscriber
Headend
OLT
OLT = Optical Line Termination
ONU = Optical Network Unit
Figure 1.2: PON network
The passive optical networks dened in ITU-T [1], [2] and IEEE [3] have an OLT
with an active transmitter. The ONU can have an active transmitter as well or reuse
the received power to transmit data. All equipment between OLT and ONU should be
passive and therefore have no external power supply.
4 Chapter 1. Optical communication
1.1.2 Passive versus Active Optical Networks
In active networks management and collecting trac statics from remote locations is
possible. Based on these statistics the network can be recongured from remote loca-
tions.
For passive congurations active monitoring is only possible at the SNI and UNI. The
path between SNI and UNI acts like a black box. Any modication, like rerouting, in
the network should be done on-side. Besides this problem, there are more dierences
between Passive and Active networks, they are summarized now.
Dynamic links and management
In active optical networks the switching and routing hardware can create isolated
optical paths from source to destination. These are called Point-to-Point (P2P)
connections. Network operators can congure the manageable, or active, hard-
ware to create a network with the required functionality. In the case of a passive
conguration as described in ITU-T [1], [2] and IEEE [3] the splitters have a static
conguration. As a result only at the termination points management is possible.
Topology
Active networks can be congured as P2P or Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) net-
works at the physical level. The networks dened in ITU-T [1], [2] and IEEE
[3] can only be congured as a P2MP at the physical level. However with the
use of software a P2P topology can be emulated in a passive conguration. A
P2P network is most secure since each link is a physical link between two nodes.
In passive and active P2MP congurations all information is broadcasted in the
downstream
1
direction to all users which can be a security problem.
Physical reach
The physical reach between headend and user is for active networks many times
more than passive networks. This is due the fact the active components can
act as an optical amplier or repeater. In a passive network all power at the
headend has to be enough to serve at least 64 users as dened in ITU-T [1], [2]
and IEEE [3]. Another aspect which limits the maximum distance to 20 km is
the the ranging procedure, this will be discussed in chapter 3.5.1.
Upgrading a network
When networks or sub-networks are upgraded, an active network can partially
1
where downstream is from OLT to ONU
1.1. Optical networks 5
shut down depending on its conguration. For passive networks the whole net-
work should be down to modify it.
Bandwidth usage
The usage of bandwidth in an active network diers from the use in passive net-
works. In active networks there are separate transmitters and receivers connected
by a physical link, therefore they can have their own wavelength and capacity.
Passive networks use a shared ber between provider and splitter which has to
serve multiple users per wavelength.
This are some examples to deal with when designing and working with PONs. To
control the development of PONs some standards have been published. Each standard
describes several solutions and regulations which can help to design a network. Some
of these standards are still in development and are not nalized. The next chapter will
show the details about this.
6 Chapter 1. Optical communication
Chapter 2
Standardization of Passive Optical
Networks
To realize the implementation of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) two organizations
are active to standardize this namely the IEEE and the ITU-T. Both organizations have
released standards which can be used for further development and implementation of
PONs. The ITU-T released a standard called Broadband Passive Optical Network
(BPON) (G.983.x 1998) and a standard called Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Net-
work (GPON) (G.984.x 2003). The IEEE released a standard which is known as
Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) (802.3ah 2004). Each standard describes
the functionality of the rst two Open System Interconnection (OSI) network levels
as shown in Figure 2.1 on page 8. These levels have been dened by the OSI stan-
dardization organization in 1984. Many hardware and software developers are using
this OSI model to design communication systems in a modular way. Each level can be
implemented by one or multiple protocols. The two layers which are described by the
standards have the following functionality:
Layer 1 is the Physical layer which controls the transmission of raw bits over a
communication link [4].
Layer 2 is the Data link layer which decodes and encodes a packet into bits.
Besides this ow control and frame synchronization are controlled here. The
errors occurred at the physical level are handled here ass well.
7
8 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Physical Layer (1)
Network Layer (3)
Transport Layer (4)
Session Layer (5)
Presentation Layer (6)
Application Layer (7)
Applications / User
Data Link Layer (2)
Electrical / Optical medium
Figure 2.1: OSI reference model
2.1 ITU-T G.983.x BPON
The ITU-T started around 1998 with a standard which is known as Broadband op-
tical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (BPON) [2]. This standard
is sometimes called ATM over Passive Optical Networks (APON). The dierence
between APON and BPON are the extra overlay capabilities supported by BPON to
use video and other Broadband services.
The technology used in the BPON standard is called Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM). ATM is implemented nowadays in large interconnecting networks and was
standardized in the ITU-T I.732 in 1996 [5]. A BPON system consists, like any other
PON network, of a single OLT with multiple ONUs connected to it. The G.983.x stan-
dard denes a block schema for the ONU, Figure 2.2, and OLT, Figure 2.3 on page 9.
The ONU shown in Figure 2.2 consists of several parts. An ODN interface which
represents the connection between the ODN and the user. The multiplex/demultiplex
function combines and separates so called Virtual Paths (VPs). The User port is
used to insert and extract individual ATM cells from connected customers into frames.
The power and Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) block provide
the necessary electrical power and management facilities for the ONU.
2.1. ITU-T G.983.x BPON 9
Customer and services
multiplex / demultiplex
function
multiplex / demultiplex
Transission
function
ODN interface
function
Service shell
Common shell
OAM Power User Port
User Port
Function ODN
Function
Customer
Core shell
ODN = Optical Distribution Network
OAM = Operations, Administration and Maintenance
Figure 2.2: BPON ONU
The OLT as shown in Figure 2.3. It consists of a ODN interface where the optical
signal is translated to the electrical domain and vise versa. The Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
handles the dierent VP connections between the service port function and the ODN.
The Service Port Function extracts and inserts ATM cells into Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy (SDH) payload [6].
ODN interface
function
ODN interface
function
multiplex / demultiplex
Transission
function
ATM cross
connect
function
Function
Service Port
Function
Service Port
Network
Core
OAM
core shell
ODN
Service shell
Power
ODN = Optical Distribution Network
OAM = Operations, Administration and Maintenance
Figure 2.3: BPON OLT
In the next section the properties of the physical layer will be discussed as they are
standardized by the ITU-T.
2.1.1 BPON physical layer properties
The BPON ODN interface is located at the physical layer in the OSI model. For this
level several items are standardized. Transmission speed, wavelength and modulation
are a few examples which are interesting to mention here. For a BPON system the
standardized transfer speeds are shown in Table 2.1 on page 10.
10 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Table 2.1: BPON upstream and downstream speeds
Upstream Downstream
155.520 Mbit/s 155.520 Mbit/s
155.520 Mbit/s 622.080 Mbit/s
622.080 Mbit/s 155.520 Mbit/s
622.080 Mbit/s 622.080 Mbit/s
These transfer speeds are adopted from the SDH frame speed [7]. A speed of
155.520 Mbit/s is equal to a, Synchronous Transfer Mode-1 (STM-1) frame and a
speed of 622.080 Mbit/s with a STM-4 frame. Each bit pattern is coded according to
Scrambled NRZ with low light intensity as ZERO and high light intensity as ONE.
The scrambling is done at a higher level and described in chapter 3.3.1. The process
of Non Return to Zero (NRZ) encoding is illustrated in Figure 2.4.
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Figure 2.4: NRZ Encoding
This coded signal is modulated on a carrier, for a PON that will be a laser. The
ITU-T denes several wavelengths for the carriers used in a BPON systems. Each
wavelength is used for a dierent application as shown in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: BPON wavelengths[7]
Band Lower limit Upper limit
1.3m wavelength band 1260 nm 1360 nm
Intermediate wavelength band 1360 nm 1480 nm
Basic band 1480 nm 1500 nm
Enhancement band (I) 1539 nm 1565 nm
Enhancement band (II) 1550 nm 1560 nm
Future L band N/A N/A
An detailed description of the applications for each wavelength band in Table 2.2
is shown on the next page.
2.1. ITU-T G.983.x BPON 11
1.3m wavelength band
This band is used for the PON upstream data, where upstream is dened as data
travelling from ONU to OLT.
Intermediate wavelength band
For this wavelength range no application is dened yet, it can be used to imple-
ment additional services in the future.
Basic band
The Basic Band is used for the PON downstream data, where downstream is
dened as data travelling from OLT to ONU.
Enhancement band (I)
This band can be used for additional digital services.
Enhancement band (II)
This band is reserved to implement video distribution services.
Future L band
No purpose is assigned to this band, it can be used for additional services dened
by the ITU-T.
In the next section the lay-out of the data frames used by a BPON system will be
discussed, and how they are constructed at the higher level.
2.1.2 BPON frame format
The frames used in a BPON network are constructed from so called ATM cells and
Physical Layer Operation, Administration and Management (PLOAM) cells. The
ATM cells are used to transmit the user data. PLOAM cells are used to control the
data ow between the user and transmitter. BPON distinguishes two frame types, one
for downstream
1
and one for upstream
2
. Each frame has a xed transmission time
of 152.67 s. Therefore a 155-Mbit/s downstream frame consists of 2968 bytes and a
622-Mbit/s of 11872 bytes. Figures 2.5 and 2.6 on the next page give an overview of
an entire frame for a 155-Mbit/s BPON system and a 622-Mbit/s BPON system.
1
Downstream is dened as data travelling from OLT to ONU
2
Upstream is dened as data travelling from ONU to OLT.
12 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
ATM
cell 1
ATM
cell 3
ATM
cell 2
ATM
= 3 overhead bytes per cell
cell 53
ATM
cell 1 1
ATM
cell 27
PLOAM
2
ATM
cell 28
ATM
cell 54
PLOAM
BPON 155Mbit/s
Tframe = 56 cells of 53 bytes
Tframe = 53 cells per frame
Upstream frame
Downstream frame
Figure 2.5: BPON downstream and upstream frame for 155-Mbit/s
cell 1
ATM ATM
cell 2
ATM
cell 3
ATM
cell 212
= 3 overhead bytes per cell
Upstream frame
Tframe = 4 x 53 cells per frame
PLOAM
1
ATM
cell 1 to 27
PLOAM
2
ATM
cell 28 to 54
PLOAM
8
ATM cell
190 to 216
Downstream frame
Tframe = 4 x 56 cell of 53 bytes
BPON 622Mbit/s
Figure 2.6: BPON downstream and upstream frame for 622-Mbit/s
As is shown in Figures 2.5 and 2.6 each PLOAM cell is followed by 27 ATM cells.
The ATM cells used in the frame have the standard ATM cell format as dened by the
ITU-T I.361 [8] and is shown in Figure 2.7 on page 13.
2.1. ITU-T G.983.x BPON 13
GFC
bit 58
VPI
bit 58
VCI
bit 18
VCI
bit 58
PT
bit 24
CLP
bit 1
HEC
bit 18
PAYLOAD
48 bytes
VPI
bit 18
VPI
bit 58
VCI
bit 14
VCI
bit 18
VCI
bit 58
PT
bit 24
CLP
bit 1
HEC
bit 18
PAYLOAD
48 bytes
1 Byte
NNI
53 Bytes
LSB MSB
1 Byte
UNI
VCI
bit 14
VPI
bit 14
LSB MSB
53 Bytes
GFC = Generic Flow Control
VPI = Virtual Path Identifier
VCI = Virtual Channel Identifier
HEC = Header Error Control
PT = Payload Type
CLP = Congestion Loss Priority
Figure 2.7: ATM cells used at SNI and NNI
The downstream PLOAM cell has a predened structure. It consists like ATM
cells of a 5-byte header, and a 48-bytes payload section, together 53-bytes as shown in
Figure 2.8 on page. The header is used to identify the PLOAM cell, the ITU-T I.361
standard denes several PLOAM header patterns. For BPON the header pattern is
dened as shown in Figure 2.8. The payload section of a PLOAM is lled with the
HEC
0111 0110
PLOAM
Header
5bytes
Payload
48bytes
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1101
Figure 2.8: BPON PLOAM structure
operations, administration and management data. In Table 2.3 on the next page the
contents of a downstream frame is shown, each eld is one byte long.
14 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Table 2.3: PLOAM downstream Payload
1 IDENT 13 GRANT9 25 GRANT20 37 MESSAGE FIELD1
2 SYNC1 14 GRANT10 26 GRANT21 38 MESSAGE FIELD2
3 SYNC2 15 GRANT11 27 CRC 39 MESSAGE FIELD3
4 GRANT1 16 GRANT12 28 GRANT22 40 MESSAGE FIELD4
5 GRANT2 17 GRANT13 29 GRANT23 41 MESSAGE FIELD5
6 GRANT3 18 GRANT14 30 GRANT24 42 MESSAGE FIELD6
7 GRANT4 19 CRC 31 GRANT25 43 MESSAGE FIELD7
8 GRANT5 20 GRANT15 32 GRANT26 44 MESSAGE FIELD8
9 GRANT6 21 GRANT16 33 GRANT27 45 MESSAGE FIELD9
10 GRANT7 22 GRANT17 34 CRC 46 MESSAGE FIELD10
11 CRC 23 GRANT18 35 MESSAGE PON ID 47 CRC
12 GRANT8 24 GRANT19 36 MESSAGE ID 48 BIP
Each of these bytes have their own function. Below an explanation of each byte is
summarized.
IDENT
The IDENT byte is reserved for future use. The current standard denes a value
of 11111111 for the rst PLOAM IDENT of a frame. The next PLOAM IDENT
elds in the frame will have a value of 0000000.
SYNC
The Sync elds SYNC1 and SYNC2 can be used for synchronization between OLT
and ONU. At the OLT a counter is incremented. For a 155 Mb/s connection the
counter is increased after each byte, for a 622 Mb/s connection the counter is
increased each 4 bytes. This counter is reset every 1 ms, as a result a 1 kHz
reference signal is generated. The value of this counter is taken right before
transmission of the rst PLOAM cell of a frame and inserted in the SYNC elds.
At reception the ONU counter is locked on the OLT counter.
GRANT
To inform the ONU about an upstream time slots, it receives so called GRANTS.
For a 155 Mbit/s upstream frame there are 53 GRANTS needed, for the 622
Mbit/s connection this will be 212 grants. In a downstream frame there are
more PLOAM cells available than GRANTS needed to be send. To ll these
superuous PLOAM GRANT elds so called idle grants are used. The dierent
GRANT types and their coding can be found in Table 2.4 on the next page.
2.1. ITU-T G.983.x BPON 15
Three codings are reserved, they are used to identify Ranging, Unassigned and
Idle GRANTS.
Table 2.4: GRANTS
Type Encoding Denition
Data Grant Any value except For indicating an upstream ONU-specic
1111 1101 data grant. The value of the data Grant
1111 1110 is assigned to the ONU during the ranging
1111 1111 protocol using the grant allocation message.
The ONU can send a data cell or an idle cell
if no data is available [2]
PLOAM Grant Any value except For indicating an upstream ONU-specic
1111 1101 PLOAM grant. The value of the PLOAM
1111 1110 grant is assigned to the ONU during the
1111 1111 ranging protocol using the grant allocation
message. The ONU always sends a PLOAM
cell in response to this grant. [2]
Divided slot grant Any value except For indicating an upstream group of ONU-
1111 1101 specic divided slot grant. The OLT
1111 1110 allocates the grant to a set of ONUs using the
1111 1111 Divided slot grant conguration message.
Each ONU of this set sends a mini slot.[2]
Reserved Grants Any value except In a future session of this Recommendation
1111 1101 other grant types will be used for specic
1111 1110 data grants (e.g. to address a specic ONU
1111 1111 interface or QoS class) [2]
Ranging Grant 1111 1101 Used for the ranging process. The condition to
reach to this grand is described in the ranging
protocol. [2]
Unassigned Grant 1111 1110 For indication an unused upstream slot. [2]
Idle Grant 1111 1111 For decoupling the downstream PLOAM rate
from the upstream cell rate. These grants are
ignored by the ONU.[2]
CRC
Every group of grants and messages is concluded with a CRC check to protect
the integrity. For this CRC the polynomial g(x) = x
8
+x
2
+x + 1 is used.
MESSAGE
Every OAM message is transported by the MESSAGE FIELD in the PLOAM.
These MESSAGE FIELDS are protected by a CRC. The MESSAGE PON ID is
an address eld which represents the source of the message. This is equal to the
PON ID assigned during the ranging procedure of the ONU. A PON ID will be
16 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
between 0 and 63 (0x00 to 0x3F), for broadcast messages a special ID is reserved
0x40.
The MESSAGE ID eld represents the type of message being sent. The actual
message is stored in the MESSAGE FIELD bytes. Details are mentioned below.
Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP)
This eld is used for monitoring the Bit Error Rate (BER) on the downstream
link. The method of BIP calculations are standardized in ITU-T G.707.
As shown in Table 2.3 on page 14 each group of seven Grants is concluded by the
same CRC as mentioned before. This is done to detect transmission errors. It was
mentioned earlier, besides transmission of upstream GRANTS, PLOAM cells can be
used to send MESSAGES. Those MESSAGES are so called OAM messages and are used
for management purposes, like alarms, threshold-crossing alerts triggered by events and
ranging message. Each message is constructed from several elds as shown in Table 2.5
and protected by the same CRC function as the GRANTS. The ONU handles those
messages if it is addressed to it. According to the type of message, the message is
processed. When an incorrect CRC is detected the message will be discarded.
Table 2.5: PLOAM downstream MESSAGE
MESSAGE PON ID It addresses a particular ONU. During the ranging protocol, the
ONUS is assigned a number, PON ID. This PON ID can be from
0 to 63, mapped in the range 0x00 to 0x3F. For a broadcast
to all ONUs, this eld is set to 0x40 [2].
MESSAGE ID Indicates the type of the message. [2]
MESSAGE FIELD Contains the message. [2]
For the upstream frames an other format is used, this was already shown in Figures
2.5 and 2.6 on page 12. This frames are constructed from ATM cells and 3 overhead
bytes. Each ATM cell slot can contain an upstream PLOAM cell or a so called divided
slot rate. In case of a PLOAM cell the cell format will be according to Table 2.6 as
shown on page 17.
2.1. ITU-T G.983.x BPON 17
Table 2.6: PLOAM upstream Payload
1 IDENT 13 MESSAGE FIELD10 25 LCF11 37 RXCF6
2 MESSAGE PON ID 14 CRC 26 LCF12 38 RXCF7
3 MESSAGE ID 15 LCF1 27 LCF13 39 RXCF8
4 MESSAGE FIELD1 16 LCF2 28 LCF14 40 RXCF9
5 MESSAGE FIELD2 17 LCF3 29 LCF15 41 RXCF10
6 MESSAGE FIELD3 18 LCF4 30 LCF16 42 RXCF11
7 MESSAGE FIELD4 19 LCF5 31 LCF17 43 RXCF12
8 MESSAGE FIELD5 20 LCF6 32 RXCF1 44 RXCF13
9 MESSAGE FIELD6 21 LCF7 33 RXCF2 45 RXCF14
10 MESSAGE FIELD7 22 LCF8 34 RXCF3 46 RXCF15
11 MESSAGE FIELD8 23 LCF9 35 RXCF4 47 RXCF16
12 MESSAGE FIELD9 24 LCF10 36 RXCF5 48 BIP
Each eld for the upstream PLOAM cell has its own function. An explanation is
shown now.
IDENT
The IDENT eld contains a value of 0x00 and is reserved for future use.
MESSAGE
The MESSAGE eld is used to transfer all OAM related messages and is protected
by the same CRC as mentioned in the download section. The message format is
shown in Table 2.7 on page 18.
CRC
The CRC elds are the same as dened for the downstream.
LCF
The Laser Control Field (LCF) controls the optical power output and extinc-
tion ratio when the ONU sends data.
RXCF
The Receiver Control Field (RXCF) is used to set the correct threshold level
for the incoming signal.
BIP
This eld is used for monitoring the BER (Bit Error Rate) on the downstream
link. The method of BIP calculations are standardized in ITU-T G.707.
18 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Table 2.7: PLOAM downstream MESSAGE
MESSAGE PON ID It contains the PON ID of the sending ONU. However, the OLT knows
the implicit ONU ID since it generated a grant to it. If the contents
of this eld does not match the possible expected values related
to this PON ID, the message is discarded.
MESSAGE ID Indicates the message type [2]
MESSAGE FIELD Contains the message. [2]
For the upstream data each ATM cell is preceded by some overhead bytes. It are 3
bytes in total, they are used for the purposes as mentioned in Table 2.8.
Table 2.8: Upstream overhead bytes
Guard time Provide enough distance between two consecutive cells or mini-slots
to avoid collisions[2]
Preamble Extract the phase of the arriving cell or mini-slot relative to the
local timing of the OLT, and/or acquire bit synchronization
and amplitude recovery [2]
Delimiter A unique pattern indicating the start of the ATM cell or
mini-slot, which can be used to perform byte synchronization.[2]
An upstream slot can contain a so called divided slot. The standard is not very
clear about the implementation. The idea is to ll one upstream slot with a number
of mini slots coming from a set of ONUs. The OLT assigns one divided slot grant to
this set of ONUs for sending their mini slots. The format of the divided slot is shown
in Figure 2.9 on the next page. When a frame is lled with divided slot rates, multiple
ONUs can ll several cells with their data. In this case each ONU uses its own assigned
slot to send.
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 19
1 2 53
ONU x ONU y ONU z
minislot payload, 1 to 53 bytes
overhead bytes
3 upstream
upstream slot
Divided slot
Upstream frame
minislot
k
Figure 2.9: BPON divided slot
2.2 ITU-T G984.x GPON
The ITU-T delivered a second standard which can be seen as a replacement for BPON.
This standard is the G.984.x series and is called Gigabit-capable Passive Optical
Network (GPON). It has an own dened packet format and can encapsulate several
protocols as shown in the next sections. A GPON system consists of the three basic
PON components, an OLT which is at the distribution side, an ONU at the user side
and in between an ODN.
2.2.1 GPON network architecture
The ITU-T denes the OLT for GPON systems in detail. It can be divided into three
parts, a PON Core shell, a Cross Connect shell and a Service shell. A functional
block diagram of an OLT is shown in Figure 2.10 on the next page. The PON Core
shell contains the so called ODN interface function [2] and the PON Transmission
Convergence (TC) function [6] as explained on the next page. The ODN interface
function is the physical interface to the ber network. This represents the rst Layer
in the OSI model as shown in Figure 2.1, and is specied in ITU-T G.984.2.
20 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
PON TC
Function
Service
adaption
Service
adaption
ODN Interface
Function
ODN Interface
Function
PON TC
Function
Cross
connect
Function
Cross Connect shell Service shell PON Core shell
Figure 2.10: OLT functional block diagram
An OLT can have multiple ODNs connected to it, each to serve one or more ONUs.
The PON TC function is responsible for the following tasks:
Framing
Media Access Control (MAC)
Operations Administration and Maintenance (OAM)
Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment (DBA)
Delineation of Protocol Data Units (PDUs) for the cross connect function, and
ONU management
These functions are covered by the second layer of the OSI model. The Cross Connect
shell is the connection between the PON core shell and the Service shell. This service
shell represents a client interface.
At the user side an ONU is installed, an schematic overview is shown in Figure 2.11 on
page 21. It has a PON Core shell and Cross Connect shell as well. The ODN interface
function for the ONU connects the ONU to the OLT. An ONU has standard one Optical
interface but can have an optional second one [6]. To convert the PON core shell
functions to the Service shell a Multiplexer (MUX) and Demultiplexer (DEMUX)
is used instead of a Cross Connect Shell. These MUX and DEMUX functions multiplex
and demultiplex several services to a single interface.
Between an ONU and OLT an ODN is used to connect them. An overview of
possible congurations and standards are given in [2]. The complete overview of the
GPON system from physical layer to Clients is given in Figure 2.12 on page 22. This
gure shows the Physical layer the TC layer and the Client interfaces. Each of these
components will be discussed in the next sections.
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 21
ODN Interface
Function
ODN Interface
Function
Service MUX
and DEMUX
Service
adaption
Service
adaption
PON TC
Function
PON TC
Function
Service shell PON Core shell
ODN = Optical Distribution Network
MUX = MUltipleXer
DEMUX = DEMUltipleXer
Figure 2.11: ONU functional block diagram
2.2.2 GPON Physical Media Dependent (GPM) layer
In Figure 2.12 on the next page the lowest layer called GPON Physical Media De-
pendent layer (GPM) is shown. This layer is the interface to the optical ber and is
represented by the ODN interface block in Figures 2.10 on page 20 and 2.11 on page
21. At this layer the conversion from electrical to optical signals and vice versa is done.
For the transmission line rate at this level the ITU-T has specied several speed modes
as shown in Table 2.9.
Table 2.9: GPON transfer speed
Upstream Downstream
155.520 Mbit/s 1244.160 Mbit/s
622.080 Mbit/s 1244.160 Mbit/s
1244.160 Mbit/s 1244.160 Mbit/s
155.520 Mbit/s 2488.320 Mbit/s
622.080 Mbit/s 2488.320 Mbit/s
1244.160 Mbit/s 2488.320 Mbit/s
2488.320 Mbit/s 2488.320 Mbit/s
The information is transmitted on an optical carrier or laser. This laser will operate
at a certain wavelength. The dened ranges for upload and download transmission are
mentioned in Table 2.10 on page 22.
22 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
ATM Client GEM Client OMCI
ATM TC adapter
OMCI adapter
GPON Physical Media Dependent (GPM) layer
GEM TC adapter DBA Control
PLOAM
GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) layer
GTC Framing sublayer
PLOAM = Physical Layer Operations, Adminitration and Maintenance
ATM = Asynchronous Transfer Mode
OMCI = ONU Management adn Control Channel
GEM = GPON Encapsulation Method
DBA = Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment
GTC = GPON Transmission Convergence
GPM = GPON Physical Media (Dependent)
sublayer
TC adaption
Figure 2.12: GPON-Stack overview
Table 2.10: GPON wavelength bands
Upstream Downstream
Single ber 1260 - 1360 nm 1480 - 1500 nm
Dual ber 1260 - 1360 nm 1260 - 1360 nm
This table denes two ber congurations, the bidirectional (single ber) or uni-
directional (dual ber) conguration. When a bidirectional transmission technique is
used multiple wavelengths are used on a ber. To multiplex them on a single ber
a technique Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is used. For unidirectional
communication each direction has its own ber with a single wavelength. The modu-
lation technique used to code the data on the carrier is the so called NRZ coding.
The maximum logical reach between an OLT and an ONU is limited to 60 km. This
logical reach is a theoretical distance limited by the implementation and hardware
specications. If multiple ONUs are connected to an OLT a dierence in reach exists
between OLT to ONU-x and OLT to ONU-y. This reach is called the dierential logical
reach and may not exceed 20 km due the maximum ranging window as explained in
chapter 3.5.2. The split ratio is standardized to 1:64, the TC layer supports up to
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 23
1:128 for future use. This ratio is limited by the output power of the OLT transmitter
and path loss, the total amount of power is divided by all connected users. To ensure
enough power for each user, a certain maximum is specied. Above the physical layer
the data packets are coded and decoded. The layer responsible for this is the GPON
Transmission Convergence (GTC) layer as shown in Figure 2.12.
2.2.3 GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) layer
The GTC layer is used for Media Access Control (MAC). With this MAC the access
of multiple users to a shared medium is controlled. For GPON this upstream access is
realized by using so called pointers. Such pointer is called a Transmission Container
(T-CONT). Each T-CONT gives an ONU permission to send its data to the OLT
during a given period. This technique supports also the categorization of data types in
virtual queues. For this queueing model there are ve types of T-CONTs, T-CONT1 -
TCONT5 each with an own priority. Depending on QoS factors and user requirements
these dierent T-CONTs can be assigned to an ONU. Details about the implementation
of this technique can be found in the ITU-T G.984.4 [9]. The basics on T-CONTs are
discussed on page 27.
In Figure 2.12 on page 22 the GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) framing
layer was shown. This layer is responsible for multiplexing and demultiplexing data
streams. This layer creates the frame headers and maintains internal routing. In the
GTC layer the GPON specic datagrams are handled. This GTC layer can be divided
into two sub-layers, the so called GTC framing sublayer and TC adaption sublayer.
The Framing sublayer constructs GPON frames from data and extracts frames into
individual data packages. To do this the Framing sublayer communicates to a PLOAM
client and the TC adaption sublayer. This layer provides an ATM TC Client, GPON
Encapsulation Method (GEM) TC adapter and Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment
(DBA) control interface. To explain what these are and simplify the functions and
relations between the GTC Framing sublayer and TC Adaption sublayer the protocol
stack can be divided into a so called Control and Management plane (C/M) and
User data plane (U-plane). Figure 2.13 on the next page gives an overview of the
functional blocks.
The C/M plane is as its name reveals responsible for the Control and Management of
an ONU. At the GTC framing sublayer the dierent parts of a frame are demultiplexed
and processed. If there are embedded OAM packages in the frame they will be processed
immediately. These packets are used for control information which is urgent, this
can be bandwidth granting, key switching and dynamic bandwidth assignment. This
data is located in the Frame header, as will be explained later on. The PLOAM
messages are not processed at this level but forwarded to a PLOAM interface. Those
24 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
PLOAM messages contain management information which cant be transfered by OAM
messages. Each ONU has a so called ONU Management Control Interface (OMCI),
this is a separate control layer for ONU specic conguration. The C/M plane forwards
this information to a OMCI interface used by other layers. The port ID-lter is used
for multiplex purposes of data which have to be sent over GEM. For ATM data the so
called Virtual Path / Virtual Channel Identier (VPI/VCI) is used to direct the data-
ow over ATM. At the U-plane user-data is forwarded to the ATM and GEM client.
header
frame
Embedded OAM
OMCI
VPI/VCI
filter
ATM partition GEM partition
PortID
filter
OMCI adapter
AllocID
filter
GEM TC
adapter
AllocID
filter
ATM TC
adapter
PLOAM
PLOAM
partition
PLOAM
partition
ATM Client
VPI/VCI
filter
ATM TC adapter
AllocID
filter
ATM
partition
ATM service
Frame
header
GEM TC adapter
PortID and PTI
filter
GEM Client
GEM
partition
AllocID
filter
Multiplexing based on frame location
TC Adaption sublayer
GTC Framing sublayer
Multiplexing based on frame location
GEM service
TC Adaption sublayer
GTC Framing sublayer
Figure 2.13: U and C/M plane
To identify dierent data paths so called VPIs are used to identify the ATM trac. For
GEM data a PORT-ID and PTI value will be used, this is explained later on. To lter
incoming trac so called Alloc-ID values are used. They are unique numbers assigned
by the OLT and attached to each data frame. Only frames with a valid Alloc-ID will
be processed.
GPON is capable of running in three modes called ATM, GEM and Dual. The mode
in which an OLT or ONU is running can be selected by the PON TC. ONUs and OLTs
can communicate with each other while running in dierent modes as dened by the
ITU-T [10], however not every combination is allowed. Table 2.11 on the next page
gives an overview of the allowed congurations.
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 25
Table 2.11: GPON OLT and ONU modes
OLT
GEM Dual ATM
GEM X X N/A
ONU Dual X X X
ATM N/A X X
2.2.4 GTC Downstream
Besides the responsibility for MAC control, the GTC handles the coding and decoding
of the GPON frames. The downstream GPON frames have a format as shown in Figure
2.14. The frame consists of a header and a payload section. The header is called the
Physical Control Block downstream (PCBd). A payload section contains the actual
data which has to be transfered. The PCBd is lled with overhead to control and
inform the ONU.
TDM & Data Fragments
over GEM section
"Pure" ATM cells
Section
PCBd Payload
125 s
Figure 2.14: GPON downstream frame
Each frame is 125 s long, as a result the amount of bits that can be transfered by
a frame depends on the transfer speed. An overview of the total amount of bytes that
can be transfered by a single frame is shown in Table 2.12. This are the transmission
speeds as they are dened at this moment by the ITU-T [6].
Table 2.12: GPON Downstream Frame length
Data rate Length
1.24416 Gbit/s 19440 bytes
2.48832 Gbit/s 38880 bytes
26 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
The PCBd header contains several elds which are shown in gure 2.15. A detailed
overview of each eld will follow now.
PCBd Payload
Ident
4bytes
pSync
4bytes
PLOAMd
13bytes
BIP
1byte
PLend
4bytes 4bytes
PLend US BW Map
N*8bytes
Figure 2.15: PCBd overview
Physical synchronization (Psync)
This eld is 4-bytes long and contains a predened, or static, pattern. It is us
ed by the ONU to synchronize on the incoming bitstream. The static pattern as
dened by the ITU-T is equal to 0xB6AB31E0
Ident
An Ident eld contains 4-bytes which are divided into two one-bit elds and a
30-bit eld as shown in Figure 2.16. The MSB bit is used to inform the ONU
if the data is FEC encoded, details are discussed in 3.3.2. The second single bit
eld is a reserved bit and not used at this moment. The remaining 30 bits are
the Super-frame Counter. This counter keeps track of every transmitted frame
and is increased each next frame.
Ident
4bytes
FEC Ind
1bit
Reserved
1bit
Superframe Counter
30bit
Figure 2.16: Ident Field overview
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 27
BIP
A BIP eld is an 8-bit value which represents the bit-interleaved parity of all
bytes transmitted since the last BIP. The BIP algorithm is standardized by the
ITU-T G.707 [7].
PLOAMd
This is the eld that contains so called PLOAM messages with a length of 13
bytes. They have the same format as the PLOAMu messages, although the actual
messages are dierent. More details about the format are shown at the upstream
section on page 30.
Plend
This eld is called the Payload Length downstream eld as shown in Figure
2.17. The eld consists of two partitions, one is called the BWMap Length
(Blen) eld which gives an indication of the length of the bandwidth map. This
eld is 12 bits long, as a result the number of allocation ids that may be granted
in frame is limited to 4095 (2
12
1).
The ATM Partition Length (Alen) is a 12 bits elds and as for the Blen eld
can allocate a maximum of 4095 ATM cells. This amount of ATM cells per frame
is sucient for data rates of 10 Gbit/s and up. The length of an ATM payload
partition in a frame is then 53 times Alen. A CRC-8 eld is inserted to detect
transmission errors. It is calculated by the polynomial g(x) = x
8
+x
2
+x +1 as
dened by the ITU-T [11].
PLend
4bytes
BW Map Length
Blen
12bit
CRC
8bit
Alen
ATM Partition Length
12bit
Figure 2.17: Plen Field overview
US BWmap Fields
The Bandwidth map (BWmap) contains the elds which describe the access
slots for an ONU. An access eld consists of 8-bytes, called a T-CONT, which
on their part have an own format. Figure 2.18 show the detailed eld format.
28 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Allocation ID Field
The (Alloc-ID) has 12-bits and species for what access path the T-CONT
is assigned. The lowest 254 allocation IDs are used to address the ONU.
During the ranging or activation procedure the rst Alloc-ID given to the
ONU should be in this range. The next Alloc-ID should be taken from those
above 255. An Alloc-ID of 254 is used to discover unknown ONUs, a value
of 255 is the default unassigned id.
US BW Map
N*8 bytes
Access 1
8 bytes
Access 2
8 bytes
Access N
8 bytes
CRC
1 byte
SStop
2 bytes
SStart
2 bytes
AllocID
12 bits
Flags
12 bits
Figure 2.18: US BW MAP overview
Flags
The Flags eld is a register of 12-bits from which 5 bits are used as an in-
dication how the allocation shall be used. The used bits and there function
are summarized now.
bit-11 (MSB) Send power levelling sequence (PLSu), when this bit is
set (1) the ONU shall send its PLSu information during this allocation.
If the bit is not set (0) the ONU will not send the PLSu information in
this allocation.
bit-10 Send PLOAMu if this bit is set (1) the ONU shall send its
upstream PLOAM information during this allocation. When it is not
set (0) the ONU will not send the PLOAMu information.
Bit 9 Use FEC, if set (1) the ONU shall compute and insert FEC
parity elds during this allocation.
both 8 and 7 Send DBRu (mode),
00 Do not send DBRu at all
01 Send the mode 0 DBRu (two bytes)
10 Send the mode 1 DBRu (three bytes)
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 29
11 Send the mode 2 DBRu (ve bytes)
The bits 6-0 are reserved for future use.
SStartTime
This eld contains a 16 bit number that indicates the starting time of the al-
location. Starting with 0 at the beginning of the upstream frame. This eld
is 16 bit and therefor limits the size of the upstream frame to 65,536 bytes
(2
16
). With this size an upstream of 2.488 Gb/s can be easily generated.
This timer excludes the overhead bits as dened in chapter 3.2.2.
SStopTime
This elds contains a 16 bits number which indicates the end time of the
allocation.
CRC
This eld contains the CRC to nd or correct errors during transmission.
The Payload section which contains the actual user data will be discussed in the next
sections.
2.2.5 GTC upstream
For GPON upstream data the ITU-T dened an other frame format. It contains a
header and payload section like a downstream frame as illustrated in Figure 2.19.
PLOu PLOAMu PLSu DBRu Payload
Figure 2.19: GPON upstream frame
This frame is created from several sub-frames with a payload attached to it. The
rst eld is the Physical layer overhead Upstream (PLOu) as shown in Figure 2.20.
Preamble
a bytes
Delimiter
b bytes
BIP
1byte
ONUID
1byte
Ind
1byte
PLOu
Figure 2.20: Physical layer overhead Upstream (PLOu)
30 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
The rst two elds are lled with a so called Preamble and Delimiter bytes. Details
are discussed in chapter 3.2.2. A BIP eld of 1 byte which contains a BIP value like in
the downstream header. The BIP is calculated over all the bits excluding the preamble
and delimiter. The ONU-ID eld contains the unique ONU-ID of the sending ONU, if
an ONU has no ONU-ID yet, the eld will have the value 255. The last eld is called
the Ind Field. This 1 byte eld is used to send a real time ONU status report to the
OLT. Table 2.13 shows how the status messages are coded. The PLOAM Upstream
Table 2.13: Ind Messages
Bit position Function
7 (MSB) Urgent PLOAMu waiting (1 = PLOAM waiting, 0 = no PLOAMs waiting)
6 FEC status (1 = FEC ON, 0 = FEC OFF)
5 RDI status (1 = Defect, 0 = OK)
4 Trac waiting in type 2 T-CONTs
3 Trac waiting in type 3 T-CONTs
2 Trac waiting in type 4 T-CONTs
1 Trac waiting in type 5 T-CONTs
0 (LSB) Reserved
(PLOAMu) eld is the second eld in the header. It is the same format as the PLOAMd
messages. The PLOAM messages are constructed as shown in Figure 2.21.
ONUID
1byte
Msg ID
1byte
Message
10bytes
CRC
1byte
PLOAMu
Figure 2.21: PLOAMu
This PLOAM message is the same as the PLOAMd they are constructed from 4
elds. The ONU-ID eld is used to identify a specic ONU. For broadcast messages
this eld is set to 0xFF. A MESSAGE-ID eld is used to indicate the type of message
is encapsulated in the payload section. Several types are available and can be found in
ITU-T G.984.3 [10]. The DATA eld contains the actual message. The last eld is a
CRC value to protect the PLOAM eld from transmission errors.
The Power Levelling Sequence Upstream (PLSu) eld in the upstream frame con-
tains 120 bytes and controls the power level of the laser and is used for measurements.
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 31
It is used during the ONU activation process. When requested by the OLT it can be
transmitted at any time.
The Dynamic Bandwidth Report Upstream (DBRu) eld is constructed from a Dy-
namic Bandwidth Assignment (DBA) eld which can be 1, 2 or 4 bytes and a 1 byte
CRC.
CRC
1byte
DBA
1, 2, 4
bytes
DBRu
Figure 2.22: DBRu
GPON has three types of DBA reporting which is used to inform the OLT about the
amount of data waiting in the several T-CONT queues. DBA reporting is optional for
ONUs, while OLTs should always support this functionality. In case an ONU doesnt
support this, it can use the functionality provided by the OLT. The three options of
reporting are:
Status indications in the PLOu eld
Piggy-back reports in the DBRu
Whole ONU reports in the DBA payload
The status indications are transfered by the PLOu as mentioned previous in Table
2.13. This simple reports give an overview of the amount of trac waiting at a certain
ONU. A Piggy-back report is transfered by the DBRu eld. There are three types of
reports dened: 0, 1 or 2. If an ONU supports Piggy-back reports it should support
reports of type 0, reports of type 1 and 2 are optional. These reports are used to inform
the OLT about the amount of data waiting at the ONU. A report 0 is a very basic
status report, reports 1 and 2 are more detailed status reports. For a Whole ONU
reports a special allocation is made by the OLT in the payload section of the frame.
How this DBA report is mapped in the payload section is shown in Figure 2.24 on page
32. An ONU is free to report only the information which is important according to the
ONU and therefore the DBA report may vary in size.
In the next section the payload eld of an upstream frame will be discussed. The
possible data that can be transfered and how this data is mapped is shown.
32 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
2.2.6 GTC upstream payload mapping
The Payload section of an upstream frame can carry three types of data as dened by
the ITU-T. These data types are ATM-cells, GEM frames or DBA reports. ATM cells
have the frame format as dened by the ITU-T I.361 [8] and were already shown in
Figure 2.7 on page 13. These ATM cells are lled at the higher level and send by the
ATM interface of the ONU. Here the ATM cells are mapped into the payload section
as shown in Figure 2.23. Each cell claims 53 bytes of payload, if there is more space
available then a multiple of 53 bytes the remaining bytes are padded.
Pad if
needed
ATM Cell ATM Cell ATM Cell ATM Cell ATM Cell
DBRu PLOu PLOAMu Payload
Figure 2.23: ATM upload
The DBA reports discussed in the previous section are mapped to the payload
as shown in Figure 2.24 GPON introduces a new frame format for data encapsulation
Pad if
needed
PLOu PLOAMu DBRu Payload
DBA Report
Figure 2.24: DBA report
called GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM). GEM packets consist of a GEM header
and Payload section. Like the ATM cells the GEM packets are lled at a higher level
and send to the ONU via the GEM interface. When the GEM packets are used, a
payload as shown in Figure 2.25 is created.
GEM
Header
GEM
Header
GEM
Header
DBRu PLOu PLOAMu Payload
Frame Fragment Full Frame Frame Fragment
Figure 2.25: GEM upload frames
2.2. ITU-T G984.x GPON 33
Each GEM packet is constructed from a header with a payload section. The contents
of the header is shown in Figure 2.26.
12Bits
Port ID
12Bits
PTI
3Bits
HEC
13Bits
PLI Freament Payload
L Bytes
Figure 2.26: GEM header
The header consists of a Payload Length Indicator (PLI) used to inform about
the Payload Length L. It is used to synchronize and detect the next frame. The PLI
is a 12-bits eld, as a result 4095 bytes is the maximum fragment size. The second
eld Port ID provides a unique trac identier on the PON. A Payload Type
Indicator (PTI) eld is used to identify the contents of the Payload. Table 2.14 shows
the dierent options. A Header Error Control (HEC) eld is used to protect the
header for errors. This HEC is constructed from a BCH(39,12,2) code and a single
parity bit.
Table 2.14: GEM PTI codes
PIT code Meaning
000 User data fragment, Not the end of a frame
001 User data fragment, End of a frame
010 Reserved
011 Reserved
100 GEM OAM, Not the end of a frame
101 GEM OAM, End of a frame
110 Reserved
111 Reserved
In case there is no data present to transmit, so called GEM idle frames are used.
They consist of zeros and are used to keep the transmitter and receiver synchronized.
The data payload can be of a random length, therefore fragmentation is needed. The
PTI header informs if a fragment is the end of a frame. In case of time sensitive data
special fragmentation functions are used. For example, urgent data frames are always
placed in front of low priority data frames.
2.2.7 GEM data mapping
The GEM frames are sent by using the GEM interface on an ONU. Like ATM cells
they have to be lled with data in advance. Since the GEM frames are GPON specic
34 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
the ITU-T specied some mapping scenarios in their standard [10]. The mapping of
TDM data and Ethernet data is discussed. The mapping of data into GEM frames is
not done at the ONU itself but should be done at a higher level.
TDM over GEM
TDM payload is encapsulated as shown in Figure 2.27. The PLI eld indicates the
amount of TDM data which is carried by the payload eld. To adapt the incoming
rate to the GEM client a so called TDM source adaption process should be created.
The incoming data is stored into an Ingress-buer. Every frame period (125 s) the
multiplex function will read the queue and put parts of its contents in a GEM payload
section.
Ingress
Service
TDM
TDM
Data
GEM Payload
TDM (variable size)
HEC
PTI
PortID
PLI
5 Bytes
Ingress
TDM Octet
Figure 2.27: TDM over GEM
Ethernet over GEM
For Ethernet frames a mapping scheme is specied as well. During this mapping process
the Ethernet frame is stripped from its Preamble and Start of Frame Delimiter, a total
of 8 bytes. If an extension is used at the end of a frame this is stripped as well. The
remaining MAC frame is then loaded into the GEM payload section. This process is
illustrated in Figure 2.28 on the next page.
2.3. EPON IEEE 802.3ah 35
Preamble
Start of Frame Delimiter
Extension
4 Octets
461500 Octets
2 Octets
6 Octets
6 Octets
1 Octet
7 Octets
Frame Check Sequence
Length/Type
MAC ClientData
PAD
Destination Address
Source Address
GEM Payload
CRC
PTI
PortID
PLI
5 Bytes
Ethernet frame GEM frame
Figure 2.28: Ethernet over GEM
2.3 EPON IEEE 802.3ah
A third standard for PON networks is delivered by the IEEE. It is published as Eth-
ernet over Passive Optical Networks (EPON 802.3ah) [3]. This standard is the most
recent standard published. The IEEE 802.3ah is an extension to the 802.3 Ethernet
standard. The 802.3ah standard describes dierent standards for several types of ber
networks. For the PON networks there are two standards available, the 1000BASE-
PX10 and 1000BASE-PX20. The number 10 and 20 refer to the maximum distance
(km) between sender and receiver. The next sections will discuss the details of these
two variations and how they should be used.
2.3.1 EPON stack
The EPON standard is an extension to the 802.3 Ethernet stack as dened by the IEEE
[12]. The rst version of this standard was delivered in 1983. The Ethernet protocol
can be used in combination with dierent mediums. The rst versions were suitable
for coax cables, in the years that followed extensions for Unshielded Twisted Pair
(UTP) and ber optics were introduced. Ethernet has a layered architecture with a
specic task for each layer. As a result the the global stack properties are always the
same, independent of the medium used at that moment.
36 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
However there is one huge modication applied to the original stack due to the topology
criteria of PONs. The previous releases of the 802.3 standard used a Point-to-Point
(P2P) topology where PONs require a Point-to-Multi-Point (P2MP) topology. The
new EPON stack with an adaption for P2MP is shown in Figure 2.29. Here a Multi-
Point-MAC-Control (MPMC) layer is added.
LLCLogical Link Control or
other MAC Client
LAN
CSMA/CD
Layers
Physical
Data Link
Network
OSI reference model
Higher Layers
OAM (optional)
MPMCMultiPoint MAC Control
MAC Media Access Control
Reconciliation
GMII
PCS
PMA
PMD
MDI
PON MEDIUM
LAN = Local Area Network
MAC = Media Access Control
CSMA/CD = Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection
GMII = Gigabit Media Indipendent Interface
PCS = Physical Coding Sublayer
PMA = Physical Medium Attatchment
PMD = Physical Medium Dependent
MDI = Medium Dependent Interface
Figure 2.29: EPON stack
2.3.2 EPON layers
This section will describe the dierent layers of the EPON stack as shown in Fig-
ure 2.29 and their function for the EPON protocol. The IEEE uses the OSI model
in their design. As a result the layers can be categorized according to this model.
The Logical Link Control layer (LLC), Medium Access Control layer (MAC) and
Multi-Point-MAC-Control (MPMC) are part of the data link layer. The Reconcilia-
tion (RS), Physical-Coding-Sub-layer (PCS), Physical-Medium-Attachment layer
(PMA), Physical-Medium-Dependent layer (PMD) are part of the Physical layer.
The Gigabit-Medium-Independent-Interface (GMII) and Medium-Dependent-Interface
(MDI) are two interfaces which are standardized and are access points for the other
layers.
The protocol stack is implemented in the ONU and OLT, where for the OLT the im-
plementation is dierent from that for the ONU. A PON ber enters the system at the
lowest level, for EPON this layer is represented by the MDI. This is a standardized
connection point for the ber and acts as an interface for the higher electrical circuit.
2.3. EPON IEEE 802.3ah 37
At the level of the optical ber there are some physical characteristics specied. Exam-
ples are maximum distance and transmission line speed. The standards 1000Base-PX10
and 1000Base-PX20 are divided into a D and U section, which refers to the Down-
stream and Upstream. As in ITU-T standards the downstream is from OLT to ONU
and upstream from ONU to OLT. Table 2.15 shows their characteristics. For both
1000Base-PX10 and 1000Base-PX20. For both standards the split-ratio is dened as
1:16 [12], however in current experimental implementations a ratio of 1:32 is used and
therefore should be possible as well. It is not ocially standardized by the IEEE
Table 2.15: Physical EPON properties
Name Location Rate Nominal Medium
(Mb/s) Reach (km)
1000BASE-PX10-D OLT
1000 10 One single-mode ber PON
1000BASE-PX10-U ONU
1000BASE-PX20-D OLT
1000 20 One single-mode ber PON
1000BASE-PX20-U ONU
The layers above the MDI are used in the adaption and conversion process. These
layers are specic designed to convert the physical medium to a standardized inter-
face, the GMII. The layers responsible for this are, the Physical-Medium-Dependent
layer(PMD), Physical-Medium-Attachment layer (PMA) and Physical-Coding-Sub-
layer (PCS).
The PMD layer controls the actual modulation of the data on the carrier which is
a laser for PON networks. Each direction, upstream and downstream, uses its own
wavelength. The wavelengths specied in 802.3ah are shown in Table 2.16. At the
PMD layer data from the PMA layer is modulated on the carrier. The demodulated
data from the received carrier is forwarded to the PMA layer.
Table 2.16: Physical properties PMD
Description
1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE-
PX-10U PX-10D PX-20U PX-20D
Nominal transmit wavelength 1310 nm 1490 nm 1310 nm 1490 nm
Transmit direction Upstream Downstream Upstream Downstream
Range 0.5 m - 10 km 0.5 m - 20 km
At the PMA layer takes care of serialization / deserialization of code-groups for
transmission and reception. During this process the clock signal is retrieved from the
38 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
incoming data which is 8B/10B coded. The PCS layer which lays above the PMA
decodes this 8B/10B data from the PMA into standard-bytes or octets which are for-
warded to the GMII.
Any received octets from the GMII are encoded to 8B/10B coding. During this 8B/10B
encoding and decoding each octet is converted to a 10-bit value. The goal of this pro-
cess is to ensure there are not to many zeros ore ones in one byte. A 10-bit code group
should contain four ones and six zeros, four zeros and six ones, or ve ones and ve
zeros. With these amount of ones and zeros in a frame the so called DC-balance is
maintained. The transition between zero and one provide the clock recovery circuit
of enough input pulses to retrieve a reliable clock signal. A side eect of this coding
mechanism is an increase of bandwidth of 25%. An detailed description of this coding
technique can be found in a publication by IBM [13].
The layers PMD PMA and PCS are medium dependent and are presented to the higher
layers by the GMII to make them medium independent. This GMII is a standard in-
terface, in theory any physical layer with a GMII can be attached. This standard
interface is translated by the reconciliation layer and then presented to the MAC layer.
As mentioned before EPON uses P2MP in stead of P2P connections. For EPON sys-
tems the standard MAC layer is reused and an extra layer, the so called Multi-Point
MAC Control is placed on top which represents this functionality. The MAC layer
is responsible for framing, addressing, error detection and access control. Both OLT
and ONU have such a layer, but their behavior is not the same. At the ONU side a
single instance of this layer is created. At an OLT multiple instances are created, each
instance is related to a connected ONU. For broadcast messages at the OLT side one
special MAC is instantiated, all data sent to this MAC is broadcasted to all connected
ONUs. This is called the Single Copy Broadcast (SCB). The MPCP layer can han-
dle multiple underlying MAC instances. An example of the conguration is shown in
Figure 2.30 on page 39.
On top of this MPCP layer an optional Operation, Administration and Mainte-
nance (OAM) client can be placed for management purposes. Each MAC instance is
identied by a so called Logical Link IDentier (LLID). Based on their LLID data
packages are routed to the corresponding MAC client. Each ONU and OLT tags their
frames with a certain LLID, the ONU will process this frame if the LLID matches or
otherwise discard it. At the ONU an individual MAC instance will do the same. How
this LLID is transmitted is shown on page 43. The actual EPON intelligence is located
in the MPCP. This MPCP at the OLT side is responsible for Dynamic Bandwidth
Allocation (DBA), by reserving upstream slots and assign them to an ONU. Con-
gestion reports from ONUs helps to allocate the bandwidth in a PON network. The
MPCP can be extended in the future with extra functions. An ONU can have multiple
LLIDs, each LLID represents a message queue. The control messages for ONU and
2.3. EPON IEEE 802.3ah 39
OAM
(optional)
MAC
Client
MAC
Client
LAN
CSMA/CD
Layers
Higher Layers
LAN
CSMA/CD
Layers
Higher Layers
OAM
(optional)
MAC
Client
OAM
(optional)
Reconciliation
GMII
PCS
PMA
PMD
MDI
MPMCMultiPoint MAC Control
MAC Media Access Control
Reconciliation
GMII
PCS
PMA
PMD
MDI
OAM (optional)
MPMCMultiPoint MAC Control
MAC MAC MAC
PON MEDIUM
MAC Client
OLT ONU
Figure 2.30: EPON Multimac
OLT consist of so called Report and GATE messages, like PLOAM cells for GPON.
Report messages are upstream messages from the ONU, GATE are downstream mes-
sages from the OLT. The OLT sends GATE messages to give the ONU access to the
medium. The Report messages are send by the ONU to inform the OLT about its local
status. The communication between MCPCs is done with so called MPCPDU frames.
This is the basic frame with several instances for other purposes. These message types
are explained in the next section.
2.3.3 EPON frame format
For an EPON system two frames are important. The so called data frames needed to
transport the user data and the so called control frames to congure the EPON system.
Access to the P2MP network is arranged by the MPCP. This MPCP communicates and
is congured by MPCPDU frames. These frames are constructed from the standard
IEEE 802.3 MAC-CONTROL frames. A MPCPDU is shown in Figure 2.31 on the
next page. These control packages are ltered at the MPCP layer and not forwarded
to the higher layers. The control frames are identied by a certain Opcode in the
40 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
Destination Address
Source Address
Length/Type = 8808
Opcode
Timestamp
Data/Reserved/Pad
FCS
6
6
2
2
4
40
4
Octets
Figure 2.31: MPMC Control frame
Opcode eld which is 2 bytes long. The available opcodes are shown below. Details
about this messages are discussed next.
Gate MPCPDU = 0x00-02
This is the message is sent from a OLT to the ONU to assign a time slot. A
maximum of four grants can be inserted in a single gate message. This message
can also be used as a keep alive between OLT and ONU, in that case the grants
contain zeros.
Report MPCPDU = 0x00-03
The Report message is sent from ONU to OLT and can be used to inform the OLT
about upstream requirements, monitor link health and calculate the Round-Trip
Time (RTT). The RTT is an indication of the time needed for a packet to travel
from source to destination and back. Reports can be requested by the OLT by
sending an Gate message to the ONU.
REGISTER REQ MPCPDU = 0x00-04
The Register message is sent during initialization of a network. An ONU sends
this message to a network to notify OLTs it wants to be registered.
REGISTER MPCPDU = 0x00-05
An OLT which received a REGISTER REQ message sends this message back to
the ONU. It contains further information about the network needed to operate
correctly.
2.3. EPON IEEE 802.3ah 41
REGISTER ACK MPCPDU = 0x00-06
If the ONU accepts the Register MPCPDU it conrms this by sending a REG-
ISTER ACK message to the OLT. From now on the ONU is part of the network
and connected to a certain OLT.
The GATE and REPORT messages are generated from the frame as shown in Figure
2.32 and have a total length of 64 bytes. A GATE MPCPDU consists of the standard
FCS 4
Repeated n times as
indicated by
"Number of queue sets"
Destination Address
Source Address
Length/Type = 8808
6
6
2
2
4
Octets
Opcode = 0002
Timestamp
Grant #1 Start time
Grant #1 Length
Grant #2 Start time
Grant #2 Length
Grant #3 Start time
Grant #3 Length
Grant #4 Start time
Grant #4 Length
Sync Time
Pad/Reserved
0/4
1
0/2
0/4
0/2
0/4
0/2
0/4
0/2
0/2
1339
Destination Address
Source Address
Length/Type = 8808
6
6
2
2
4
Octets
Opcode = 0002
Timestamp
1
0/2
0/2
0/2
0/2
0/2
0/2
0/2
0/2
GATE MPCPDU
Number of
queue sets
Report bitmap
Queue #6 Report
Queue #7 Report
1
Queue #0 Report
Queue #1 Report
Queue #2 Report
Queue #3 Report
Queue #4 Report
Queue #5 Report
Pad/Reserved
REPORT MPCPDU
FCS 4
039
Number of
Grants/Flags
ONU OLT OLT ONU
Figure 2.32: A GATE and REPORT MPCPDU
MAC elds and the following elds. A Grants/Flags eld which is an 8 bit register
which is used to inform the ONU. The values of the Grants/Flag register and their
42 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
function are shown in Table 2.17. Each bit represents an action The GRANT #
Table 2.17: GATE MPCPDU Number of grants/Flags Field (1 Byte)
Bit Flag Field Values
0-2 Number of grants 0-4
3 Discovery 0 - Normal GATE
1 - Discovery GATE
4 Force Report 0 - No action required
Grant 1 1 - A REPORT frame should be issued at the corresponding
transmission opportunity indicated in GRANT 1
n Force Report 0 - No action required
Grant n 1 - A REPORT frame should be issued at the corresponding
transmission opportunity indicated in GRANT n
7 Force Report 0 - No action required
Grant 4 1 - A REPORT frame should be issued at the corresponding
transmission opportunity indicated in GRANT 4
Start time eld is used to inform the ONU when it is allowed to start transmitting
the data. A Grant Length eld tells the ONU for how long it may transmit. The
Grant Length eld value is inclusive the laser-on-Time, sync-time and laser-o-Time.
The SYncTime eld is used to sync the time with OLT this is only during discovery
procedure, otherwise this eld is not included. The REPORT MPCPDU is constructed
from the standard MAC elds and the following elds. A Number of Queue sets
elds is used to indicate the amount of requests in the Report message. There can
be multiple requests in a single Report message, the amount of requests is indicated
by the Number of queue sets. A Report bitmap contains information as shown in
Table 2.18.
2.3. EPON IEEE 802.3ah 43
Table 2.18: REPORT MPCPDU Report bitmap elds
Bit Flag Field Values
0 Queue 0 0- queue 0 report is not present
1-queue 0 report is present
1 Queue 1 0- queue 1 report is not present
1-queue 1 report is present
. . . . . . . . .
7 Queue 7 0-queue 7 report is present
1-queue 7 report is present
Each Queue #n Report eld represents the length of queue #n at time of RE-
PORT generation. The Pad/Reserved eld is lled with zeros to ll the unused space,
depending on the amount of report entries this can be 0 to 39. The Register MPCPDU,
Register REQ MPCPDU and Register ACK MPCPDU are used for ONU registration
purposes and discussed in chapter 3.5.3. For user data the standard MAC frame as
shown in Figure 2.33 is used. It can contain up to 1500 Octets of user data and can be
as large as 1526 Octets or Bytes.
Preamble 7 Octets
1 Octet Start of Frame Delimiter
Destination Address 6 Octets
6 Octets
2 Octets
Source Address
Length/Type
MAC ClientData
PAD
461500 Octets
4 Octets Frame Check Sequence
Extension
7 LLID[7:0]
8 CRC 8
6 LLID[15:8]
5 0x55
4 0x55
3 SLD (0xD5)
2 0x55
1 0x55
Figure 2.33: MAC-frame
In standard Ethernet operation each Ethernet frame is transmitted with a so called
Preamble and Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD) in front of it as shown in Figure 2.33.
These elds consists of 8 bytes in total. They are used as a synchronization pattern
for the receiver. For EPON the standard MAC layer is extended with a so called
MPCP layer which allows multiple MAC instances at the OLT. Each of this instances
correspond to a connected ONU identied by a LLID. A virtual path is created between
44 Chapter 2. Standardization of Passive Optical Networks
OLT and ONU. These virtual paths require extra addressing parameters to route the
received data to the corresponding MAC instance. The previous introduced LLID
value is used for this, but needs to be encapsulated into the data frames. In EPON the
Preamble/SFD is used for this purpose as shown in Figure 2.33. A eld called Start
of LLID delimiter (SLD), LLID and CRC8 are inserted into the preamble. The other
elds are left with their value 0x55. The CRC8 value is used to check any transmission
errors in the elds 3 to 7.
For downstream data an ONU discards each frame with an other LLID, only frames
with a valid LLID is forwarded to the higher layers. At the OLT each upstream frame
is processed by the MAC instance which has the same LLID as the frame.
Chapter 3
A comparison between standards
The previous chapters introduced the PONs and the ITU-T G983.x, ITU-T G.984.x
and IEEE 802.3ah standards which can be used to design such network. Each of
these standards have their advantages and disadvantages on how they suggest how
to implement certain functionality. This functionality is for the physical level, data
transmission level and user level. In this chapter some of these solutions suggested by
the standards are discussed in detail.
3.1 Possible network structures
The basic network structure for PONs as dened in the standards is relatively simple,
due to the fact that they consist of passive optical splitters and bers only. Such PONs
can be extended with extra passive or active components like WDM devices and user
services like video distribution as is shown in this chapter.
For the networks discussed in this chapter the term PON might not always be applicable
for the whole network since they are a mixture of passive and active networks. Although
they give an illustration of the possible implementations of PONs. All these networks
are created around a PON network and extended with additional equipment. The
protocols, wavelengths, OLTs and ONUs are conform the specications as dened by
the ITU-T series 983.x, 984.x and IEEE 802.3ah.
3.1.1 Network redundancy
Like every transmission network PONs arent fail safe. To include some mechanisms
for backup and redundancy purposes the basic network model can be extended. The
ITU-T includes some suggestions in its standards. To illustrate the basics behind
backup facilities, a simple PON network without any additional equipment is used.
The shown solutions can be implemented in any network since their backup strategy
45
46 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
is not typically PON related.
When a network is equipped with a backup system, there should be a procedure which
decides when to switch between the working system and protection system. Such
procedure is called protection switching in the ITU-T standards. The decision when
to switch is made upon two possibilities, automatic switching or forced switching.
Automatic switching is used in the worst case scenario. It is triggered when the system
detects transmission problems, like loss of signal, a high Bit Error Rate (BER)
or complete loss of frames. Forced switching is activated on request, for example
temporary rerouting during maintenance of bers or switches. The ITU-T species
these services for BPON and GPON as an optional functionality. The automatic or
forced switching is triggered by so called OAM messages as mentioned in Chapter 2.
For the implementation of backup facilities modications to the basic network model
are required. Depending on the risks and costs of a system failure the modications
can be applied. An expensive but general solution is shown in Figure 3.1 and more
detailed version in Figure 3.2 where the optical components in OLT, ONU and ODN
are duplicated.
PON LT(0)
PON LT(1)
MUX
UNI
LT
PON LT(1)
PON LT(0) SNI LT(0)
SNI LT(1)
Service
node
Switch
ODN(1)
ODN (0)
PON LT = PON Line Terminal
SNI LT = Service Node Interface Line Terminal
UNI LT = User Node Interface Line Terminal
MUX = Multiplexer
ODN = Optical Distribution Network
OLT ONU
Figure 3.1: PON Full Duplex system
Double
N:2 optical splitter
OLT
PON LT(1)
PON LT(0)
PON LT(1)
PON LT(0)
PON LT(1)
PON LT(0)
ONU #N
ONU #1
PON LT = PON Line Terminal
Figure 3.2: PON Full Duplex system details
3.1. Possible network structures 47
The solutions shown in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 are expensive ones since each
component is needed twice. The backup facilities are however almost fail proof. Every
possible failure of optical transceivers and bers can be solved.
To reduce costs there are less expensive solutions where only certain components are
duplicated. Figure 3.3 shows a layout where only the ber between OLT and splitter
is doubled. Since this is the main link it reduces the risk of complete connection
loss when a ber is damaged. ONU or OLT failure are not included in this solution.
To add some extra reliability to the option where the ber is duplicated the whole
PON LT
PON LT
PON LT
N:1 optical splitter
PON LT = PON Line Terminal
ONU #N
ONU #1
Spare fiber
OLT
Figure 3.3: PON Duplex ber system
optical unit of the OLT can be duplicated. This implementation protects against OLT
transceiver and ber failure. At the user side ONU failure is still possible but has less
impact than an OLT failure. This solution is shown in Figure 3.4. The IEEE doesnt
OLT
PON LT
PON LT
PON LT(0)
PON LT(1)
N:2 optical splitter
ONU #N
ONU #1
PON LT = PON Line Terminal
Figure 3.4: GPON Duplex system
specify these backup solutions for their EPON networks. However, as EPON is a PON
based network as well, the solutions dened by the ITU-T should be usable as well.
Designers of PON networks are free to implement their own reliability options which
are not suggested into the ITU-T or IEEE standards.
48 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
3.1.2 Additional broadcast services
An advantage of the P2MP topology of a PON network is its broadcast function. To
reach multiple users a single broadcast at the OLT is enough. This uni-directional
functionality can be used to deliver broadcast services to the end user. Examples of
such broadcast services are television and video on demand. In the future more services
can be added. Although these services can use the Internet extra services like QoS are
needed to ensure a transmission without delays. An other option is to deliver these
services by a dedicated and controlled data channel.
In the ITU-T G.983.x BPON standard this channel is dened as the Enhancement-
band. It is divided over two frequency ranges. The so called Enhancement-band-1
uses the 1531 nm - 1565 nm range. The range from 1550 nm - 1560 nm is reserved
for Enhancement-band-2. The Enhancement-band-1 is used for several additional
services, which should be implemented by the designer. Enhancement-band-2 is es-
pecially dened for video-distribution and can be used bi-directionally as well. Since
Enhancement-band-2 is part of Enhancement-band-1 it is not possible to use both
bands at the same time.
All additional services on Enhancement-band-1 and Enhancement-band-2 are transmit-
ted on a separate wavelength. To add these extra wavelengths to the ber a technique
called Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is used. With WDM it is possible
to add additional wavelengths to a ber and extract or drop these wavelengths at an
other place. This process is shown in Figure 3.5.
Enhancement Band
Basic Band
WDM WDM
Enhancement Band
Basic Band
WDM = Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Passive splitter
OLT ONU
Figure 3.5: Enhancement system
For GPON systems such Enhancement-band is not specied in detail. The ITU-
T G.984.x series refers to the ITU-T G.983.3 standard. The implementation of the
Enhancement-band-1 and Enhancement-band-2 is possible either additional specica-
tions are needed for GPON systems. With nowadays WDM technique the implemen-
tation of broadcast services might not be a problem as long as the wavelengths dont
conict with the GPON band-scheme.
The IEEE doesnt mention any implementations for additional services in their EPON
3.2. Physical Layer overhead 49
networks. Since the basics of a PON network are applicable here, a similar technique as
in GPON networks could be applied to EPON networks. The wavelengths used in the
Enhancement-bands dont conict with the EPON bandplan, so an implementation of
this band should be possible.
3.1.3 Multiple standards on a single physical ber
The dierent standards discussed for now, are standardized to use in a single network.
Is it possible to share a single ber or network with multiple standards? One aspect
discussed here shows using multiple standards in a single ber isnt possible.
The problem becomes clear when the used wavelengths are compared. In Table 2.2 on
page 10, Table 2.10 on page 22 and Table 2.16 on page 37 the dierent carrier wave-
lengths are mentioned. For BPON and GPON an upstream wavelength is specied
from 1260 nm to 1360 nm. The downstream wavelength uses the range from 1480 nm
to 1500 nm. This implies that transmitting BPON and GPON trac simultaneously
over a single ber isnt possible.
A BPON system would corrupt the data of a sending GPON system and vice versa.
For EPON systems the upstream and downstream wavelengths are dened as a center
wavelength with a several nm bandwidth. An upstream wavelength of 1310 nm and
downstream of 1490 nm for EPON lies within the band-plan for GPON and BPON.
As a result EPON trac will corrupt GPON and BPON trac and vice versa.
To overcome this problem additional bers could be installed or lambda-converters can
be used. The standards dont mention the use of lambda-converters, but the designers
of a network are free to implement such equipment. With these lambda-converters a
logical P2P connection can be created from physical BPON, GPON and EPON seg-
ments. Each segment is connected by a network-gateway. This gateway has for example
a GPON network on one side and a EPON network at the other side. This solution
wont be very ecient since data has to be extracted from one frame and put into
another. Besides this problem the QoS within the network will be dicult to handle,
each segment should have its own management rules.
The general conclusion is clear, the three standards mentioned in this thesis are hard
to combine on the physical level without adding additional hardware or adding modi-
cations to the standards.
3.2 Physical Layer overhead
The physical layer of an ONU and OLT is built with electrical components. Those
electrical circuits need time to stabilize, switch on and switch o, in particular the
transmitters or lasers. And even after they are switched on a receiver needs to syn-
50 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
chronize before they can start transmitting data. All those processes are part of the
physical layer and therefore often referred as Physical Layer Overhead (PLO).
The eciency of a system and costs to produce it depends partly on the specications
of these PLO parameters. Transceivers with tight timing constraints are more expen-
sive to produce. Each standard denes certain parameters which are required. Other
parameters are left unspecied and should be lled in by the implementer. The next
section provides an overview of the parameters for an ONU and OLT as specied by
the standards.
3.2.1 BPON Timing constraints
For a BPON system these PLO parameters are dened for the upstream direction only.
Since the downstream data is a continuous series of data the transmitter will always
be on.
For upstream data send by the ONU the laser needs to be switched on and o. For
this process three bytes, 24 bits, are reserved. They are placed in front of each frame
as was shown in Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6. The Table 2.8 gives the detailed bytes and
their function. The Guard time should be at least 4 bits, they provide a guard time
between consecutive cells. Any remaining bytes should be used for the Preamble
and Delimiter. The OLT informs the ONU how to divide the bits between those two
elds. They are assigned depending on the quality of the physical connection between
OLT and ONU.
3.2.2 GPON Timing constraints
In contrast to the BPON specications, for GPON systems more specic timing criteria
are specied by the ITU-T. The GPON physical processes are represented by The
physical layer overhead (Tplo). The ITU-T G.984.2 standard species these time
constraints with a note that The exact division of the physical layer time to all these
functions is determined partly by constraints equations, and partly by implementation
choices [14].
The ITU-T divides the Tplo into three sub values, guard time (T
g
), preamble time
(T
p
) and delimiter time (T
d
). During T
g
a nominal power level equal to ZERO is
transmitted. For T
p
a preamble pattern is transmitted, this pattern is used to generate
transitions. With this pattern the signal levels and clock signals can be recovered.
During the T
d
interval a pattern which has optimal autocorrelation properties[14] is
transmitted. With this pattern the OLT is able to nd the beginning of an upstream
burst.
An other parameter T
u
describes the so called peak-to-peak timing uncertainty. This
is an uncertainty which occurs due to inuences by temperature and other external
3.2. Physical Layer overhead 51
factors.
A certain parameter can have a xed value or it can be described by constraints. The
ITU-T dened the following equations for T
g
T
g
> T
on
+T
u
(3.1)
T
g
> T
off
+T
u
(3.2)
From these equations it becomes clear that the T
on
and T
off
bits are part of the
T
g
. Details are explained by [15]. In Table 3.1 all the values are shown, including
the Preamble bits T
p
and T
d
which are part of the PLOu eld as shown in Figure
2.20. It should be noted that the values for T
p
and T
d
are suggested values. Their
exact values depend on the hardware specications. Table 3.1 shows for each value the
amount of overhead bits and the corresponding time.
Table 3.1: GPON overhead time
Upstream Tx Tx Total Guard Preamble Delimiter
data rate enable disable time time time time
Mbit/s bits/ns bits/ns bits/ns bits/ns bits/ns bits/ns
155.520 2/12.86 2/12.86 32/205.8 6/38.58 10/64.30 16/102.88
622.08 8/12.86 8/12.86 64/102.88 16/25.72 28/45.01 20/32.15
1244.16 16/12.86 16/12.86 96/77.16 32/25.72 44/35.37 20/16.08
2488.32 32/12.86 32/12.86 192/77.16 64/25.72 108/43.40 20/8.04
Notes Max Max Mandatory Min Suggested Suggested
Like BPON for GPON downstream no overhead values are specied by the ITU-T,
due the continuous data stream.
3.2.3 EPON Timing constraints
For EPON the physical layer overhead properties are dened in a slightly dierent way.
As illustrated in Figure 3.6 the overhead is divided in dierent components. They are,
T
on
, T
receiver settling
, T
cdr
, T
code group align
and T
off
.
The T
on
value is inserted to stabilize the transmitter and generate a stable signal.
The length of T
on
is dened from the falling edge of the Tx Enable signal, and stops
when the optical signal reaches 15% of its steady state. The next stage is the Tre-
ceiver settling, this signal is needed to settle other requirements in the system. When
this is done a period for the T
cdr
is inserted. The CDR Lock Time, during this interval
the receiver acquires a phase and frequency lock on the incoming data.
52 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
The IEEE species that the combined value of measured T
cdr
and T
codegroupalignment
shall not exceed 432 ns. If all physical processes are completed the transmitter is ready
to start transmitting the actual data. After the completion of the transmission the
laser turns o which requires a certain delay. Table 3.2 gives an overview of the stan-
dardized values.
Table 3.2: EPON overhead time
T
on
T
off
T
receiver settling
T
cdr
T
code group alignment
< 512 ns < 512 ns 400ns max < 400ns < 32ns
In Figure 3.6 a schematic overview of each physical process is shown.
Laser
Tx_Enable
Upstream
data
T
o
n
T
c
d
r
T
r
e
c
e
i
v
e
r
_
s
e
t
t
i
n
g
T
c
o
d
e
_
g
r
o
u
p
_
a
l
i
g
n
T
o
f
f
Idles Data
Figure 3.6: EPON Time
3.3 Available security and data protection options
In an open network reliability and security are important issues. For PON networks
security is needed to guarantee privacy protection of user data. Reliability is needed to
ensure data transmission without errors and prevent damage due to hardware failure.
Privacy protection of user data is needed due to the P2MP network structure. Al the
data transmitted from the OLT can be seen by all connected ONUs as shown in Figure
1.2. For data transmitted by an ONU this isnt a problem, the data is only seen by
an OLT unless someone taps physically into the ber. To prevent the data from being
read by unauthorized persons a protection system for downstream data is required,
protection of upstream data can be additional since the risks of tapping physically into
the ber are very small.
For reliable and error free transmission, both upstream and downstream data have to be
protected. These protection mechanisms are implemented at the user sides only since
3.3. Available security and data protection options 53
the network in between is passive. Data packages can carry certain extra information
used by the OLT and ONU to verify the integrity of the received data. The next
sections will discuss the dierent mechanisms suggested by the standards.
3.3.1 BPON reliability and security
Reliability
For BPON in the ITU-T G.389.x standard two techniques are mentioned to ensure
reliable transmission of user data. As each BPON frame is constructed from PLOAM
and ATM cell types each with an own format. The PLOAM header and ATM cell
header use a so called Header Error Correction (HEC) value. This value is part of
the header as dened in ITU-T I.432.1 and shown in Figure 2.7 and Figure 2.8 on page
13. With this HEC value any single bit error in the header during transmission can be
corrected, multiple bit errors can only be detected.
For the payload sections of the PLOAM cell a CRC value is used as discussed in Chap-
ter 2 to ensure the data is reliable. With this CRC value transmission error can be
detected. For the ATM payload section the standard implements no mechanism to
protect it. The user should use an appropriate mechanism at an higher level. This
protection of the transmitted data is needed because bit errors can occur during trans-
mission.
To ensure a reliable transmission of data a detector should be able to detect the data as
it was send by the transmitter. At bit level a certain electrical signal represents a ZERO
and an higher electrical signal represents a ONE. For a detector these signals should be
interpreted in the right way, therefore these levels should be maintained. This is called
the DC balance which can be maintained by using an equal amount of ZEROs and
ONEs. Besides the detection of electrical levels the detection window is important as
well. A detector should therefore synchronize on an incoming data stream. Transitions
can be used by the detector to distinguish individual bits. A problem may occur when
series of ONEs or ZEROs are transmitted, these series dont contain any transitions.
As an result the detector may get out of sync.
To ensure a data stream holds to the requirements of DC-balance and sucient tran-
sitions the data in a BPON system is scrambled. Scrambling provides no security but
ensures a reliable transmission. Both for downstream and upstream data the BPON
ITU-T G.983.x standard species how to implement this.
For the actual scrambling of the downstream data the standard refers to the Dis-
tributed cells scrambler method for cell based transport systems as dened by the
ITU-T [11]. This standard, ITU-T I.431.1, suggests for a cell-based system a so
called Distributed Sample Scrambler (DSS) of the 31st order. It uses a polyno-
mial x
31
+x
28
+ 1. This scrambler scrambles only the payload section of each cell.
54 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
For Upstream data a scrambler as shown in Figure 3.7 is used. The scrambling func-
tion uses a polynomial x
9
+ x
4
+ 1. Only the payload section of an upstream frame
or minislot is scrambled. To descramble the data the operation is repeated with the
scrambled data as input. The output will be the original data.
Q
S
D Q
S
D Q
S
D Q
S
D Q
S
D Q
S
D Q
S
D
+
at start of frame
Reset pulse
Clock
(155.52 MHz)
Scrambled
data
Input
data
Q
S
D Q
S
D
+
Figure 3.7: BPON scrambler for upstream
Downstream data security
Fortunately BPON implements security for downstream trac in its network to pre-
vent unauthorized users to read the data send by the OLT. Each payload section of an
ATM frame is coded by a process called churning. The header is left intact. This
churned data is then send and can only be read by users who are able to dechurn
this data. To churn and dechurn data a certain key is needed which is generated
by the ONU. During the initialization and registration process of an ONU the rst key
is send to the OLT. To guarantee continuous security the key is updated at least once
a second. An OLT sends New churn key request messages to the ONU which will
send a new key to the OLT. Each key used for this process consists of 3 bytes and is
ordered in the bits like X1 - X8, P1 - P15 and P16.
In Figure 3.8 two black-boxes are shown which represent the process of churning
and dechurning. A scheme of the contents of each black box can be found in Ap-
pendix B.
K1 P12 K1 P12 P1 P1
Y1
Y2
Y8 Z8
Z2
Z1
Churn
Z8 Y8
Y2
Y1 Z1
Z2
Dechurn
OLT side
Y1~Y8 Data before Churning
Z1~Z8 Data after Churning
ONU side
Z1~Z8 Data before Dechurning
Y1~Y8 Data after Dechurning
K2 K2
Figure 3.8: Churning blocks
To operate correctly the black-boxes need input bits for the churning process, these
3.3. Available security and data protection options 55
are K1, K2, P1 - P12. The values K1 and K2 are generated by the OLT and ONU
according to the rules as shown below.
K1 = (X1&P13&P14) + (X2&P13&P14) + (X7&P13&P14) + (X8&P13&P14)
K2 = (X3&P15&P16) + (X4&P15&P16) + (X5&P15&P16) + (X6&P15&P16)
Inside the black-boxes additional values are needed, K3 - K10, they are generated
with the input values K1, K2, P1 - P12.
K3 = (K1&P9) + (K2&P9) ; K4 = (K1&P9) + (K2&P9)
K5 = (K1&P10) + (K2&P10) ; K6 = (K1&P10) + (K2&P10)
K7 = (K1&P11) + (K2&P11) ; K8 = (K1&P11) + (K2&P11)
K9 = (K1&P12) + (K2&P12) ; K10 = (K1&P12) + (K2&P12)
1
Upstream data security
Data encryption for upstream data is not dened in the standard. If it is needed it
should be implemented at a higher level.
For the scrambling of the data a scrambling operation is dened by the standard. This
scrambler randomizes the transmitted data stream by modulo addition of a pseudo-
random sequence. To descramble the data the process is repeated with an identical
locally generated pseudo-random sequence.
3.3.2 GPON reliability and security
Reliability
For a GPON system the security and reliability issues are specied in more detail.
GPON tries to take care of the so called eavesdropping threat which implies someone
re-programs his / her ONU in such way it can listen to all downstream data.
To prevent transmission errors in data, GPON applies the CRC algorithm to protect
the header. For GEM frames a HEC or CRC value is used to protect the header. Other
frames like ATM use their own system of header protection as discussed in the BPON
Section.
GPON supports a data protection mechanism for transmission errors called Forward
Error Correction (FEC) as was mentioned earlier in chapter 2. With FEC a code
word is generated based on the data. Using this codeword transmission errors can be
1
Operators used are: & for logical AND; + for logical OR; < signal > for logical NOT.
56 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
detected and corrected so transmission reliability is ensured. A result of using FEC is
that the link quality is increased, a higher bit rate is possible, a longer distance can be
used and more splits are possible.
The system used for the FEC encoding is the so called Reed-Solomon (Block based
FEC).
The function used is RS(255,239) which means the code word has a size of 255 bytes,
where 239 bytes are data and 16 are parity. These 16 parity bytes are extra overhead
bytes, as a result less user data can be send by the frame. In a 125 s frame constructed
from 255 byte codewords, the last code word is a so called Short-codeword. This is
needed when not a full block of 255 bytes is available. For a 2.488 Gb/s rate a 125
s frame contains 38.880 bytes. This are 152 blocks of 255 bytes and 120 remaining
bytes. With this 120 bytes 104 data bytes and a 16 byte parity can be transfered. The
generation of this parity requires a 239 data block, this is achieved by padding the 104
data bytes with zeros. After the parity is generated the padding is removed and the
remaining data + parity, 120 bytes, are inserted as a short-codeword. At the receiver
the padding is done before the parity is checked.
For GPON Downstream frames all the bits are used for the FEC coding. In GPON
Upstream frames the Delimiter and Preamble are excluded from FEC encoding, the
BIP eld will be the rst section of the coding.
Like in BPON systems the GPON data is scrambled as well. The scrambling for the
downstream frames is done by a frame-synchronous scrambling polynomial x
7
+x
6
+1.
The rst Psync bits in the PCBd header are not scrambled, all remaining bits are
scrambled.
How the data is protected against third parties is shown next.
GPON Downstream data security
To protect the downstream data against third parties GPON uses an encryption
algorithm to encrypt the data. This algorithm is known as the Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES). The AES algorithm is used by the government of the United-States,
as an encryption method for their data. A detailed description of this algorithm can
be found in a publication from the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) [16].
AES encrypts blocks of 128 bits of data. For this encryption a key is needed which can
be 128, 196 or 256 bits long. AES encryption supports besides dierent key lengths
also dierent encryption modes. GPON uses the Counter (CTR) method with a 128
bits key. Keys of 192 or 256 bits are optional and not further dened in the ITU-T
standard. The AES-CTR method encrypts data as shown in Figure 3.9.
3.3. Available security and data protection options 57
AESKey
Data
Ciphertext Data
Ciphertext
AESKey
Counter value
E E
Counter value
Encryption Decryption
Figure 3.9: AES CTR mode
For the encryption process key and counter values are needed. This key needs to
be known by the OLT and ONU. During the initialization process of ONUs a rst key
is exchanged. To update the key an OLT sends a key request message by using the
PLOAM channel. In response to this message the ONU will generate a new key and
send this to the OLT.
The counter value needed for the encryption process is generated by a synchronized
crypto-counter. Both OLT and ONU have such a counter, which should be synchro-
nized so that the encrypted data from OLT can be decrypted by the ONU.
The counter is a 46 bits eld, the 16 Least Signicant Bits (LSB) are the so called
intra-frame counter. This counter is reset at the beginning of the downstream frame
which is the rst byte of the PCBd. The intra-frame counter is incremented every four
bytes. The 30 Most Signicant Bits (MSB) represent the inter-frame counter. This
counter is equal to the super-frame counter in an Ident eld in the PCBd. This is
shown on page 26. This inter-frame counter is increased each frame.
This 46 bit block counter value is used as an input of the AES algorithm. To generate
the 128 bit input key the 46 bits are repeated three times. This results in a 138 bit
sequence from which the 10 MSB bits are discarded. The result is a 128 bit key for the
input of the AES algorithm.
When the user data consists of ATM cells only the 48 bytes payload section of an ATM
cell is encrypted. For a single cell 3 blocks of 128 bits or 16 bytes from the random
cipher is needed. These 3 blocks are XOR-ed to the data. In case of GEM payload
the same procedure is used for the GEM payload section. It can happen that a full
payload section with GEM frames is not equal to a multiple of 16 byte blocks. In that
case the last data block will use only the most signicant part of the last cipher block.
The remaining bytes are discarded.
58 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
GPON Upstream data security
For upstream data no specic encryption methods are dened to secure data against
unauthorized parties. If security is required it should be implemented at an higher
level.
3.3.3 EPON reliability and security options
The IEEE has for their EPON standard no encryption dened. When encryption needs
to be implemented it should be done at higher levels.
For reliability some mechanisms are dened. Every transmitted frame is tagged with
a Frame Check Sequence FCS to detect transmission errors. This FCS is a 32-bit
Cyclic Redundancy Check CRC value. With this CRC value correction of transmis-
sion errors isnt possible. When an incorrect CRC is detected the whole frame will be
discarded.
To reduce transmission errors like in BPON and GPON the data needs to be con-
structed in such a way that there are enough ZEROs and ONEs for synchronization.
In stead of scrambling the data 8B/10B encoding is applied as mentioned on page 38.
An other purpose of 8B/10B encoding is maintaining the DC level as was discussed in
the GPON section.
3.4 Data encapsulation
Each standard provides a certain transport mechanism with its own protocols. At the
user level of a PON network, the user is able to send data over the network without
having to worry about the technique used at lower level. The function of a protocol
is to provide a container which can carry the data. A container can contain user
specic formatted data or data with a format required by the container. The protocols
discussed in this thesis support the following interfaces at user level.
3.4.1 BPON interfaces
A BPON network is an ATM based system. It presents an ATM interface to the user.
The user can use this interface to send ATM cells. To send data using ATM cells some
encapsulation methods for ATM are standardized, others should be implemented by
the user. An advantage of the use of ATM is the availability of network equipment for
networks which support ATM. Disadvantages are the lack of ATM support at the end
user. User equipment like PCs or telephones are almost never equipped with an ATM
interface. This requires extra conversion system at the ONU.
3.5. ONU and OLT initialization 59
3.4.2 GPON interfaces
In contrast to BPON GPON uses its own frame format and therefor is forced to convert
this to a common used protocol. A standard GPON ONU should present an ATM and
a GEM interface to the user. The ATM interface can be handled in the same way as
for a BPON ONU. The GEM interface can support any user data. In the standard [10]
the mapping of TDM and Ethernet data are dened. Since most user equipment at
home is equipped with an Ethernet port this interface can almost directly used without
conversion.
3.4.3 EPON interfaces
The EPON standard supports only an Ethernet interface which can be used to connect
any equipment with an Ethernet port. This interface can be used to transfer several
other data types and services. Conversions for this are dened in dierent standards.
3.5 ONU and OLT initialization
Like every network with dierent nodes, there is a moment when a new node wants
to access the network. To prevent already ongoing transmission are being corrupted a
procedure is needed to initialize new nodes (ONUs). The next section will discuss the
global initialization procedure for each standard.
3.5.1 BPON ONU initialization
The activation process is more or less the same as for GPON and therefore not discussed
here in detail.
3.5.2 GPON ONU initialization
In GPON systems each ONU has an unique serial number. This number identies the
ONU at the OLT. An OLT can have serial numbers registered in advance, in that case
an ONU is already known to the OLT when it switches on. It is possible to add ONUs
which have not been registered jet, they are handled as an Unexpected ONU [10]. The
serial number then has to be detected in an other way.
An OLT can search for ONUs on the network with periodically polls, or start searching
when the OLT detects that previous working ONUs are missing. If automatic detec-
tion is not wished it can be forced by the operator. There are dierent stages in which
an ONU can be activated in a network. The basic activation method consists of the
following steps:
The OLT sends the rst message to which an ONU may respond to. The ONU will
60 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
rst adapt its physical parameters for transmission. When the serial number is not
known to the OLT it has to be discovered rst. When the serial number is known the
OLT will assign an unique ONU-ID to the ONU. Now a basic communication channel
is established, to fully use it, the ONU and OLT negotiate about some physical pa-
rameters. A part of this procedure is the so called Ranging procedure. During this
ranging the distance between ONU and OLT is measured so the timing parameters can
be calculated. When the ONU adapts its parameters to the values suggested by the
OLT the ONU is registered and ready to be used. During this procedure the ONU has
dierent states, there are eight in total. A detailed state diagram with all states of the
ONU (8) can be found in the ITU-T document [10]
3.5.3 EPON ONU initialization
For EPON systems the activation should be something like for BPON and GPON sys-
tems. Like in GPON systems the OLT periodically makes Discovery Time Windows
during which o-line ONUs are given the opportunity to make themselves known to
the OLT. How long this Window is and how often requests are send is decided by
the designer. This so called discovery gate message with a start time and length is
broadcasted. During this window multiple ONUs are allowed to send their REGIS-
TER REQ message to the OLT, indicating they want to be registered. To prevent
collisions between multiple ONUs a random mechanism is implemented, so that not
every ONU starts sending at the same time. After having received a REGISTER REQ
message the OLT will register the ONU and assign a LLID to it. To inform the ONU
the OLT sends a conrmation message, REGISTER ACK, back to the ONU. During
this process the physical parameters of the ONU are calculated by the OLT and send
to the ONU.
3.6 Eective rate / overhead
The eciency of a PON depends on the amount of users and protocol eciency. In
a P2MP system the bandwidth available at the main ber from the OLT is splitted
amongst the users. This bandwidth usage is manageable at OLT and ONU level. An
ONU which doesnt receive grants from the OLT wont use any bandwidth. The OLT
is the control station to divide this bandwidth between each user.
An extra factor which limits the eciency in a PON network is the overhead needed
to transmit data. For downstream and upstream data extra packets are inserted for
management and control purposes. Depending on the protocol these packets consume
more or less bandwidth.
3.6. Effective rate / overhead 61
The examples mentioned below are most worst case scenarios or based on simulations
by third parties.
3.6.1 BPON performance
A BPON system has two transfer speeds, 155.52 Mb/s and 622.08 Mb/s. From this
bandwidth a part is consumed by management and overhead data. For a 155.52 Mb/s
downstream frame constructed from 56 cells, 2 cells are PLOAM cells, the other 54
ATM cells. The eective data rate becomes 155.52
54
56
= 149.97Mb/s which is an
eective data rate of 96 %. For the 622.08 Mb/s connection the eective rate is 599.86
Mb/s, the eective data rate is equal.
For upstream data transmission of each 56 bytes transmitted, 53 are real data the other
3 are overhead. The resulting upstream rate will be 147.18 Mb/s and 588.75 Mb/s, an
eective rate of 95 %.
This bandwidth has to be divided amongst 32 users maximum. The maximum transfer
rate a user can have is a 18.7 Mb/s downstream and 18.3 Mb/s upstream
3.6.2 GPON performance
A 125 s downstream frame for 2.48832 Gb/s is 38880 bytes long. Part of this frame
is the header. This header is constructed of 30 bytes + the US BW Map eld which
is N * 8 bytes, where N is the amount of bandwidth reports for the ONU. This was
discussed on page 28. This header therefore can be dynamic so the resulting payload
section is variable. Simulation results have shown an eective downstream value of 92
% [17]. This bandwidth has to be divided by a maximum of 64 users, 128 users are
supported in the future. For an upstream frame the contents is dynamic as well. To
analyze the performance of trac further study and simulation is needed.
3.6.3 EPON performance
In EPON systems frames are transmitted as a Control frame and Data frames. The
eective data rate depends on how the bandwidth is divided between those. At the
user level 1 Gb/s is available, on the lower level due to 8B/10B encoding the data
rate at the ber is 1.25 Gb/s. The maximum amount of users is limited to 32 at this
moment.
To calculate the performance simulation is needed here as well. Glen Kramer did such
study in his paper How ecient is EPON [18]. From his calculations he concludes
that the maximum downstream for a 1 Gb/s PtP link can be 915.2 Mb/s and the
upstream 898.8 Mb/s. This is an eciency of 98.92 % resp. 97.08 %. These values are
62 Chapter 3. A comparison between standards
based on a model[18] which makes an estimate of the average overhead and package
size.
Chapter 4
Implementations and
recommendations
4.1 Purposes of the Freeband Broadband Photonic project
One purpose of the Freeband Broadband Photonic project is to provide a high speed,
multiple services access point to the end-user. To implement such access point for the
user several techniques are available. One of this techniques is a PON as discussed in
the previous chapters.
For the Freeband project this network structure is suitable, mainly due to its broadcast
nature (P2MP) and possible P2P congurations. The previous chapters discussed three
standards which provide implementation options for PONs. The Freeband project could
partially use such networks to deliver the required services to the user. Although the
standards discussed show networks with a standardized design, these networks can be
modied to meet the user requirements. If any modications are made, they should
not conict with the standardized parameters. For the Freeband Broadband Photonic
project the requirements may not be fullled by a single standard. In that case certain
parts of the standards can be used, other parts need to be lled in by other standards
or complete new standard.
A disadvantage of not using the complete standard for the implementation may be
the incompatibility with existing equipment. When a network is designed according
to a standard, third parties are able to design their hardware for such networks in a
simple way and by reusing mass produced parts. When networks are partially designed
by standards and partially by user implementations the hardware should be designed
conform the customers specication, so it can be used in the network. This increases
the production price of the network equipment.
63
64 Chapter 4. Implementations and recommendations
4.2 Implementations from a userpoint of view
A user doesnt want to be bothered with technical details. Therefore the delivery of
dierent services to the user should be realized in a plug and play way. For simplicity
we will use the three most important services available nowadays. These are Internet,
telephony and television. A user should have some black-box with several interfaces
installed at home which provide Internet, telephony and television. At this moment
there are several Cable and ADSL providers which oer triple play services. An
advantage of optical networks can be a high bandwidth and less interference.
All those services have to be transmitted over a PON network. This requires not only
the available PON techniques but relies also on additional standards. An interface
for the user is constructed from an electrical circuit with connection point. The most
common used connection points are for Ethernet a RJ-45 plug, for Telephony a RJ-11
plug and for Television a Belling-Lee (Coax) connector. Each interface is driven by
an electrical circuit which will not be discussed here in detail. The transportation of
these services requires a certain format or protocol. A format supported by a PON
network is preferred, otherwise data conversion from one protocol to another protocol
needs to be implemented. The next section shows some protocols which could be used
to implement this.
4.3 Available service protocols
The Internet service can be realized using the existing Ethernet protocol. Almost
every PC is equipped with an Ethernet interface and additional network equipment is
available for home usage.
For a telephony service it is more complex, the service needs to transfer the voice data
over the network. Before this can be done the voice data needs to be digitized. This
digital voice data is encapsulated in a protocol. Two protocols often used nowadays to
transfer this voice are Voice over IP (VoIP) and Voice over ATM (VoATM). VoIP
is standardized by the ITU-T H.323 standard. This protocol relies on IP technology
which uses Ethernet as transport protocol. The other protocol VoATM uses ATM
frames to transmit the voice data. VoATM is standardized in ITU-T I.363.2. Which
of these protocols is used depends on the implementation choices.
A remarkable dierence between the protocols is the amount of overhead for a frame.
An IP frame has an average overhead of 20 bytes while ATM uses 5 bytes for overhead.
IP frames are capable of transporting larger amounts of data per frame, however for
voice these frames cant be too large. Large IP voice frames would introduce too much
delay for voice data. Depending on the used codec a VoIP frame contains an average
of 20 to 160 bytes, while ATM frames always contain 53 bytes. Another drawback of
4.4. Implementation examples 65
VoIP is the possible congestion which can occur in Internet networks and the lack of
QoS. Since VoIP cant guarantee the voice packets to arrive in the correct order, data
streams can get mixed up. In the standards ATM frames dont rely on Ethernet or
IP frames, and therefore have their own virtual channel. This ATM channel can of
course be overloaded as well, but is more manageable.
A television service can be implemented using the so called Enhancement band as
discussed in Section 3.1.2. This band provides the television in a broadcast way like
the current CATV system. At the ONU this signal can be converted to an RF signal
or digital signal which can be send to the television.
4.4 Implementation examples
The system discussed in the previous sections can be implemented using a GPON or
EPON network. In the following subsections an example for such a system is shown.
BPON is not further discussed since this standard is more or less overruled by GPON.
4.4.1 An GPON example
When the ONU is implemented with GPON components a network as shown in Figure
4.1 on page 66 can be constructed. This network shows the three services as they are
available as backbone systems. A Cable Television (CATV) backbone, a Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) backbone and a Wide Area Network (WAN)
backbone.
A CATV system uses the Enhancement band (
3
) and is therefore multiplexed in a
PON network at a certain point using a WDM multiplexer. The other services PSTN
and WAN are connected to the PON network using the OLT. This OLT has an interface
for this services and provides the headend for the PON network. This OLT signal (
1
and
2
) is multiplexed with the Enhancement band (
3
) by the same WDM device.
Each OLT can have multiple ONUs connected to it. Such ONU is constructed from a
WDM demultiplexer which separates the Enhancement band from the PON network.
This Enhancement band provides the Television service and is converted by an electrical
circuit to the standard interface.
The PON signal needs more processing by the GPON stack. GPON provides an ATM
and GEM interface as was shown in Figure 2.13. This ATM interface can be used for
the Telephony service. A VoATM service can use this interface to convert this ATM
channel to a RJ-11 interface. For the Internet service the GEM channel can be used. As
was discussed in Section 2.2.7 the conversion from Ethernet to GEM is standardized.
With this conversion the GEM channel can be represented as an Ethernet interface to
the user.
66 Chapter 4. Implementations and recommendations
PSTN
WAN
CATV
PC
Telephony
Television
VoATM
Optical to
Analog/Digital
W
D
M
W
D
M
GPON

1

3
+ +

1

2
+

1

2

3

1
ATM
ONU
GEM
Ethernet
OLT
&
= GPON upstream and downstream
= Enhancementband
+
GEM to Ethernet
1 0
Figure 4.1: GPON example
4.4.2 An EPON example
The example shown for GPON can be implemented with the EPON protocol as well.
Each backbone network is similar to the GPON conguration. Although the Enhance-
ment band is not specied for EPON it can be implemented like in GPON. The major
dierences are found in the ONU. In contrast to GPON, EPON provides an Ethernet
interface which can directly be used for the user interface without conversion. For
Telephony a dierent choice is made to transport the voice packets. Since the Internet
is the only interface here the VoIP protocol is most usable here. For VoIP the encap-
sulation into Ethernet is simple, while for VoATM the encapsulation into Ethernet is
hard to realize. The Television signal is presented to the user in the same way as for
GPON. The complete overview of this conguration is shown in Figure 4.2.
PSTN
WAN
CATV
PC
Telephony
Television
Optical to
Analog/Digital
W
D
M
W
D
M
3

1

3
+ +

1

2
+

1

2

3
IP over Ethernet

1
ONU
OLT
&
= EPON upstream and downstream
= Enhancementband
EPON
VoIP
Ethernet
+
1 0
Figure 4.2: EPON example
4.5. Which standard to implement 67
4.5 Which standard to implement
To decide to use BPON, EPON or GPON in a new design is based upon dierent as-
pects. The previous chapters have shown the main characteristics of each standard and
their possibilities. BPON will be left out in this discussion, since the transfer speed
and interface types are completely overruled by GPON. The battle will be between
GPON and EPON.
4.5.1 Bandwidth and users
To create a network in a certain area the costs should be as low as possible and the
eciency as high as possible. A neighborhood needs several OLTs, depending on the
amount of bandwidth required by the users and the amount of users. Where EPON
supports at this moment 32 users, GPON supports 64 and even 128 in the future. If the
available bandwidth has to be divided amongst the maximum possible users connected
to an OLT for EPON the eective rate will be 31.25 Mb/s. There are two options for
upgrading EPON, one is increasing the available bandwidth and the second option is
allowing more users to be connected simultaneously. Both upgrades are expected to
be happen in the future. The current available bandwidth of 31.25 Mb/s, for 32 users
each, is more than enough to serve an average household using telephone and Internet.
The TV distribution is not using this bandwidth since it is on a separate wavelength
outside the actual PON system.
For GPON the network bandwidth will be 38.88 Mb/s for 64 users or 19.44 Mb/s
for 128 users. A GPON network is scalable as well, in the future higher transmission
speeds and more users per ONU should be possible. The worst case bandwidth of 19.44
Mb/s is more than enough for an average user. The Television signal isnt included in
this bandwidth. With future upgrades of technology this bandwidth will increase even
more.
There are several manufacturers who produce equipment with specications which are
experimental and not ocially certied by IEEE or ITU-T. The available bandwidth
and users that can be connected now shouldnt be the deciding factor. But if a choice
has to be made upon this issue GPON would be preferable due to its higher bandwidth
and more users per OLT.
4.5.2 The mapping of services
An other factor which might be the deciding factor is the way services are mapped to the
PON network. For telephony a mapping has to be done according to both standards.
For EPON this is a mapping to VoIP, for GPON this is VoATM. Both protocols have
68 Chapter 4. Implementations and recommendations
their own advantages and disadvantages as discussed before. Where VoIP is a more
commonly used technology and able to use the standard Ethernet protocol, VoATM
is a more specic technology but more reliable and uses less overhead. An advantage
of VoIP is the exibility, a user can register with his or her account at a Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) server and start making VoIP calls. A user can use this
account at any Internet connection, even on a mobile or xed phone. For VoATM the
network structure needs to be designed according to specic requirements to establish
a connection. EPON provides support for both services without too many conversions.
GPON can use VoIP but needs the extra conversion to GEM frames.
Due to the popularity of the Internet and Ethernet protocol, many services used via the
Internet could be implemented at the ONU when their development is at an acceptable
level. This is a migration from the Internet to ONU where EPON would provide the
smoothest transition possibilities.
For the Internet EPON provides the simplest interface without any conversion. In
GPON networks Ethernet should be converted to GEM frames. Nowadays there are
even Telephone systems with an Ethernet interface on the marked which makes the
VoIP conversion in the ONU superuous.For the simplicity and exibility of the user
EPON provides the best service.
4.5.3 The physical devices
The proposals made in this Chapter might to be realized in a real circuit. The ac-
tual GPON and EPON circuits will be discussed here, all other circuits are neglected.
Electrical circuits have to be built with certain specications. The most important
ones were mentioned in Section 3.2. The smaller the timing is for circuits to operate,
the more expensive is their manufacturing. EPON has in contrast to GPON relaxed
timing constraints. As a result of this relaxed specications EPON devices should be
cheaper to manufacture.
This chapter has shown the problems and possibilities for the actual users and im-
plementers. The next chapter will present an overall conclusion and recommendations.
Chapter 5
Conclusions and recommendations
5.1 General conclusions
This thesis was written to provide answers to the questions given below.
What are the dierences between the BPON/GPON/EPON standards?
Are the BPON/GPON/EPON standards inter operable?
Which conversions are needed at the end user to make its private-network plug-
and-play with an optical WAN and which options are available?
What about the timing and synchronization issues of each protocol?
How can BPON/GPON/EPON implemented into the Freeband system?
The next sections will provide an answer to each question and make some recom-
mendations to the project.
5.1.1 Dierences between BPON, GPON and EPON
The dierences between BPON, GPON and EPON can be found at dierent levels.
A BPON system is a good system but more or less replaced by the GPON standard.
All the user services provided by BPON can be found in the GPON system as well.
GPON is even more exible since it provides not only an ATM service but also addi-
tional services like GEM with several possibilities for data encapsulation.
The EPON standard distinguishes its self from BPON and GPON by using the Eth-
ernet stack, the service provided by EPON is therefore Ethernet. Like ATM or GEM,
Ethernet is capable of encapsulating other protocols.
Both BPON and GPON use the ATM protocol, where BPON actually uses it at the
network level and GPON only provides a service point for ATM. The network layer
of GPON uses its own frame format to transfer the data. For this moment GPON
69
70 Chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations
has the fastest transmission speed followed by EPON. The transfer speeds for BPON
are outdated, while EPON and GPON might be upgraded to higher speed. Another
drawback of BPON is the lack of further development by the ITU-T, this is not very
active anymore since GPON is more or less a replacement.
5.1.2 Interoperability
In large networks it may be desired to use more than one standard to provide the best
solutions to dierent users. There are however problems when using more standards
in a single network. On the rst place it isnt very ecient, a network needs equip-
ment which meets the requirements of two or more standards. A second problem was
discussed earlier, the dierent band-plans of each standard conicts with each other.
As a result the interoperability of the three standards here isnt possible without any
modication in the specied band-plan.
5.1.3 Plug-and-play options
Plug-and-play implies that existing equipment needs none or less modications when it
is connected to new hardware. User equipment for telephony like IP-phones, Internet,
and even televisions have an Ethernet interfaces nowadays. Based on this information a
standard which supports Ethernet should be the best choice. Both GPON and EPON
provide an Ethernet service, GPON with some extra conversion and EPON without any
conversion. For a plug-and-play system EPON should be the easiest implementation.
5.1.4 Physical dierences
On the physical level there are dierences in the available data rates, and device tim-
ing requirements. The EPON standard species timing requirements which are more
relaxed compared to the GPON specications. The GPON strict specications make
the physical devices more expensive to produce.
For the available data rate GPON is the leading standard now. However a 10 Gb/s
Ethernet stack is currently available for an active optical network, it is just a matter of
time when EPON will adopt this stack. With easy to implement timing specications
and a possible transfer speed of 10 Gb/s EPON is suitable for low cost high speed
PONs.
5.2. Recommendations 71
5.2 Recommendations
5.2.1 Freeband Broadband Photonic implementations
The Freeband Broadband Photonic project requires a PON based network to deliver
the most common services to the user. The hardware needed for these services is often
equipped with an Ethernet interface. From a user point of view an ONU with Ethernet
support should be most convenient. An implementation for this system which requires
less protocol conversion or encapsulation would be an EPON based system. Since a
lot of services are born in the Internet environment, the migration of these services to
a PON network using the same protocol has its advantages.
Although GPON has its advantages as well, it provides more direct service interfaces,
the question would be if an average user really needs those dierent services. As user
equipment is standardized to Ethernet, ATM support becomes superuous. If ATM is
no must, extra conversions like Ethernet to GEM and vice versa are then overkill.
For the network operator the advantage is the relative cheap equipment needed for
EPON networks. A general recommendation to the Freeband project is to use an
EPON based PON.
5.2.2 Future work
Although the standards describe a more or less complete PON network based on EPON
there are still unsolved issues. For example what are the side eects when EPON mi-
grates to 10 Gb/s. This high speed interface might be available for active optical
networks now, but is it suitable for PONs? Are the devices then still easy to manu-
facture? These questions can only be answered and analyzed when the standards are
available.
For the Freeband Broadband Photonic project an other question is unanswered, what
if more wavelengths are going to be used in a standard? Each standard describes a
xed band-plan to use but can this bandplan extended with other wavelengths?
72 Chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations
References
[1] ITU-T recommendation G.984.1,
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General characteristics.,
International Telecommunication Union, March 2003.
[2] ITU-T recommendation G.983.1,
Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON),
International Telecommunication Union, October 1998.
[3] IEEE recommendation 802.3ah
IEEE 802.3ah, Amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2002,
IEEE Computer Society, June 2004.
[4] Larry L Peterson and Bruce S. Davie,
Computer Networks: A systems approach,
Morgan Kaufmann publishers, 2000, ISBN: 1558605770.
[5] ITU-T Recommendation I.732,
Functional characteristics of ATM equipment,
International Telecommunication Union, October 2000.
[6] ITU-T recommendation G.983.3,
Broadbad opticalaccess systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON),
International Telecommunication Union, March 2001.
[7] ITU-T recommendation G.707,
Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH),
International Telecommunication Union, December 2003.
[8] ITU-T recommendation I.361,
B-ISDN ATM layer specication,
International Telecommunication Union, March 1999.
73
74 REFERENCES
[9] ITU-T recommendation G.984.4,
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): ONT management and control
interface specication,
International Telecommunication Union, June 2004.
[10] ITU-T recommendation G.984.3,
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence
layer specication,
International Telecommunication Union, February 2004.
[11] ITU-T recommendation I.431.1,
B-ISDN user-network interface - Physical layer specication: General character-
istics,
International Telecommunication Union, February 1999.
[12] IEEE recommendation 802.3,
Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access
method and physical layer specications,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, March 2002.
[13] A. X. Widmer and P. A. Franaszek,
A DC-Balanced, Partitioned-Block, 8B/10B Transmission Code,
IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 5, September 1983, pages
440-451.
online: http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/275/ibmrd2705D.pdf
[14] ITU-T recommendation G.984.2,
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Physical Media Dependent
(PMD) layer specication.,
International Telecommunication Union, March 2003.
[15] Frank Eenberger,
PON PDM Timing,
Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force, Presentation January 2003,
online: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/efm/public/jan03/
optics/eenberger optics 1 0103.pdf
[16] Federal-Information-Processing-Standards-Publication-197,
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES),
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Noveber 2003,
online: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/ps/ps197/ps-197.pdf
REFERENCES 75
[17] Dan Parson,
GPON vs. EPON Costs Comparison,
Lightwave journal, September 2005, online: http://www.broadlight.com/e-
presenter/media/documents
/GPON vs EPON Cost Comparison - BroadLight-June 2005.pdf
[18] Glen Kramer,
How ecient is EPON?,
Teknovus,
online: http://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/kramer/papers/epon eciency.pdf
76 REFERENCES
Appendix A
List of Acronyms
Alen ATM (partition) length
Alloc-ID Allocation Identier
APON ATM over Passive Optical Networks
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BER Bit Error Ratio
BIP Bit Interleaved Parity
BPON Broadband Passive Optical Networks
Blen BWmap Length
BWmap Bandwidth Map
CLP Congestion Loss Priority
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
DBA Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment
DBRu Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream
DEMUX Demultiplexer
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
EPON Ethernet Passive Optical Network
FEC Forward Error Correction
FTTB Fiber to the Building
FTTB/C Fiber to the Building/Curb
FTTC Fiber to the Curb
FTTCab Fiber to the Cabinet
FTTH Fiber to the Home
GEM GPON Encapsulation Method
GMII Gigabit-Medium-Independent-Interface
GPM GPON Physical Media (Dependent)
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
GTC GPON Transmission Convergence
HEC Header Error Control
77
78 Appendix A. List of Acronyms
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector
LCF Laser Control Field
LLC Logical Link Control layer
LLID Logical Link Identier
LSB Least Signicant Bit
MAC Media Access Control
MDI Media-Dependent-Interface
MDU Multi-Dwelling Unit
MII Media-Independent-Interface
MPMC Multi-Point-MAC-Control
MPCPDU Multi-Point-MAC-Control Protocol-Data-Unit
MSB Most Signicant Bit
MUX Multiplexer
NRZ Non-Return-To-Zero
NT Network Termination
OAM Operation, Administration and Maintenance
OAN Optical Access Network
ODN Optical Distribution Network
OLT Optical Line Termination
OMCI ONU Management and Control Interface
ONT Optical Network Termination
ONU Optical Network Unit
OSI Open System Interconnection
P2MP Point to Multi Point
P2P Point to Point
PCBd Physical Control BLock downstream
PCS Physical-COding-Sublayer
PDU Protocol Data Unit
Plend Physical Length downstream
PLI Payload Length Indicator
PLOAM Physical Layer Operations, Administration and Maintenance
PLOAMd PLOAM downstream
PLOAMu PLOAM upstream
PLOu Physical Layer Overhead upstream
PLSu Power Leveling Sequence upstream
PMA Physical-Medium-Attatchment layer
PMD Physical-Medium-Dependent layer
79
PON Passive Optical Network
Port-ID Port Identier
Psync Physical Synchronization
PT Payload Type
PTI Payload Type Indicator
QoS Quality of Service
RS Reconsiliation
RXCF Receiver COntrol Filed
SCB Single Copy Broadcast
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SNI Service Node Interface
STM Synchronous Transfer Mode
TC Transmission Convergence
T-CONT Transmission Container
UNI User Network Interface
UTP Unschielded Twisted Pair
VCI Virtual Channel Identier
VoATM Voice over ATM
VoIP Voice over IP
VP Virtual Path
VPI Virtual Path Identier
WAN Wide Area Network
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
80 Appendix A. List of Acronyms
Appendix B
BPON Churning function
K1 P12 K1 P12 K2 P1 K2 P1
=
P8
Y1
Y2
Y8 Z8
Z2
Z1
Churn
Z8 Y8
Y2
Y1 Z1
Z2
Dechurn
K1 P1
K3
K2 P2
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
K1 P7
K1 P5
K1 P3 K4
K5
K2
P4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z4
Z5
Z6
Z7
Z8 Z8
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3 Y3
Y2
Y1
Z2
Z1
K2 P2
K2 P4
K2 P6
P8
K10
K8
K2
K3
K1 P1
Y2
Y1
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
K9
K8
K9
K1 K2
K6
K7
K1 P3
K6
K7
K2 P6 K1 P5
K8
K9
P7
K10
Figure B.1: BPON Churning schema
81
82 Appendix B. BPON Churning function
List of Figures
1.1 Optical network architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 PON network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 OSI reference model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 BPON ONU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 BPON OLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 NRZ Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.5 BPON frame 155-MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6 BPON frame 622-MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.7 ATM cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.8 PLOAM structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.9 BPON divided slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.10 OLT functional block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.11 ONU functional block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.12 GPON-Stack overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.13 U and C/M plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.14 GPON downstream frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.15 PCBd overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.16 Ident Field overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.17 Plen Field overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.18 US BW MAP overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.19 GPON upstream frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.20 Physical layer overhead Upstream (PLOu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.21 PLOAMu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.22 DBRu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.23 ATM upload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.24 DBA report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.25 GEM upload frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.26 GEM header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.27 TDM over GEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.28 Ethernet over GEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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84 LIST OF FIGURES
2.29 EPON stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.30 EPON Multimac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.31 MPMC Control frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.32 A GATE and REPORT MPCPDU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.33 MAC-frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.1 PON Duplex system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.2 PON Full Duplex system detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.3 PON Duplex ber system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.4 GPON Duplex system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.5 Enhancement system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.6 EPON Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.7 BPON scrambler for upstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.8 Churning blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.9 AES CTR mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.1 GPON example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.2 EPON example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
B.1 BPON Churning Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
List of Tables
2.1 BPON upstream and downstream speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 BPON wavelengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3 PLOAM downstream payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 BPON GRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5 PLOAM downstream MESSAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 PLOAM upstream payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.7 PLOAM downstream MESSAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.8 Upstream overhead bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.9 GPON transfer speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.10 GPON wavelength bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.11 GPON OLT and ONU modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.12 GPON Downstream Frame length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.13 Ind Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.14 GEM PTI codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.15 Physical EPON properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.16 Physical properties PMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.17 GATE MPCPDU Number of grants/Flags Field (1 Byte) . . . . . . . . 42
2.18 REPORT MPCPDU Report bitmap elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.1 GPON overhead time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.2 EPON overhead time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
85