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English for Engineering

English for Engineering

English for Engineering

CONTENTS

Unit 1

7

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

7

Reading

7

Everyday English

8

Ways with Words

8

Grammar Reference

11

The Verb To Be

11

The Demonstrative Pronoun and Adjective

12

Controlled Practice:

12

Question Forms

13

Controlled Practice:

14

Unit 2

15

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

15

Reading

15

Ways with Words

16

Grammar Reference

19

The Personal Pronoun

19

Controlled practice:

20

Mood, Tense and Aspect

21

Present Simple

21

Present Continuous

22

Controlled Practice:

24

Unit 3

27

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

27

Reading

27

Ways with words:

28

Grammar Reference

29

Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English

29

Controlled Practice:

30

The Imperative

31

Controlled Practice:

31

The Possessive Pronoun and the Posessive Adjective

33

Controlled Practice

33

Unit 4

35

 

Pre-Reading Tasks:

35

Reading 1

35

Ways with words:

36

Reading 2

37

Ways with words:

38

Grammar Reference

43

Classification of Nouns

43

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English for Engineering

 

Number of Nouns:

44

The Genitive

45

Controlled Practice:

45

Test

47

Unit 5

49

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

49

Reading

49

Ways with words

50

Grammar Reference

52

Past Simple

52

Past Continuous

53

Past Simple and Past Continuous

55

Controlled Practice:

55

Expressions of Quantity

57

Controlled Practice

58

The Adjective

59

The Order of adjectives in a series

59

Controlled Practice:

60

Unit 6

63

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

63

Reading

63

Ways with words

64

Grammar Reference

65

Present Perfect Simple

65

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple

67

Controlled Practice:

67

The Preposition

71

Prepositions of Time

72

Controlled Practice:

72

Unit 7

77

 

Pre-Reading Tasks

77

Reading

77

Ways with words:

78

Grammar Reference

79

Present Perfect Continuous

79

Controlled Practice:

81

Modal Verbs

83

Controlled Practice:

84

Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place

87

Controlled Practice:

87

Unit 8

89

 

Pre-Reading Task

89

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English for Engineering

Reading

89

Ways with words

90

Grammar Reference

92

The Cardinal Numeral

92

Controlled Practice:

93

Past Perfect Simple

93

Past Perfect Continuous

94

Controlled Practice:

95

Unit 9

99

Pre-Reading Task

99

Reading

99

Ways with words

100

Grammar Reference

101

Future Simple

101

Controlled Practice:

103

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

104

Comparative Sentences

106

Controlled Practice:

106

Test

109

Unit 10

111

Pre-reading task

111

Reading

111

Ways with words

112

Grammar Reference

114

Be going to Future

114

Future Simple or Be Going To?

115

Controlled Practice:

115

First Conditional

116

Controlled Practice

116

Unit 11

119

Pre-Reading Task

119

Reading

119

Ways with words

120

Grammar Reference

121

The Ordinal Numeral

121

The Fractional Numeral

121

The Multiplicative Numeral

121

Second Conditional

122

Controlled Practice:

123

Unit 12

125

Pre-Reading Tasks

125

Reading

125

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English for Engineering

Ways with words

126

Grammar Reference

127

The Article

127

Controlled Practice:

129

Third Conditional

131

Controlled Practice:

132

Unit 13

135

Pre-Reading Tasks

135

Reading

135

Ways with words

136

Grammar Reference

139

The Adverb

139

Controlled Practice

140

The Passive Voice

141

Controlled Practice:

142

Unit 14

145

Reading

145

Grammar Reference

147

Punctuation

147

The Infinitive

152

The Participle

152

The Gerund

153

Controlled Practice:

153

Unit 15

155

Reading and Practice

155

Ways with words

160

Grammar Reference

161

The Conjunction

161

Coordinating Conjunctions

161

Subordinating Conjunctions

161

Controlled Practice

162

Test

165

Evaluation

167

Appendix 1

169

Appendix 2

179

Appendix 3

189

Bibliography

191

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English for Engineering

Unit 1

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Social English

© The English Alphabet

© The Verb to be

© The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective

© Question forms

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-Reading Tasks

What’s your name?

How old are you?

Where do you live?

What do you specialize in?

Reading

you? Where do you live? What do you specialize in? Reading Read the following text about

Read the following text about

George

Ionescu,

a

student

in

Romania:

My name is George Ionescu and I

am

a

student

in

the

Faculty

of

Drilling-Production

 

at

“Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. I come from Oradea, a town in the North-West of Romania. I came here to study because this is the most important petroleum university in the country, and even if I am very far away from home, I want to learn many things here.

I’m studying French and English, and I can speak French well and a little English. I intend to improve my English, as, on the one hand, it is very

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English for Engineering

useful to speak foreign languages and on the other hand, I might need it for my future job. In Romania there are lots of Romanian-American, Romanian-Canadian or Romanian-British companies.

I’m enjoying my course a lot, but it’s very hard work! I live in the university-hostel with three other students. They are older than me: Steve is in the third year, Brian is in the second year and John is the oldest one: he is in the fourth year. The courses started two weeks ago, so I’m what the other hostel-mates call me - a freshman. After the course I want to work for a big petroleum company but I don’t know which yet.

Everyday English

Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds:

/ei/

/i:/

/e/

/ai/

/u/

/u:/

/a:/

a

b

f

i

o

q

r

h

c

l

y

u

j

d

m

w

l

e

n

k

g

s

p

x

t

z

v

Ways with Words

1. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three minutes? Choose a partner who you don’t know well, or imagine your partner is a stranger. Work in small groups and find out things about your partner. 2. Spell the name of George Ionescu. Then work in pairs. Spell your name in English to your deskmate. Then find out how to spell his/her name.

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English for Engineering

3. Find synonyms in the text for the following words: to study, to arrive,

class.

4. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings

from A and suitable endings from B. There are many possible answers:

A good language learner:

A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn

practises speaking

5. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. Choose

from the phrases in column B:

B without a teacher. in every way possible. without being told to. in real situations. every day possible. from films, TV and records.

A

B

answers the phone?

knocks on the door? says you are late?

“Get well soon!” “Cheers!”

”Excuse me!”

is

in danger?

“Don’t mention it!”

gets married? passes an exam?

“Well done!” “Congratulations!

drinks with you?

“Sorry!”

is

in your way?

“Bless you!”

“How do you do!”

says “Good morning!’

says “How do you do!” thanks you?

“Thanks.” “Look out!”

is

ill?

“Hello?”

sneezes?

“Sleep well!”

says “Good night.” says “Make yourself at home.” says “Have a good weekend.”

“Good morning.” “Come in!” “Thanks. Same to you.”

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6. In the text about George Ionescu, you learned the expression on the one

hand

Let’s learn more expressions containing the preposition on:

to be on duty = a fi de serviciu; on account of = pe baza, din cauzã cã, luând în consideraţie cã; on and on = fãrã întrerupere, la nesfârşit; and so on = şi aşa mai departe; on this ground = din acest motiv; to turn on/ to switch on (the light, the radio, etc.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina, radioul,etc.); on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri; on the basis of = pe baza; on behalf of sb. = în numele cuiva, din partea cuiva; on the contrary = din contrã; on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã; on record = cunoscut; on the score of = ca rezultat; on the verge of = pe punctul de, pe cale, în pragul; on the whole = în general, în întregime; on demand = la cerere; on condition that = cu condiţia; on purpose = dinadins, intenţionat; on principle = din principiu; on the first attempt = la prima încercare; on a sudden = brusc, deodatã, pe neaşteptate; on trial = de probã. 7. Look at the last simple sentence in the text about George Ionescu. The sentence is: I don’t know yet. Depending on the context in which it appears, yet may be translated in different ways: încã, mai, în afarã de aceasta, pânã în prezent, acum, totuşi, etc. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word yet.

on the other hand which means pe de o parte

pe de altã parte.

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English for Engineering

not yet = nu încã; nor yet = nici mãcar; as yet = pânã acum; it is strange and yet true = e ciudat şi totuşi e adevãrat. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference

The Verb To Be Form

Affirmative and negative

I

am (‘m)

a student.

You

am (‘m) not are (‘re)

We

are not (aren’t)

They

He

is (’s)

She

is not (isn’t)

Interrogative

Where

am

I?

are

you?

 

we?

they?

 

is

he?

 

she?

it?

Short answer Are you a student in Drilling? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Is she an engineer? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.

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The Demonstrative Pronoun and Adjective Form

Reference

Singular

Plural

“near” reference

this

these

“distant” reference

that

those

Controlled Practice:

1. Translate into English:

a. Eu sunt inginer. El este englez.

b. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu, acestea sunt colegele mele, Monica şi

Andra.

c. Acesta este un televizor.

d. Acela este un aparat de radio.

e. Noi suntem tehnicieni.

f. Sunt ei specialişti francezi? Nu, nu sunt.

g. Sunteţi voi ingineri mecanici? Nu, noi nu suntem, noi suntem fizicieni.

h. Cine este aici? John este aici. El este cel mai bun student din grupa

noastră. El are note foarte mari. i. Cine nu este aici? Maria nu este aici şi nici George nu este.

j. Ele sunt chimiste. Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor. Acestea sunt cursurile

mele.

2. Read the following article on mobile rigs. Use your dictionary. Then fill

in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to be:

Why mobile rigs can make reliable production units

a bold

step for operators of North Sea and other marginal field developments. Sea

the

primary concern of the designer, can equal the performance of conventional

Conversion of early generation MODUs into production units……

and other severe environments, where maximum utilization……

platforms. We.……. able today to know more about effects of wind, waves,

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English for Engineering

and currents on vessel motion and mooring systems; people …… use new risers and subsea equipment designs.

ready to

4. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns:

a.

is Adam’s pencil. It must be his because it’s got his name on it.

b. Are …

name on them, but they belong to me.

tools yours, John? Yes, they are. Thanks. They haven’t got my

c. ……. is a mill. It’s over here. ……. is a generator. It’s over there.

d. Is .…… an electric heater?” “No, that is an electric generator. ……. is an

electric heater.”

e.

are metals. Those are substances.

Question Forms Look at the following question words:

What do you do for a living? - I’m a chemist. Who is your teacher of English? - Sandra Brown is. Where is Paris? - In France. When do you start the conference? - On Wednesday, April, 3rd. Why are you learning English? - Because I need it for my job. How do you come to Ploieşti? - By train. Whose are these tools? - They are Peter’s.

What and which can be followed by a noun. What time is it? What kind of chemistry do you study? Which pen do you want, the blue one or the green one? How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb. How old are you? How often do you play football?

13

Controlled Practice:

English for Engineering

1.

Translate the following text into English:

a.

De unde eşti? Sunt din Timişoara.

b.

Când ai venit prima oarã în Ploieşti? Anul trecut.

c.

ţi ani ai? Douãzeci şi şase.

d.

Ce mai faci? Sunt bine, mulţumesc.

e.

De ce te grãbeşti?

2.

Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences:

a.

What/Which time is the train due to arrive?

b.

What/ How are you today?

c.

Where/ When are you going now?

d.

Who/How are you? I am John Smith.

e.

What/ Which of these paintings do you like best?

3.

Ask short questions on these statements, using who, what, where:

e.g. I’ve just received a letter./ Who from?

a. I want to take this book with me. (for)

b. Will you please open this box? (with)

c. I’m going to England next week. (by)

d. Please, get me a screwdriver. (from)

e. John is very angry. (with).

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English for Engineering

Unit 2

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© English as a world language

© The Personal Pronoun

© Present Simple

© Present Continuous

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-Reading Tasks

Try to think of the English-speaking countries in the world.

How many are they?

Do you know any countries in which English is used as the second language?

What about countries in which English is spoken by many people?

Reading

in which English is spoken by many people? Reading Read the following text on English as

Read the following text on English as a world language. Try to find the personal pronouns in the text:

Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing - that in Shakespeare’s time, for

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English for Engineering

example, only a few million people spoke English, and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and it was unknown to the rest of the world.

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. People started to import English in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present status in the world. As I could read in an article, one person in seven of the world’s entire population speak English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. Incredibly enough, due to the extension of computerized systems and softs which are mostly in English, 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Again incredibly, yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German, Spanish or French, yet again English is the predominant language. So, the quicker you learn it, the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field.

Ways with Words

1. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English:

Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes, I think I have. Have you:

a. been to an English-speaking country?

b. passed any exams in English?

c. managed to translate anything into English?

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English for Engineering

d. had any conversations with English native speakers?

e. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people?

f. used English in your studies or work?

g. read a scientific article in English?

h. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists?

i. learned any songs in English?

j. discovered any differences between English and your own language?

2. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. Example:

You don’t have to be serious to learn English, you have to be co-operative.

confident

energetic

determined

well-organised

independent

patient

courageous

enthusiastic

serious

charming

handsome

steady

ambitious

intelligent

3. Choose the word which best completes each sentence:

a. If you want to become

making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible.

A. practical; B. fluent; C. handy; D. skillful.

when you speak, you should forget about

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English for Engineering

b.

If you don’t understand everything you hear, then listening to a tape is a of time.

A.

matter; B. problem; C. waste; D. loss.

c.

If you’re not

certain what someone has said, you should pretend that

you have understood.

A.

very; B. fairly; C. surely; D. quite.

d.

If you want to practise speaking a good idea is to tell a story or a

to

someone.

A.

joke; B. tale; C. laughter; D. fool.

e.

When you

an oral exam, it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after

each word.

A. make; B. take; C. speak; D. go.

4. In this unit you learned about English as a world language. Let’s learn

some expressions containing the word as:

as compared with = în comparaţie cu; as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a; as if/ as though = ca şi cum; as far as = întrucât, pe cât, în mãsura în care; as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte; as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã; as long as = atât timp cât; as regards = în ceea ce priveşte; as a rule = de regulã, în principiu; as seen = dupã cum se vede; as shown in Fig. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. 2; as such = ca atare; as well = deopotrivã, de asemenea; as well as = cât şi, tot aşa ca; as when = ca atunci când, ca în cazul în care; as yet/ so far/ up to now. up to the present = pânã în prezent; such as = astfel ca, ca de exemplu.

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English for Engineering

5. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. How do you translate in all the continents of the world? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã; all at once = dintr-o datã; all the better = cu atât mai bine; all in all = în întregime, cu totul; all in good time = toate la timpul lor; all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât; all over = peste tot; all worn out = complet uzat; first of all = înainte de toate; of all kinds = de toate felurile; that is about all = ca, asta-i tot; it is all one to them = le este tot una; once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference

The Personal Pronoun The nominative. Form

Person

Singular

Plural

First person

I

we

Second person

you

you

Third person

he

they

she it The accusative/The dative. Form

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English for Engineering

Person

Singular

Plural

First person

(to) me

(to) us

Second person

(to) you

(to)

 

you

Third person

(to) him

(to)

(to) her (to) it Controlled practice:

them

1. Translate the folowing sentences into English:

a. El este inginer la o fabricã de ciment.

b. Ei nu vorbesc engleza, dar noi îi putem ajuta.

c. L-am vãzut pe el la curs, dar pe ea n-am vãzut-o.

d. Mi-a dãruit o carte de geologie, pentru cã el avea douã exemplare.

e. Îl strig pe John, dar nu mă aude.

2. Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun:

a. He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American petroleum company.

b. I gave her/him that book as he needed it.

c. She told me/ to me that she needed a day off.

d. I think I saw him/ he in the street yesterday.

e. Have you told they/ them the news?

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English for Engineering

Mood, Tense and Aspect Look at the first complex sentence in the text. Try to find the form of the verb to require. Doesn’t require is a verb in the indicative mood. Its tense is present and its aspect is simple. Mood, tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. Roughly speaking, mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a state expressed by the verb, tense gives an indication of when the action happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration, result, etc.

Present Simple Present Simple is used to express:

a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always, constantly, continually, ever, frequently, forever, hardly, never, normally, occasionally, often, rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, usually, etc.):

I usually get up at 8.30. Romanian people like to travel. Most evenings we go out.

a fact which is always true (general truths and states):

Wood floats on water. The Earth moves round the Sun. The Danube flows into the Black Sea.

a fact which is true for a long time

I live in Ploiesti.

She works in a petroleum company. Present Simple is used in explanations, demonstrations and stage directions:

Her drawing shows two parts of a hypebolic curve.

I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven.

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English for Engineering

The door bell rings. She listens quietly. A window opens and a masked man enters the room.

Form

Affirmative and negative

I

work

in a university.

You

do not (don’t) work work

We

do not (don’t) work

They

He

works

She

does

not

(doesn’t)

work

Interrogative

Where

do

I

work?

do

you

 

we

they

 

does

he

 

she

it

Short answer Do you like summer? Yes, I do. Does she speak Italian? No, she doesn’t.

Present Continuous Present Continuous is used to express:

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English for Engineering

an activity happening now or around now They are playing in their bedroom now. I am designing a helix this week.

a planned future arrangement:

I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

Form

Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). Affirmative and negative

I

am (‘m)

working.

You

am not (‘m) not are (‘re)

We

are

not

They

(aren‘t)

He

is (‘s)

She

is not (isn’t)

It

Interrogative

What

am

I

doing?

are

you

 

we

they

 

is

he

 

she

it

Short answer Are you coming? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Is she watching TV?

 

23

Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.

English for Engineering

Controlled Practice:

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous:

a. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.

b. It (rain) now. It often (rain) in summer.

c. He (come) to see me tonight; we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it.

d. I (live) in Ploiesti, but this week, as I (attend) a course in Bucharest, I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca.

e. Pardon me, sir, but I (think) you (stand) on my feet.

f. Maria (come) from Spain this week.

g. She (speak) French, English and Italian.

h. I (cut) a cone now and she (draw) an asymptote.

i. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses.

j. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland.

2. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right:

Greetings from Scotland! John and I … something different this year. We’re at the

Edinburgh Activity Centre, where we ……

good time and at the same time

different things. People……

a

we ……

here

every

24

do

have

learn

English for Engineering

summer to learn more about their hobbies and interests.

I ……

photography and tennis this week

and John ……

at half past eight every morning

about computers. We ……

up

and ……

lessons from ten to half past twelve.

We ……

lunch at one, and then there are more

lessons.

So it’s hard work. But I ……

a post-office in front of the Centre. The weather is good. See you soon.

it here. We …

Love, Kate

come

do

learn, get

do

have

like, have

3. What do you do in these situations?

a.

When you miss a bus or a train, do you:

A.

wait happily for the next one?;

B.

shout angrily?;

C.

blame someone else?

b.

When you think about the future, do you:

A.

dream of impossible success or wealth?;

B.

plan your future career carefully?;

C.

worry about what will go wrong?

c. When someone asks you a questions and you’re not sure of the answer, do you:

A. admit you don’t know?;

B. give an answer you think may be right?;

C. try to change the subject?

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English for Engineering

d. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of

your family, do you:

A. hope they won’t notice?;

B. try to do something else for them?;

C. feel guilty?

e. When your boss or teacher is away, do you:

A. start laughing and joking?;

B. work hard as usual?;

C. do not work at all?

If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person. If you chose mostly B, it means you are an ambitious person, and if you chose mostly C, it means you are a pessimistic person.

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English for Engineering

Unit 3

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Getting a job

© Verbs which do not take a Continuous Aspect in English

© The Imperative

© The possessive pronoun and adjective

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-Reading Tasks

What do you need in order to get a job?

Have you ever applied for a job? Has a friend of yours ever applied for a job? Talk about the way you should introduce yourself or any other problems you think may occur.

Reading

yourself or any other problems you think may occur. Reading Read the following text on getting

Read the following text on getting a job. Can you notice the imperatives in the text?

A job starts with an application, but so many of the application letters end up in the

wastepaper basket, as for example you may feel frustrated if you use cheap, lined notepaper. You should know that you

are supposed to use A 4 , and preferably to type your CV and the accompanying letter. The CV needs to be clear and not too long: one page is enough. Don’t include all your personal details (such as for example whether you are married or not, your hobbies, etc.). In the letter that you send with the CV, show some enthusiasm for the job, and demonstrate that you have read the job advertisement thoroughly. Stress how suitable you consider you are for that job, but don’t write something which contradicts

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English for Engineering

the data you offered them in your CV! Then, good luck with the interview itself!

Ways with words:

1. In the sentences below, use one suitable word from the list that follows. Not all the words are possible:

a. I sent in my

to the the address given in the advertisement.

b. They told me I lacked

c. The manager told me he couldn’t wait as he had

d. Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an

e. Before I left that oil company, I handed in my

f. When I applied for this position, I asked my previous boss for a

g. You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an

h. My first

i. In our company every

as I had never had that kind of job before.

to do.

all day long.

was helping in a shop at weekends.

receives a month’s salary.

j. You could

over 2,000 a month as a sales representative in this

company.

qualifications;

reference; experiences; application; work; employer;

interview; gain; resignation; job; diploma; department; applicant; earn; wages; office; gain; desk; salary; employee.

2. Read the sentence A job starts with an application again. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with:

with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit; with an eye to = urmãrind, fãrã a pierde din vedere;

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English for Engineering

with the exception of = cu excepţia cã; with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte; with reason = pe drept, pe bunã dreptate; with reference/ respect to = în privinţa, referitor, cu privire la; with a view of = în scopul de a; as with = la fel ca şi; together with = împreunã cu; to do away with = a înlãtura, a termina cu. 3. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: You should know

; In the letter that you send with the CV, show

some enthusiasm for As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. In the first sentence it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative clause. Here are some expressions containing the word that:

that far = atât de departe; that is the point = aceasta-i problema;

that much = cam atât; that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat; that is why (that’s why) = de aceea, din aceastã cauzã; that is to say = adicã; but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta; for all that = cu toate acestea; in order that = pentru ca, sã; like that (just like that) = aşa; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

that you are supposed to

Grammar Reference

Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continuous aspect:

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English for Engineering

verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see, hear, smell, taste, notice, recognize, etc.

I smell gas.

verbs of thinking: think, realize, know, understand, suppose, expect, remember, forget, mind, etc.

I don’t remember your name.

verbs of having and being: have, own, owe, belong to, possess, be, contain, matter, hold, etc. The house belongs to my mother.

I have a very good lathe.

verbs of emotion: love, hate, like, dislike, refuse, want, wish, forgive, etc.

I hate people calling me late at night. He wants to buy a new tool.

Controlled Practice:

1. Translate into English:

a. Aceastã sticlã conţine acid boric.

b. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei.

c. Urãsc sã mi se cearã sã fac o lucrare de azi pe mâine.

d. Ea are doar un curs de chimie şi două de fizică.

e. Acest curs conţine 14 capitole.

2. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences:

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English for Engineering

a. I’m thinking/ I think of you.

b. She smells/ is smelling gas.

c. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt.

d. We have/ are having dinner now.

e. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now.

The Imperative The imperative is a mood which expresses an order, a command, a wish, a greeting, a piece of advice, a threat:

Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Let’s go! Form

The imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. Affirmative Negative

Get ready!

Don’t get ready!

Start working!

Don’t start working!

Controlled Practice:

1. Translate the following into English:

a. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi!

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English for Engineering

b. Vino, te organicã.

rog, la

noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de

c. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna!

chimie

d. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator, pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã-l folosesc şi eu.

e. Luaţi loc, vã rog, doamnã!

f. Nu pleca, pentru că nu am terminat proiectul!

g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune.

h. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc, pentru că o faci degeaba.

i. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul.

j. Grăbeşte-te, mai ai doar cinci minute!

2. Make the following sentences negative:

a. Come here!

b. Get ready as we are in a hurry!

c. Be on time, because English people are never late.

d. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow.

e. Work faster as we need to finish this uuntil two o’clock.

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The Possessive Pronoun and the Posessive Adjective The possessive pronoun. Form

Person

Singular

Plural

First person

mine

ours

Second person

yours

yours

Third person

his

theirs

hers

its

The possesive adjective. Form

Person

Singular

Plural

First person

my

our

Second person

your

your

Third person

his

their

her its Controlled Practice

1. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives:

a. My/ mine father’s car is new. Mine/my is very old and ugly.

b. We have been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from your/our room. They belong to us We’re using the pictures for a project of ours/yours.

c. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different corners ot it.

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d. This is her/hers car. She bought it two months ago.

e. My results are better than yours/your.

f. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw you when you lent it to your/yours

friend, Tom.

g. I don’t think this is one of Emma’s pens. I know she has lost her/hers

calculator, but I haven’t heard her say she has lost a pen . What do you think?

h. My/mine speciality is paleontology. I have specialized in the study of

prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils.

i. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil industry and the

kind of work that is involved, we will prove ours/our knowledge later.

j. Your/yours article on drilling wells in blazing deserts is a good one.

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Unit 4

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Writing a CV

© Writing a letter of application

© Classification of Nouns

© Number of Nouns

© The Genitive

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-Reading Tasks:

What information should your CV contain?

What information should your letter of application contain?

Reading 1

Read the following CV. Can you find any improvements? Work with your mates and report your findings to the rest of the class:

CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL DETAILS

Name: Radu IONESCU

Address: 23 Bvd. Bucureşti

Ploieşti 2000 Prahova

Telephone: 044165342

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Date of birth: 1 January 1974

Nationality: Romanian

English for Engineering

Languages: Fluent English; Conversational French

Computer literacy: Wordperfect, Lotus 1-2-3, Windows 2000, Math-Cad; Math-Lab.

EDUCATION

2001-2000: Master of Science - Drilling - ”Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti

1995-2000:

“Petroleum-Gas”

Drilling and Production

“A”

Drawing

levels:

Mathematics,

WORK HISTORY

University

of

Ploieşti-

Faculty

Drilling,

Recovery,

Chemistry,

of

Well

Technical

Sept. 2000-Sept. 2001: drilling engineer at GPS Arad

Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts

Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services - assistant

Summer 1997: Videle Well Drilling - technician

INTERESTS: aerobics, cinema, theatre, reading

REFERENCES: available on request.

Ways with words:

1. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV:

a. Bold is used selectively. Your name is obviously important, so you should make sure it stands out.

b. When you state the languages you can speak, conversational and fluent

are the only words to use about them. Don’t use qualifications such as well,

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English for Engineering

very well, etc. If they really want to find out about your language skills, they will surely test you.

c. Education and qualifications should be listed together. The “A” levels are important, as they may show that you are suitable for that job, as you had the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your future job. d. For the Work History section, it is vital to highlight your student activities.

e. Don’t make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section. You should mention references only if they are very impressive.

Reading 2

Here is the letter of application Radu Ionescu has written. Skim through the letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself:

23 Bvd Bucureşti Ploieşti 200 Prahova

Mr A. D. Vlad Personnel Manager Petrom Bucureşti Dear Mr. A. D. Vlad

Ref.: drilling engineer vacancy

I am writing to apply for the position of drilling enginner that you advertised in Bursa on 5 October 2001, as I believe it offers the carrer challenge which

I am seeking.

As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae, I graduated from “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti last year, then I have had a successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad.

I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organization:

Organizational skills - developed in my current job with GPS Arad.

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English for Engineering

Accounting skills - developed in my role as university officer where I prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of 1,000,000,000 lei per annum.

Interpersonal skills - developed through working in a team environment in my current role and through a number of holiday positionswhen I was a student.

I have a keen interest in drilling engineering and would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for your requirements.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely, Radu Ionescu

Ways with words:

1. Here are some lines from different letters of application of several candidates for this job. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group. What do you think is wrong with some of the sentences listed below?

a. I am familiar with this type of work./ I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work./ I know this type of work.

b. I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I can maintain

friendly relationships with people./ I am a friendly and tactful person. c. I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very responsive./ I always make the best decisions in my office, as I am a reliable person./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary.

d. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job./ I hope I am right for

this sort of work./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job.

e. I am quite interested in this kind of work./ I have a genuine interest in this kind of work./ I am extremely interested in this type of work.

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English for Engineering

2. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001. Look at it and write your CV. Then write the letter to cover your CV applying for the vacancy:

CONSTRUCT Ltd. Romanian-Canadian company providing expertise, human resources and equipment for the construction industry requires Human Resource Officers

Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Bussiness Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy, or company management. Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet deadlines. Applicants should be fluent in English and French. Please enclose a current CV and letter of application addressed to Mr Ion Pop, Human Resources Manager, Construct (Romania) Ltd., 13, Piaţa Romanã, Bucharest.

3. Read the following presentation of Beicip-Franlab. Apply for a job within the company. Write your letter of application.

BEICIP-Franalb Rueil-Malmaison Head Office 232, Avenue Napoléon Bonaparte BP 213-92502 Rueil-Malmaison-Cedex-France Phone : 33 (1) 47 08 80 00 Fax : 33 (1) 47 08 41 85

The industrial projects division is one of Beicip-Franlab’s four operating divisions The independent consulting services provided by the division cover all industrial associated with the Oil & Gas and derived industries as well as the global energy sector.

39

The fields of activities are:

Energy system organization

Oil and gas production

Petroleum refining/distribution

Natural gas processing

Hydrocarbon transport, pipeline

Petrochemicals, fertilizers

Environment centres

English for Engineering

The consulting services provided by the division are related to each individual filed of expertize and can be combined according to the client’s requirements depending on the project status :

Sectoral and corporate planning

Feasibility studies

Project management

Management services

Specialized services

The industrial Projects Division resources are: a highly qualified and

experienced staff with an international experience of consultancy and advisory services in fields of expertise:

Economics, financial analysis

Market, marketing

Process and engineering

Contracting

Cost estimation/control

Schedule control

Environment

Risk and safety

Training

Audits

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English for Engineering

Valuation of assets

Restructuring

And with efficient and quality softwares and models servicing:

Data banks

Market evaluation

Energy planning and pricing

Projects optimization (L.P. models)

Economic and financial analysis

Process and basic engineering

Environmental/safety evaluation

Engineering design/drawings (CAD)

Project management

The company worked for governments, national and private companies,

multilateral or bilateral development organizations, bankers and is spread

out in over 100 countries. Some of these clients have, repeatedly, called

upon our expertise for more than two decades.

Among the services that Beicip-Franlab offers we may include

sectoral and corporate planning (energy planning, energy

conservation, resource appraisal, market/end-use analysis, resource

allocation optimization, projects identification/ranking, costs/benefit

evaluation, economic/financial appraisal, projects strategical

screening, pricing policy, marketing, financing issues, multiclient

studies) and

feasibility studies (market survey, feedstock availability,

scheme/technology evaluation, technical definition,

environmental/safety assessment, investment cost estimate,

operating cost estimate, economic/financial analysis, project

arrangement/schedule, financing opportunities).

management services (technical audit, management policy, income

valuation, financial valuation, insurance)

project management including:

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English for Engineering

project preparation: site or route selection, project definition (basis of design, project base line plan, technical definition (process units; basic design, utilities and offsites conceptual design, infrastructure requirements), tender documents (technical documents packaging, project arrangement plan, contract drafting) project contracting, evaluation of licensors’ bids, contractors’ bids, assistance with negotiation project implementation (supervision of engineering studies, supervision of construction work, quality control, budget and schedule control, assistance in commissioning and start-up)

petroleum R&D centres projects: definition of objectives, architectural conept, lay out/infrastructure study, safety security, environment, equipment specifications, budget estimation, assistance in procurement, supervision of construction, commissioning and start-up, personnel training, long-term co-operation

environmental studies: environmental impact assessment, environmental audit, plan for reducing emissions, soil remediation project, life cycle analysis, industrial environmental planning)

safety (safety audit, safety study, damage survey)

Beicip-Franlab does not ignore the importance of the traditional domains of process and of project engineering but emphasizes the role of market experts and economists involved in a study. The methodologies developed over more than two decades, along with the technical and economic computer models, are an assurance of optimized long-term strategies or specific industrial projects. Feasibility studies, and even more so, sectoral and corporate planning, require the contribution of numerous and diverse expertise both in the upstream and in the downstream sectors of the Oil & Gas industries. This integrated competence found in one single company is a guarantee of the coherence and reliability of Beicip-Franlab’s services.

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English for Engineering

Auditing industrial operations does not only require concentration on the structural and financial aspects, but also focuses on the market, the practical operation, the maintenance, the process, the organization and economic issues of the company or the organization under consideration. Beicip-Franlab has, through its long international experience of planning studies and of project management, developed a comprehensive and independent approach in providing management services to the directors of Oil and Gas organizations and companies. The French Petroleum Institute R&D experience over the last five decades has been transferred to over ten Petroleum Research Centres projects world- wide. These projects were implemented under the entire responsibility of Beicip-Franlab which has thus been disseminating this know-how in the Oil & Gas sector around the world. The environment and safety activities of Beicip-Franlab have developed since the late seventies by taking advantage of the various categories of in- house experts as well as of The French Petroleum Institute’s works. The inter-disciplinary competence of our division, including environment generalists, covers the field of prevention, diagnosis, technological advice, expert reporting on damage, as well as the setting-up of environment and safety management programmes.

Grammar Reference

Classification of Nouns

Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

a girl

water

a man

sugar

a tool

milk

a cup

music

an apple

weather

a guitar

money

a pound

oil/ petroleum

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a

car

coal

a

well

gas

English for Engineering

We can say two cups, four girls, ten pounds, twenty cars. We can count them. We cannot count sugar, water or oil. Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

This cup is empty. These cups are full. Uncountable nouns can only be singular:

The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality.

Number of Nouns:

Form

Variable nouns form the plural in the following way:

-s is added to the singular:

books-books, tool-tools

-es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i), nouns ending in - o:

bus-buses, box-boxes, match-matches, brush-brushes, city-cities; potato- potatoes (But: photo-photos)

-(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v):

knife-knives, leaf-leaves, shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs) Irregular plural nouns:

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese, louse-lice, mouse-mice, child-children, ox-oxen Foreign plurals stimulus-stimuli, larva-larvae, stratum-strata, basis-bases, criterion-criteria, phenomenon-phenomena, datum-data, etc.

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English for Engineering

The Genitive The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of, used with neuter nouns:

the tower of London, the colour of oil, the cover of the book, etc. The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after:

nouns denoting persons or other beings:

John’s lecture, my parents’ advice

nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value:

a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper, a pound’s worth of pears

collective nouns:

the governement’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws

geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.:

England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat.

Controlled Practice:

1. Complete this newspaper article. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brakets:

Clayton Factory for Milchester

The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. (This/These) news (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby.

The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/s) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/s)” and “Plymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business.

Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/s) there will be, but (information/s) that there will be (work/s) (is/are) hard to find at the moment, and 2,000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town.

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2. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. Make all other changes which

are necessary:

a.

This child is a naughty one.

b.

That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists.

c.

I need to buy some kerosene for my stove.

d.

When I entered the room, he was arranging this books on the shelf.

e.

Where have you put that box?

3.

Translate into English:

a.

Pãrintele acestor doi copii se numeşte Gilbert Stones.

b.

S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în acest domeniu al cunoaşterii.

c.

El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte.

d.

La începutul secolului XX, nu erau foarte erau multe studente în colegii.

e.

Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de

chimie.

4. Use the correct form of the verb:

a. The audience (is, are) asked to pay attention to the speech.

b. My family (has, have) been living in that chalet for years.

c. The majority (was, were) against the war.

d. That team (is, are) all children.

e. Mathematics (was, were) my favourite subject.

f. Politics (is, are) a matter of no interest to me.

g. The police (has, have) been chasing the thieves for weeks.

h. The audience (has, have) just come back and (is, are) taking (its, their)

seats.

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English for Engineering

Test

1. Choose the best variant:

1. It …………

so much in this region.

a lot this winter, even if in Romania it generally …………

A.

is snowing/ snows; B. snows/ is snowing; C. is snowing/ doesn’t snow;

D.

snows/ isn’t snowing.

2.

This book ………

to me and it ………

five chapters.

A.

belongs/

contains; B. is belonging/ is containing; C. belongs/ is

containing; D. is belonging/ contains.

3. I ………

myself understood by the others.

A. speak/ do; B. don’t speak/ do; C. am not speaking/ am doing; D. don’t

best to make

Speak English very well, but I ………

my

speak/ am doing.

4.

Where …………? ….……. you should help us finish this?

A.

are you going?/ don’t you think; B. do you go?/ aren’t you thinking;

C.

do you go/ do you think; D. are you going/ aren’t you thinking?

5.

………… for ……… tools?

A.

Do you look/ these; B. Don’t you look/ these; C. Are you looking/ those;

D.

Are you looking/ these.

6. ………

two years.

office is the big one? It’s John’s. It has been …………… for

A.

Whose/ his; B. Which/ hers; C. Whose/ her; D. Which/ his.

7.

There …………

far too …………

mistakes in your paper.

A.

are/ much; B. aren’t/ many; C. are/ many; D. aren’t/ much.

8.

I don’t understand who …………

about.

A.

you are talking; B. are you talking; C. you talk; D. do you talk.

9.

If you ………… to practise English more, it is a good idea for you to

speak to …………. people. They came from England two days ago.

A.

want/ these; B. want/ those; C. don’t want/ these; D. don’t want/ those.

2.

Translate into English:

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English for Engineering

George este student la Foraj. În acelaşi timp lucrează pentru o companie de petrol la Bucureşti. El nu are mult timp liber, pentru că la sfârşitul săptămânii are cursuri la universitate. Duminica, atunci când nu are multe cursuri, încearcă să se gândească la ceea ce a învăţat în timpul săptămânii. Astăzi este sâmbătă seară şi George este acasă cu familia lui. Ei iau cina şi discută despre planurile lor de vacanţă.

Answer key:

1. C; 2. A; 3. B; 4. A.; 5. D; 6. A.; 7. C.; 8. A.; 9. A.

2. George is a student in Drilling. At the same time he works for a petroleum company in Bucharest. He doesn’t have much free time, for at the weekend he has courses at the university. On Sunday, when he doesn’t have so many courses, he tries to think of what he has learnt during the week. Today it’s Saturday evening and George is at home with his family. They are having dinner and talking about their holiday plans.

1. 1 point + 1 point per ech good answer

2. 1 point + 9 points per translation.

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Unit 5

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Drilling methods

© Past Simple

©Past Continuous

© Expressions of quantity

© The Adjective

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-Reading Tasks

What system is used for water wells?

Which was the first oil well in Romania?

Reading

wells? Which was the first oil well in Romania? Reading Read this text about cable-tool drilling.

Read this text about cable-tool drilling. Look at the tenses of the verbs. Translate the text into Romanian:

When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania, the United States, in 1859, engineers used a system which was being used for digging wells for water. They punched a hole into the ground. They used a cutting tool, a bit, on the end of a drilling stem which they were raising and then let it fall; the bit cut and crushed the dirt or rock at the bottom of the well. The moment the debris at the bottom of the well was removed, the stem and bit were pulled up,. Then

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the bit was dropped again to crush more rock, and the process was repeated over and over again.

This technique is used nowadays only when the wells are shallow and when there is hard rock to cut through. Most modern wells are drilled by the rotary drilling method.

Ways with words

1. Special terms:

Well: hole sunk into the earth to reach water, oil, or gas. Bit: a cutting tool. There are different bits used in drilling for oil (diamond drill bits, fishtails, roller bits, etc.) Each type is suitable for use in penetrating different subsurface layers. Cable-tool drilling: a system for drilling oil wells. A hole is punched into the ground by dropping a cutting tool into dirt or rock. Rotary drilling: another system for drilling oil wells. A cutting bit drills the hole with a rotary or circular motion. 2. In the sentence: When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania, the United States, in 1859, the preposition in introduces both an Adverbial of place (in Pennsylvania) and an Adverbial of time (in 1859). Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in:

in all probability = dupã toate probabilitã