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Feature heading: Anti-inflammatory


Feature title: Anti-inflammatory approach of Big FishTM on the growth of rainbow trout
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Anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory
the kidney (Lupus), the joints (arthritis), that while animal performance can be Immune defence
the gastrointestinal tract (inflammatory improved by targeting unwarranted The major recruiter of immune defence
bowel disease), and even the skin (atopic inflammation, there are also indica- mechanisms in the animal is the eicosanoids.

Anti-inflammatory approach
dermatitis). In some diseases, as those in tions that resistance to infectious or These are lipids inflammatory mediators
humans mentioned above, the cellular and opportunistic pathogens is also reduced. that originate from membrane phospholip-
chemical machinery of the immune system Damage caused to the host due to ids (particularly arachidonic acid (AA) in the

of Big Fish™ on the growth of


begin to attack the body itself (autoimmune unwarranted inflammation may actually sn-2 position of phospholipids).
diseases).
Table 1:
First sign of inflammation Rearing Big Fish Weight gain Feed Efficiency # of Fish

rainbow trout In animal agriculture, the first sign of Trial Location Length
system dosage improvement improvement per tank
inflammation is evidenced by decreased ani-
mal performance as evidenced in decreased
growth and feed efficiency (Klasing, 1987). 1 Japan 1 mo flow through 0.30 % 7.6 % 17.3 % 15
by Mingder Yang, PhD of Aova Technologies, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA and Mark E. Cook PhD University of Reduced performance can be observed 2 US 9 mo re-circulation 0.40 % 7.0 % n/a 200
Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA in the absence of overt signs of inflamma-
3 US 2 mo flow through 0.30 % 27.8 % 8.1 % 12
tion. Decreased growth and feed efficiency
associated with unsanitary environments is 4 Portugal 6 weeks flow through 0.60 % 9.1 % 5.6 % 20
the result of unwarranted, yet sub-clinical
inflammation (Dafwang, 1987; Roura, 1992).

T
Restoring animal growth caused by provide an entryway for pathogens to During an immune stimulation, for
he growth potential of been growing concern that the use of anti- ery is reduced growth and poorer feed
unwarranted inflammation is the reasoning cause infection. example, simple presence of the nor-
animals in modern agricul- microbials is generating antibiotic resistant efficiency (Cook, 2000).
behind the novel products developed by Hence it is not surprising that a manage- mal microflora of the animal, AA is
tural practices is five to human pathogens in animal products. During every potential breach of the
Aova Technologies. ment program against inflammation is a man- released from the inner leaflet of the cell
10 percent below genetic In an article by Witte (1998) the fol- animal’s defence against microbial invasion,
Results shown to date suggest agement program for better animal health. membrane via cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2).
potential. lowing comment was made: “Industrial immune cells release hormones, known as
investment in alternatives to antimicrobials cytokines, which stimulate and recruit cells
This is evidenced by the work of Levs for animal growth promotion should… involved in the defence of invading microbes.
and Forbes (1959), who showed that ani- [protect] the fragile resources that are Upon release of these cytokines - most
mals reared in a germ free environment, critical to successful management of human notably, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor
grew 12 percent faster than those raised in infectious disease.” necrosis factor (TNF) - the activation and
conventional environments. The mechanism by which microbes proliferation of white blood cells demand a
In the late 1950s, animal research in the absence of overt disease, sup- supply of nutrients for immune defence. It is
revealed that the lost growth potential of press the growth of farm animals has now well recognised that a primary source
animals in consolidated environments could begun to be elucidated. The interface of these nutrients for immune defences
be partially overcome by feeding antibiotics. of microbes and animals results in the is skeletal muscle via degradation, hence
decreased growth or weight loss.
This is exacerbated because skeletal mus-
cle catabolism greatly exceeds the nutrient
needs of the immune system (Cook, 2000).

"Since intact antibody molecules cannot Why Does Big Fish Work?

cross the gut lining, the product acts Inflammatory Responses on


Growth and Feed Efficiency
Inflammation is an important first
locally in the digestive tract by decreasing defence against infectious diseases; however,
unchecked - and more specifically, unwar-

gut inflammation" ranted - inflammation typically creates


more damage to the host than could ever
be assigned to the original pathogen itself.
When inflammatory processes respond
to a perceived threat when none is truly
By the mid 1970s, essentially all swine constant need of the animal’s immune present, or to such a degree that the host’s
and poultry raised for meat production system to maintain a vigilant defence health is adversely impaired, the inflamma-
were fed antibiotics to stimulate growth against a potential invasion. The animal’s tion is considered unwarranted.
and improve feed efficiency. defence mechanism is not without cost. Diseases of unwarranted inflammation
However, since the mid-1980s there has The primary cost of this defence machin- can involve the airway (asthma and allergy),

36 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 09 July-august 09 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 37


Anti-inflammatory
Since intact antibody molecules can-
not cross the gut lining, and the active
ingredient in Aova Technologies’s anti-
PLA2 is avian antibody, the product does
not affect the systemic immune system.
Instead, the product acts locally in the
digestive tract by decreasing gut inflam-
mation. Big Fish was able to help fish
realize the genetic potential in growth
and feed efficiency.

References
Barry, T., Yang, M. (2008) Effects of anti-
The released AA is then acted on by The trials, which were run by a feed com- phospholipase A2 on the growth of rainbow
trout. N. Amer. J. of Aquaculture. 70:236-239.
a number enzymatic systems, such as pany in Japan, are summarized in table 1.
the lipoxygenases to form leukotrienes Fish were grown from about 40 grams to Cook, M.E., 2000. The interplay between
and the cyclooxygenases which form 70 grams in the one-month trial.There was no modern management practices and the chicken:
prostaglandins. mortality and Big Fish improved weight gain by how immune response and the physiological
These in turn cause a host of signalling 7.6 percent and feed efficiency by 17.3 percent mechanism for growth and feed efficiency have
adapted over time. Where do we go from here?
effects down stream including the recruit- in when compared to the control group.
In: Biotechnology in the Animal Feed Industry
ment of inflammatory processes, and signal Trial 2 was conducted in a government
(eds., T.P. Lyons and K.A. Jacques). Nottingham
transduction pathways that lead to inflam- aquaculture research facility. The fish were
University Press, pp 97-110.
matory cytokine production. started at about 20 grams and grown to
In modern animal agricultural condi- market size (~425 grams). Dafwang, I.I., M.E. Cook, and M.L. Sunde, 1987.
tions, in the absence of disease, this Trial 3 was a two-month trial run at a Interaction of dietary antibiotic supplementation
and stocking density on broiler chick performance
response is severe enough to result in university research facility. Rainbow trout
and immune response. Brit. Poultry Sci. 28:47-55.
decreased performance. were grown from 20 to 70 grams. Big Fish
fed rainbow trout Klasing, K.C., D.E. Laurin, P.K. Peng and D.M.
had a 27.8 percent Fry. 1987. Immunologically mediated growth
growth improve- depression in chicks: Influence of feed intake,
ment and 8.1 per- corticosterone and interleukin-1. J. of Nutr.

"Big Fish was able to help fish cent feed efficiency


117:1629-1637.

over the control Levs, M., M. Forbes. 1959. Growth response to


group (Barry & Yang, dietary penicillin of germ-free with a defined
realize the genetic potential in 2008). intestinal flora. Brit. J. Nutr. 13:78-84.
Trial 4 was a Roura, E., J. Homedes and K. C. Klasing. 1992.

growth and feed efficiency" six-week trial con-


ducted in a research
Prevention of immunologic stress contributes to
the growth-permitting ability of dietary antibiotics
university in in chicks. J. Nutr. 122:2383-2390.
Portugal. Rainbow Scanes, C.G., S.A. Cutler, R.W. Griffith, M. Yang
trout fed Big Fish, and M.E. Cook. 2008. Effects of egg antibody
Indeed, trials recently run in Thailand grew 9.1 percent heavier and had 5.6 to components of inflammatory activation
showed very significant improvements in percent improvement in feed efficiency. (phospholipase a2 and Toll like receptor 4) on
growth, feed efficiency and survivability. the response of young turkeys to Salmonella
Specifically, in grouper and Vietnamese Realising genetic potential typhimurium challenge. Avian Biol. Res. 1:167-175.
catfish trials, fish gained 15 to 20 percent Since Big Fish product from Aova
Witte, W. 1998. Medical Consequences of
more body weight and improved feed effi- Technologies is designed to mitigate gut
antibiotic use in agriculture. Science 279:996-997.
ciency 26 to 47 percent over the 13 weeks inflammation, questions had been raised on
trial period. During the hot summer trialling the safety of the product.
period, survivability was enhanced 82 and Specifically, could the product weaken the
46 percent respectively. animals’ immune system to fight diseases? for More inforMation:
Furthermore, in a Streptococcus-challenged Data collected from numerous animal Aova Technologies, Inc
tilapia trial, fish fed Big Fish supplement diet studies showed no signs of abnormal mor- Madison, Wisconsin,
survived 2.9:1 over control fed tilapia. tality or morbidity. USA
Tel: +1 608 3109595
On the other hand, several reports showed
Fax: +1 608 3109596
Fish trials improved health and growth benefit especially Website: www.aovatech.com
Several rainbow trout trials were con- in sub-optimal environments or under specific
ducted to evaluate the benefit of Big Fish. disease challenge (Scanes 2008).

38 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 09