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Elastic stress-strain relationship

How can we relate stress tensor and strain tensor?


This can be done by introducing material properties in the elastic region
Elastic stress can be related to elastic strain by Youngs modulus (Hookes law)

x
= E
x
; where E is the Youngs modulus
3-D elastic stress-strain relations:
A tensile force along X-direction can produce elongation in that direction and
produces contraction along Y and Z directions. The strains in three different
directions can be related by Possions ratio, .

y
=
z
= -
x
= -
x
/E,
where = 0.33 for most of the bulk materials
=>
X
This means by applying
x
to the solid, strains
y,

z
, and
x
can be created
and are related as above. This holds good for
y
and
z
also.
The following table details this effect.
Finally by superposition of strain components from the table, we get elastic stress-
strain relations in 3-D
We have assumed that, (1)
material is isotropic, and
(2) normal stresses does
not produce shear strain
on x, y, z planes and shear
stresses does not produce
normal strains on x, y, z
planes
Shear stresses will create shear strains i.e.,

xy
= G
xy
;
yz
= G
yz
;
xz
= G
xz
where G is modulus of rigidity
Constitutive equations in elastic
deformation region
Hookes
law in 3-D
Bulk modulus, K = Hydrostatic pressure / volume strain =
m
/
Four elastic constants viz., E, , G, K can be related as,
Refresh these relations from
solid mechanics
Also we have assumed isotropic
nature in the elastic deformation.
Anisotropy of elastic deformation
is possible. Since elastic part is
small during metal deformation, we
will not discuss much on
anisotropy of elastic deformation
(2) Plastic deformation
Important points to remember in plastic deformation
- Hookes law is not valid in plastic deformation
- Irreversible process material will not come back
to its original dimension
- Plastic strain depends on the loading path by which
final state is achieved (elastic deformation depends
on initial and final states)
- There is no easily measured constant relating stress
and strain in plastic deformation region, unlike
elastic deformation region
- Important phenomenon STRAIN HARDENING
has to be addressed in this regime
- Plastic anisotropy, Bauschinger effect are
important
- Criteria for yielding has to be developed
e

OA
B
C
D
E
Elastic deformation (
el
)
Plastic deformation (
el
+
pl
)
Flow curve and flow equation
Description of stress-strain curve

0
A

a
A

b
Unloading at A, total strain will
decrease from
1
to
2
. This
strain decrease is called
recoverable elastic strain. Some
plastic strain will disappear with
time (
2

3
). This is known as
anelastic behavior
Unloading at A, stress decreases
with strain parallel to elastic
regime & upon reloading curve
bend over and reaches A, after
which it takes the original shape
of stress-strain curve

b
<
a
Bauschinger effect

3
A
Recoverable
elastic strain
Anelastic
behavior
Strain hardening
regime
The true stress-strain curve is called as Flow curve and the eqn. that describes
the curve is called Flow equation. Generally the flow equations are empirical,
fit equations.
For eg., Hollomons equation, = K
n
where is the true stress for
particular true strain , K is the strength coefficient, n is the strain
hardening exponent is a flow equation. It should be noted that this eqn. is
valid from onset of plastic deformation to maximum load at which necking
starts.
Rigid ideal plastic material
Ideal plastic material with
elastic deformation regime
Linear strain hardening
material
=
0
+ K
n
(Ludwik equation;
0
yield stress)
= K (
0
+
n
) (Swift law;
0
Pre-strain value)
= B-(B-A)exp(-n
0
) (Voce law; A, B, n
0
material parameters)
Relating engineering and true quantities
Dimensions of the specimen change with deformation, hence true quantities
are better indicator of forming than engineering quantities. Engg. quantities
depend on the original dimensions of the sample unlike true quantities.
True strain, = ln (L/L
0
)
Engg. strain, e = L/L
0
= (L-L
0
)/L
0
= (L/L
0
) 1 => 1+e = L/L
0
Hence, = ln(1+e) (This equation is valid up to maximum load and invalid after that
point. This is because of localization of neck after which the gage strain can not be
referred for measurement); = ln (L/L
0
) is always useful.
=> Remember volume of solid remains constant during plastic deformation.
Hence
x
+
y
+
z
=
1
+
2
+
3
= 0 during plastic deformation.
=> This is not true in elastic deformation regime i.e.,
= e
x
+ e
y
+ e
z
= (1-2)/E [
x
+
y
+
z
]; will be zero only if =
Refresh derivations for this from solid mechanics
True stress, = Load / Instantaneous cross-section area = P/A
Engineering stress, S = Load / Initial cross-section area = P/A
0
= P/A = (P/A
0
) (A
0
/A) = S (1+e); where A
0
/A = L/L
0
= volume constancy
principle
= ln (1+e); = S (1+e)
stress
strain
Yield strength
a
a
u
u
f
f
True stress-
strain curve
Engg. stress-strain
curve
Comparison between
true stress-strain and
engg. stress-strain
curve
Definition of plastic deformation properties
D Ultimate tensile strength, maximum load/A.C.S
E Fracture
e
u
uniform elongation, elongation before necking begins
e
f
total elongation, elongation till fracture
e

OA
B
C
D
E
Elastic
deformation
Plastic deformation
Uniform
plastic
deformation
Non-uniform
plastic
deformation
Strain hardening and tensile instability
After yield point, further plastic deformation requires an
increasing load but at decreasing rate. Work hardening
strengthens the material, but at the same time area of
cross-section is decreasing. The combined effect of these
two phenomenon results in typical load-progression
curve.
From yield point to ultimate load, work hardening is
dominant. At ultimate load, condition of tensile
instability occurs. Till the ultimate load, deformation of
sample gage length is uniform.
Necking a local constriction begins along the gage
section. From this point, incompatibility between strain
hardening and area decrease arises. As a result, the load
required for further progression decreases. This means
that load carrying capacity of the sample decreases.
After this, practically all plastic deformation is
concentrated in the small necked region. Finally failure
occurs in the necked region.
Observation during tensile test
Step 1: Initial shape and size of the
specimen with no load.
Step 2: Specimen undergoing uniform
elongation.
Step 3: Point of maximum load and ultimate
tensile strength.
Step 4: The onset of necking (plastic/tensile
instability).
Step 5: Specimen fractures.
Step 6: Final specimen length.
Image from public domain
Hollomons equation, = K
n
where is the true stress for particular true
strain , K is the strength coefficient, n is the strain hardening
exponent. It should be noted that this eqn. is valid from onset of plastic
deformation to maximum load at which necking starts
ln () = ln K + n (ln ) => Y = C + mX Plot graph between ln () and ln ()
Fitting stress-strain curve
If the true stress-strain plot is non-linear, it shows that material does not truly obey
the Hollomon s eqn. and n is not a constant. In this case, generally, n will be
defined w.r.t. strain.
Strain hardening exponent, n = d (ln )/d (ln )
a
b
Slope, n = a/b
K is stress at = 1
ln ()
ln ()
Linear
relation
Start of
necking
Range: 0 < n < 1
n = 0.1 to 0.5 for most
of the metals
Physical restrictions of the hardening law:
Eqn. is valid between strain of 0.04 and strain at which necking begins
Predicting yield strength using this eqn. should be avoided. Offset method has to
be followed => For eg., Yield Strength = K (0.002)
n
is incorrect.
Exclusion of elastic and transition regions leads to little error
Considere criterion for tensile instability:
At maximum load, dP = 0 (Not really true) (Not really true)
We know that P = A; dP = dA + A d = 0
d/ = - dA/A = d (by definition) => = d/d
Assuming = K
n
, d/d = K n
n-1
= = K
n
n/ = 1 and so n =
Since this is related to ultimate load, n =
u
The general form of Considere criterion is, d (ln )/d (ln ) =
at the onset of instability
n =
u
d (ln )/d (ln ) =
This criterion can not be used to find
n value of any material; Standard
practice has to be followed.
Note that the rate of strain hardening d/d is not identical with strain
hardening exponent n.
n = d (ln )/d (ln ) = / (d/d)
d/d = n (/ )
At instability,
u
= n => d/d =
The point of necking at maximum load can be obtained from the true stress-
strain curve by finding the point on the curve having a subtangent of unity
or the point at where the rate of strain hardening equals the stress.
Behavior after necking
Till necking we will have only uni-axial stress state during tensile testing; i.e.,
1
=
;
2
= 0;
3
= 0. Hence effective stress () is equivalent to true stress ().
During necking, this is not true as we will have tri-axial stress state in neck.
Reason: Constraint given by un-deformed region to the necked region; This causes
radial and circumferential stresses (longitudinal stress exist already) in the sample.
Here Bridgman correction (1944) is important
Effect of inhomogeneity on uniform strain
a
b
b
F
F
Presence of inhomogeneities in tensile material
Consider a tensile test sample having homogeneous properties but
differing dimensions in two regions, a and b.
Inhomogeneity factor, f = A
a0
/A
b0
; A
a0
<A
b0
Since the regions are coupled inseries, F
a
= F
b
; strain is different
F
a
= F
b
=>
a
A
a
=
b
A
b
Using power hardening law and true strain relationship
K
a
n
A
a0
e
-a
= K
b
n
A
b0
e
-b
=> f
a
n
e
-a
=
b
n
e
-b
For given values of f and n, above eqn. give
a
as a function of
b
up to
a value of
a
= n where necking would occur.
0.99

b
0.25
f = 1
f = 0.995
0.98
n = 0.25

b
*
f (1 to 0.9)
0.25 for f = 1
0.208 for f = 0.996
Effect of strain rate
The rate at which strain is applied to the sample is strain rate, = d/dt, (1/s)
Increasing strain rate increases flow stress and strain rate dependence of
strength increases with increase in temperature (see figure).
Conventional strain rate, e = de/dt
= d (L-L
o
)/L
o
= (1/L
o
) (dL/dt) =
dt
e = v/L
o
The conventional strain rate is proportional to
cross-head velocity as Lo is constant.
Cross-head speed =
v = dL/dt
6xxx Al
The true strain rate is given by, = d/dt = d(ln (L/Lo))/dt = (1/L) (dL/dt) = v/L
The above eqn. indicates that for a constant cross-head speed (v), the true strain rate will
decrease when specimen elongates. In order to maintain constant true strain rate, the
deformation velocity should increase in proportion to the increase in sample length, v = L
O
exp (t)
As shown in the earlier figure, relationship between flow stress and strain
rate at constant strain and temperature is,
= C
m
Where m is strain rate sensitivity.
m can be obtained from log log plot. However a better method is
presented in the figure.
For metals m is low (<0.1) at room
temperature, but increases with temperature.
At hot working conditions, m values of 0.1
and 0.2 are common.
m = log (
2
/
1
) / log (
2
/
1
)
Superplasticity refers to property of metals and alloys whose elongation is
between 100 to 1000 percent. Superplastic metals have grain size of 1 m.
Testing at high temperatures and low strain rates accentuates superplastic
behavior.
Evaluating m
At room temperature deformation, tensile sample will not neck as long
as d/d > . But in the case of deformation at high temperatures, effect
of strain rate is considerable. Here necking is prevented by strain rate
hardening as in superplastic materials. Consider a superplastic material
rod of C.S.A. A and subjected to axial load P.
Combining above two eqns.,
This eqn. states that so long as m <1 the
smaller the c.s.a., the more rapidly the
area is reduced.
This eqn. states that so long as m <1 the smaller
the c.s.a., the more rapidly the area is reduced as
shown in the figure.
When m = 1, the deformation is newtonian viscous
and any incipient neck is simply preserved during
elongation and does not propagate inward.
-dA/dt vs A
Dependence of
tensile elongation
on m
Temperature effect on tensile
behavior of mildsteel
Temperature effect on yield strength
Ni FCC
Ta, W, Mo, Fe - BCC
The temperature dependence of flow stress at constant strain and strain
rate is,
Influence of temperature
Constitutive equations
These equns. describe the relations between stress and strain in terms of
strain rate and temperature variables
Yield surface
Assume that loading, unloading of square sheet
of material is done in two directions, in any
proportion

2
X
1
X
2
In this chose specific stress path =>
2
=
2

Load to
2
,
1
(1, 2, ) shown as symbols e, p
Unload this each time and look for permanent
deformation (plastic) to occur
Onset of plastic deformation between
1
(5) &
1
(6)
Continue this for varied
2
values -
2
,
2
.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Elastic
deformation
Plastic
deformation
e p

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
e p

2
= constant
Plasticity
e

OA
B
C
D
E
Elastic
deformation
Plastic
deformation

YS
Yield strength in
uni-axial loading
2-D mapping of discrete stress states that first cause plastic deformation
Stress states within the red contour represent
ELASTIC DEFORMATION REGIME
Red line represents onset of PLASTIC
DEFORMATION
The loci of all stress combinations that first
cause plastic deformation is called Yield loci
or surface.

1
e
p
e
e
e
p
p
p
Onset of plastic
deformation
Elastic
deformation

2
Radial or proportional paths
Other stress paths

1
Possible shape of yield locus
from discrete measurements
Yield function
Yield function defines yield surface
Assume that yield surface is closed, smooth surface
At any instant of time, yield surface is defined as
f (
ij
) = f (
11
,
22
,
33
,
23
,
13
,
12
) = k => This is 6-D surface with each
dimension represent one of the stress components
Assume isotropic material same properties in all directions; In this case,
we can write in terms of principal stresses only
1
,
2
,
3
and surface is
reduced to 3-D. We need cubic eqn. to relate these stresses to principal
stresses,
3
I
1

2
I
2
I
3
= 0.
The stress invariants are related to principal stresses, I
1
=
1
+
2
+
3
;
I
2
= - (
1

2
+
2

3
+
1

3
); I
3
=
1

2

3
With isotropic assumption, we can write k = f (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) or k = f (
1
,
2
,
3
)
First assumption
k = f (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
)
Plastic deformation is pressure independent => Solids under hydrostatic
pressure do not deform plastically
Consider principal stress terms that differ by a pressure term

1
=>
1

=
1
+ p/3;
2
=>
2

=
2
+ p/3;
3
=>
3

=
3
+ p/3
Here hydrostatic pressure = -(
1
+
2
+
3
)/3
Now,
1

=
1
(
1
+
2
+
3
)/3 ;
2

=
2
(
1
+
2
+
3
)/3;
3

=
3
(
1
+
2
+
3
)/3
It is clear that
i

is nothing but stress deviatoric components as defined


earlier. We can write yield function in terms of deviatoric components to
avoid pressure dependence, i.e.,
Isotropic, pressure independent: f (I
2
, I
3
)
Here I
1
= 0 because
1

+
2

+
3

= 0
Now we have reduced yield surface to a function of two variables, I
2
& I
3

Second assumption
k = f (I
2
, I
3
)
Neglecting Bauschinger effect, we can neglect I
3

and hence,
Isotropic, pressure independent, no Bauschinger effect: c = f (I
2

)
Third assumption
This is the final form of
yield function
Now, I
2
= - (
1

2
+
2

3
+
1

3
)
Put
1
,
2
in terms of principal stresses, we get
I
2
= 1/6 [(
1
-
2
)
2
+ (
1
-
3
)
2
+ (
2
-
3
)
2
]
=> C = (
1
-
2
)
2
+ (
1
-
3
)
2
+ (
2
-
3
)
2
Yield function in principal
coordinate system
C = (
11
-
22
)
2
+ (
11
-
33
)
2
+ (
22
-
33
)
2
+ 6
12
2
+ 6
13
2
+ 6
23
2
Yield function in general
coordinate system
C = (
1
-
2
)
2
+ (
1
-
3
)
2
+ (
2
-
3
)
2
In plane stress, C = (
1
-
2
)
2
+
1
2
+
2
2
c = f (I
2