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Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949)

Harry Stack Sullivan was a 20th century psychiatrist who stressed the importance of interpersonal
connections and developed interpersonal psychoanalysis.

Professional Life

Harry Stack Sullivan was born in Norwich, New York, on February 21, 1892. He was raised in relative
isolation on a rural farm near Smyrna, New York, with no siblings and few playmates. Sullivan graduated
from high school at age 16 and spent his first year of college at Cornell University. In 1911, he
transferred to the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery and earned his MD in 1917.

Sullivan began practicing medicine after graduation, and in 1921, he worked under William Alanson
White as a neuropsychiatrist at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington DC. The following year, he was
employed at Sheppard Pratt Hospital in Maryland, where he became director of clinical research in
1925. There, he established a ward for young male schizophrenics. Sullivans treatments were innovative
and experimental and a great success.

Sullivan focused his attention on interpersonal relationships and in particular, the effect of loneliness on
mental health. Sullivan contributed much to the field of psychology through his teachings, his writings,
and his leadership. He was a co-founder of the William Alanson White Institute and also was
instrumental in launching the first edition of the journal Psychiatry.

Contribution to Psychology

Much of Sullivan's work centered on understanding interpersonal relationships, and his research
became the basis for a field of psychology known as interpersonal psychoanalysis. Sullivan's
interpersonal psychoanalysis suggests that the way people interact with others could provide valuable
clues into their mental health and that mental health disorders may stem from distressing interpersonal

Sullivan steadfastly tried to avoid stigmatizing mental health patients, preferring to refer to mental
health disorders as problems in living. This catchphrase became the preferred method of referring to
mental health disorders among those involved in the anti-psychiatry movement.

Sullivan coined the term "self system" to describe the three components of a person, much like Sigmund
Freuds conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. Sullivan identified the active self, or the waking,
conscious self; the eccentric self, which is the source of a persons identity and personality; and the state
of sleep, or the dormant self.

Sullivan developed the concept of developmental epochs to help explain the development of
personality across the lifespan. Like many other theorists of his time, his theory is stage-based. Sullivan
often emphasized the pivotal importance of friendship and connectedness, and his stage-based theory
sees social skills as a bridge to greater development and enrichment:

Infancy Sullivan acknowledged that the developmental process begins early in life, though he
gave this phase less importance than Freud did.
Childhood, ages 1-5 During this stage of development, speech forms the framework upon
which subsequent learning is built.
Juvenile, ages 6-8 During this period, a wide variety of playmates and access to healthy
socialization and social skills become increasingly important.
Preadolescence, ages 9-12 In preadolescence, the ability to form close friendships assists the
child in developing self-esteem and serves as practice for later relationships.
Early adolescence, ages 13-17 Friendship takes on a sexual dimension, and the focus on
relationship with peers shifts toward romantic interests. An adolescent's sense of self-worth is
based in large part upon his or her perceived sexual attractiveness.

Late adolescence, ages 18early 20s The young adult struggles with conflicts between parental
control and the desire to form an independent identity, while beginning to focus on both
romance and friendship.
Adulthood The primary struggles of adulthood include family, financial security, and a
rewarding career. Socialization continues to play a role in adult development.

Books by Harry Stack Sullivan
Personal Psychopathology (1933/1973)
Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry (1947/1966)
The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry (1953)
The Psychiatric Interview (1954)
Schizophrenia as a Human Process (1962)

Harry Stack Sullivan. (1974). Dictionary of American Biography. Retrieved from
Kam-shing, Y. I. P. (2002). Sullivan's approach to inner psychotic experiences: A case illustration. Clinical
Social Work Journal,30(3), 245-263. Retrieved from


Carl Jung (1875-1961)

Carl Jung was an early 20th century psychotherapist and psychiatrist who created the field of analytical
psychology. He is widely considered one of the most important figures in the history of psychology.

Early Life

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Switzerland in 1875 to Emilie Preiswerk and Paul Jung, a pastor. Because of
his fathers faith, Jung developed a keen interest in religious history, but he settled on the study of
medicine at the University of Basel. After he completed his medical degree, Jung joined the staff at
Burghoelzli Clinic in Zurich, Switzerland as an intern to Eugen Bleuler, where he explored the
unconscious mind and its related complexes. He also traveled to Paris to study under Pierre Janet in
1902. In 1905, Jung was appointed to the faculty at the University of Zurich where he worked until 1913.

Jung married Emma Rauschenbach in 1903. The couple had five children and remained married until
Emma's death in 1955, although Jung's extramarital affairs were extensive. Jung died in Switzerland in

Professional Life

Jung sent a copy of his book Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in 1906, and Freud
reciprocated by inviting Jung to visit Vienna. Their friendship lasted until 1913, at which time they
parted ways due to a difference in academic opinion. Jung agreed with Freuds theory of the
unconscious, but Jung also believed in the existence of a deeper collective unconscious and
representative archetypes. Freud openly criticized Jung's theories, and this fundamental difference
caused their friendship and psychological views to diverge.

Jung travelled throughout the world to teach and influence others with his psychoanalytical theories. He
published many books relating to psychology, and others that seemed outside the realm science,
including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies, which examined and dissected the
psychological significance of UFO sightings. Jungs work embodied his belief that each person has a life
purpose that is based in a spiritual self. Through his eastern, western, and mythological studies, Jung
developed a theory of transformation called individuation that he explored in Psychology and Alchemy,
a book in which he detailed the relationship of alchemies in the psychoanalytical process.

Contribution to Psychology

Carl Jung is recognized as one of the most influential psychiatrists of all time. He founded analytical
psychology and was among the first experts in his field to explore the religious nature behind human
psychology. He argued that empirical evidence was not the only way to arrive at psychological or
scientific truths and that the soul plays a key role in the psyche. Key contributions of Jung include:

The collective unconscious: A universal cultural repository of archetypes and human
Dream analysis and the interpretation of symbols from the collective unconscious that show up
in dreams.
Extroversion and introversion: Jung was the first to identify these two personality traits, and
some of his work continues to be used in the theory of personality and in personality testing.
Psychological complexes: A cluster of behaviors, memories, and emotions grouped around a
common theme. For example, a child who was deprived of food might grow into an adult
smoker, nail biter, and compulsive eater, focusing on the theme of oral satiation.
An emphasis on spirituality: Jung argued that spirituality and a sense of the connectedness of
life could play a profound role in emotional health.
Individuation: The integration and balancing of dual aspects of personality to achieve psychic
wholeness, such as thinking and feeling, introversion and extroversion, or the personal
unconscious and the collective unconscious. Jung argued that people who have individuated are
happier, more ethical, and more responsible.
The persona and the shadow: The persona is the public version of the self that serves as a mask
for the ego, and the shadow is a set of infantile, suppressed behaviors and attitudes.
Synchronicity: A phenomenon that occurs when two seemingly unrelated events occur close to
one another, and the person experiencing the events interprets this correlation as meaningful.
In addition, some of Jung's patients helped to found Alcoholics Anonymous, inspired by Jung's
belief in an evangelic cure for alcoholism.

Selected Works of Carl Jung

Psychology of the Unconscious (1912)
Psychological Types (1921)
Essays on Contemporary Events (1947)
Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle (1952)
The Undiscovered Self (1957)
Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1961)
Man and His Symbols (1964)
The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious (2nd ed. with R. Hull, 1981)
The Red Book (with Sonu Shamdasani, 2009)

C. G. Jung. (2006.) Scientists: Their Lives and Works. Biography In Context. Retrieved from:
MacIntyre, Alasdair. (2006). Carl Gustav Jung. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Biography In Context.
Retrieved from: http://ic.galegroup.com.ez.trlib.info/