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A Project of Aircraft Structure Analysis



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FINAL PROJECT ( ANSYS)
Submitted by : MUHAMMAD HARIS MUNIR (BAT11343)
DANIAL ALI (BAT11362)





Submitted to : Prof.IMTIAZ HUSSAIN

Date : 26/12/13



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Acknowledgement ................................................................................. 4

Executive Summary ................................................................................. 5

Ansys Mechanical APDL.............................................................................6


Table of Contents
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This project would not have been possible without the support of our professor. We wish
to express our gratitude to his supervision, Prof. IMTIAZ HUSSAIN who was
abundantly helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. The
knowledge about our project is really interesting and technical. During this project we
learnt many new things and different aspects of structure analysis.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Structural analysis is important because it can evaluate whether a specific structural
design will be able to withstand external and internal stresses and forces expected for
the design. This in turn produces an electronic virtual working model for future design
development. Structural analysis is the determination of the effects of loads on physical
structures and their components. Structures subject to this type of analysis include all
that must withstand loads, such as buildings, bridges, vehicles, machinery, furniture,
attire, soil strata, prostheses and biological tissue. Structural analysis incorporates the
fields of applied mechanics, materials science and applied mathematics to compute a
structure's deformations, internal forces, stresses, support reactions, accelerations, and
stability. The results of the analysis are used to verify a structure's fitness for use, often
saving physical tests. Structural analysis is thus a key part of the engineering design of
structures. The structure on which we have to analysis was a double joint composite
material structure. We have used ANSYS software for this job and end up with certain
results.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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Structural analysis solutions from ANSYS provide the ability to simulate every structural aspect
of a product, including linear static analysis that simply provides stresses or deformations,
modal analysis that determines vibration characteristics, through to advanced transient
nonlinear phenomena involving dynamic effects and complex behaviors.
All users, from designers to advanced experts, can benefit from ANSYS structural analysis
solutions. The fidelity of the results is achieved through the wide variety of material models
available, the quality of the elements library, the robustness of the solution algorithms, and the
ability to model every product from single parts to very complex assemblies with hundreds of
components interacting through contacts or relative motions.








A brief study of composite materials, their applications, design parameters involved.
Composite material (Carbon-epoxy, Kevlar-epoxy, Glass-epoxy)
Ply orientation (0,15,30)
Staking sequence in composite plate (All zero, 0/15/0/15, 0/ 30/0/30,
0/0/15/15/0/0/15., 0/0/30/30/0/0/30.,
bottom five zero and above top 15/30)
INTRODUCTION
ANSYS MECHANICAL (APDL)
PROBLEM GIVEN
SCOPE OF WORK
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DRAWING MODELING
DATA GIVEN
Part A:
Metallic plates
Material = MS
Thickness = 3 mm
Length = 82 mm
Width = 50 mm

Part B:
Composite plates
Thickness = 10 mm
Length = 100 mm
Width = 50 mm
Number of plies = 10

Part C:
Pins
Dia = 4 mm
Maximum two rows

Applied force = 1kN


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Firstly I have divided the basic drawing, after that Iv selected option
PREPROCESSORMODELINGCREATEAREASRECTANGLE-> 2 corner

I made two rectangles which are the skin of aircraft. Then I made two more rectangles
for patch. Then I extruded the 4 rectangles along normal axis 50 mm lengths. The basic
drawings was ready.









BASIC DRAWING
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Then I made circles on the surface of the joint to make space for rivets. I made circles and
extruded. Then I subtracted that extruded holes from the joint. We subtract the holes so that we
can define rivets in those holes.












SUBTRACTION OF RIVETS
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After subtraction, I made the circle again on the already hollow holes and extruded. These again
made extruded circles represents the rivets.



After filling the holed with rivets, I defined the element type. Here, two types of element are. One
of composite and other rivets and patch plates are of steel. So I selected solid186 for steel and
solid46 for composite material.


After material definition, I defined the real constant for solid46 and I defined the layers of
composite material which are 10 of 1 mm thickness. I also defined the layers orientation which
was 15, 30 and 45. These angles of layers give optimum strength to the composite material in
all directions.



RECIRCLE
Element Type
Real Constant
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After real constant, I defined the material properties for composite and steel. For composite Ive
selected the orthotropic in solid46 and for steel, isotropic in solid186. The properties values are
given in the start of this report. I define these values so that software can understand in which
direction and as a whole the strength of material.


After this i selected PREPROCESSORMESHINGMESH TOOL and select the
option volumes and select all, we will get the following drawing as meshing. I do
meshing so that the structure is divided in infinite parts and analysis will be
better. After analysis on each part, the software will differentiate these results
and give accurate value.





MESHING
Element Properties
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I moved the pin out of the structure so that i can define contact of pin and the holes easily. If the
pins are in the holes then contact pair is difficult to define.











MOVE PINS
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I defined contact pair so that software can understand that these surfaces are in contact, not
fixed.












CONTACT PAIR
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Now we have to apply force on key points of all external sides .We select
SOLUTIONDEFINELOADSAPPLYSTRUCTURALFORCE/MOMENTKEYPOIN
T. After applying we will get the following figure.

We give external forces to the structure for analysis. These forces can deform the structure if
the structure is weak.







FORCES APPLY
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After applying forces we have to done its solution for this purpose we select
SOLUTIONSOLVECURRENT LS
According to the given data and follow all steps correctly the message must be
shown on screen SOLUTION IS DONE
The solution status is given in the table in picture.








SOLUTION IS DONE
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This graph tells that as the cumulative irritation number increases, the absolute convergence
norm decreases. The cumulative irritation numbers is the term which tells that on a specific part,
for how many times the analysis is applied. The absolute convergence norm tells that it is a non
standard forces analysis. Non standard mean the forces are not in their standard units.











GRAPH OBTAINED
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GENERAL POSTPROCESSINGPLOT RESULTSDEFORMED SHAPE
DEFORMED+UNDEFORMED


This shape tells us that after deformation, how our structure will look like. How much our
structure will bend.









DEFORMED/UNDEFORMED SHAPE
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Von Mises stress is widely used by designers, to check whether their design will withstand given
load condition. Von mises stress is considered to be a safe haven for design engineers .Using
this information an engineer can say his design will fail, if maximum value of Von Mises stress
induced in the material is more than strength of the material. It works well for most of the cases,
especially when material is ductile in nature.






VON MISES STRESS
EXAMPLE FOR UNDERSTANDING
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GENERAL POSTPROCESSINGPLOT RESULTSCONTOR PLOTELEMENT
SOLUTIONSTRESSVONMISSES


This analysis tells that on a particular area, how much force is present. The forces range is
given in different colors. If at any particular area is red, this tells that at that area maximum force
is present. If the whole structure is red then this cannot be manufactured as It will damage
earlier.






VON MISES STRESS
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MAXIMUM STRESS
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LOG FILE UNDERSTANDING
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(1) http://www.ansys.com/Products/Simulation+Technology/Structural+Analysis


REFERENCES