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1. What is sentence?

Set of words with complete senses is known as sentence. A sentence is a group a

words that gives full meaning.
Ex: a. Raa goes to college ever! morning at 1".#" am.
$. %he leaves are green
c. %he $irds are fl!ing in the sk!
Simple Sentence: A sentence which has onl! one su$ect and one predicate.
Ex: %he cow gives milk.
%he fox is cunning animal.
%he parts of sentence
A sentence has two parts. %he! are called &%he Su$ect:' and &%he (redicate'
%he &Su$ect' tell us a$out the person or animal or thing who does the work or who acts.
%he &(redicate' tell us a$out what the su$ect does.
Ex: a. the cow eats grass.
$. She is dancing
c. %he cat drank the milk.
d. %he! work in the field
e. %he children pla! games.
Su$ect (redicate
%he )ow Eats grass
She *s dancing
%he cat +rank the milk
%he! Work in the filed
%he children (la! games
,inds of sentence
%here are four kinds of sentences.
Assertive Sentence
*mperative sentence
*nterrogative sentence
Exclamatar! Sentence
1. Assertive Sentence
An assertive sentence sa!s something for certain or definite or makes declarations
Ex: -e is going to college
.aven is a good $o!
%he Sun rises in the east
%he road is ver! wide
Sugar is sweet
/. *mperative Sentence
An imperative sentence0 we express order commends and also re1uest.
Ex: +o not open the door
Stand up on the $ench
)ome in0 please
,indl! give me a cup of milk
+on2t go out
#. *nterrogative Sentence
*nterrogative sentence asks 1uestions or make en1uires.
Ex: Where are !ou going?
What is he doing?
Are !ou drinking coffee?
-ow did he lose his $ic!cle?
3. Exclamator! Sentence
%he Exclamator! sentence which express surprise0 fear etc. *t expresses sudden feeling of
o!0 sorrow0 anger0 wonder and the like.
Assertive sentence 4egative Sentence
5ida! is t!ping a letter 5ida! is not t!ping a letter
* have completed m! work * have not completed m! work
* own a car * do not own a car
She helps me She does not helps me
-e went to $elgaum -e does not go to $elgaum
Sita nursed the sick Sita does not nurse the sick
-ari cheats the customers -ari does not cheats the customers
Sunil patted the ox2s $ack Sunil did not patted the ox2s $ack
%apan is a naught! $o! %pan is not a naught! $o!
%he! were full of sturdiness and singing %he! were not full of sturdiness 6 singing
* will tame !ou * will not tame !ou
%he! have man! cleaned words to sa! %he! have no man! clean words to sa!
* am !our teacher * am not !our teacher
-e went directl! to the waiting man -e did not go directl! to the waiting man
4egative sentence Assertive Sentence
%he! are not making noise %he! are making noise
7ou did not tell the truth 7ou told the truth
8udda has not 1uestioned the caste s!stem 8uddha had 1uestioned the caste s!stem
*t is not important to record *t is important to record
-e would not repla! it tomorrow -e will repa! it tomorrow
Sita did not teach the poor children Sita tought the poor children
We are not going to talk We are going to talk
* would not like !ou to listen to me * would like !ou to listen to me
* had not panned it * had panned it
Assertive *nterrogative
%he! are pla!ing hocke! Are the! pla!ing hocke!?
Ravi is not working hard *s Ravi not working hard?
-e goes to )hennai +oes he goes to chenni?
She sang well did she sang well?
Ram is 1uite good at studies *s ram is 1uite good at studies?
-ari charges higher prices +oes hari charges higher prices?
*t was ver! wicked Was it ver! wicked?
*t was ver! perfect da! Was it a perfect da!?
* am coming out of the shadow Am * coming out of the shadow?
* shall help !ou in ver! wa! Shall * help !ou in ver! wa!?
(AR%S 9: S(EE)- ;What is parts of speech<
%he words which are used in the formation of sentence are called parts of speech.
%here are eight parts. %he! are 1. 4oun /. (ronoun #. ver$ 3. adver$
=. Adective >. (reposition ?.conunction @. *nterection
1. 4oun:
A noun is a word used to denote a person0 place0 animal0 and thing
Ex: Atoka was a wise king Santee works hard
Rona is a good girl .! sore is a $eautiful place.
/. (ronoun:
%he word which is used instead of noun is called (ronoun.
Ex: She is a good girl. -e is m! $rother
%he! are students She is cooking
,inds of (ronoun
a. (ersonal (ronoun
Ex: -e
$. Reflexive (ronouns
c. +emonstrative (ronoun
Ex: %hose mangoes are mine
d. *ndefinite pronoun
Ex: An!one some some$od!
e. +istri$utive pronoun
Ex: ever!$od! each
f. Relative (ronoun
g. interrogative (ronoun
Ex :which who whose
5er$ is a word which is used to express the action of 4oun or (ronoun
Ex: Rave thrown a stone ,rishna is a graAing the cows
%he rat runs awa! from the room %he! have come home.
%he! are two kinds of ver$s. 1. .ain ver$ /. helping ver$ ;auxiliar! ver$<
-elping ver$s: is used with the main ver$
Ex: am0 have0 have $een0 had0 had $een0 has0 were0 ma! $e can 0 can $e shall0 could.
Ex: * am pla!ing cricket
We are going to cinema
-e is running
%he have alread! arrived here.
B *rregular ver$s are irregular in the past simple in the positive onl! ;not in the negative or
1uestion form<:
go C went
She went home !esterda!0
sit C sat
* sat down0
write DD wrote
She wrote for hours.
Express the nature of action and it also called the detail of ver$.
*t is used to sa! something a$out the ver$.
Ex: %he train moves slowl! +ear goes fastl!
-e walks 1uickl! She speaks loudl!
Adver$s of manner
B Adver$s of manner are formed from adectives $! adding l!: 1uick DDE 1uickl!F polite politel!F careful CB
B 4ote these irregulars: good DE wellF hard DE hardF fast DDE fastF earl! DDE earl!F late DDE lateFloud DDE loud or
-eGs a good worker. -e works well.
SheGs a hard worker. She works hard.
SheGs a fast runner. She runs fast.
Write the adver$s.
)omparison of adver$s
B .ost adver$s are used with more and most:
slowl! CE more slowl!0 most slowl!
dangerousl!DDE more dangerousl!0 most dangerousl!
B 9neDs!lla$le adver$s add er and est:
hard CB harder0 hardestF
fast DDE faster0 fastestF
loud DDE louder0 loudest
B %he irregular comparisons are:
well 8etter $est
$adl! worse worst
little less least
far fartherH farthestH
further furthest
:re1uenc! adver$s with the (resent Simple
B %he adver$ goes $etween the su$ect and the ver$:
* often see them. we rarel! talk to them.
* seldom go out in the evenings.
B occasionall!0 sometimes0 often0 fre1uentl!0 and normall! can also $e at the $eginning or end of a clause:
H see them occasionall!.
Sometimes we talk to each other. 4ormall! * go out in the evenings.
4ote: alwa!s is sometimes used with present continuous to express anno!ance0 alwa!s goes $etween the
auxiliar! ver$ and the main ver$: SamsGs alwa!s $orrowing m! tilings without askingI
(eterGs alwa!s complaining a$out his o$
)hoose the correct word and write it in its proper place in these sentences.
1 * see them nowada!s D the last time we met was ten !ears ago.
Jnever H often H alwa!s<
H never see them nowada!s D the last time we met was ten !ears ago.
/ 7ouGre luck!: we have ice cream0 $ut weGve got some toda!0
;hardl! ever H normall! H nearl! alwa!s<
# (eterGs pla!ing foot$all instead of doing his homework0
;seldom H hardl! ever H alwa!s<
#. We go out now D we canGt afford it.
;hardl! ever H sometimes H fre1uentl!<
3. * donGt finish work $efore eleven oGclock0 so * see the children $efore the! go to $ed.
;alwa!s H never H usuall!<
=. * sit here when * come to the park D itGs m! favourite place0
;hardl! ever H occasionall! H alwa!s<
Kink words: and0 $ut0 so0 then0 $efore0 after0 $ecause
Write one of the a$ove words in the correct place in these sentences. Lse each word for two
sentences. Where two answers are possi$le0 choose the more likel! one.
1 * got out of the car ..and.. walked into the house.
/ %he weather was lovel!MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMwe sta!ed in the garden.
*t is used to sa! something a$out the noun. *t speaks a$out the 1uantit! of noun. *t also
speaks a$out the num$er and 1ualit! of a noun.
Ex: Keela is a good girl Soma is strong $o!
%he! gave him ten mangoes %here is some rice in the $ag.
(ossessive adectives
B Each pronoun has a possessive adective:
* CE m!
!ou CE !our
he CE his
she C her
we CE our
!ou CE our
the! DDE their
it CE its
,inds of Adective
a. Ouantitative Adective
Show the kind or 1ualit! of a person or thingF as
Ex: ,olkata is a large cit! -e is an honest man
$. Oualitative Adective
Shows how much of a thing is meantF as
Ex: * ate some rice -e showed much patience
-e has little intelligence -e has lost all his wealth
).+emonstrative Adective
(oint out which person or things is meantF as
Ex: %he $o! is stronger than (rasad * hate such things
%hose rascals must $e punished
)9.(AR*S94 9: A+NE)%*5ES
%hese adectives have completel! irregular comparative and superlative forms:
Adective )omparative Superlative
Pood 8etter $est
8ad Worse worst
Kittle Kess least
.uch .ore most
:ar further H farther furthest H farthest
)9.(AR*S94 9: A+NE)%*5ES
:9R.*4P %-E )9.(ARA%*5E A4+ SL(ERKA%*5E
4um$er of s!lla$les )omparative Superlative
9ne s!lla$le Q Der Q Dest
%all %aller tallest
one s!lla$le with the spelling consonant Q single vowel Q consonant: dou$le the final consonant:
:at :atter fattest
8ig 8igger $iggest
Sad Sadder saddest
two s!lla$les Q Der 9R more Q ad Q Dest 9R most Q ad
ending in: D!0 Dl!0 Dow ending in: Dle0 Der or Dure
these common adectives D handsome0 polite0 pleasant0 common0 1uiet
-app! happierH more happ! happiestH most happ!
7ellow !ellowerH more !ellow !ellowestH most !ellow
Simple SimplerH more simple simplestH most simple
%ender %endererH more tender tenderestH most tender
*f !ou are not sure0 use .9RE Q 9R .9S% Q
4ote: Adectives ending in GD!G like happ!0 prett!0 $us!0 sunn!0 luck! etc:. replace the R! with Dier or Diest in
the comparative and superlative form
8us! $usier $usiest
4um$er of s!lla$les )omparative Superlative
three s!lla$les or more more Q ad most Q ad
*mportant more important most important
Expensive more expensive most expensive
a. A cat is fast0 a tiger is faster $ut a cheetah is the fastest
$. A car is heav!0 a truck is heavier0 $ut a train is the heaviest
c. A park $ench is comforta$le0 a restaurant chair is more comforta$le0 $ut a sofa is the most comforta$le
:9R. A4+ :L4)%*94 9: A+NE)%*5ES
Where a num$er of adectives are used together0 the order depends on the function of the adective. %he
usual order is: 5alueHopinion0 SiAe0 AgeH%emperature0 Shape0 )olour0 9rigin0 .aterial
delicious0 lovel!0 charming
SiAe : small0 huge0 tin!
AgeH%emperature : old0 hot0 !oung
Shape : round0 s1uare0 rectangular
)olour : red0 $londe0 $lack
9rigin : Swedish0 5ictorian0 )hinese
.aterial : plastic0 wooden0 silver
a. a lovel! old red postD$ox
$. some small round plastic ta$les
c. some charming small silver ornaments
:9R. A4+ :L4)%*94 9: A+NE)%*5ES
Adectives tell us more a$out a noun. %he! can:
+escri$e feelings or 1ualities:
-e is a lonel! man %he! are honest people
Pive nationalit! or origin:
(ierre is :rench %his clock is Perman 9ur house is 5ictorian
%ell more a$out a thingGs characteristics:
A wooden ta$le. %he knife is sharp.
%ell us a$out age:
-eGs a !oung man .! coat is ver! old
%ell us a$out siAe and measurement:
Nohn is a tall man. %his is a ver! long film.
%ell us a$out colour:
(aul wore a red shirt.
%he sunset was crimson and gold.
%ell us a$out materialHwhat something is made of:
*t was a wooden ta$le She wore a cotton dress
%ell us a$out shape: A rectangular $ox A s1uare envelope
Express a udgment or a value: A fantastic film
:9R. A4+ :L4)%*94 9: A+NE)%*5ES
1. Adectives are invaria$le:
%he! do not change their form depending on the gender or num$er of the noun.
A hot potato Some hot potatoes
/. %o emphasiAe or strengthen the meaning of an adective use Gver!G or Greall!G:
A ver! hot potato Some reall! hot potatoes.
;8L% see also.odifiersHAdver$s<
#.(osition of adectives:
Lsuall! in front of a noun: A $eautiful girl.
After ver$s like Sto $eS0 Sto seemS 0 Sto lookS0 Sto tasteS:
%he girl is $eautiful
7ou look tired
%his meat tastes funn!.
After the noun: in some fixed expressions:
%he (rincess Ro!al
%he (resident elect
a court martial
the adectives involved0 present0 concerned:
a. * want to see the people involvedHconcerned ;T the people who have something to do with the matter<
$. -ere is a list of the people present ;T the people who were in the $uilding or at the meeting<
8e carefulI When these adectives are used $efore the noun the! have a different meaning:
An involved discussion T detailed0 complex
A concerned father T worried0 anxious
%he present situation T current0 happening now
(reposition is word used $efore a noun or pronoun in a sentence to show how the noun or pronoun stands in
relation with a ver$ or an adective or another noun or pronoun.
A preposition is a word placed $efore a noun or a noun e1uivalent to show in what relation that noun or
noun e1uivalent stands to something else in that sentence. A preposition can $e one word or a group of
Ex: %he crow on the tree %here are cows in the field -e is fond of sweets
;9n0 in0 of0 $!0 for0 at0 into0 upon0 off0 from0 to inside0 outside0 without0 within0 a$out 0 $e!ond0 with $eside0
since0 around0 $eneath0 under0 through0 up0 down0 $etween<
at in0 on
B at is used for a place when the exact position is not ver! important: -e was standing at the gate.
We were waiting at the station.
B on is used when the place is seen as a line or surface:
%he cat sat on the ta$le. %here was a picture on the wall.
B in is used when the place is seen as having volume or area:
%he dog was in the car. .! ke!s are in m! $ag.
(repositions of movement
;to0 at0 or awa! from a place<
She ran to the gate She stood at the gate.
She walked awa! from the gate.
on0 onto0 or off a line or surface ;a wall0 ta$le0 floor0 etc.<
put the mone! onto the ta$le. %he mone!Gs on the ta$le.
%he mone! fell off the ta$le.
in0 into0 or out of a $ox0 car0 or an!thing with volume in ;to< out ;of<
%he dog umped into the car. %he dogGs in the car.
%ake the dog out of the car.
)ertain ver$s with to or at
Kisten to meI Kook at meI
B Some ver$s are followed $! to or at0 and some ver$s do not use a preposition:
She told me the news.
(RE(9S*%*94S 9: %*.E ;at0 in0 on <
B at a point in time: at four oGclock0 at $edtime
B on a da! or dateF on .onda!0 on Nul! >th0 on !our $irthda!
B in a period of time: in the morning0 in April0 in the summer0 in 1U@?
B at night0
B on .onda!0 in the morning0 on .onda! morning
until0 $efore0 after
B $efore and after can $e followed $! a noun0 pronoun0 clause or gerund: *Gll see !ou after lunch..
Nohn arrived $efore me.
She phoned after the part! started.
We had some coffee $efore starting the meeting.
1 * learnt to speak some %urkish.
* went to %urke!. H learnt to speak some %urkish $efore * went to %urke!.
/ %he! sta!ed awake. %heir daughter came home.
3 *Gm going to sta! here. *tGs time to go home.
= *Gm going to finish working. *Gm sixt!.
> %he meeting started. * arrived.
? We waited. %he am$ulance came.
@ Are !ou going to carr! on working at the cafe? 7ou can find a $etter o$.
U *Gd like to visit the Acropolis. * leave Preece.
1" -e usuall! has a $ig $reakfast. -e goes to work.
,inds of preposition:
a. Simple preposition: ;$!0 for<
$. )ompound (reposition ;a$out0 over<
)onunction is a word used to connect the two words or two sentences.
;And0 $ut0 so0 or0 $ecause0 since0 although0 unless0 if !et0 as0 as if0 where0 than0 when0 that0
while0 $efore0 after0 though0 till0 than0 until0 although0 whether0 in order that<
Ex: %ime and tide wait for none.
*s it coffee or tea?
-e is tall and thin
-e ran wa! $ecause he was afraid
Singh and Riana are sisters.
+on2t talk while !ou are writing
An interection is a word used to express sudden feeling of o!0 sorrow0 anger0 surprise and
the like. An interection is a word of exclamation expressing sudden feeling of excitement.
Ex: -urrahI * have secured the fist rank
What a $eautiful flower rose isI
-ow $ig this temple is?
-ow great he is?
What a precious thing diamond isI
What a useful thing iron isI
,inds of *nterection
a. Expressing a o!
$. Expressing a sorrow
c. Expressing a surprise
d. Expressing a recognition
e. Expressing a contempt
f. Expressing an approval H admiration
%-E %E4SES
%he %enses are associated with &ver$s'. %he word tenses means time. %he %enses tell us a$out the time of
action or event that takes place. %he tenses tell us a$out when actuall! a work is done or was done0 or will
$e done.
,inds of tenses
%here are mainl! three kinds of tenses. %he! are (resent tenses0 (ast tenses0 :uture tenses.
1. (resent %enses
a. Simple present tenses
Simple present tense shows that action or work take place at present $ut it does not sa! when actuall! the
work $egins and when it ends. *t simpl! sa!s that works take places at present.
Ex: * drink milk -e drives the car
She clean the floor %he! eat fruits.
Sl.no *nterrogative ;present %enses<
1 +oes he go to college ever!da!?
/ +o !ou write a letter?
# Are !ou read -indi?
3 What do !ou do in this house?
= +oes he clim$ on the tower
Sl.no 4egative ;present %enses<
1 -e does not go to college
/ -e does not write a letter
# -e does note like to read -indi
3 She does not eat
= -e does not know how to catch
8.(resent )ontinuous %enses
%he present continuous %enses show that the work has started presentl! $ut it going on continuousl!. *t
means the work has not !et $een completed. -ence the ver$ is said to $e in the present continuous %enses.
Ex: -e is working in the field. %he child is weeping.
We are going to school. We are running.
Sl.no *nterrogative ;present continuous %enses<
1 Am * reading?
/ *s he going to college?
# *s she coming to !our dinner?
3 Are the! killing?
= Am * working in this school?
Sl.no 4egative ;present continuous %enses<
1 * am not drinking an! cold drinks
/ 7ou are not going to college
# She is not dancing on the road
3 7ou are not looking happ!
= * am not going to cinema hall
). (resent (refect %enses
(resent (erfect %enses shows that the work which has started something now ;$efore< has $een ust now
finished or completed0 have $een in progress for 1uite sometime ;or over period of time<. (erfect means
complete. So0 the work said to $e in the present perfect tense.
Ex: %he $irds have $uilt a strong nest. %he! have made $eautiful kites
-e has repaired the scooter
Sl.no *nterrogative ;present (refect %enses<
1 -ave !ou killed a deer?
/ -ave !ou known him?
# -as he left his home?
3 -as she met her friends?
= -ave !ou seen a good picture?
Sl.no 4egative ;present prefect %enses<
1 -e has not taken
/ She has not finished her o$
# 7ou have not spoken in -indi
3 * have not won this game
= * have not finished this lesson
d. (resent (refect )ontinuous %enses
%he (resent prefect continuous %enses shows that work which has started some thing now ;$efore< has $een
temporaril! ;once< completed $ut again it has $een set in operating to go on for long. *t means the work has
$een going since long time0 to stop ultimatel! at something.
Ex: *t has $een raining since morning. %he! have $een waiting for him.
-e has $een reading the $ooks since afternoon. -e has pla!ing the game since evening.
Sl.no *nterrogative ;present (refect )ontinuous %enses<
1 -ave * $een reading since morning?
/ -as chandru not $een eating the food for two da!s?
# -as she $een cooking for two hours?
3 -as he $een sitting on the rock since morning?
= -ave the! $een waiting for him?
Sl.no 4egative ;present prefect )ontinuous %enses<
1 -e has not $een clim$ing the pole for three minutes
/ * have not $een dancing since = o2clock
# She has not $een singing for two hours
3 * have not $een working since morning
= She has not $een cooking for two hours
/. (ast %enses
a. Simple past tenses
%he simple past tenses show that ver$ or action took place in the past time. 8ut does not sa! when actuall!
the work $egins and when it ended. *t simpl! sa!s that the work $egin and ended in past.
Ex: %he! $roke the pot -e sold his cow for Rupees. @""".
-e held the $all correctl! %he $a$! drank milk.
Sl.no *nterrogative ;Simple past %enses<
1 +id he $ring a note $ook?
/ +id !ou drink tea?
# +id she come at morning?
3 +id he write a letter?
= +id she $ring a to!?
Sl.no 4egative ;Simple past %enses<
1 * did not go
/ -e did not sing a good song
# She did not speak
3 *t did not pla!
= -e did not write a letter
$ .(ast )ontinuous %enses
%he past continuous %enses shows that the work had started in the past time0 it was going on continuousl!.
*t means that the work had not !et $een completed. -ence0 the work is said to $e in the past continuous
Ex: %he! were going to the temple %he dog was $arking
-e was ploughing the land %he cows were eating the grass.
Sl.no *nterrogative ;(ast )ontinuous %enses<
1 Was he going to college?
/ Were !ou cooking meals?
# Were the! pla!ing?
3 Was it sitting on the ta$le?
= Was it raining?
Sl.no 4egative ;(ast )ontinuous %enses<
). (ast (refect %enses
(ast prefect tenses shows that the work which had started in the past time had ust then $een finished or
completed0 having $een in progress 1uite some time ;or over period of time< &perfect' completed.
Ex: -e had re1uested them to help him %he! had gone out when he arrived there
She had given a diamond ring to her sister. -e had participated in all the games.
Sl.4o *nterrogative ;(ast (refect %enses<
1 -ad he $ought !our site?
/ -ad she reached !our school?
# -ad he $roken the chair $efore the $us came?
3 -as she seen this dog with !ou?
Sl.no 4egative ;(ast (refect %enses<
1 * had not $een $eaten to him $efore he told
/ -e had not $roken the chair $efore the $us came
# She had not seen this dog with !ou
3 -e had not $ought !our site
= -e had not reached !our school
+. (ast (refect )ontinuous %enses
%he past prefect continuous tenses shows that the work had $een started in the past had $een temporaril!
;once< complete $ut again it had $een operation to go on far long. *t means that work had $een gone since
long time0 to stop ultimatel! at sometime.
Ex: She had $een previousl! learning in our school.
-e had $een writing the poetr! $efore oining the arm!.
-e had $een working as a professor when he was sent a$oard.
Sl.4o *nterrogative ;(ast (refect )ontinuous %enses<
1 -e had $een working for ten hours.
/ She had $een weeping for two hours
# )hild had $een sleeping since @2o clock
3 -e had $een writing the $ooks $efore oining the school
= -e had $een working as commissioner when he was sent a$road
Sl.no 4egative ;(ast (refect )ontinuous %enses<
1 -ad she not $een cooking the food for three da!s
/ -ad he not $een working for # da!s
# -ad child not $een sleeping since !esterda!
#. :uture %enses
a. Simple future tenses
Simple future tenses shows that the work or action has not !et $egun and that will take place sometime later.
So0 that the work or action will take place in future.
Ex: She will return the $ook in a$out a week. -e will start a hotel in few da!s.
*f !ou stud! hard0 !ou will get the first rank.
Sl.4o *nterrogative ;future %enses<
1 Will !ou come?
/ Will she meet Ravi on .onda!?
# Shall * pla! $oot $all?
3 Shall he go to school?
= Shall she sing a good song?
Sl.no 4egative ;future %enses<
1 * shall not go to the school
/ She will not come from -!dera$ad
# She will not go now
3 7ou will not go to market
8 .:uture )ontinuous %enses
:uture )ontinuous %enses shows that the work which will start sometime later0 that is0 in the future time0
will continue thereafter for 1uite some time.
Ex: :rom next month onwards0 he will $e getting more salar!.
%omorrow $! this time0 we shall $e traveling in the $us.
Sl.4o *nterrogative ;future )ontinuous %enses<
1 Shall * $e dancing?
/ Shall * $e cutting the plants?
# Shall * $e pla!ing match at this time next morning?
3 Will he $e going?
Sl.no 4egative ;future )ontinuous %enses<
1 %he! will not $e coming tomorrow
/ Shall he not $e reading a $ook
# Shall * not $e pla!ing match at this time next morning
). :uture (refect %enses
:uture perfect tenses shows that the work which will $egin in the future tie or which has alread! $egun and
it is in progress over a period of time0 will $e completed.
Ex: 8efore0 his retirement0 he will $e served the department for twent! !ears.
%omorrow $! now0 the! will reached their place.
8efore !ou reach the $us stand0 the $us will have arrived there.
Sl.4o *nterrogative ;future perfect %enses<
1 Shall * $e dancing?
/ Shall * $e cutting the plants?
# Shall * $e pla!ing match at this time next morning?
3 Will he $e going?
Sl.no 4egative ;future perfect %enses<
1 %he! will not $e coming tomorrow
/ Shall he not $e reading a $ook
# Shall * not $e pla!ing match at this time next morning
d. :uture (refect )ontinuous %enses
:uture (refect )ontinuous %enses shows that the work or action which has alread! $egun and has $een in
progress over a period of tie will continue to $e in operation in the future time.
Ex: 4ext this da!0 he will have $een running his school for fort! !ears.
%omorrow $! now0 she will have $een cele$rating her second marriage anniversar! da!.
(resent %ense (ast %ense (ast participle
Pive Pave Piven
Po Went Pone
)ome )ame )ome
%ake %ook %aken
+o +id +one
Kook Kooked Kooked
)lean )leaned )leaned
+rive +rove +riven
(our (oured (oured
+rink +rank +runk
Sing Sang Sung
Work Worked Worked
8ind 8ound 8ound
8end 8ent 8ent
Arise Arose Arisen
Write Wrote Written
-ope -opped -opped
8ecome 8ecame 8ecome
8reak 8roke 8roken
Ride Rode Ridden
Prow Prew Prown
8roadcast 8roadcast 8roadcast
8u! 8ought 8ought
8uild 8uilt 8uilt
8ring 8rought 8rought
8low 8lew 8lown
9pen 9pened 9pened
Shut Shut Shut
Wonder Wondered Wondered
See Saw Seen
-ide -id -idden
Walk Walked Walked
.ake .ade .ade
8ite 8it 8itten
Eat Ate Eaten
(a! (aid (aid
Read Red Red
,now ,new ,nown
:orget :orgot :orgotten
:orgive :orgave :orgiven
-it -it -it
Ring Range Rung
Rise Rose Risen
Send Sent Sent
Shake Shook Shaken
Repl! Replied Replied
Return Returned Returned
Run Ran Run
Sell Sold Sold
.ean .eant .eant
Keave Keft Keft
Kead Ked Ked
%ell %old %old
Lnderstand Lnderstood Lnderstood
-old -eld -eld
,eep ,ept ,ept
:l! :lew :lown
:eel :elt :elt
:all :ell :allen
Kose Kost Kost
Sleep Slept Slept
%hrow %hrew %hrown
Stand Stood Stood
Swim Swam swum
Steal Stole Stolen
Spread Spread Spread
Spend Spent Spent
Sweep Swept Swept
Wear Wore Worn
Weep Wept Wept
Withhold Withheld Withheld
Withdraw Withdrew withdrawn
An Article is a word used $efore a noun to show whether that noun is the singular form or plural form.
%here are three articles. %he! are VA20 &A4'0 and &%he'. &A' and &A4' are used $efore nouns each
denoting a singular form. &%he' is used $efore nouns denoting $oth singular and plural num$ers0 $ut
particular definite persons0 things0 etc0.
Example on the Article &A'
*t is a tree. -e is a student. She is a singer
*t is a $ook *t is a chair. %here is a cup on the ta$le.
Example on the article &An';&A4' is used $efore words $eginning with vowels0 a0e0 * 0o 0 u<
*t is an elephant *t is an inkD$ottle *t is an orange
*t is an ass. *t is an um$rella.
Examples on the article &%he' ;&%he' is used $efore nouns denoting great persons etc.0 in the world0 as R
%he .ount Everest is the tallest peak in the world.
%he Atlantic 9cean stretches $etween Europe and America.
,alidas is the Shakespeare of *ndia.
%he Panga is the most sacred river.
A group of things that are arranged in or happen in an order is called se1uence.
1. -e did a great deal of penance
/. %here was a hill called $rahmagiri
#. 8rahma was pleased and granted his wish.
3. -e had no children.
=. 9n that hill there lived a sage named kavera
/. %here was a hill called $rahmagiri
=. 9n that hill there lived a sage named kavera
3. -e had no children.
1. -e did a great deal of penance
#. 8rahma was pleased and granted his wish.
S!non!ms are words of the same grammatical class that have a similar meaning.
8a$! : *nfant 8u! : purchase Sick : ill Walk : step
:ast : 1uick -arm : damage :unn! : amusing -ard : difficult
)lose : shut 9ld : aged Smart : wise Student: (upil
(rett! : attractive :reedom: li$ert! +ead : deceased -ouse : home
Exit : leave Search : seek 4oon : midda! Eas! : simple
Sill! : foolish Kittle : small
W9R+ :9R.A%*94 R )9.(9L4+ W9R+S.
A compound word is a com$ination of two or more separate words that functions as a single word and has
its own special meaning.
1. -and D -and $ag /. (en D (en knife #. .one! D mone! cap
3. %ea D %ea spoon =. Wedding D Wedding card >. -one! D -one! moon
?. :ire D :ire wood @. -eat D heat engine U. Puilt! D Puilt! person
%RA4S:9R.A%*94 9: SE4%E4)E
%o transform a sentence is to change it from one grammatical form to another without altering its sense.
Lse of &*:' or &*: 49%'
1.* fail to maintain the standard0 * demand of !ou0 !ou ma! criticiAe me.
*f * fail to maintain the standard * demand of !ou0 !ou ma! criticiAe me.
/. %ell me the truth or * will flog the skin off !our $ack.
*f %ell me the truth or * will flog the skin off !our $ack.
G*:G SE4%E4)ES A4+ %-E GL4REAKG (AS%
*n this section !ou will find information on sentences containing the wordGifG0 the use of conditional tenses0
and the Gunreal pastG0 that is0 when we use a past tense $ut we are not actuall! referring to past time.
*: A4+ %-E )94+*%*94AK
%here are four main t!pes ofGif G sentences in English:
1.%he GAeroG conditiona l0 where the tense in $oth parts of the sentence is the simple present:
*f Q simple present simple present
*f !ou heat ice it melts.
*f it rains !ou get wet
*n these sentences0 the time is now or alwa!s and the situation is real and possi$le. %he! are often used to
refer to general truths.
/.%he %!pe 1 conditional0 where the tense in theG if clause is the simple present0 and the tense in the main
clause is the simple future
*f Q simple present Simple future
*f it rains !ou will get wet
*f !ou donGt hurr! we will miss the train.
4ounsD Singular 6 (lural
%here are some general rules for changing the singular form of a noun to its plural form.
Eg: )ommon nouns. (en;singular< R (ens;plural<
)ollective nouns. Arm!;singular< R Armies;plural<
(roper0 a$stract 6 material nouns can have plural forms when the! are used as common nouns. All of !ou
must $e aware that the most common form of forming a plural $! adding an &s' to the noun.
Eg: -and R -ands -ouse D -ouses
(lural of the nouns ending in &x' &sh' or &ch' ;ahissing sound< is ormed $! adding &es' at the end.
Eg: glass R glasses $ox R $oxes $rush R $rushes $ench D $enches
(lural of the nouns ending in a &!' and having a consonant $efore &!' is formed $! changing &!' into &ies'.
Eg: arm! R armies lad! R ladies $a$! R $a$ies fl! R flies
*f there is a vowel $efore the &!'0 we ust add &s' to the noun to form its plural.
Eg: monke! R monke!s $o! R $o!s to! R to!s donke! R donke!s da! D da!s
ke! R ke!s
%here are some nouns which are used in plural sense0 though the! look singular.
Eg: %hese cattle ;not cattles< %hese people %hese folk
Some nouns are used in singular form.
Eg: %his scener! is $eautiful.
All this information was wrong. :urniture is sold here.
Some nouns have the same form $oth in singular and plural.
Eg: %his deer. %hese deer.
%his sheep. %hese sheep.
%his fish. %hese fish.
)ompound nouns form their plural $! adding &s' to the important word.
Eg: motherDinDlaw D mothersDinDlaw
stepDson D stepDsons
passerD$! D passersD$!
maidDservant D maidservants.
Singular (lural
.an .en
-ead heads
+og dogs
8ook 8ooks
8rother 8rothers
:ormula :ormulas
Radius Radii
Poose Peese
.ouse .ice
:oot :eet
%ooth %eeth
Kife Kives
%hief thieves
%he word punctuation comes from the latin word &(unctum' which means the right use of putting in points
in writing.
%he :ull stop
%he full stop indicates the close of a sentence. %he sentence following it would invaria$l! start with a
capital letter.
-e is one of the good $o!s.
%he )omma;0<
Nust as the full stop is the longed pause0 the comma represents the shortest pause.
-ealth0 wealth and peace go together.
-e lived wisel!0 prudentl! and honestl!.
%he Ouotation .arks H *nverted )omma
Ouotation marks ;inverted comas< are used to mark off the actual words of a speaker0 or a 1uotation.
*nverted )omma and Apostrophe
Apostrophe is used to show the omission of a letter to letters.
Ex: * don2t know0 doesn2t *2ve etcW
OLES%*94 .AR, ;?<
*t is used at the end of an *nterrogative sentence.
Ex: +o !ou know this gentleman?
What are !ou doing there?
%he Exclamator! .ark ;I<
%he exclamation mark is used after words or sentences expressing surprise0 o!0 sorrow0 or a wish.
Ex: What a naught! $o!I
-ow heartless the! areI
)9K94 ;: <
%hese are some important cities in karnatka: 8angalore0 -u$li0 -arihar.
Semi )olon ; F<
Ex: -ere court was pureF serene.
+egrees of )ompression
;%hree degree of comparision0 positive0 comparative degree and superlative degree<
Sudha is a tall girl.
Ramani is taller than sudha.
Peeta is tallest in the class.
%he sentence 1. merel! tells us that height without sa!ing how much of it has0 the sentences
/ to tells ramani compare with sudha.
Sentence # geetha is the tallest in the class ;all the class<
(ositive )omparative superlative
Small Smaller Smallest
)lever )leverer )leverest
7oung 7ounger 7oungest
%all %aller %allest
Preat Preater Preatest
Sweet Sweeter Sweetest
White Whiter Whitest
Karge Karger Kargest
8rave 8raver 8ravest
-app! -appier -appiest
Red Redder Reddest
%hin %hinner %hinnest
:at :atter :attest
8ig 8igger 8iggest
Pood 8etter 8est
8old 8older 8oldest
Wise Wiser wisest
A4%947.S ;9((9S*%ES<
Anton!ms are words of the same grammatical class that have opposite meanings.
Short Kong
Pood 8ad
Lnderstand .isunderstand
Strong Week
%hick %hin
-onest +ishonest
9utside *nside
Wrong Right
Kegal *llegal
)omfort +iscomfort
5alid *nvalid
-ealth! Lnhealth!
Expected Lnexpected
(ure *mpure
Wanted Lnwanted
A$sence (resence
Regularl! *rregular!
Safe Lnsafe
Satia$le *nsatia$le
8lack White
Reasona$le Lnreasona$le
9pen )lose
)oDoperation 4onDcoDoperation
Wicked 5irtuous
(leasant Lnpleasant
.aor .inor
Kike +islike
)lean Lnclean
A$le Lna$le
)old -ot
Active *nactive
Angr! )alm
Artificial 4atural
)heap )ostl!
8rave )oward
+ifficult Eas!
)unning -onest
8ad Pood
)areful )areless
+own Lp
+uplicate 9riginal
Efficient *nefficient
Essential *nessential
:alse %rue
:ortunate Lnfortunate
:amiliar Lnfamiliar
Peneral (articular
Prateful Lngrateful
-igh Kow
-um$le -ught!
-eav! Kight
-ard Soft
-opefu l -opeless
*nteresting Lninteresting
*mportant Lnimportant
,ind Lnkind
Kast :irst
Keft Right
.eaningful .eaningless
%ight Koose
Superior *nferior
Sufficient *nsufficient
Suita$le Lnsuita$le
Slow :ast
Regular *rregular
+angerous Safe
Same +ifferent
.odern Ancient
(ositive 4egative
4ecessar! Lnnecessar!
9$edient +iso$edient
9ld 4ew
(leasant Lnpleasant
(erfect *mperfect
(roper *mproper
Small $ig
R-7.*4P W9R+S
%he word having the same sound at end of lines of verses are called rh!ming words.
Ex: la! R ga!0 e!e R die0 ring R sing0 so R go.
Smile Awhile
Lpright -eight
-ealth Wealth
Preed 4eed
.ild Wild
8rought %hought
Stair %here
Wicket )ricket
9n Pone
:ears !ears
Sound :ound
Snow ,now
%ent 8ent
)reep (eep
)ool (ool
E!e Sigh
)rept Wept
8right 4ight
Aspire :ire
8eat :eet
Art -eart
Prasp )lasp
Spears %ears
See %hee
)hain 8rain
:ar Star
Nust +ust
Sa! Pa!
:oll! Noll!
Sing Spring
Pold )old
See E
Ant Prant
Rain Pain
8orrow Sorrow
:riend Kend
8! *
.ine :ine
4ote %hroat
-igher Weather
Eats Pets
Ploom 8loom
:ears 7ears
Rough )ough
Shadow .eadow
Lrge (urge
(aid Raid
(aws Naws
(ool :ool
Preat Kate
8eaut! +ut!
sun R one
$ook R look
pear R share
walk R talk
read R feed
car R $ar
cat R hat
.an R fan
Sick R kick
$right light
funn! $unn!
glad lad
late mate
$ad lad
rude dude
long song
fat cat
to do
swiss miss
mouse house
cross $oss
funn! mone!
%here are four genders0 the! are: .asculine gender0 :eminine gender0 4euter Pender and )ommon
.asculine Pender ;All male categories<
Pod0 father0 $rother0 uncle0 king0 hus$and0 emperor0 actor0 aster0 poet0 lion0 tiger0 dog0 cock0 land lord
:eminine Pender ;All female categories<
Poddess0 mother0 sister0 aunt0 1ueen0 wife0 empress0 poetess0 land lad!0 tigress0 lioness0 actress..
4euter Pender
%ree0 ta$le0 $ench0 chair0 house0 mountain0 field etc.
)ommon Pender
Students0 audience0 devotees0 pla!ers0 umpires0 applicants0 people0 passengers0 etc.
.asculine :eminine
.an Woman
(oet (oetess
8rother Sister
:ather .other
Lncle Aunt
Pod Poddess
,ing Oueen
-us$and Wife
.aster .istress
Actor Actress
Kand lord Kand lad!
-orse .are
)ock -en
Author Authoress
8o! Pirl
%iger %igress
+og 8itch
Kion Kioness
(eacock (eahen
)apitals are used:
1. %o $egin a sentence.
/. to $egin each fresh line of poetr!
#. to $egin all proper nouns and adective
3. for all nouns and pronouns
=. to write the pronoun * and the interection
Ketter writing
Ketters are of three kinds0 such as
1. Social letters: letters to relatives and friends
/. 8usiness letters:
#. 9fficial Ketters
%here are six points of form a letter such as
a. heading
$. greeting
c. communication or content
d. polite leave
e. signature ;of the writer<
f. address on the envelop ;readers address<
a. -eading: *t consists of address of the writer and date on which it is written.
$. Preeting: like &dear father'0 dear $rother0 dear sister0 dear son0 dear sir0 dear teacher0 gentle man.
c. )ommunication or content: whatever the writer wants to sa!.
d. (olite leave R %aking: marks the end of the letter with words like &!ours lovingl!'0 &!our affectionatel!'0
&!our loving son'0 &!our loving daughter'0 &!ours faithfull!'0 &!ours trul!'0 &!ours sincerel!'
c. Signature ;of the writer<: *t ena$les the reader to know who exactl! has written him the letter.
f. Address on the Envelop: %he address of the reader of ther letter is written on envelop of the letter full!
and neatl!.
1. Write a letter to !our friend inviting him to the marriage of !our sister ;social Ketter<
4o. 1>th0 3th cross
+ate: 1"DaugD"@
+ear Ravi
* am keeping m!self in good health here. * wish to hear the same thing from !ou.
.! sister2s marriage is fixed. She is going to marr! a handsome doctor who is settled in 8angalore. %he
marriage is fixed for =th :e$ruar!0 "U. * heartil! invite !ou to the marriage of m! sister. * am sending the
invitation card along with this letter. (lease come to the marriage and please us all. * hope !ou do not
disappoint me $! keeping !ourself awa! from us.
4o more to write now.
7ours loving (rasad0
Keave letter
%he -ead .aster0
Alike school
,indl! re1uested with this letter to give one da! leave for attending m! sister marriage on 1=th une /"1".
therefore0 * am not a$le to attend the class.
+ate: 1"DunD/"1"
!ours o$edient student
(lace: 8angalore
?th standard
Ketter to father
1st une /"1"
+ear :ather
* am health! and also same expectation from !ou. .! examination will $e commenced on next month 1Uth.
* am stud!ing hardl! for the examination. So * can2t come to the home.
7our loving son
(aragraph writing
What is a paragraph?
*t is a group of sentences that introduces0 presents and developsone main idea a$out the topic. And it can $e
divided intot hree maor parts.
A. %he %opic Sentence
B *t is normall! the first sentence of the paragraph.
B *t conve!s the overall point of the paragraph.
B *t helps the writer focus on the idea written a$out.
B *t helps the reader know a$out what the paragraph is all a$out.
8. %he Supporting +etails
B %he! are sentences used to support the main idea stated in the topic sentence.
B %he! give more information a$out the main idea through examples.
B %he! sa! in details what the topic sentence sa!s in general.
B %he! should $e clear evidence that what the topic sentence sa!s is trustworth!.
B %he! should $e strong convincing points on which the topic sentence can rel! upon.
). %he )oncluding Sentence
B *t is a reflection of the main idea pronounced in the topic sentence.
B *t sums up what the topic sentence and the supporting details talk a$out.
B *t is the closing sentence that reminds the readers of what the! have to value.
B *t is compulsor! for the completion of the paragraph unit!.
B *t eventuall! indicates the end of a paragraph.
*t prepares the reader for a smooth transition to the next paragraph if there is one.
*magine !ou are asked to write a paragraph a$out AS(*R*40 which of the following topic sentences !ou
would prefer to open !our paragraph with:
1. Aspirin is a pain killer drug0 $ut it has sideDeffects.
/. Aspirin can $e a fatal poison.
#. Aspirin is used to calm down headaches $ut it attacks the stomach.
Simple paragraph
Aspirin can $e a fatal poison. (eople are used to taking aspirin whenever the! feel pain. *t is true that aspirin
is an efficacious painDkiller for example in headache cases. -owever0 aspirin is like an! other medicine can
$e dangerousl! harmful. An! unregulated use of it ma! result into the damage to the lining of the stomach0
prolonged $leeding time0 nausea0 vomiting0 ulcers0 liver damage0 and hepatitis. *t is scientificall! proven that
excessive use of aspirin turns it into a toxin. *ts toxic effects are ,idne! +amage0 severe meta$olic
derangements0 respirator! and central nervous s!stem effects0 strokes0 fatal haemorrhages of the $rain0
intestines 6 lungs and eventuall! death. %hus0 the careful and regulated use of aspirin is most advisa$le so
as not to turn into a deadl! poison
Essa! Writing
Essa! writing improves !our skills as a complete communicator.
*t improves !our writing skills0 allows scope to express $etter and com$ines communication skills with
knowledge a$out the su$ect. Essa!s0 if well written0 conve! a message to the reader who looks at !our
points of view and feels
Special preparation needs to $e done for good essa! writing:
1.1 +efining %he Su$ect: 7ou should have a clear conception of the su$ect of the essa!. A little $it of
homework $efore !ou start writing goes a long wa! in creating good ideas.
1./ )ollecting .aterial: :or a num$er of topics0 !ou need to collect more information
1.# Kogical Arrangement: 4ow !ou can decide on the line of the essa!F the logical order in which !ou can
arrange !our points !ou have selected. 8ut !ou must put them down according to some plan.
1.3 :illing %he )ontent: 4ow that !ou have the outline and the wa! !ou want to write0 !ou can start filling
in the content in the logical order.
5er$ Vdo2
*t is used as a principal and a helping ver$
Su$ect (resent (ast (ast participle
*0 !ou0 we0 the! +o +id done
-e0 she0 it +oes +id done
OLES%*94S A4+ A4SWERS .aking 1uestions
B Ouestions are formed for all tenses except present simple and past simple $! changing the position of the
auxiliar! ver$ Jam0 was0 will0 etc.< and the su$ect ;*0 !ou0 she0 he0 etc.<:
7ou Gre going CB Are !ou going?
-e has gone DX -as he gone? B
Ouestions are formed for the present simple and past simple $! using do0 does0 or did:
%he! work here. +o the! work here?
She lived here. +id she live here?
.ake 1uestions from these statements.
1 She likes travelling +oes she like travelling?
/ %he!Gre working. Are the! working?
# -e was pla!ing tennis.
3 She went to school toda!.
= %he! live here.
> SheGs eating at the moment.
? %he! drove to the station.
@ SheGs reading.
U -e had $reakfast earl!.
1" %he! came toda!.
11 She drives to work.
1/ -e left this morning.
1# -e was writing a letter.
13 %he! watched television.
1= SheGs at home.
1> %he! went home.
1? She likes horror films.
1@ -eGs walking home.
1U %he! were eating ice cream.
/" %he! gave him the mone!.
.ake ten 1uestions from the $ox $elow0 and give the answers.
What time
-ow much
Are !ou going?
+id the! leave?
*s she talking to?
+id the! come here?
Are !ou looking at?
+id it cost?
Example: Wh! did the! leave? 8ecause the! wanted to catch the train.
Who asked !ou? Who did !ou ask?: 1uestion words as su$ect or o$ect
Who drove the car?
Who did !ou see?
What happened?
What did !ou do?
B who and what are sometimes the su$ect.
who and what as su$ect Q ver$:
Alison asked !ou. Who asked !ou? Alison. 49% Who did ask !ouI
B who and what are sometimes the o$ect.
who and what as o$ect Q 1uestion form of ver$:
7ou asked Steve. Who did !ou ask? Steve.
B Who sta!ed with !ou?
$ut Who did Nane sta! with? ;(reposition at the end.<
Write the 1uestions.
1 Who came to see me !ou? Ra came to see me.
/ WhoMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM last night? Ravi met $ar$ar.
# WhatMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM!ouMMMMMMMMMreading?.* like reading $ooks.
3 WhoMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM? (ri!a made the cake
= WhoMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM? -elen found the car ke!.
> WhatMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM A cigarette started the fire
U WhatMMMMMMMMMMM!ouMMMMMMMMM? * said nothing.
1" WhoMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM? Ravi came with sitha
Short responses using so0 neither0 nor
B so Q auxiliar! ver$ Q su$ect is used to sa! that something which is true a$out one thing or person is also
true a$out another thing or person:
G* can speak Spanish.G So can *.G
; T % can speak Spanish too<
B %he negative form is neitherHnor Q auxiliar! ver$ Q su$ectF
G.ike didnGt win the priAeH 4eitherH4or did 8illG
JT And 8ill didnGt win it<
B *f there is no auxiliar! ver$ in the first sentence0 do H does H did is used:
GKeo pla!s tennis.G GSo does %om.G
GWe went to the cinema last night.G
So did we.G
Write responses to these statements using So or 4eitherH4or and the word in $rackets.
1. *Gve got a cold. ;*<
So have *.
/ (eter doesnGt eat meat. ;Steve<
4eitherHnor does Steve.
#.Sarah had a $a$! last !ear. ;No<
3 WeGre going awa! for the 4ew 7ear0 ;we<
= *Gd like to have a pet. ;*<
> -arr! hasnGt finished his essa!. ;(aul<
? * wonGt $e a$le to go to the meeting. ;*<
@ Nenn! could read when she was three. ;:iona<
U * wasnGt ver! interested in histor! when * was at school. ;*<
1" 7ou should do more exercise0 ;!ou<
Short responses: H think so0 * hope so
1 think * hope so are used to give a positive answer to a 1uestion0 or to agree with someone without
repeating what the other person said:
*s it %uesda! toda!?G
G7es. * think so.G ;T * think it is %uesda!.<
*s it read!?G G* hope so.G ;T * hope itGs read!<
%he usual negative forms are * donGt think so0 and * hope not:
GWill there $e man! people at the meeting?G
* donGt think so.G
* think itGs going to rain.G
* hope not.G
Lnderline the correct or most likel! response.
1 G*s Auckland the capital of Australia?G
a G* donGt think so.G
$ G* hope not.G
# GWill * have to go into hospital?G
a G4o0 * donGt think so.G
$ G7es0 * think so.G
3. GWill the house $e finished $efore next !ear?
$ G4o0 * donGt hope so.G
$ G7es0 * hope not.G
= G* think itGs going to $e sunn! this weekend.G
a % think so0 $ecause *Gm pla!ing tennis on Sunda!.G
$ G* hope so0 $ecause *Gm pla!ing tennis on Sunda!.G
> GAre there #1 da!s in Nul!?G
a G* hope so.G
$ G* hope so.
?. * think .r. Ravi going to give a speech
a. * hope so0 -eGs reall! $oring.G
$ G* donGt think so.G -eGs reall! $oring.
@. G+o !ou think there will $e an! food at the part!?
a. * donGt think so
$. * donGt hope so
G.odalsG are the small ver$s like can0 must0 and might0 which give certain meanings to main ver$s.
%here are twelve modal ver$s:
)ould Would should can shall will ma! .ust
.ight date 9ught ;to< 4eed ;to<
B (ositive is formed $! putting the modal $etween the su$ect and the main ver$:
We should sta!. 7ou ought to go. -e might come.
B 4egative is formed $! adding not ;or nGt< after the modal:
We shouldnGt sta!. 7ou ought not to come. -e might not come.
B Ouestions are formed $! changing the position of the modal and the su$ect:
Should we sta!? ShouldnGt we sta!? 9ught !ou to go?
9ughtnGt !on to go? .ight he come? .ightnGt he come?
B need can $e neednGt Ymodal form< or donGt need to ;ver$ form<.
B 4egative 1uestions generall! use nGt. *f not is used0 there is a different word order:
ShouldnGt we sta!? Should we not sta!?
Lsing modals in 1uestions and negatives (ractice
Rewrite these sentences as 1uestions or negatives0 according to the instruction given.
1 * must go to the hospital tonight0 ;negative<
H mustnGt go to the hospital tonight.
/ Names can pla! the piano0 ;1uestion<
)an Names pla! the piano?
# (eter can pa! for us. ;1uestion<
3 We must go to the passport office toda!0 ;negative<
= We can go to the $ank tomorrow0 ;negative 1uestion<
> 7ou should phone the school toda!0 ;negative<
? 7ou can answer all the 1uestions0 ;1uestion<
@ She can pa! for the lessons0 ;negative<
U 7ou can talk to .ar! for me. ;1uestion<
1" (eter can check the times of the trains for us. ;1uestion<
11 We must sa! good$!e to Alan and Sue. ;1uestion<
1/ %he! can sta! here for a week0 ;negative<
1# We can $u! a return ticket here0 ;1uestion<
13 %he! should help !ou. ;negative<
1= -e can understand me. ;negative 1uestion<
can0 could
B can: ;i< know how to0 $e a$le to:
N can swim.
.ar! can speak :rench.
;ii< can: $e allowed to: 7ou can sit here. .! mother sa!s * canGt go out tonight.
B could: knew how to: Emil! could swim when she was two.
B couldnGt: ;i< wasnGt a$le to: *Gm sorr!0 * couldnGt come !esterda!. * couldnGt go to work this morning.
;ii< couldHcouldnGt ;ii< used in the second conditional
YE Exercise =UZ *f !ou gave me the mone!0 could * do the shopping?
B Re1uests: $oth can and could are used in re1uests. )ould is a little more polite: )an * have a. glass of
water0 please? )ould !ou open the door for me0 please?
B can refers %o the future if it is followed $! a time word Jnext week0 tomorrow0 etc<: * can do it for !ou
next month.
B *n the negative: can C[ canGt or cannot could C[ couldnGt or could not.
)omplete these sentences using can or could. *f two answers arc possi$le0 write them $oth.
1 .)ould.. nGt !ou find Nohn !esterda!?
/ .)anH.)ould. * come and see !ou tomorrow?
#WWWWWWWWWWWWW. !ou pass me the salt0
3.WWWWWWWWWWW. !ou pla! the guitar?
=. wh!WWWWWWWWWW.. the children go to the cinema tonight?
>WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW !ou help me with m! suitcase0 please?
?WWWWWWWWWWWWWW.. !ou drive m! car if !ou had to?
@WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW. !ou answer the phone for me?
U wh!WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW !ou come to the disco tomorrow?
1" *t was ver! difficult to hearF *00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 what she was sa!ing?
11WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW.. * smoke in here.
ma!0 might
ma! and might indicate present or future possi$ilit!:
-e might arrive soon.
-e ma! arrive soon.
She might $e angr! if !on do that.
She ma! $e angr! if !ou do that.
.a! *? or .a! we? are used for polite re1uests0 in the same wa! as )an *? or )an we?
*t is a ver! polite form:
.a! * ask !ou a 1uestion? .a! * have a glass of water0 please?
B ma! is occasionall! used in formal English to mean to $e allowed to:
Puests ma! $ring hus$ands or wives if the! wish.
B ma! and might are usuall! used in 1uestion form onl! with H or we: other persons more often use the
positive with +o !ou think ...?: -e might $e late. C[ +o !ou think he. .ight $e late?
B %he negative of ma! is ma! not. ;49% ma!nGt<. %he negative of might is might not or mightnGt.
Rewrite these sentences using ma! or might. Where two answers are possi$le0 write them $oth.
1 .a!$e heGll get a new o$.
-e mightHma! get a new o$.
/ +o !ou think * could have one of these cakes?
.a! * have one of these cakes?
# .a!$e thereGs some tea in the pot.
3 Would !ou mind if * asked !ou how old !ou are?
= 5isitors are not allowed to sta! in the hospital after ten p.m.
> +o !ou think * could have one of these sandwiches?
? * think the car is in the station car park.
@.*s it all right if * use !our phone?
U. Puests are allowed to wear casual dress.
1" .a!$e sheGll move to Kondon.
11 %hereGs a possi$ilit! that the show will $e cancelled.
1/ .a!$e sheGll $e elected.
1# 1 think that Andrew will collect the mone!.
13 .a!$e (eter wonGt come to the cinema tomorrow.
1= .a!$e itGll rain this afternoon.
5er$ Vhave2
*t is used as a principal and a helping ver$
have to $e there at U oGclock: have Q toDinfinitive
su$ect (resent (ast (ast participle
*0 !ou0 we0 the! -ave to -ad to had
-e0 she0 it -as to -ad to had
B %he ver$ have Q the toDinfinitive.
4ote: have Q foDinfinitive has its own meaning and in this wa! it is like a modal ver$.
-owever0 it does not have the form of a modal D it is an ordinar! ver$ and we can use it in an! tense. %he
form of the positive0 negative and 1uestion is the same as for other ver$s.
B have Q toDinfinitive T *t is ver! important to do somethingH*t is necessar! to do something.
B not have Q toDinfinitive T *t is not necessar! to do something.
B have Q toDinfinitive is ver! similar in meaning to must $ut we can use it for all tenses. We can sa!:
We must leave earl!0 or
We have to leave earl!0 $ut onl! We had to leave earl! last night. ;We do not use must in the past.<
B must and have Q toDinfinitive have different meanings in the negative:
7ou mustnGt sta! here. *tGs ver! dangerous.
; T *t is ver! important that !ou donGt sta! here.<
7ou donGt have to wait for me. * can get a taxi home.
;T *t is not necessar! for !ou to wait for me0 $ut !ou can wait if !ou want to.<
)omplete the sentences with have Q toDinfinitive in the correct form and one of the ver$s $elow. Lse have in
the present simple.
get up
take turn
1. * .have to $e.. at work at U oGclock in the morning0 ;positive<
#. sheWWWWWWWWWWWWW.all the phone calls at work0 ;positive<
/ We ..donGt have to get up...earl! at weekends0 ;negative<
#. sheWWWWWWWWWWWWW.all the phone calls at work0 ;positive<
the exam? ;1uestion<
=. *WWWWWWWWWWWWW. which o$ * want $efore the end of the week ;positive<
> 7ouWWWWWWWWWW.D * can hear !ou. ;negative<
Rewrite the sentences adding have Q toDinfinitive in the correct tense and form.
1. +id !ou take a taxi home?
+id !ou have to take a taxi home?
/.*Gve used the $us for the last two da!s.
*Gve had to use the $us for the last two da!s.
# * do the washing once a week.
3 We didnGt go to college !esterda!.
=.+id !ou get up earl! this morning?
> *Gll start work next week.
? *Gve alwa!s worked hard.
@ %he children go to $ed at @ oGclock.
U %he! donGt work on Saturda!s.
1" +id !ou take !our lunch with !ou?
11 She worked ver! hard for her exam.
1/ * usuall! cut the grass once a week.
1# She didnGt cook the dinner last night.
13 +o !ou pa! to go in?
1= * usuall! sta! at home on Wednesda!s.
)omplete the sentences with mustnGt or the correct form of not have to.
1 She ..doesnGt have. to.0 come if she doesnGt want to.
/.weMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMmiss the train. *tGs the last one tonight.
#. *MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMdo this work tonight. * can do it tomorrow.
3. *MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMclean the floor toda!. * cleaned it !esterda!.
=. weMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM forget to lock all the doors $efore we go awa!.
>. %he!MMMMMMMMMM sit in the sun for too long. %he! might get $urnt.
?. weMMMMMMMMMMMMM sta! in a hotel in Kondon. We can sta! with m! cousin.
@. WeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM spend too much mone! tonight. We have onl! got a little left.
Silent Ketters in Words
%here are certain words which have a particular letter or letters that are silent and therefore the
pronunciation of the word is different.
8 R Silent in words like
)om$ +um$ +e$t
) D Silent in words like
Scene Scent
+ D Silent in words like
Nudge Edge
P D Silent in words like
Resign Sign
P- R Silent in words like
8rought %hough 4ight
- D Silent in words like
-our -onor
,D Silent in words like
,now ,nee
K D Silent in words like
%alk -alf
4 R Silent in words like
( D Silent in words like
(s!cholog! (neumonia
% D Silent in words like
Kisten )atch
LD Silent in words like
%ongue Puard
W D Silent in words like
Write Answer
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word $ut differs in meaning. %he words ma!
$e spelled the same0 such asrose ;flower< and rose ;past tense of SriseS<0 or differentl!0 such as their0
there0carat0caret0 andcarro t0 or to0 two and too.
-ere are two or more homon!ms in each sentence. Read the sentences carefull! and then underline the
homon!ms. %he first two sentences have $een done for !ou.
1. %he wind $lew m! $lue shirt into the pool.
/. )her!l rode along as we rowed the $oat from the island to the lakeside road.
#. *2ve never seen such a $eautiful scene.
3. We want a site for our home that will $e out of sight.
=. %he seam in the tent doesn2t seem to hold $ack the rain.
>. +ue to the dr! weather0 we do not see an! dew on the grass.
?. * knew the! had a new gnu at the Aoo.
@. Some people know that !ou add to find the sum.
U. %he!2re hanging their coats over there.
1". * ate the eight cakes that were on m! plate.
11. -ow man! wa!s can * tell him that he weighs too much?
1/. %he! $anned the crude $and from pla!ing at the concert.
1#. She onl! won one ticket to the show.
13. We must raAe the old $uilding $efore the sun2s ra!s can raise the temperature.
1=. We2ll find a tropical isle where *2ll walk down the aisle with m! $ride.
1>. 7ou2re craA! if !ou pierce !our ankleI
(ronunciation is the wa! in which a word is pronounced or spoken.
Wa!s %o *mprove 7our (ronunciation
1. Kisten to the English news regularl!
D )44 D 88) D Star 4ews
/. 8e attentive when !ou hear others speak.
#. Kook up the dictionar! for the correct pronunciation of words.
3. Read the paragraph loud loudl! and then tape it. After listening to tape correct !our mistakes and speak
%he formation of the mouth and placing of the tongue is important for correct pronunciation. Kooking into a
mirror will help.
=. Eno! the compan! of people who speak fluent English.
>. 8u! tapes of speeches of great leaders of the world and listen to them.
A skillful speaker never pronounces a word in a wa! that is alien to the ha$its of his listener.
%he three most common mistakes that happen while pronouncing:
DD carelessness
DD a putDon accent
DD pronunciation that is too careful
%ake for example: %wo most commonl! used words :
Either 4either
When pronounced as Either and 4either0 no one notices them. 8ut if the! are pronounced as E!ether and
4!ether0 the! will $e certainl! noticed and the chances are that the! will cause irritation.
%-E OLA4%*:*ERS
%hecardinal num$ers ;one0 two0 three0 etc.< are adectives referring to 1uantit!0 and the ordinal num$ers
;first0 second0 third0 etc.< refer to distri$ution.
4um$er 9rdinal )ardinal
1 one first
/ two second
# three third
3 four fourth
= five fifth
> six sixth
? seven seventh
@ eight eighth
U nine ninth
1" ten tenth
11 eleven eleventh
1/ twelve twelfth
1# thirteen thirteenth
13 fourteen fourteenth
1= fifteen fifteenth
1> sixteen sixteenth
1? seventeen Seventeenth
1@ eighteen eighteenth
1U 4ineteen nineteenth
/" twent! twentieth
/1 twent!Done twent!Dfirst
// twent!Dtwo twent!Dsecond
/# twent!Dthree twent!Dthird
/3 twent!Dfour twent!Dfourth
/= twent!Dfive twent!Dfifth
/> twent!Dsix twent!Dsixth
/? twent!Dseven twent!Dseventh
/@ twent!Deight twent!Deighth
/U twent!Dnine twent!Dninth
#" thirt! thirtieth
#1 thirt!Done thirt!Dfirst
3" fort! fortieth
=" fift! fiftieth
>" sixt! sixtieth
?" sevent! seventieth
@" eight! eightieth
U" ninet! ninetieth
1"" one hundred hundredth
="" five hundred five hundredth
10""" one thousand thousandth
1""0""" one hundred thousand hundred thousandth
10"""0""" one million millionth
%here are twent!Dfive people in the room.
-e was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1U#3.
Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after the earth1uake.
* must have asked !ou twent! times to $e 1uiet.
-e went to *srael for the third time this !ear.
:ractions and decimals
Said Written Said
-alf ".= point five
a 1uarter "./= point two five
three 1uarters ".?= point seven five
(ercentages Written Said
/=\ twent! five percent
="\ fift! percent
?=\ sevent! five percent
1""\ aHone hundred percent
Some %ips %o Kearn English 8etter
Read an extract from a $ook ever!da!. 4ewspaper editorials make good reading material.
Read articles in magaAines and tr! to rewrite them in !our own words.
Lse the language as often as possi$le0 $ut also tr! and $e a good listener. Kisten to the news $roadcast on
the radio and also on the television. *t will help !ou improve !our pronunciation.
.aintain a register and keep noting down !our gre! areas. Po through them ever! week and tr! to correct
!our mistakes. *ntonation and emphasis on the right word at the right time is ver! important. Read aloud a
passage from a $ook or a poem0 record it and then correct intonation as !ou listen to it. %he dictionar!
should $e !our constant companion. When in dou$t a$out the meaning or pronunciation of a word0 alwa!s
refer to the dictionar!.
4ote down some new words and phrases0 which !ou think could $e used in !our da! to da! conversation0 in
!our register.
Proup discussions are extremel! important. Select a topic of !our choice and discuss it with a group of
friends. *t will $oost !our confidence and will also allow !ou to think of new sentences.
Select a topic and tr! to speak a$out it for at least a minute in front of the mirror.
Who is applied to persons onl!F as0 S%he man who was here.S
Which is applied to the lower animals and things without lifeF as0 S%he horse which * sold.S S%he hat which *
%hat is applied to $oth persons and thingsF as0 S%he friend that helps.S S%he $ird that sings.S S%he knife that
What is a compound relative0 including $oth the antecedent and the relative and is e1uivalent to that which F
as0 S* did what he desired0S i. e. S* did that which he desired.S
Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike.
Who is either masculine or feminineF which and that are masculine0 feminine or neuterF
what as a relative pronoun is alwa!s neuter.
%hat and what are not inflected.
Who and which are thus declined:
Sing. and (lural
Sing. and (lural
4. Who
4. Which
(. Whose
(. Whose
9. Whom
9. Which
Who 0 which and what when used to ask 1uestions are called *nterrogative (ronouns .
(resent (ast (assive (articiple
)an )ould ;Wanting<
.a! .ight S
Shall Should S
Will Would S
9ught 9ught S
%here are nine auxiliar! or helping ver$s0 viA.0 8e 0 have 0 do 0 shall 0 will 0 ma! 0 can 0 ought 0 and must .
%he! are called helping ver$s0 $ecause it is $! their aid the compound tenses are formed.
%9 8E
%he ver$ %o 8e is the most important of the auxiliar! ver$s. *t has eleven parts0 viA.0 am0 art0 is0 are0 was0
wast0 were0 wertF $e0 $eing and $een .
A. )9.EDD-A5E )9.E
S * am come S points to m! $eing here0 while S* have comeS intimates that * have ust arrived. When the
su$ect is not a person0 the ver$ to $e should $e used in preference to the ver$ to have F as0 S%he $ox is
comeS instead of S%he $ox has come.S
(AS% %E4SEDD(AS% (AR%*)*(KE
%he interchange of these two parts of the irregular or soDcalled strong ver$s is0 perhaps0 the $reach oftenest
committed $! careless speakers and writers. %o avoid mistakes it is re1uisite to know the principal parts of
these ver$s0 and this knowledge is ver! eas! of ac1uirement0 as there are not more than a couple of hundred
of such ver$s0 and of this num$er $ut a small part is in dail! use. -ere are some of the most common
$lunders: S* seenS for S* sawFS S* done itS for S* did itFS S* drunkS for S* drankFS S* $egunS for S* $eganFS S*
rungS for S* rangFS S* runS for S* ranFS S* sungS for S* sangFS S* have choseS for S* have chosenFS S* have
droveS for S* have drivenFS S* have woreS for S* have wornFS S* have trodS for S* have troddenFS S* have
shookS for S* have shakenFS S* have fellS for S* have fallenFS S* have drankS for S* have drunkFS S* have
$eganS for S* have $egunFS S* have rangS for S* have rungFS S* have roseS for S* have risenFS S* have spokeS
for S* have spokenFS S* have $rokeS for S* have $roken.S S*t has froAeS for S*t has froAen.S S*t has $lowedS
for S*t has $lown.S S*t has flowedS ;of a $ird< for S*t has flown.S
4. 8.DD%he past tense and past participle of %o -ang is hanged or hung . When !ou are talking a$out a man
meeting death on the gallows0 sa! S-e was hangedSF when !ou are talking a$out the carcass of an animal
sa!0 S*t was hung0S as S%he $eef was hung dr!.S Also sa! !our coat S was hung on a hook.S
%-E (R949L4S
5er! man! mistakes occur in the use of the pronouns. SKet !ou and * goS should $e SKet !ou and MmeM go.S
SKet them and we goS should $e SKet them and us go.S %he ver$ let is transitive and therefore takes the
o$ective case.
SPive me MthemM flowersS should $e SPive me MthoseM flowersSF S* mean MthemM threeS
should $e S* mean those three.S %hem is the o$ective case of the personal pronoun and cannot $e used
adectivel! like the demonstrative adective pronoun. S* am as strong as MhimMS should $e S* am as strong as
MheMSF S* am !ounger than MherMS should $e S* am !ounger than MsheMFS S-e can write $etter than MmeMS
should $e S-e can write $etter than *0S for in these examples the o$ective cases MhimM0 MherM and MmeM are
used wrongfull! for the nominatives. After each of the misapplied pronouns a ver$ is understood of which
each pronoun is the su$ect. %hus0 S* am as strong as he ;is<.S S* am !ounger than she ;is<.S S-e can write
$etter than * ;can<.S
+onGt sa! S *t is me FS sa! S *t is * S %he ver$ %o 8e of which is is a part takes the same case after it that it
has $efore it. %his holds good in all situations as well as with pronouns.
%he ver$ %o 8e also re1uires the pronouns oined to it to $e in the same case as a pronoun asking a 1uestionF
%he nominative * re1uires the nominative who and the o$ectives me 0 him 0 her 0 its 0 !ou 0 them 0 re1uire
the o$ective whom .
S Whom do !ou think * am?S should $e S Who do !ou think * am?S and S Who do the!
suppose me to $e?S should $e S Whom do the! suppose me to $e?S %he o$ective form of
the Relative should $e alwa!s used0 in connection with a preposition. SWho do !ou take me
for?S should $e
S Whom do0 etc.S SWho did !ou give the apple to?S should $e SWhom did !ou give the apple to0S $ut as
pointed out elsewhere the preposition should never end a sentence0 therefore0 it is $etter to sa!0 S%o whom
did !ou give the apple?S After transitive ver$s alwa!s use the o$ective cases of the pronouns. :or S -e and
the! we have seen0S sa! S -im and them we have seen.S
Su$ect and predicate
1. 4apoleon was $anished.
/. Andre was captured.
#. .one! is circulated.
3. )olum$us was imprisoned.
=. Acorns are sprouting.
>. 8ells are tolled.
?. Summer has come.
@. Sentences ma! $e anal!Aed.
U. )louds are reddening.
1". Air ma! $e weighed.
11. Nehovah shall reign.
1/. )orn is planted.
1#. Prammarians will differ.
13. Snow is falling.
1=. Keaves are rustling.
1>. )hildren will prattle.
1?. )rickets are chirping.
1@. Eclipses have $een foretold.
1U. Storms ma! a$ate.
/". +eception ma! have $een practiced.
/1. Esau was hated.
//. %reason should have $een punished.
/#. 8ees are humming.
/3. Sodom might have $een spared.
Sentence 8uilding
(refix the little helping words in the Msecond columnM to such of the more important words in the Mthird
columnM as with them will make complete predicates0 and oin these predicates to all su$ects in the Mfirst
columnM with which the! will unite to make good sense.
1 ]/ ] # ] ]
8urgo!ne ] are ] woven.
-enr! -udson ] was ] defeated.
Sparrows ] can $e ] condensed.
)omets ] is ] inhaled.
%ime ] have $een ] worn.
%ur$ans ] ma! $e ] slacked.
Kime ] has $een ] wasted.
Steam ] could have $een ] seen.
Air ] must have $een ] deceived.
)arpets ] were ] 1uarreling.
9ne ver$ ma! consist of Mtwo0 threeM0 or MfourM wordsF as0 Mis singing0 will $e sung0 might have $een
:orm Mver$sM $! com$ining the words in columns / and #0 and add these ver$s to all the MnounsM in column
1 with which the! appropriatel! com$ine.
1 ] / ] # ] ]
Kaws ] has $een ] pu$lished.
)louds ] have $een ] paid.
:ood ] will $e ] restored.
-ealth ] should have $een ] preserved.
%axes ] ma! $e ] collected.
8ooks ] are ] o$e!ed.
Ket the teacher give other ver$s0 and re1uire the pupils to name and explain the different tenses.
M* walk. %hou walkest. -e walks. %he! walkM.
*n the second sentence0 the ver$ MwalkM was changed $! adding MestMF and in the third0 it was changed $!
adding MsM. %hese changes are for the sake of agreement with the person of the su$ect. %he ver$ ending in
MestM agrees with the su$ect MthouM in the second person0 and the ver$ ending in MsM agrees with MheM in
the third person. *n the fourth sentence0 the su$ect is in the third personF $ut it is plural0 and so the ver$
drops the MsM to agree with the! in the plural.
5er$s are said to agree in Q(ersonQ and Q4um$erQ with their su$ects.
QM.odeM is that modification of the ver$ which denotes the manner of asserting the action or $eingQ.
Q%he M*ndicative .odeM asserts the action or $eing as a factQ.
Q%he M(otential .odeM asserts the power0 li$ert!0 possi$ilit!0 or necessit! of acting or $eingQ.
Q%he MSu$unctive .odeM asserts the action or $eing as a mere condition0 supposition0 or wishQ.
Q%he M*mperative .odeM asserts the action or $eing as a command or an entreat!Q.
Q%he M*nfinitiveM is a form of the ver$ which names the action or $eing in a general wa!0 without asserting
it of an!thingQ.
Q%he M(articipleM is a form of the ver$ partaking of the nature of an adective or of a noun0 and expressing
the action or $eing as assumedQ.
Q%he M(resent (articipleM denotes action or $eing as continuing at the time indicated $! the predicateQ.
Q%he M(ast (articipleM denotes action or $eing as past or completed at the time indicated $! the predicateQ.
Q%he M(ast (erfect (articipleM denotes action or $eing as completed at a time previous to that indicated $!
the predicateQ.
QM%enseM is that modification of the ver$ which expresses the time of the action or $eingQ.
Q%he M(resent %enseM expresses action or $eing as presentQ.
Q%he M(ast %enseM expresses action or $eing as pastQ.
Q%he M:uture %enseM expresses action or $eing as !et to comeQ.
Q%he M(resent (erfect %enseM expresses action or $eing as completed at the present timeQ.
Q%he M(ast (erfect %enseM expresses action or $eing as completed at some past timeQ.
Q%he M:uture (erfect %enseM expresses action or $eing to $e completed at some future timeQ.
QM4um$erM and M(ersonM of a ver$ are those modifications that show its agreement with the num$er and
person of its su$ectQ.
M(resentM. M(astM. M(ast. (ar.M
8e MorM am0 was0 $een.
8egin0 $egan0 $egun.
8low0 $lew0 $lown.
8reak0 $roke0 $roken.
)hoose0 chose0 chosen.
)ome0 came0 come.
+o0 did0 done.
+raw0 drew0 drawn.
+rink0 drank0 drunk.
+rive0 drove0 driven.
Eat0 ate0 eaten.
:all0 fell0 fallen.
:l!0 flew0 flown.
:reeAe0 froAe0 froAen.
Po0 went0 gone.
Pet0 got0 got MorM gotten.
Pive0 gave0 given.
Prow0 grew0 grown.
-ave0 had0 had.
,now0 knew0 known.
Ka!0 laid0 laid.
Kie0 ;to rest< la!0 lain.
Ride0 rode0 ridden.
Ring0 rang MorM rung0 rung.
Rise0 rose0 risen.
Run0 ran0 run.
See0 saw0 seen.
Set0 set0 set.
Sit0 sat0 sat.
Shake0 shook0 shaken.
Sing0 sang MorM sung0 sung.
Sla!0 slew0 slain.
Speak0 spoke0 spoken.
Steal0 stole0 stolen.
Swim0 swam MorM swum0 swum.
%ake0 took0 taken.
%ear0 tore0 torn.
%hrow0 threw0 thrown.
Wear0 wore0 worn.
Write0 wrote0 written.
%he following irregular ver$s are called QM+efectiveM0Q $ecause some of their parts are wanting.
M(resentM. M(astM. ] M(resentM. M(astM.]
)an0 could. ] Will0 would.
.a!0 might. ] .ust0 DDDD
Shall0 should. ] 9ught0 DDDD
KESS94 U/.
)94NLPA%*94 9: %-E 5ER8 QSEEQ *4 %-E S*.(KE :9R..
Q(R*4)*(AK (AR%SQ.
M(resM. M(astM. M(ast (ar.M
See0 saw0 seen.
*4+*)A%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
MSingularM. M(luralM.
1. * see0 1. We see0
/. 7ou see0 MorM /. 7ou see0
%hou seest0
#. -e seesF #. %he! see.
(AS% %E4SE.
1. * saw0 1. We saw0
/. 7ou saw0 MorM /. 7ou saw0
%hou sawest0
#. -e sawF #. %he! saw.
1. * shall see0 1. We shall see0
/. 7ou will see0 MorM /. 7ou will see0
%hou wilt see0
#. -e will seeF #. %he! will see.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * have seen0 1. We have seen0
/. 7ou have seen0 MorM /. 7ou have seen0
%hou hast seen
#. -e has seenF #. %he! have seen.
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * had seen0 1. We had seen0
/. 7ou had seen0 MorM /. 7ou had seen0
%hou hadst seen0
#. -e had seenF #. %he! had seen.
:L%LRE (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * shall have seen0 1. We shall have seen0
/. 7ou will have seen0 MorM /. 7ou will have seen0
%hou wilt have seen0
#. -e will have seenF
(9%E4%*AK .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. * ma! see0
/. 7ou ma! see0 MorM %hou ma!st see0
#. -e ma! seeF
(AS% %E4SE.
1. * might see0
/. 7ou might see0 MorM %hou mightst see0
#. -e might seeF
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * ma! have seen0
/. 7ou ma! have seen0 MorM %hou ma!st have seen0
#. -e ma! have seenF
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
#. %he! will have seen.
1. We ma! see0
/. 7ou ma! see0
#. %he! ma! see.
1. We might see0
/. 7ou might see0
#. %he! might see.
1. We ma! have seen0
/. 7ou ma! have seen
#. %he! ma! have seen.
English grammar
MSingularM. M(luralM.
1. * might have seen0 1. We might have seen0
/. 7ou might have seen0 MorM /. 7ou might have seen0
%hou mightst have seen0
#. -e might have seenF #. %he! might have seen.
SL8NL4)%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
MSingularM. M(luralM.
1. *f * see0 1. *f we see0
/. *f !ou see0 MorM /. *f !ou see0
*f thou see0
#. *f he seeF #. *f the! see.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
/. See ;!ou MorM thou<F /. See ;!ou<.
.(RESE4% %E4SE.
%o see.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
%o have seen.
(RESE4%. (AS%.
(AS% (ER:E)%.
-aving seen.
Q%o the %eacherQ.DDKet the pupils prefix MdoM and MdidM to the simple present MseeM0 and thus make the
Memphatic formM of the present and the past tense.
Ket McanM and MmustM $e used in place of Mma!MF and McouldM0 MwouldM0 and MshouldM0 in place of MmightM.
Re1uire the pupils to tell how each tense is formed0 and to note all changes for agreement in num$er and
A maorit! of modern writers use the MindicativeM forms instead of the Msu$unctiveM0 in all of the tenses0
unless it ma! $e the MpresentM. %he Msu$unctiveM forms of the ver$ Mto $eM are retained in the present and
the past tense. Ket the pupils understand that the mode and tense forms do not alwa!s correspond with the
actual meaning. M%he ship sails next week. * ma! go toDmorrowM. %he ver$s MsailsM and Mma! goM are
MpresentM in form $ut MfutureM in meaning. M*f it rains $! noon0 he ma! not comeM. %he ver$ MrainsM is
MindicativeM in form $ut Msu$unctiveM in meaning.
%he plural forms0 M7ou saw0 7ou wereM0 etc.0 are used in the MsingularM also.
)94NLPA%*94 9: %-E 5ER8DDS*.(KE :9R..
:ill out the following forms0 using the principal parts of the ver$ Mwalk. (res.0 walkF (ast0
walkedF (ast (ar.0 walkedM.
*4+*)A%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
MSingularM. uralM.
1. * M(resM H0
1. We H M(resM H0
/. 7ou H M(resM H0 /. 7ou H M(resM H0
%hou H M(resM Hest0
#. -e H M(resM HsF #. %he! H M(resM H.
(AS% %E4SE
1. * H M(astM H0 1. We H M(astM H0
/. 7ou H M(astM H0 /. 7ou H M(astM H0
%hou H M(astM Hst0
#. -e H M(astM HF #. %he! H M(astM H.
1. * MshallM
H M(resM
1. We MwillM
H M(resM H0
/. 7ou MwillM
H M(resM
/. 7ou MwillM H M(resM H0
%hou MwilDtM H M(resM H0
#. -e MwillM
H M(resM HF
#. %he!
MwillM H M(resM H.
(ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * MhaveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
1. We MhaveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
/. 7ou MhaveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 /. 7ou MhaveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 %hou MhaDstM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
#. -e MhaDsM HM(ast (ar.MHF #. %he! MhaveM HM(ast (ar.MH.
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * MhadM
HM(ast (ar.MH0 1. We MhadM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
/. 7ou MhadM HM(ast (ar.MH0 /. 7ou MhadM HM(ast (ar.MH0 %hou MhadDstM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
#. -e MhadM HM(ast (ar.MHF #. %he! MhadM HM(ast (ar.MH.
:L%LRE (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * Mshall haveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0 1. We Mwill haveM
M(ast (ar.M0
/. 7ou Mwill haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 /. 7ou Mwill haveM M(ast (ar.M0 %hou MwilDt haveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
#. -e Mwill haveM HM(ast (ar.MHF #. %he! Mwill haveM M(ast (ar.M.
(9%E4%*AK .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. * Mma!M
H M(res.M H0
1. We Mma!M
H M(res.M H0
/. 7ou Mma!M
H M(res.M H0
/. 7ou Mma!M
H M(res.M H0
%hou Mma!DstM H M(res.M H0
#. -e Mma!M
H M(res.M HF
%he! Mma!M H M(res.M H.
(AS% %E4SE.
1. * MmightM
H M(res.M H0
1. We MmightM H M(res.M H0
/. 7ou MmightM
H M(res.M H0
/. 7ou MmightM H M(res.M H0
%hou MmightDstM H M(res.M
#. -e MmightM
H M(res.M HF
#. %he! MmightM H M(res.M H.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * Mma! haveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
1. We Mma! haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0
/. 7ou Mma! haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 /. 7ou Mma! haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 %hou Mma!Dst
haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0
#. -e Mma! haveM HM(ast (ar.MHF #. %he! Mma! haveM HM(ast (ar.MH.
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * Mmight haveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0 1. We Mmight haveM
HM(ast (ar.MH0
/. 7ou Mmight haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 /. 7ou Mmight haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0 %hou MmightDst
haveM HM(ast (ar.MH0
#. -e Mmight haveM HM(ast (ar.MHF #. %he! Mmight haveM HM(ast (ar.MH.
SL8NL4)%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. *f *
H M(res.M H0
1. *f we
H M(res.M H0
/. *f !ou H M(res.M H0
/. *f !ou H M(res.M H0
*f thou H M(res.M H0
#. *f he
H M(res.M HF
#. *f the! H M(res.M H.
*.(ERA%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
/. H M(res.M H ;!ou MorM thou<F
/. H M(res.M H ;!ou<.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
%o H M(res.M H.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
%o MhaveM HM(ast (ar.MH.
HM(res.HingM. HM(ast (ar.MH
M-aving H(ast (ar.HM
Q%o the %eacherQ.DDKet the pupils fill out these forms with other ver$s. *n the indicative0 present0 third0
singular0 MesM is sometimes added instead of MsMF and in the second person0 old st!le0 MstM is sometimes
added instead of MestM.
)94NLPA%*94 9: %-E 5ER8 8E.
*n stud!ing this Kesson0 pa! no attention to the line at the right of each ver$.
*4+*)A%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. * amDDDD0
/. 7ou areDDDD MorM
%hou artDDDD0
#. -e isDDDDF
(AS% %E4SE.
1. * wasDDDD0
/. 7ou wereDDDD0 MorM
%hou wastDDDD0
#. -e wasDDDDF
1. * shall $eDDDD0
/. 7ou will $eDDDD0 MorM %hou
wilt $eDDDD0
#. -e will $eDDDDF
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou have $eenDDDD MorM
%hou hast $eenDDDD0
#. -e has $eenDDDDF
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * had $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou had $eenDDDD MorM
%hou hadst $eenDDDD0
#. -e had $eenDDDDF
:L%LRE (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * shall have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou will have $eenDDDD MorM %hou
wilt have $eenDDDD0
#. -e will has $eenDDDDF
(9%E4%*AK .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. * ma! $eDDDD0
/. 7ou ma! $eDDDD MorM
%hou ma!st $eDDDD0
#. -e ma! $eDDDDF
(AS% %E4SE.
1. * might $eDDDD0
/. 7ou might $eDDDD MorM
%hou mightst $eDDDD0
1. We areDDDD0
/. 7ou areDDDD0
#. %he! areDDDD.
1. We wereDDDD0
/. 7ou wereDDDD0
#. %he! wereDDDD.
1. We shall $eDDDD0
/. 7ou will $eDDDD0
#. %he! will $eDDDD.
1. We have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou have $eenDDDD0
#. %he! have $eenDDDD.
1. We had $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou had $eenDDDD0
#. %he! had $eenDDDD.
1. We shall have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou will have $eenDDDD0
#. %he! will have $eenDDDD.
1. We ma! $eDDDD0
/. 7ou ma! $eDDDD0
#. %he! ma! $eDDDD.
1. We might $eDDDD0
/. 7ou might $eDDDD0
#. -e might $eDDDDF
#. %he! might $eDDDD.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * ma! have $eenDDDD0
1. We ma! have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou ma! have $eenDDDD MorM
/. 7ou ma! have $eenDDDD0
%hou ma!st have $eenDDDD0
#. -e ma! have $eenDDDDF
#. %he! ma! have $eenDDDD.
(AS% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
1. * might have $eenDDDD0
1. We might have $eenDDDD0
/. 7ou might have $eenDDDD MorM
/. 7ou might have $eenDDDD0
%hou mightst have $eenDDDD0
#. -e might have $eenDDDDF
#. %he! might have $eenDDDD.
SL8NL4)%*5E .9+E.
(RESE4% %E4SE.
1. *f * $eDDDD0
/. *f !ou $eDDDD Mor M *f thou $eDDDD0
#. *f he $eDDDDF
(AS% %E4SE.
1. *f * wereDDDD0
/. *f !ou wereDDDD MorM *f thou wertDDDD0
#. *f he wereDDDDF
*.(ERA%*5E .9+E. (RESE4% %E4SE.
/. 8e ;!ou MorM them<DDDDF *4:*4*%*5ES.
(RESE4% %E4SE. %o $eDDDD.
(RESE4% (ER:E)% %E4SE.
%o have $eenDDDD.
1. *f we $eDDDD0
/. *f !ou $eDDDD0
#. *f the! $eDDDD.
1. *f we wereDDDD0
/. *f !ou wereDDDD0
#. *f the! wereDDDD.
/. 8e ;!ou<DDDDDD.
(AS% (ER:E)%. -aving $eenDDDD.
Q%o the %eacherQ.DDAfter the pupils have $ecome thoroughl! familiar with the ver$ M$eM as a principal
ver$0 teach them to use it as an auxiliar! in making the Q(rogressive :ormQ and the Q(assive :ormQ.
%he Mprogressive formM ma! $e made $! filling all the $lanks with the Mpresent
participleM of some ver$.
%he Mpassive formM ma! $e made $! filling all the $lanks with the Mpast participleM of a
MtransitiveM ver$.
4otice that0 after the past
participle0 no $lank is left.
*n the progressive form0 this participle is wantingF and0 in the passive form0 it is the
same as in the simple.
APREE.E4% 9: %-E 5ER8.
Q%o the %eacherQ.DD:or additional matter0 see pp. 1>#D1>?.
QMRemem$erMQ that the ver$ must agree with its su$ect in num$er and person.
Pive the person and num$er of each of the following ver$s0 and write sentences in
which each form shall $e used correctl!.
M)ommon formsM.DD+oes0 hasTha;ve<s0 is0 am0 are0 was0 were.
M9ld formsM.DDSeest0 sawest0 hastTha;ve<st0 wilt0 ma!st0 mightst0 art0 wast.
When a ver$ has two or more su$ects connected $! MandM0 it must agree with them in the
plural. MA similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronounM.
)9RRE)% %-E :9KK9W*4P ERR9RS.
Q.odelQ.DD(overt! and o$scurit! MoppressesM him who thinks that Mit is oppressiveM.
Wrong: the ver$ MoppressesM should $e changed to MoppressM to agree with its two su$ects0 connected $!
MandM. %he pronoun MitM should $e changed to Mthe!M to agree with its two antecedents0 and the ver$ MisM
should $e changed to MareM to agree with Mthe!M. *ndustr!0 energ!0 and good sense is essential to success.
%ime and tide waits for no man.
%he tall sunflower and the little violet is turning its face to the sun. %he mule and the horse was harnessed
Ever! green leaf and ever! $lade of grass seem grateful.
Q.odelQ.DD%he preceding sentence is wrong. %he ver$ MseemM is plural0 and it should $e singularF for0 when
several singular su$ects are preceded $! MeachM0 ever!M0 or MnoM0 the! are taken separatel!.
Each da! and each hour $ring their portion of dut!. Ever! $ook and ever! paper were found in their place.
When a ver$ has two or more singular su$ects connected $! MorM or MnorM0 it must agree
with them in the singular. MA similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronounM.
)9RRE)% %-E :9KK9W*4P ERR9RS.
9ne or the other have made a mistake in their statement.
4either the aster nor the dahlia are cultivated for their fragrance. Either the
president or his secretar! were responsi$le.
4either Ann0 Nane0 nor Sarah are at home.
%o foretell0 or to express future time simpl!0 the auxiliar! MshallM is used in the first
person0 and MwillM in the second and thirdF $ut when a speaker determines or promises0
he uses MwillM in the first person and MshallM in the second and third.
)9RRE)% %-E :9KK9W*4P ERR9RS.
* will freeAe0 if * do not move a$out. 7ou shall
feel $etter soon0 * think. She shall $e fifteen
!ears old toDmorrow.
* shall find it for !ou0 if !ou shall $ring the $ook to me. 7ou will have
it0 if * can get it for !ou.
-e will have it0 if he shall take the trou$le to ask for it. -e will not do it0
if * can prevent him.
* will drown0 no$od! shall help me.
* will $e o$liged to !ou0 if !ou shall attend to it. We will have
gone $! toDmorrow morning.
7ou shall disappoint !our father0 if !ou do not return. * do not
think * will like the change.
4ext %uesda! shall $e !our $irthda!. 7ou shall
$e late0 if !ou do not hurr!.
ERR9RS *4 %-E :9R. 9: %-E 5ER8.
)9RRE)% %-E :9KK9W*4P ERR9RS.
Q.odelQ.DD%hose things MhaveM not Mcame toDda!M.
Wrong0 $ecause the past McameM is here used for the past participle McomeM. %he present
perfect tense is formed $! prefixing MhaveM to the Mpast participleM.
* done all m! work $efore $reakfast. *
come in a little late !esterda!.
-e has went to m! desk without permission. %hat
stupid fellow set down on m! new hat.
MSetM is generall! transitive0 and MsitM is intransitive. MKa!M is transitive0 and
MlieM is intransitive.
-e sat the chair in the corner.
Sit that plate on the ta$le0 and let it set. * have set in
this position a long time.
%hat child will not la! still or set still a minute. * laid down
under the tree0 and eno!ed the scener!. Kie that stick on the
ta$le0 and let it la!.
%hose $o!s were drove out of the fort three times. * have
rode through the park.
* done what * could. -e has
not spoke toDda!.
%he leaves have fell from the trees. %his
sentence is wrote $adl!.
-e throwed his pen down0 and said that the point was $roke. -e
teached me grammar.
* seen him when he done it.
.! hat was took off m! head0 and throwed out of the window. %he $ird
has flew into that tall tree.
* was chose leader.
ar * have $egan
to do $etter. * $egun this morning. .! $reakfast was ate
in a hurr!.
7our dress sets well.
%hat foolish old hen is setting on a wooden egg. -e has
tore it up and throwed it awa!.
William has took m! knife0 and * am afraid he has stole it. %his should
$e well shook.
* $egun to sing0 $efore * knowed what * was doing. We
drunk from a pure spring.
* thought !ou had forsook us.
-is pencil is nearl! wore up.
-e come0 and tell me all he knowed a$out it.
Q%o the %eacherQ.DDSee SScheme0S p. 1@?.
-ow man! modifications have ver$s? Ans.DDM:iveF viA.0 voice0 mode0 tense0 num$er0 and
personM. +efine voice. -ow man! voices are there? +efine each. *llustrate. What is
mode? -ow man! modes are there? +efine each. What is an infinitive? What is a
participle? -ow man! different kinds of participles are there? +efine each. *llustrate.
What is tense? -ow man! tenses are there? +efine each. *llustrate. What are the num$er
and the person of a ver$? *llustrate. What is conugation? What is s!nopsis? What are
auxiliaries? 4ame the auxiliaries. What are the principal parts of a ver$? Wh! are the! so
called? -ow does a ver$ agree with its su$ect? When a ver$ has two or more su$ects0
how does it agree? *llustrate the uses of MshallM and MwillM.
Q%o the %eacherQ.DDSelect some of the preceding exercises0 and re1uire the pupils to
write the parsing of all the ver$s. See Kessons #30 #=0 3@0 3U0 and =>.
Q.odel for Written (arsingDD5er$sQ.DDM%he 7ankee0 selling his farm0 wanders awa! to
seek new landsM.
M5oiceM. M.odeM. M%enseM. M4umM. M(erM.
(r. (ar.0
*r.0 %r. Ac.DDD
DDD.od. of M7ankeeM.
Reg.0 *nt.
DDD *nd.
(res. Sing. #d. (red. of
*nf0 *r.0%t0
DDD(rin. word in phrase
.od. of MwandersM.
Y:ootnote [: (articiples and *nfinitives have no MpersonM or Mnum$erM._
(articiples sometimes partake of the nature of the noun0 while the! retain the nature of
the ver$.
8uild each of the following phrases into a sentence0 and explain the nature
of the participle.
Q.odelQ.DD DDDDMin $uilding a snow fortM. %he! were engaged Min $uilding a snow fortM. %he participle
M$uildingM0 like a noun0 follows the preposition MinM0 as the principal word in the phraseF and0 like a ver$0 it
takes the o$ect complement MfortM.
DDDD $! foretelling storms. DDDD $! helping others. DDDD on approaching the house. DDDDDin
catching fish.
Lse the following phrases as su$ects.
Walking in the gardenDDDD. -is writing that letterDDDD. 8reaking a promiseDDDD.
Lse each of the following phrases in a complex sentence. Ket some of the dependent
clauses $e used as adectives0 and some0 as adver$s.
DDDD in sledges. DDDD up the -udson. DDDD down the Rhine. DDDD through the Alps. DDDD
with snow and ice.DDDD into 4ew 7ork 8a!.DDDD on the prairie.DDDD at Saratoga.
8uild a short sentence containing all the parts of speech.
Expand the following simple sentence into twelve sentences.
Astronom! teaches the siAe0 form0 nature0 and motions of the sun0 moon0 and stars.
)ontract the following awkward compound sentence into a neat simple sentence0
-anni$al passed through Paul0 and then he crossed the Alps0 and then came down into
*tal!0 and then he defeated several Roman generals.
)hange the following complex sentences to compound sentences.
When he asked me the 1uestion0 * answered him courteousl!. .orse0 the man who invented the telegraph0
was a pu$lic $enefactor. When spring comes0 the $irds will return.
)ontract the following complex sentences into simple sentences $! changing the ver$ in
the dependent clause to a participle. 4otice all the other changes.
A ship which was gliding along the horiAon attracted our attention. * saw a man
who was plowing a field.
When the shower had passed0 we went on our wa!. *
heard that he wrote that article.
%hat he was a foreigner was well known. * am
not sure that he did it.
Ever! pupil who has an interest in this work will prepare for it.
)hange the following compound sentences to complex sentences.
Q.odelQ.DD.orning dawns0 and the clouds disperse. When morning dawns0 the clouds
Avoid swearingF it is a wicked ha$it.
(earls are valua$le0 and the! are found in o!ster shells. +ickens wrote +avid )opperfield0 and he died in
1@?". Some animals are verte$rates0 and the! have a $ack$one.
each of the following
sentences as much as !ou can.
*ndians dance. %he clock struck. %he world moves.
)9RRE)% %-E :9KK9W*4P ERR9RS.
* have got that $ook at home.
Q.odelQ.DDWrong0 $ecause MhaveM0 alone0 asserts possession. MPotM0 used in the sense of
Mo$tainedM0 is correctF as0 M* have ust got the $ookM.
-ave !ou got time to help me?
%here is man! mistakes in m! composition.
Q.odelQ.DDWrong0 $ecause MisM should agree with its plural su$ect MmistakesM. %he adver$ MthereM is often
used to introduce a sentence0 that the su$ect ma! follow the predicate. %his often makes the sentence sound
smooth0 and gives variet!.
%here goes m! mother and sister.
-ere comes the soldiers.
%here was man! friends to greet him. *t
ainGt there.
Q.odelQ.DDMAinGtM is a vulgar contraction. )orrectionDD*t Mis notM there.
* have made up m! mind that it ainGt no use. G%ainGt
so $ad as !ou think.
%wo !earsG interest were due. Ever! one of
his acts were criticised. *0 -enr!0 and !ou
have $een chosen.
Q.odelQ.DDWrong0 for politeness re1uires that !ou should mention the one spoken to0
firstF the one spoken of0 nextF and !ourself0 last.
-e invited !ou and * and .ar!. .e and
Nane are going to the fair. * onl! want a
little piece.
-e is a handsome0 tall man.
+id !ou sleep good?
-ow much trou$le one has0 donGt the!? -e in1uired for
some tinted ladiesG noteDpaper.
7ou neednGt ask me nothing a$out it0 for * havenGt got no time to answer. -im that is
diligent will succeed.
-e found the place sooner than me.
Who was that? *t was me and him. *f *
was her0 * would sa! less. 8ring me
them tongs.
Ls $o!s have a $aseD$all clu$.
Whom did !ou sa! that it was?
Who did !ou speak to ust now?
Who did !ou mean0 when !ou said that?
Where was !ou when * called? %hereGs
twent! of us going. )ircumstances alters
%ell them to set still.
-e laid down $! the fire. She has
lain her $ook aside. *t takes him
everlastingl!. %hat was an elegant
old rock.
A4AK7S*S A4+ (ARS*4P.
1. %hou shalt not take the name of the Kord th! Pod in vain.
/. StrikeI till the last armed foe expiresI
#. 7ou wrong me0 8rutus.
3. Shall we gather strength $! irresolution and inaction?
=. Wh! stand we here idle?
>. Pive me li$ert!0 or give me deathI
?. %h! merc!0 9 Kord0 is in the heavens0 and th! faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds.
@. %he clouds poured out water0 the skies sent out a sound0 the voice of th! thunder
was in the heaven.
U. %he heavens declare his righteousness0 and all the people see his glor!.
1". %he verdant lawn0 the shad! grove0 the variegated landscape0 the $oundless ocean0 and
the starr! firmament are $eautiful and magnificent o$ects.
11. When !ou grind !our corn0 give not the flour to the devil and the $ran to Pod.
1/. %hat which the fool does in the end0 the wise man does at the $eginning.
1#. ^erxes commanded the largest arm! that was ever $rought into the field.
13. Without ox!gen0 fires would cease to $urn0 and all animals would immediatel! die.
1=. Ki1uids0 when acted upon $! gravit!0 press downward0 upward0 and sidewa!s.
1>. .atter exists in three statesDDthe solid state0 the li1uid state0 and the gaseous state.
1?. %he $lending of the seven prismatic colors produces white light.
1@. SoapD$u$$les0 when the! are exposed to light0 exhi$it colored rings.
1U. -e who !ields to temptation de$ases himself with a de$asement from which he can never arise.
/". 7oung e!es that last !ear smiled in ours 4ow point the rifleGs $arrelF
And hands then stained with fruits and flowers 8ear redder stains of 1uarrel.
)A(*%AK KE%%ERS A4+ (L4)%LA%*94.
Q)apital KettersQ.DD%he first word of ;1< a sentence0 ;/< a line of poetr!0 ;#< a direct
1uotation making complete sense or a direct 1uestion introduced into a sentence0 and ;3<
phrases or clauses separatel! num$ered or paragraphed should $egin with a capital letter.
8egin with a capital letter ;=< proper names and words derived from them0 ;>< names of
things personified0 and ;?< most a$$reviations. Write in capital letters ;@< the words M*M and
M9M0 and ;U< num$ers in the Roman notation. Y:ootnote: Small letters are preferred where
numerous references to chapters0 etc.0 are made._
QExamplesQ.DD1. %he udicious are alwa!s a minorit!.
/. -onor and shame from no condition riseF Act well
!our part0 there all the honor lies.
#. %he 1uestion is0 S)an law make people honest?S
3. (aintings are useful for these reasons: 1. %he! pleaseF /. %he! instruct.
=. %he heroic 4elson destro!ed the :rench fleet in A$oukir 8a!.
>. 4ext0 Anger rushed0 his e!es on fire.
?. %he Atlantic ocean $eat .rs. (artington.
@. %he use of M9M and MohM * am now to explain.
U. 4apoleon **. never came to the throne.
Q(eriodQ.DD(lace a period after ;1< a declarative or an imperative sentence0 ;/< an
a$$reviation0 and ;#< a num$er written in the Roman notation.
:or examples see 10 ?0 and U in the sentences a$ove.
Q*nterrogation (ointQ.DDEver! direct interrogative sentence or clause should $e
followed $! an interrogation point.
QExampleQ.DD,ing Agrippa0 $elievest thou the prophets?
QExclamation (ointQ.DDAll exclamator! expressions must $e followed $! the
exclamation point.
QExampleQ.DD9hI $loodiest picture in the $ook of timeI QM)ommaMQ.DDSet off $! the
comma ;1< a phrase out of its natural order or not closel! connected with the word it
modifiesF ;/< an explanator! modifier that does not restrict the modified term or com$ine
closel! with itF ;#< a participle used as an adective modifier0 with the words $elonging to it0
unless restrictiveF ;3< the adective clause0 when not restrictiveF ;=< the adver$ clause0
unless it closel! follows and restricts the word it modifiesF ;>< a word or phrase
independent or nearl! soF ;?< a direct 1uotation introduced into a sentence0 unless
Mformall!M introducedF ;@< a noun clause used as an attri$ute complementF and ;U< a term
connected to another $! or and having the same meaning. Separate $! the comma ;1"<
connected words and phrases0 unless all the conunctions are expressedF ;11< independent
clauses0 when short and closel! connectedF and ;1/< the parts of a compound predicate and
of other phrases0 when long or differentl! modified.
QMExamplesMQ.DDl. *n the distance0 ice$ergs look like masses of $urnished metal. /.
Alexandria0 the capital of Kower Eg!pt0 is an illDlooking cit!.
#. Ka$or0 diving deep into the earth0 $rings up longDhidden stores of coal.
3. %he sun0 which is the center of our s!stem0 is millions of miles from us. =. When
$eggars die0 there are no comets seen. >. Pentlemen0 this0 then0 is !our verdict. ?. Pod??
said0 SKet there $e light.S @. 4elsonGs signal was0 SEngland expects ever! man to do his dut!.S U. Ru$$ers0 or
overshoes0 are worn to keep the feet dr!. 1". %he sa$le0 the seal0 and the otter furnish us rich furs. 11. -is
dark e!e flashed0 his proud $reast heaved0 his cheekGs hue came and went. 1/. :lights of $irds darken the air0
and tempt the traveler with the promise of a$undant provisions.
QMSemicolonMQ.DD*ndependent clauses ;1< when slightl! connected0 or ;/< when themselves
divided $! the comma0 must $e separated $! the semicolon. Lse the semicolon ;#< $etween
serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something that precedes or
followsF and ;3< $efore Mas0 viA.0 to wit.0 namel!0 i. e.M0 and Mthat isM0 when the! introduce
examples or illustrations.
QMExamplesMQ.DD1. %he furnace $laAesF the anvil ringsF the $us! wheels whirl round. /. As
)aesar loved me0 * weep for himF as he was fortunate0 * reoice at itF as he was valiant0 *
honor himF $ut0 as he was am$itious0 * slew him. #. -e drew a picture of the sufferings of
our SaviourF his trial $efore (ilateF his ascent of )alvar!F his crucifixion and death. 3.
Pi$$on writes0 S* have $een sorel! afflicted with gout in the handF to wit0 laAiness.S
QM)olonMQ.DDLse the colon ;1< $etween the parts of a sentence when these parts are
themselves divided $! the semicolonF and ;/< $efore a 1uotation or an enumeration of
particulars when formall! introduced.
QMExamplesMQ.DDl. )anningGs features were handsomeF his e!e0 though deepl! ensconced
under his e!e$rows0 was full of sparkle and ga!et!: the features of 8rougham were harsh
in the extreme. /. %o Kentullus and Pellius $ear this message: S%heir graves are
QM+ashMQ.DDLse the dash where there is an omission ;1< of letters or figures0 and ;/< of
such words as MasM0 Mnamel!M0 or Mthat isM0 introducing illustrations or e1uivalent
expressions. Lse the dash ;#< where the sentence $reaks off a$ruptl!0 and the same thought
is resumed after a slight suspension0 or another takes its placeF and ;3< $efore a word or
phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. %he dash ma! $e used ;=< instead of marks of
parenthesis0 and ma! ;>< follow other marks0 adding to their force.
QMExamplesMQ.DD1. *n .DDDDDDw0 v. #D110 !ou ma! find the S$eatitudes.S /. %here are two
things certain in this worldDDtaxes and death. #. * saidDD* know not what. 3. * never would
la! down m! armsDDMneverMDD 4E5ERDDQ4E5ERQ. =. :ulton started a steam$oatDDDDhe
called it the )lermontDDon the -udson in 1@"?. >. .! dear Sir0DD* write this letter for
QM.arks of (arenthesisMQ.DD.arks of parenthesis ma! $e used to enclose what has no
essential connection with the rest of the sentence.
QExampleQ.DD%he noun ;Kat. MnomenM0 a name< is the first part of speech.
QMApostropheMQ.DDLse the apostrophe ;1< to mark the omission of letters0 ;/< in the
pluraliAing of letters0 figures0 and characters0 and ;#< to distinguish the possessive from
other cases.
QMExamplesMQ.DD1. 8oGt of Nohn Nones 1" l$s. of $utter. /. What word is there oneDhalf
of which is MpGsM? #. -e washed the disciplesG feet.
QM-!phenMQ.DDLse the h!phen ;D< ;1< $etween the parts of compound words that have not
$ecome consolidated0 and ;/< $etween s!lla$les when a word is divided.
QMExamplesMQ.DD1. WorkD$askets are convenient. /. +ivide M$asketM thus: M$asDketM.
QMOuotation .arksMQDDLse 1uotation marks to enclose a copied word or passage. *f
the 1uotation contains a 1uotation0 the latter is enclosed within single marks.
QMExampleMQDDD%he sermon closed with this sentence: SPod said0 GKet there $e light.GS
QM8racketsMQ.DDLse $rackets Y _ to enclose what0 in 1uoting anotherGs words0 !ou
insert $! wa! of explanation or correction.
QMExampleMQ.DD%he (salmist sa!s0 S* prevented Yanticipated_ the dawning of the
QM%o the %eacherMQ.DD*t is ver! profita$le to exercise pupils in com$ining simple
statements into complex and compound sentences0 and in resolving complex and
compound sentences into simple statements. *n com$ining statements0 it is an excellent
practice for the pupil to contract0 expand0
transpose0 and to su$stitute different words. %he! thus learn to express the same
thought in a variet! of wa!s. An! readingD$ook or histor! will furnish good material for
such practice. A few examples are given $elow.
QM+irectionMQ.DD)om$ine in as man! wa!s as possi$le each of the following groups of
QMExampleMQ.DD%his man is to $e pitied. -e has no friends.
1. %his man has no friends0 and he is to $e pitied.
/. %his man is to $e pitied0 $ecause he has no friends.
#. 8ecause this man has no friends0 he is to $e pitied.
3. %his man0 who has no friends0 is to $e pitied.
=. %his man0 having no friends0 is to $e pitied.
>. %his man0 without friends0 is to $e pitied.
?. %his friendless man deserves our pit!.
1. %he ostrich is una$le to fl!. *t has not wings in proportion to its $od!.
/. Eg!pt is a fertile countr!. *t is annuall! inundated $! the 4ile.
#. %he nerves are little threads0 or fi$ers. %he! extend0 from the $rain. %he! spread over
the whole $od!.
3. Nohn Puten$erg pu$lished a $ook. *t was the first $ook known to have $een printed on
a printingDpress. -e was aided $! the patronage of Nohn (aust. -e pu$lished it in
13==. -e pu$lished it in the cit! of .entA.
=. %he human $od! is a machine. A watch is delicatel! constructed. %his machine is more delicatel!
constructed. A steamDengine is complicated. %his machine is more complicated. A steamDengine is
wonderful. %his machine is more wonderful.
7ou see that short statements closel! related in meaning ma! $e improved $! $eing
com$ined. 8ut !oung writers fre1uentl! use too man! MandsM and other connectives0 and
make their sentences too long.
Kong sentences should $e $roken up into short ones when the relations of the parts are
not clear.
As clauses ma! $e oined to form sentences0 so sentences ma! $e united to make
A QMparagraphMQ is a sentence or a group of related sentences developing one point or
one division of a general su$ect.
%he first word of a paragraph should $egin a new line0 and should $e written a little
farther to the right than the first words of other lines.
QM+irectionMQ.DD)om$ine the following statements into sentences and
paragraphs0 and make of them a complete composition:DD
Water is a li1uid. *t is composed of ox!gen and h!drogen. *t covers a$out threeDfourths of
the surface of the earth. *t takes the form of ice. *t takes the form of snow. *t takes the form
of vapor. %he air is constantl! taking up water from rivers0 lakes0 oceans0 and from damp
ground. )ool air contains moisture. -eated air contains more moisture. -eated air $ecomes
lighter. *t rises. *t $ecomes cool. %he moisture is condensed into fine particles. )louds are
formed. %he! float across the sk!. %he little particles unite and form rainDdrops. %he!
sprinkle the dr! fields. At night the grass and flowers $ecome cool. %he air is not so cool.
%he warm air touches the grass and flowers. *t is chilled. *t loses a part of its moisture.
+rops of dew are formed. Water has man! uses. .en and animals drink it. %rees and plants
drink it. %he! drink it $! means of their leaves and roots. Water is a great purifier. *t
cleanses our $odies. *t washes our clothes. *t washes the dust from the leaves and the
flowers. Water is a
When predicate ver$s immediatel! follow their su$ects0 there is little danger of errors in
agreement0 except that MwasM is often used incorrectl! for MwereM0 and MdonGtM for
MdoesnGtM. %he chief o$ect of introducing these exercises here is to train the pupilsG
o$servation so that the! will readil! and naturall! note the agreement of the su$ect and
predicate when these terms are transposed0 or are separated $! other words. %o determine
the correct form of the ver$ in such cases0 let the pupils see how it sounds when placed
immediatel! after its su$ect. We suggest exercises like the following:DD
1 is
/ was
# has
3 does
= comes
> goes
? thinks
@ writes
Exercise 1.
1 Proup 9ne find hear sa! sit tell get lose sell stick win
1 %he!MM MMMMMMMMMMM the apartment that the! had in Pandia for a ver! good price.
/ -eMMMMMMMMMMM MM me his name $ut now *Gve forgotten it.
# WeMM MMMMMMMMMMM home at three oGclock last night.
3 Sorr! *Gm late. * wasMMMMMMMMMM MMM in traffic.
= 5alencia :)MMMMMMMMMM MMM %he ,ingGs )up in 1UUU.
> *MMMMMMMMMMMM M the news a$out %he World %rade )entre on the radio.
? We entered the restaurant0 MMMMMMMMMMMMM a ta$le and sat down.
@ Sorr!. * didnGt hear what !ou MMMMMMMMMMMMM.
U We were all a $it hot and tired so we allMMMMMMMM MMMMM down on the grass.
1" *GveMM MMMMMMM MMMM three um$rellas this month. %erri$leI *Gm so careless.
/ Proup %wo
$reak ^/ come
see steal
$ecome choose freeAe speak
1 *Gve neverMMMMMMMMMM MMM to )aceres.
/ -ave !ouMMMMMMMMMMM MM Sarah toda!?
# .r AAnarMM MMMMMMM MMMM president in 1UU>.
3 -as 8eatriAMMMMMMMM MMMMM $ack from lunch !et?
= RitaMMMMMMMMMMMM M her leg skiing.
> What colour have !ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMfor the curtains?
? *t was so cold that the lake MMMMMMMMMMMMMover.
@ SheMMMMMMMMMMMM M fluent :rench on holida! last !ear.
U .! purseGs $eenMMMMMMMMMM MMM.
1" A friendGs kidMMMMMMMM MMMMM m! stereo.
# Proup %hree
drive fall give ride take eat forget hide shake write
1 WeMM MMMMMMMMMMM all night to get to :rance.
/ -ave !ou everMMMMMMMMM MMMM a horse?
# *GveMM MMMMMMM MMMM a letter to m! $ank manager.
3 WeMM MMMMMMMMMMM hands at the end of the meeting.
= She had a headache so she MMMMMMMMMMMMM an aspirin.
> *MMMMMMMMMMMM M too much for dinner !esterda! and * feel fat.
? .! sisterMMMMMMMMMMMMM me a watch for )hristmas.
@ -eMMMMMMMMMMM MM over on the wet floor and $roke his wrist.
U SheMMMMMMMMMMMM M the mone! under the mattress.
1" 8lastI WeMMMMMMMM MMMMM to $u! milk.
Exercise /.
Sports Stars
Kast week0 5enus and Serena Williams pla!ed each other in the final of a tennis tournament. 5enus is now
fourth in the world0 and her !ounger sister Serena is reall! happ! $ecause she has moved up to third.
%he two sisters have alread! come a long wa! from the poor area in )alifornia where the! were $orn. *t was
full of violence and drugs0 and the girls2 father0 Richard0 wanted to move to a safer place. %he! moved in
1UU1 and the! have never looked $ack.
Richard started to train 5enus when she was four0 and sa!s: &%he first time * took 5enus to the tennis court0
* told m! wife: VWe have a champion2.' She pla!ed in her first $ig tournament in 1UU>. She hasn2t won
Wm$ledon !et0 $ut she has alread! reached important finals such as the LS 9pen. Serena has continued to
improve and she has made fantastic progress. *n 1UUU0 she won the LS 9pen0 $ut she hasn2t won the singles
-as tennis ever caused pro$lems $etween sisters? &We2ve pla!ed each other $efore and it hasn2t worried usD
!etI'0 sa!s 5enus. &*f she wins0' Serena okes0 &.ama sa!s she has to do the dishesI'
1. Wh! are the sister unusual?
/. What kind of $acground are the! from?
#. Who helped the to succeed?
3. -ow do the two sisters get on at home?
Exercise #.
What happened? What has happened?
Stud! these sentences. (a! close attention to the words in italics.
What happened?
* wrote to him last month.
%he train hasust left
the station.
* $ought this car last !ear.
*2vealread! seen that
-e came to see me this morning.
-e has $een a$road
for six !ears.
* saw him ten minutes ago.
-ave !ouever met him
* havenever
met him$efore.
finished work!et.
$een a great num$er of accidentsla tel!.
Exercise >.
:ind the regular ver$ in each line and write it into the gap.
sa!0 lose0 dance0
sa!0 lose0 dance0
sing Ddance
1. read0 feel0 pla!0 see D
/. listen0 do0 go0 make D
#. know0 help0 sa!0 think D
3. like0 write0 forget0 eat D
=. take0 $ring0 cut0 clean D
>. watch0 $e0 have0 meet D
?. put0 $u!0 cook0 teach D
@. catch0 find0 answer0 lose D
Exercise ?.
:ill in the missing forms of the phrases. Lse the long form of the auxiliar! onl!.
Simple (ast
(ast (articiple
* pla!ed
she has listened
# !ou work
= we count
* have helped
?the $rothers
he has watched
the! started
1" Susan looks
Exercise @.
*n each sentence choose the correct form of ver$. Exercise U.
)hoose teh correct answer.
was $orn
have $een $orn
were $orn
/ *MMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMM MMM in this cit! for man! !ears0 and * still eno! the
has lived
have lived
# *MMMMMMMMMMMM MMto high school here0 and now * am a full time teacher.
has gone
have gone
3 :redd! and *vanMMMMMMMMMM MMMM in this universit! since 1U@"0 and next !ear
the! plan to stud! a$road.
have worked
has worked
= *MMMMMMMMMMMM this morning at @ oGclock.
waken up
woken up
have waken up
woke up
> 9ur friendsMMMMMMMMMMMM M for almost / !ears. %he! are going to cele$rate
their anniversar! in three weeks.
was married
is married
$e married
have $een married
? Kast night0 *MMMMMM %5 for an hour0 and now * donGt have time to do m!
homework.have watched
has watched
@ SheMMMMMMMMMMMM m! $est friend for two !ears. We talk on the phone
has $een
U .onicaMMMMMMMM MMMMM her first $a$! a month ago.
has had
1" .! wife and *MMMMMMMM MMMMM M (aris last summer. %his !ear we want to go
have visited
has $een there
Exercise 1".
WhereGs !our wallet? * donGt know. *K9SE it.
*8E in Kondon two !ears ago and *-A5E a great time.
KookI Someone+A.APE the $us stop. *t looks terri$leI
-ow79LH8REA, !our arm? 8! accident?
.! parents are a happ! couple. %he! 8E .ARR*E+ for ten !ears.
79LHSEE .ar! !esterda!? * couldnGt find her an!where.
Nane pla!s the piano. She(KA7 it for two !ears and sheGs $rilliant.
Ann isnGt here. SheKEA5E the house $ut she should $e $ack in an hour.
.! grandfather+*E in 1U@U and m! grandmotherK*5E alone since
1".-er $rother is a writer. -e WR*%E man! $ooks and the!Gre reall! good.
11.What time 79LHP9 to $ed? Around 11 p.m or even later?
1/.Where 79LH8E last night? 79LHP9 to .ar!Gs part!?
1#..! room is clean. NLS%H)KEA4 it and it looks $etter now.
13.9h0 the! are hereI When %-E7HARR*5E?
1=.Shakespeare WR*%E man! pla!s and the!Gre all famous.
1>.*49%H+R*4, an!thing toda! so *Gm ver! thirst!. )an * ask !ou for
some water0 please?
1?.*s .onica here? 4o0 she 49%H)9.E !et. She must $e on her wa!.
1@.*W9R, at school for two !ears and then * left it $ecause * was fed up
with teaching.
1U.%he da!s8E ver! wind! recentl! and some trees have even $een
/".What79LHSA7 ? )ould !ou repeat it0 please?
%he (ast (erfect )ontinuous %ense
:ill in the $lanks with had ;hadn2t< Q$een Q a present participle.
E^A.(KES: a.D ;protest< When the war in 5ietnam finall! ended0 people all over the
world had $een protesting against it for man! !ears.
$.D ;get< Ever!thing in our garden was d!ing $ecause we hadn2t
$een getting an! rain for more than five months.
1.D ;go< :red and (egg!MMMMMMMMMMMM MMMM together for three !ears $efore the!
finall! got married.
/.D ;make< -e lost his o$ $ecause heMMMMMMMM MMMMM M ;causing< trou$le at the office.
-e was a real trou$lemaker.
#.D ;$other< * had to go to the dentist $ecause a toothMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMM M me for a
monthF ;take< *MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMM care of m!self.
3.D ;rain< When the monsoon finall! ended0 itMMMMMMMMMM MMMMM MMM for more than a
=.D ;wait< When the! finall! had their $a$! $o!0 the!MMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMM MMM for
more than seven !ears.
4ow complete the following sentences orall! or on a separate piece of paper.
E^A.(KE:c.D * wasn2t surprised $! the +irector2s decision to suspend Nim from the
school $ecause he2d $een making a great deal of trou$le for a long
>.D When the rain finall! stoppedW
?.D When * finall! found a good o$W
@.D When our daughter finall! $ecame a medical doctorW
U.D .! e!es were ver! tired last night $ecauseW
1".D .! feet were ver! tired last night $ecauseW
11.D Nohn2s father had to go to the doctor $ecauseW
1/.D %he patient wasn2t feeling well $ecauseW
1#.D When we finall! reached the top of .t. EverestW
13.D When our plane finall! landed at N:, ;,enned! Airport in 4ew 7ork<W
1=.D When m! alarm clock rangW
1>.D When m! girlfriendH$o!friend finall! got to our meeting placeW
1?.D When the! finall! got marriedW
1@.D When the surgeon finall! finished the operationW
1U.D We were tired !esterda! morning $ecause our $a$!W
/".D -e was kicked out of ;suspended from< school $ecause heW
/1.D When the concert finall! endedW
//.D When * finished m! homework last nightW