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Law Regions Development

Legal implications of local


and regional development
International Conference, Pcs
14-15 June, 2013
PROGRAMME
ABSTRATS
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Law Regions Development
Legal implications of local
and regional development
International Conference, Pcs
14-15 June, 2013
PROGRAMME
ABSTRATS
Partici"ants of t%e Conference
- &ni!ersit' of Pcs, (acult' of Law )Pcs*
- Josi" Jura+ ,tross#a'er &ni!ersit' of -si+e., (acult'
of Law )-si+e.*
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Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Law ! Regions Development
Legal implications of local and regional development
International Conference, Pcs
14-15 June, 2013
/%e international conference "##################
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Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Programme
Law Regions Development
Legal implications of local and regional development
4
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
$%!$& '(ne )*$+
P,cs- A(la and Room .ol(/
draft conference programme
$% '(ne )*$+- A(la
0130-101002 Registration, coffee
10100-101302 3elco#e s"eec%es2 r1 4'ula 5er.e, $ean, Pcs, Prof1
$r1 Igor 5o+ani6, $ean, -si+e., r1 /7#ea rin8c9i, organi9er
$*#+*!$)#**0 1e2 note spea3ers4 session0 Pl(ralistic approac5 to
development0 regions and environment w5at is t5eir
importance6 moderator0 T7mea Drin8c9i
10130-101502 P:ln ;o!:cs Ilona2 Connections <etween regional
$e!elo"#ent an$ #o$el of go!ernance )=>, Researc% Centre for
?cono#ic an$ Regional ,tu$ies Insitute for Regional ,tu$ies
/rans$anu<ian Researc% e"art#ent*
10150-111102 /o#as9 @ile+ an$ ,a#ir (elic%2 -n so#e as"ects of ?&
regional "olic' an$ territorial co%esion )-strec%t Institute, Cologne,
4er#an'*
11110-111302 Aolt:n 4:l2 /%e role of uni!ersities in regional
$e!elo"#ent B go!ernance )/owar$s t%e #o$el of regionall' engage$
ser!ice-uni!ersities* )=>, Researc% Centre for ?cono#ic an$
Regional ,tu$ies, Insitute for Regional ,tu$ies /rans$anu<ian
Researc% e"art#ent*
11130-111502 Ci%a$a @u+i6 an$ @artina @i.rut2 ?cotouris# @ar.et
,eg#entation as a 5asis for ?cotouris# ,trateg' e!elo"#ent
$$#&*!$)#**0 iscussion
$)#**!$+#**0 L(nc5
5
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
$+#**!$%#$&0 Regional governance0 regional development
moderator0 P:ln, 1ov:cs ;lona
13100-131152 un+a ui6, Dgoston @o%a', /un+ica PetraEe!i62
Re"resentation an$ "ossi<ilities of regions in t%e ?uro"ean &nion
13115-131302 I!ana 5ar.o!i6-5o+ani6, >tila ;iss, ;atarina @aroEe!i62
Regional $e!elo"#ent in t%e Re"u<lic of Croatia an$ =ungar'2
current situation an$ future "ers"ecti!es
13130-131452 Jelena u+#o!i6, >na Fani6, ?s9ter R89s:s2 Possi<ilites
to use ?& structural fun$s for regional $e!elo"#ent in Croatia an$
=ungar'
13145-141002 >ttila P:no!ics, Ra+.o -$o<aEa2 /%e con$itions of
acti!e an$ effecti!e C4- "artici"ation in regional $e!elo"#ent "olic'
14100-141152 iscussion
$%#$&!$%#+*0 offee
$%#+*!$&#+*0 Regional governance0 local governments
moderator0 Tomas9 Mile<
14130-141452 >nita 5lago+e!i6, /7#ea rin8c9i, @i.l8s ;ocsis2
/rans"arenc' at local an$ regional le!el in Croatia an$ =ungar'
14145-151002 5oris 5a.ota, >$ri:n (:<i:n, 5oris L+u<ano!i62
G5or$erlessH @unici"al Coo"eration in Croatia an$ =ungar'
15100-151152 Aso#<or ?rcse', ?#ina Jer.o!i6, Renata Peri6, Csa<a
,9ilo!ics2 /%e finances of local an$ regional self-go!ern#ent units
15115-151302 iscussion
$&#+*!$&#%&0 offee
$&#%&!$=#%&0 Regional governance0 5istorical approac5
moderator0 Antal >isegr:d2
15145-1I1002 Asu9sanna Peres, @iro 4ar$aE, Jelena RoE.ar2 @anors in
5aran+a Count' in t%e 1Jt% an$ 10t% centur'
1I100-1I1152 KiEn+a Lac%ner, Asu9sanna Peres, Josi" Kr<oEi62 /%e
genesis an$ e!olution of local go!ern#ents $uring t%e ti#e of t%e
$ualis#
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Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
1I115-1I1302 @ar.o Petra., Ci.ol Li%a, J:nos Jus9tinger2 4lo<al
sources of local laws eMa#"le of N+ust "riceO )iustu# "retiu#*
1I130-1I1452 iscussion
$?#%&0 Depart(re to >ill:n2
$% '(ne )*$+
Room .ol(/
@#+*!$*#**0 arrival and welcome coffee
$*!$$#$*0 Environmental protection0 legal protections c5air0
Mario >in3oviA
10100-101152 I!ana /uca., Kisegr:$' >ntal2 /%e role of lower an$
%ig%er courts in t%e inter"retation of Croatian an$ =ungarian law
10115-101302 @irela Lu"an ;olos ;o!:cs L:s9l8 ;ecs.s2 /%e
Polluter Pa's )P* Co#"ensation for cross-<or$er en!iron#ental
$a#ages
10130-101452 4ergel' C9o<ol', Paula Poretti2 /%e "roce$ural as"ects
of en!iron#ental "rotection in Croatian an$ =ungarian legal s'ste#
10145-111002 L:s9l8 ;Q%al#i, 5ar<ara =erceg, Igor Kuleti62 Cri#inal
law "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent in =ungar' an$ Croatia in t%e
conteMt of %ar#oni9ation wit% t%e regulation of ?uro"ean &nion
11100-111152 Igor 5o+ani62 Cri#inal law "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent
in Croatia an$ its %ar#oni9ation wit% ?uro"ean stan$ar$s
11115-111302 iscussion
$$#+*!$)#+*0 L(nc5
$)#+*!$&#**0 Specific fields of regional development and
environmental protection moderator0 Mirela B(pan
12130-121452 ?ri.a ;o!:cs, @ario Kin.o!i62 Posting of wor.ers in
Croatia an$ =ungar'
12145-131002 ?$it ;a+t:r, =elga R"a$ina2 iscontent of t%e "eregrines2
#igrants an$ t%e rig%t to stri.e
S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
13115-131302 @:ria @:rton, u<ra!.a ;lasiTe., CataEa Luci62 Ci!il
law fra#ewor.s for t%e lia<ilit' of co#"anies for en!iron#ental
$a#ages an$ t%eir influence on regional $e!elo"#ent
13130-131452 u<ra!.a >.Ea#o!i6, ;ir:l' Lilla2 Cross <or$er
coo"eration of un$erta.ings an$ its i#"lications on regional
$e!elo"#ent
13145-141002 >n$r:s ;ecs.s, A!oni#ir Jelini62 Conce"ts an$
/%eories on ?Mecuti!e Re#uneration wit% ,"ecial ?#"%asis on t%e
Recent Initiati!es an$ e!elo"#ents in t%e &, an$ ?&
14100-141152 iscussion
$%#$&!$%#+*0 offee
14130-141452 >$rienne ;o#ano!ics, Ci!es @a9ur ;u#ri62 ?uro"ean
Regional Pers"ecti!e on ?n!iron#ent an$ =u#an Rig%ts
14145-151002 L+il+ana ,i<er, ?s9ter ;arolin'2 Infor#ation an$
e$ucation in en!iron#ental issues2 =ow effecti!e are t%e' regionall'P
15100-151152 5il+ana UinTura. ?rceg, @elin$a ,9a""an'os, Pter
/il.2 Coo"eration <etween Croatia an$ =ungar' in t%e fiel$ of
en!iron#ental "rotection wit% s"ecial reference to certain core
o<ligations regar$ing t%e "rotection of <oun$ar' ri!ers
15115-151302 Asu9sanna =or!:t%, Jelena LegTe!i62 ,o#e #easures of
greening t%e econo#' in t%e ?& an$ t%eir reflections in regional
$e!elo"#ent
15130-151452 iscussion
$&#%&!$=#**0 offee
$=#**!$=#$&0 oncl(sion of t5e conference
$=#$&!$=#+*0 Speec5es of representatives of t5e fac(lties
J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
A/stracts
0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
$% '(ne )*$+
1e2 note spea3ers4 session0 Pl(ralistic approac5 on
development0 regions and environment w5at are t5e2
importance6
Regional development and governance
Ilona P:ln ;o!:cs, Professor at &ni!ersit' of Pcs,,cientific a$!isor of
Researc% Centre for ?cono#ic an$ Regional ,tu$ies, =>,
/%e "a"er tries to connect regional $e!elo"#ent "olic' an$ t%e #o$el of
go!ernance assu#ing t%at t%ere is #utual i#"act <etween t%e#1 Institutions,
actors w%ic% are s%a"ing an$ i#"le#enting t%e "olic' o<+ecti!es #atter an$
it is necessar' to anal'9e t%e nature of t%ese inter$e"en$encies1 /%e new
co%esion "olic' of t%e ?& focuses on local nee$s an$ resources t%erefore t%is
"lace-<ase$ "olic' reVuires "lace-<ase$ go!ernance1 /%is %as not <een t%e
case so far, es"eciall' in new #e#<er states w%ere centrali9e$ go!ernance
was "re$o#inant in s"ite of refor# atte#"ts of regionalis#1 /%e %istor' of
regional refor#s in Central-an$ ?astern ?uro"e "ro!i$es e!i$ence for "at%-
$e"en$enc' in s%a"ing go!ernance #o$els an$ also for t%e #is#atc%ing of
?& co%esion "olic' o<+ecti!es an$ centrali9e$ #anage#ent of ,tructural
(un$s1 /%e Vuestion is w%et%er C?? countries are a<le to face t%is G"lace-
<ase$H go!ernance an$ "olic' c%allenge in t%e futureP
1e2words2 go!ernance, regional $e!elo"#ent, regionalis#, C??
E(ropean o5esion Polic20 o/<ectives- instr(ments and realit2
r1 /o#as9 @ile+, L1L1@1, assistant "rofessor, Institute for ?astern
?uro"ean Law, (acult' of Law, &ni!ersit' of Cologne, t1#ile+Wuni-
.oeln1$e
,a#ir (elic%, researc% associate, Institute for ?astern ?uro"ean Law,
(acult' of Law, &ni!ersit' of Cologne, sa#ir1felic%Wuni-.oeln1$e
10
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
/%e ?&Hs s"en$ing for "ur"oses of territorial co%esion is t%e secon$
largest eM"en$iture ite# in t%e ?& <u$get after t%e agricultural "olic'1
/%e co%esion "olic' is i#"le#ente$ c%iefl' t%roug% t%e ?uro"ean
(un$s, t%e esta<lis%#ent of w%ic% $ates <ac. to t%e siMties1 (or t%e
new ?& #e#<er states, t%e access to t%ese fun$s was at least not less
i#"ortant incenti!e to +oin t%e ?uro"ean &nion t%an t%e access to t%e
co##on #ar.et1 /%e co%esion "olic' is also Vuote$ as an as"ect of
t%e ?& econo#ic constitution )Wirtschaftsverfassung* conferring
u"on it inter!entionist traits1 Conet%eless, one can %ar$l' argue t%at
t%e o<+ecti!es of t%e co%esion "olic' are clearl' $efine$ on t%e le!el of
"ri#ar' law1 /%e #ere ter# Gterritorial co%esionH lea!es o"en t%e
"ossi<ilit' for !arious inter"retations an$ allows t%e "ursuit of
$ifferent "olic' o<+ecti!es1 /%e "resent "a"er contains an anal'sis of
t%e legal foun$ations of t%e co%esion "olic'1 It also ela<orates on its
constraints arising a<o!e all out of t%e fact t%at econo#ic "olic'
re#ains t%e $o#ain of t%e #e#<er states1 >ccor$ingl', t%e ?& fun$s
are onl' $esigne$ to "ro!i$e su""le#entar' assistance1 /%e "a"er is
furt%er inten$e$ to gi!e so#e insig%t into t%e real i#"act of co%esion
"olic'1 In t%is conteMt, it $el!es into t%e contro!ersies surroun$ing t%e
still fort%co#ing enact#ent of t%e @ultiannual (inancial (ra#ewor.
w%ic% will run fro# 2014 to 20201
1e2words0 co%esion, con!ergence, ?uro"ean (un$s, ?& econo#ic
constitution, ?uro"ean (un$s
T5e role of (niversities in regional development C governance
DTowards t5e model of regionall2 engaged service!(niversitiesE
r1 Aolt:n 4:l, P%, $r1 %a<il, Centre for ?cono#ic B Regional
,tu$ies, =ungarian >ca$e#' of ,ciences, &ni!ersit' of ;a"os!:r
/%e focus of t%is "a"er is on t%e role of #i$-range uni!ersities in t%e
$e!elo"#ent of "eri"%eral regions in t%e conteMt of uni!ersit'
engage#ent literature1 >fter su##ari9ing t%e literature on t%e
contri<ution of uni!ersities to regional $e!elo"#ent, t%e "a"er loo.s
t%roug% t%e #ost i#"ortant t%eoretical consi$erations inclu$ing t%e
$e!elo"#ental role )t%e t%ir$ #ission* of uni!ersities an$ t%e "ositions
11
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
of =?Is in t%e territorial go!ernance1 It "resents t%e #ain issues in
w%ic% t%e #i$-range uni!ersities in "eri"%eral regions are $ifferent
fro# t%e to" uni!ersities locate$ #ainl' in #etro"olitan areas1 &sing
case stu$ies fro# Central an$ ?astern ?uro"e )so#e of t%e# <ase$ on
our "re!ious IP> "ro+ect*, t%e "a"er conclu$es t%at not onl' t%e
"osition of uni!ersities in t%e colla<oration wit% t%e <usiness sector
<ut t%eir role in t%e inno!ation s'ste# is also Vuite $ifferent1 /%ere is
a nee$ for #uc% #ore co#"re%ensi!e an$ co#"leM econo#ic "olicies
initiating t%e su""ort of t%e uni!ersit' sector an$ starting t%e
$e!elo"#ent of %ig%-tec% in$ustries, s#all-scale enter"rises an$
constructing regional a$!antage wit% a stronger co##unit'
in!ol!e#ent of uni!ersities1
1e2words2 #i$-range uni!ersities, C??, ser!ice-uni!ersities,
$e!elo"#ental role, regional $e!elo"#ent B engage#ent
Ecoto(rism Mar3et Segmentation as a Basis for Ecoto(rism
Strateg2 Development
Ci%a$a @u+i6, P%, full "rofessor, Kice ean for ,tu$ies, =ea$ of t%e
e"art#ent for #et%o$ological-infor#ation science, -si+e.
n#u+icW"ra!os1%r
@artina @i.rut, P%, senior assistant, e"art#ent for #et%o$ological-
infor#ation science, -si+e., ##i.rutW"ra!os1%r
?cotouris# %as "ro!en itself to <e an i#"ortant tool for region
$e!elo"#ent, <ut it onl' wor.s w%en it 'iel$s econo#ic <enefits to
local "eo"le, su""orts conser!ation an$ re$uces t%e %u#an i#"act of
tra!el1 It reVuires t%e acti!e an$ e$ucate$ "artici"ation of all
sta.e%ol$ers2 local co##unities, tourists an$ t%e tra!el in$ustr',
e!er'one fro# t%e !isitor to t%e tour o"erator an$ t%e airline, t%e
%otelier an$ t%e local la<or force, agriculturists an$ in$i!i$ual
conser!ationists, go!ern#ental an$ non-go!ern#ental organi9ations1
,till, ecotouris# %as freVuentl' <een #isla<ele$ an$ i#"le#ente$ in
wa's t%at $o not #eet necessar' stan$ar$1 In or$er to <eco#e a
successful sustaina<le region $e!elo"#ent tool, ecotouris# reVuires
$ee" un$erstan$ing of t%e situation an$ ecotouris# "erce"tion as a
starting "oint of <uil$ing regional strategies an$ $e!elo"ing actions
12
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
rele!ant to t%e $e!elo"#ent of t%e region1 /%is "a"er in!estigates
un$erstan$ing an$ "erce"tion of ecotouris# in Croatia focuse$ on t%e
tourist an$ t%e local co##unit' as <asic sta.e%ol$ers, wit% a goal to
"ro!i$e #ar.et seg#entation as t%e strategic tool to account for
%eterogeneit' a#ong tourists <' grou"ing t%e# into #ar.et seg#ents
w%ic% inclu$e #e#<ers si#ilar to eac% ot%er an$ $issi#ilar to
#e#<ers of ot%er seg#ents <ase$ on !acation "references, i$entif'ing
ecotouris# "otential a#ong Croatian tourist1 In or$er to #easure t%e
$e!elo"#ent of t%e ecotouris# seg#ent, anal'sis will <e carrie$ out
using t%e $ate of siM researc% wa!es t%roug% 3 'ears, 2 wa!es "er 'ear
fro# 2010, on a total sa#"le of 121000 res"on$ents1 /%is stu$' will
"ro!i$e nee$e$ infor#ation for #a.ing s"ecific reco##en$ations
concerning #eans of en%ancing econo#ic <enefits, t%e tourist
"ro#otion "rogra# an$ offer so#e gui$elines for an e$ucation an$
training "rogra# w%ic% coul$ <e use$ for en!iron#ental an$
sociocultural i#"act assess#ents, go!ern#ent incenti!es for "ri!ate
sector in!est#ent in tourist facilities, organi9ational structures, an$
legislation1
1e2words0 ecotouris#, #ar.et seg#entation, researc%, strateg'
Regional governance0 regional development
Representation and possi/ilities of regions in t5e E(ropean Fnion
un+a ui6, LL@, assistant, e"art#ent of Constitutional Law an$
Political ,ciences, -si+e., $$uicW"ra!os1%r
r1 Dgoston @o%a', P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of International
an$ ?uro"ean Law, Pcs, #o%a'1agostonWa+.1"te1%u
/un+ica PetraEe!i6, P%, assistant "rofessor, C%air of Constitutional
Law an$ Political ,ciences, -si+e., t"etraseW"ra!os1%r
/%is "a"er ai#s to loo. at t%e "ossi<ilities t%at regions %a!e in t%e
fra#ewor. of t%e ?uro"ean &nion1 Regions are re"resente$ in t%e
&nion in an institutionalise$ wa' in t%e Co##ittee of t%e Regions1
>lt%oug% its "owers are relati!el' li#ite$, t%e Co##ittee of t%e
Regions can "ro!i$e in"ut in t%e ?& legislati!e "rocess an$ "resent its
!iews in !arious non-legislati!e o"inions in or$er to influence
13
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
?uro"ean $ecision-#a.ing1 3e will assess t%e i#"ortance of t%e rig%t
of t%e Co##ittee of t%e Regions to initiate an action for annul#ent
an$ its role in safeguar$ing su<si$iarit' since t%e entr' into force of
t%e Lis<on /reat'1 /%e secon$ "art of t%e "a"er will $eal wit% t%e
$irect re"resentation an$ ot%er "ossi<ilities of regions in t%e ?&
fra#ewor.1 /%e entering into force of t%e Lis<on /reat' i#"ro!e$ t%e
stan$ing of regions an$ cities in t%e ?&Xs "olitical s'ste#1 -ne of t%e
i#"ortant c%anges is t%at t%e local an$ regional rig%t of self
go!ern#ent is now, for t%e first ti#e e!er, ens%rine$ in an ?& /reat'1
irect re"resentation of -s+ec.o-<aran+s.a Count', in 5russels, was
foun$e$ in 200S, <' t%e Cit' of -si+e. an$ -s+ec.o-<aran+s.a Count'1
/%e #ain o<+ecti!es of t%e office in 5russels are to assure strong
re"resentation of t%e regional interests, to "ro!i$e infor#ation a<out
t%e on-going "rocesses in 5russels an$ to esta<lis% %ori9ontal
connections wit% ot%er regions an$ ?uro"ean institutions1 ,ince t%e
office of -s+ec.a-5ran+s.a Count' was foun$e$ "rior to t%e Lis<on
c%anges, t%is "a"er will tr' to answer t%e Vuestion w%et%er t%e Lis<on
c%anges i#"ro!e$ t%e "rocess of $irect re"resentation1
1e2words0 RegionsY Co##ittee of t%e RegionsY $irect re"resentationY
su<si$iarit'Y ?uro"ean &nionY Lis<on /reat'
Predstavl<an<e i mog(Anosti regi<a (n(tar E(rops3e (ni<e
@r1sc1 un+a ui6, asistentica, ;ate$ra usta!ni% i "olitiT.i% 9nanosti, -si+e.,
$$uicW"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 Dgoston @o%a', asistent, ;ate$ra #eZunaro$nog i euro"s.og "ra!a,
PeTu%, #o%a'1agostonWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 /un+ica PetraEe!i6, $ocent, ;ate$ra usta!ni% i "olitiT.i% 9nanosti,
-si+e., t"etraseW"ra!os1%r
Cil+ +e o!og ra$a u.a9ati na #ogu6nosti .o+e regi+e i#a+u unutar
?uro"s.e uuni+e1 Regi+e su u institucionalno# o.!iru ?uro"s.e uni+e
"re$sta!l+ene unutar -$<ora regi+a1 Ia.o su n+ego!e o!lasti relati!no
ograniTene, -$<or regi+a i#a ut+eca+ na 9a.ono$a!nu "roce$uru i
$onosi <ro+na ne9a.ono$a!na #iEl+en+a .o+a ta.oZer ut+eTu na "roces
$onoEen+a o$lu.a unutar &ni+e1 & ra$u 6e se "roci+eniti !a[nost "ra!a
-$<ora regi+a na "o.retan+e tu[<e 9a "oniEten+e a.ta i n+ego!a uloga u
osigura!an+u su"si$i+arnosti, o$ stu"an+a na snagu Lisa<ons.og
14
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
ugo!ora1 ,tu"an+e# na snagu Lisa<ons.og ugo!ora "o<ol+Ean +e
"olo[a+ regi+a i gra$o!a unutar "olitiT.og susta!a ?&1 Ka[no +e
na"o#enuti $a +e stu"an+e# na snagu Lisa<ons.og ugo!ora, lo.alna i
regionalna sa#ou"ra!a, "o "r!i "ut u.l+uTena u &go!or1 rugi $io
ra$a <a!i se i9ra!ni# "re$sta!l+an+e# i $rugi# #ogu6nosti#a .o+e
regi+e i#a+u na "o$ruT+u ?&1 Pose<an naglasa. 6e <iti sta!l+en na ure$
-s+eT.o-<aran+s.e [u"ani+e u 5ruMellesu, .o+i +e ot!oren 200S1
go$ine, o$ strane [u"ani+e i gra$a -si+e.a1 4la!ni cil+e!i ure$a su
osigurati sna[no 9astu"an+e regionalni% interesa, "ru[an+e [u"ani+i i
gra$u infor#aci+a o "rocesi#a .o+i su u ti+e.u u 5ruMellesu i
us"osta!iti %ori9ontalnu "o!e9anost s $rugi# regi+a#a i euro"s.i#
instituci+a#a1 5u$u6i $a +e ure$ -s+eT.o-<aran+s.e [u"ani+e osno!an
"ri+e Lisa<ons.i% "ro#+ena, o!a+ 6e ra$ "o.uEati o$go!oriti na "itan+e
+esu li Lisa<ons.e "ro#+ene "o<ol+Eale "roces i9ra!nog "re$sta!l+an+a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 regi+a, -$<or regi+a, i9ra!no "re$sta!l+an+e, ?uro"s.a
uni+a, Lisa<ons.i ugo!or, su"si$i+arnost
A r,gi83 3,pviselete ,s le5etHs,gei a9 E(r8pai Fni8/an
un+a ui6, LL@, tan:rseg$, >l.ot#:n'+ogi /ans9., ?s9.,
$$uicW"ra!os1%r
r1 @o%a' Dgoston, P%, a$+un.tus, Ce#9et.\9i- s ?ur8"a+ogi
/ans9., Pcs, #o%a'1agostonWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 /un+ica PetraEe!i6, P%, $ocens, >l.ot#:n'+ogi /ans9.,
?s9., t"etraseW"ra!os1%r
? tanul#:n' cl+a a rgi8. s9:#:ra a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8<an fenn:ll8
le%etQsge. ele#9se1 > rgi8. ."!iselete a9 &ni8<an
int9#n'es]lt #8$on a Rgi8. 5i9otts:g:<an !al8sul #eg1 Co%a
%at:s.\rei relat7!e .orl:to9otta., a Rgi8. 5i9otts:ga a9 uni8s
+ogal.ot:si fol'a#at<an, s #:s ne# +ogal.ot:si .r$se.<en is
!le#n't <ocs:t%at .i a9 uni8s $\nts%o9atal <efol':sol:sa
r$e.<en1 @eg!i9sg:l+u. a Rgi8. 5i9otts:ga se##iss n'il!:n7t:si
.eresetin$7t:si +og:na. +elentQsgt s a s9u<s9i$iarit:s el!e
<etartat:s:<an +:ts9ott s9ere"t a Liss9a<oni ,9er9Q$s %at:l'<al"se
8ta1 > tanul#:n' #:so$i. rs9e a rgi8. .\9!etlen uni8s
."!iselet!el s eg'< le%etQsgei..el foglal.o9i.1 > Liss9a<oni
,9er9Q$s %at:l'<al"se n\!elte a rgi8. s !:roso. +elentQsgt a9
15
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
&ni8 "oliti.ai ren$s9er<en1 >9 eg'i. fontos !:lto9:s, %og' a %el'i s
region:lis \n.or#:n'9atis:got a9 ?& t\rtnet<en elQs9\r r\g97ti a
"ri#er +og1 ?s9.-5aran'a #eg'e <r]ss9eli ."!iselett 200S-<en
ala"7totta ?s9. !:rosa s ?s9.-5aran'a #eg'e1 >9 iro$a fQ
cl.it^9se, %og' <i9tos7tsa a region:lis r$e.e. %angs_l'os
."!iselett, %og' a <r]ss9eli fol'a#ato.r8l fol'a#atos t:+.o9tat:st
n'_+tson, s %ori9ont:lis .a"csolato.at ala.7tson .i #:s rgi8..al s
eur8"ai int9#n'e..el1 /e.intettel arra, %og' a ."!iseleti iro$:t a
Liss9a<oni ,9er9Q$s %at:l'<a l"st #egelQ9Qen %o9t:. ltre, a
tanul#:n' #eg.7srel !:las9t a$ni arra a .r$sre, %og' a liss9a<oni
#8$os7t:so. +elentette.-e a .\9!etlen ."!iselet s9e#"ont+:<8l
elQn'\s !:lto9:so.at1
1(lcss9ava32 Rgi8.Y Rgi8. 5i9otts:gaY .\9!etlen ."!iseletY
s9u<s9i$iarit:sY ?ur8"ai &ni8Y Liss9a<oni ,9er9Q$s
Regional development in t5e Rep(/lic of roatia and .(ngar20
c(rrent sit(ation and f(t(re perspectives
I!ana 5ar.o!i6 5o+ani6, P%, full "rofessor, e"art#ent of ?cono#ic
sciences, -si+e., <ar.o!icW"ra!os1%r
r1 /i<or ;iss, P%, associate "rofessor, (acult' of 5usiness an$
?cono#ics, &ni!ersit' of Pcs, .isstW.t.1"te1%u
;atarina @aroEe!i6, uni!1s"ec1oec1, e"art#ent of ?cono#ic sciences,
-si+e., .atarina1#arose!icW"ra!os1%r
Regional $e!elo"#ent %as <eco#e one of t%e #ost c%allenging issues
in t%e era of glo<ali9ation, s%ifting increasingl' greater res"onsi<ilit'
for econo#ic growt% an$ $e!elo"#ent fro# t%e nation-state to t%e
region1 &ne!en regional $e!elo"#ent in ter#s of 4P "er ca"ita,
"ro$uction growt%, e#"lo'#ent, etc1 re"resents in t%e long-run one
of t%e greatest o<stacles to t%e sustaina<le $e!elo"#ent of national
econo#'1 5earing all econo#ic an$ social conseVuences of regional
$is"arities in #in$, t%e <alance$ regional $e!elo"#ent %as <eco#e
one of t%e #ost i#"ortant gui$elines of t%e ?uro"ean &nion, w%ic%
s"en$s one-t%ir$ of its <u$get t%roug% its co%esion "olic' in or$er to
re$uce eMisting regional $is"arities1 /%e Central an$ ?astern ?uro"ean
Countries )C??Cs*, suc% as t%e Re"u<lic of Croatia, =ungar', Polan$,
,lo!a.ia or C9ec% Re"u<lic, are all witnessing t%e rise of regional
1I
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
ineVualities wit%in t%eir <or$ers1 /%us, national go!ern#ents %a!e
<een increasingl' aware of t%e role of regional $e!elo"#ent an$ t%e
necessit' to $efine co%erent regional $e!elo"#ent "olicies1 /%is "a"er
focuses on t%e Re"u<lic of Croatia an$ =ungar'1 In #ost res"ects
Croatia an$ =ungar' <ear a close rese#<lance to one anot%er
es"eciall' in ter#s of regional $is"arities`ineVualities1 5ot% countries
%a!e alrea$' strongl' ac.nowle$ge$ t%e !alue of regional
$e!elo"#ent an$ t%e i#"ortance of re$ucing t%e regional $is"arities1
ConseVuentl', t%e' %a!e <een $e!elo"ing institutional an$
organi9ational fra#ewor. to "ro#ote e!en regional $e!elo"#ent1
=owe!er, in <ot% countries go!ern#ent "olicies an$ "rogra#s still
%a!e a lot of roo# for i#"ro!e#ent1 /%e "ur"ose of t%is "a"er is to
anal'9e t%e regional $e!elo"#ent an$ "olicies in t%e Re"u<lic of
Croatia an$ =ungar' in t%e conteMt of t%e ?& effort to "ro#ote
econo#ic an$ social co%esion wit% t%e ulti#ate goal of re$ucing
regional $is"arities across 2S1 !arious regions1 /%e statistical anal'sis
of regional ineVualities in <ot% countries will <e su""orte$ <' t%e
$escri"ti!e statistics of t%e causes of une!en regional $e!elo"#ent
consi$ering !arious ele#ents of regional $is"arities suc% as econo#ic,
social, s"atial, an$ t%e li.e1 (urt%er#ore, t%e regional "olic'
instru#ents focusing on issues suc% as regional co#"etiti!eness, role
of regional an$ local actors in #anaging $e!elo"#ent, etc1 will <e
$iscusse$1 /%e "a"er will conclu$e will selecte$
suggestions`gui$elines for i#"ro!e#ent of t%e current "olic'
a""roac%1
1e2words0 regional $e!elo"#ent, regional $is"arities, regional
"olic', regional co#"etiti!eness, Croatia, =ungar'
Regionalni ra9vo< Rep(/li3e .rvats3e i MaIars3e0 tren(tno
stan<e i /(d(Ai i9a9ovi
Prof1$r1sc1 I!ana 5ar.o!i6 5o+ani6, re$o!ita "rofesorica, ;ate$ra
gos"o$ars.i% 9nanosti, -si+e., <ar.o!icW"ra!os1%r
Prof1$r1sc1 /i<or ;iss, i9!anre$ni "rofesor, ?.ono#s.i fa.ultet,
,!euTiliEte u PeTu%u, .isstW.t.1"te1%u
;atarina @aroEe!i6, $i"l1oec1, asistentica, ;ate$ra gos"o$ars.i%
9nanosti, -si+e., .atarina1#arose!icW"ra!os1%r
1S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Regionalni ra9!o+ "osta+e +e$na o$ na+i9a9o!ni+i% te#a u $o<a
glo<ali9aci+e .o+a s!e !e6u o$go!ornost 9a e.ono#s.i rast i ra9!o+
ne.e 9e#l+e "re<acu+e s nacionalnog gos"o$arst!a na regionalna1
Ce+e$na.i regionalni ra9!o+, gle$a+u6i .ro9 5P`stano!ni.u, rast
"roi9!o$n+e, 9a"oslenost, it$1 "re$sta!l+a u $ugoroTno# ra9$o<l+u
+e$nu o$ na+!e6i% "re"re.a o$r[i!og ra9!o+a nacionalnog
gos"o$arst!a1 &9i#a+u6i u o<9ir s!e e.ono#s.e i soci+alne "osl+e$ice
regionalni% ne+e$na.osti, u+e$naTen regionalni ra9!o+ +est +e$na o$
na+!a[ni+i% s#+ernica ?uro"s.e uni+e, .o+a .ro9 .o%e9i+s.u "oliti.u
.oristi tre6inu s!o+eg "roraTuna .a.o <i s#an+ila "osto+e6e regionalne
ra9li.e1 Ae#l+e ,re$iEn+e i IstoTne ?uro"e, .ao Eto su Re"u<li.a
=r!ats.a, @aZars.a, Pol+s.a, ,lo!aT.a ili UeE.a, s!+e$oci su rasta
regionalni% ne+e$na.osti unutar s!o+i% granica1 A<og na!e$enog,
nacionalne !la$e s!e su s!+esni+e uloge regionalnog ra9!o+a i "otre<e
9a $efiniran+e# .o%erentni% regionalni% ra9!o+ni% "oliti.a1 -!a+ ra$
fo.usira se na Re"u<li.u =r!ats.u i @aZars.u1 & #nogi# se
as"e.ti#a =r!ats.a i @aZars.a <itno ne ra9li.u+u Eto se tiTe
regionalne ne+e$na.osti1 -<+e 9e#l+e i#a+u i9ra[enu s!i+est o
regionalno# ra9!o+u i nu[nosti s#an+en+a regionalni% ne+e$na.osti1
,toga ra9!i+a+u institucionalne i organi9aci+s.e o.!ire .a.o <i
"ro#icale ra!no#+eran regionalni ra9!o+1 I"a., u o<+e 9e#l+e "osto+i
$o!ol+no "rostora 9a "o<ol+Ean+e +a!ni% "oliti.a i "rogra#a1 ,!r%a
o!oga ra$a +e anali9irati regionalni ra9!o+ i "oliti.e u =r!ats.o+ i
@aZars.o+ u .onte.stu na"ora .o+i !rEi ?& u "ro#oci+i e.ono#s.e i
soci+alne .o%e9i+e s .ra+n+i# cil+e# s#an+i!an+a ra9!o+ni% ra9li.a
i9#eZu 2S1 ra9liTite regi+e1 ,tatistiT.a anali9a regionalni%
ne+e$na.osti u o<+e 9e#l+e <iti 6e u"ot"un+ena $es.ri"ti!no#
statisti.o# o u9roci#a ne+e$na.og regionalnog ra9!o+a .o+i o<u%!a6a
ra9liTite ele#ente regionalni% ne+e$na.osti .ao Eto su e.ono#s.i,
soci+alni, "rostorni it$1 Ca$al+e, ras"ra!l+at 6e se o instru#enti#a
regionalne "oliti.e .o+i su us#+ereni na ra9liTita "itan+a "o"ut
.on.urentnosti, uloge regionalni% i lo.alni% su$ioni.a "ri "ro!oZen+u
ra9!o+a i sl1 &#+esto 9a.l+uT.a ra$ 6e "onu$iti i9ra<rane "re"oru.e ili
s#+ernice o to#e .a.o una"ri+e$iti "oliti.e regionalnog ra9!o+a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 regionalni ra9!o+, regionalne ne+e$na.osti, regionalna
"oliti.a, regionalna .on.urentnost, Re"u<li.a =r!ats.a, @aZars.a
1J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Region:lis fe<lHd,s .orv:tors9:g/an ,s Mag2arors9:gon0
<elenlegi 5el29et ,s a <JvH/eni perspe3t7v:3
Prof1$r1sc1I!ana 5ar.o!i6 5o+ani6, P%, eg'ete#i tan:r, 4a9$as:gi
/u$o#:n'o. /ans9., <ar.o!icW"ra!os1%
r1 /i<or ;iss, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, ;\9ga9$as:gtu$o#:n'i ;ar,
Pcsi /u$o#:n'eg'ete#, .isstW.t.1"te1%u
;atarina @aroEe!i6, $i"l1oec1, tan:rseg$, 4a9$as:gi /u$o#:n'o.
/ans9., .atarina1#arose!icW"ra!os1%r
> region:lis fe+lQ$s a glo<ali9:ci8 eg'i. legnag'o<< .i%7!:s:!: !:lt,
a#i a ne#9eti s9intrQl region:lis s9intre ter%eli :t a ga9$as:gi
n\!e.e$ssel s fe+lQ$ssel .a"csolatos felelQssget1 >9 eg'enlQtlen
region:lis fe+lQ$s 4P`fQ<en, ter#elsn\!e.e$s<en,
foglal.o9tat:s<an, st<1 #r!e +elenti %oss9_ t:!on a ne#9eti
ga9$as:g fenntart%at8 fe+lQ$sne. a9 eg'i. legnag'o<< a.a$:l':t1
(ig'ele#<e !!e a region:lis eg'enlQtlensge.ne. a ga9$as:gi s
t:rsa$al#i .\!et.e9#n'eit rt%etQ! !:li., %og' a .ieg'ens_l'o9ott
region:lis ga9$as:gi fe+lQ$s a9 eg'i. legfontosa<< ir:n'el!e a9
?ur8"ai &ni8na., a#el' a .\ltsg!etsne. eg'%ar#a$:t %as9n:l+a a
.o%9i8s "oliti.a .eretein <el]l arra, %og' cs\..entse a region:lis
eg'enlQtlensge.et1 > ;\9"- s ;elet-eur8"ai ors9:go., #int "l1
=or!:tors9:g, @ag'arors9:g, Leng'elors9:g, ,9lo!:.ia !ag'
Cse%ors9:g, a %at:rai.on <el]l #in$ #egta"as9tal+:. a n\!e.!Q
region:lis eg'enlQtlensge.et1 ag' a ne#9eti .or#:n'o.
fo.o9otta<<an fig'elne. a region:lis fe+lQ$s s9ere"re, s arra a
s9].sgs9er^sgre, %og' .o%erens region:lis fe+les9tsi "oliti.:t
fogal#a99ana. #eg1 > tanul#:n' =or!:tors9:gra s @ag'arors9:gra
\ss9"ontos7t1 5i9on'os !onat.o9:s<an =or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g
%asonl7tana. eg'#:sra, .]l\n\s te.intettel a region:lis
eg'enlQtlensge.re1 @in$.t ors9:g<an erQsen tu$atosult #:r a
region:lis fe+lQ$s rt.e s a region:lis eg'enlQtlensge.
cs\..entsne. +elentQsge1 ;\!et.e9s.""en, e9e. a9 ors9:go. #:r
fe+les9ti. a9t a9 int9#n'i s s9er!e9eti stru.t_r:t, a#ell'el
t:#ogat%at+:. a .ieg'enl7tett region:lis fe+lQ$st1 @in$.t ors9:g<an
!an a9on<an #g s9:#os fe+les9ten$Q ter]let1 > tanul#:n' cl+a,
%og' ele#e99e a region:lis fe+lQ$st s a9 ir:n'el!e.et
10
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
=or!:tors9:g<an s @ag'arors9:gon1 ?%%e9 a fela$at%o9 a9
rtel#e9si .eretet a9 ?& a9on t\re.!se a$+a, %og' t:#ogatni .7!:n+a
a ga9$as:gi s t:rsa$al#i .o%9i8t, a99al a !gsQ cllal, %og'
cs\..entse a region:lis eg'enlQtlensge.et a 2S1 .]l\n<\9Q rgi8<an1
> region:lis eg'enlQtlensge. le7r8 statis9ti.:..al t\rtnQ ele#9se
les9 #a+$ #in$.t ors9:g<an a9 ala"+a anna., %og' felt:r:sra
.er]l+ene. a region:lis eg'enlQtlensge. ga9$as:gi, t:rsa$al#i,
ter]leti, s #:s eg'< tn'e9Qi1 /o!:<<: t:rg'al:sra .er]lne. a9 ol'an
ter]lete.re \ss9"ontos7t8 region:lis "oliti.ai es9.\9\., #int a
region:lis !ersen'."essg, a region:lis s %el'i s9ere"lQ. s9ere"e a
fe+lQ$s #ene$9sels<en, st<1 > tanul#:n' !g]l \ss9eg9i a +elenlegi
"oliti.ai g'a.orlat +a!7t:s:ra tett +a!aslato.at, s _t#utat:st a$ a9o.
#eg!al8s7t:s:ra !onat.o98an1
1(lcss9ava30 region:lis fe+lQ$s, region:lis eg'enlQtlensge.,
region:lis "oliti.:.`ir:n'el!e., region:lis !ersen'."essg,
=or!:tors9:g, @ag'arors9:g1
Possi/ilites to (se EF str(ct(ral f(nds for regional development in
roatia and .(ngar2
Jelena u+#o!i6, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of >$#inistrati!e
,cience, -si+e., +$u+#o!iW"ra!os1%r
>na Fani6, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of >$#inistrati!e ,cience,
-si+e., a$+anicW"ra!os1%r
r1 ?s9ter R89s:s, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
>$#inistrati!e Law, Pcs, ro9sas1es9terWa+.1"te1%u

Croatian accession to t%e ?uro"ean &nion o"ens u" nu#erous
"ossi<ilities for using structural fun$s $esignate$ for "ro+ect acti!ities
t%at contri<ute to <alance$ $e!elo"#ent1 >t t%e sa#e ti#e t%ese
"ro+ect acti!ities "ro#ote t%e o!erall co#"etiti!eness of t%e ?uro"ean
econo#' in accor$ance wit% t%e "u<lic "rocure#ent rules as well as
t%e "rinci"les of trans"arenc' an$ efficienc'1 /%is "a"er anal'9es t%e
"re"aration necessar' for #anaging ?& structural fun$s an$
e#"%asi9es t%e i#"ortance of esta<lis%ing an effecti!e s'ste# to
su"er!ise its usage1 It also %ig%lig%ts t%e i#"ortance of learning fro#
=ungarian eM"eriences in or$er to i#"ro!e t%e a""roac% to "ro+ect
#anage#ent <ase$ on strategic "lanning1 /%e ?uro"ean &nion
20
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
ensures its regional $e!elo"#ent an$ "olitical o<+ecti!es <' using
grants "ro!i$e$ <' structural an$ co%esion fun$s1 =ungar' t%erefore
%as t%e "ossi<ilit' to use t%e a#ount of J000 <illion =&( in or$er to
en%ance its regional $e!elo"#ent1 /%is su# of #one' %as <een "ut at
its $is"osal <' t%e =ungarian state <u$get an$ ?& fun$s for t%e ti#e
s"an of 200S-2013 as a "art of t%e GCew ,9c%en'i PlanH1 /%e
allocation of suc% a %uge a#ount of fun$s reVuires t%oroug%
"re"aration an$ "lanning <ase$ on eMtensi!e social "artners%i"sY in
=ungar', t%e Cational e!elo"#ent >genc' )C>* is res"onsi<le for
t%e relate$ functions1 -n t%e one %an$, t%is "a"er eMa#ines t%e tas.s
of t%e Cational e!elo"#ent >genc' relating to t%e i#"le#entation
of t%e Cew ,9c%en'i Plan, t%e coor$ination of t%e o"erati!e
"rogra#s "lanning, #onitoring of i#"le#entation, calls for ten$ers
an$ t%e selection of <usiness coo"erati!es1 -n t%e ot%er %an$, it also
ela<orates u"on t%e ,9c%en'i Progra# -ffice w%ic% is res"onsi<le
for t%e co#"letion of tas.s connecte$ to t%e i#"le#entation of t%e
Cew ,9c%en'i Plan )inclu$ing t%e "o"ulari9ation of t%e o"erati!e
"rogra#s, fun$s an$ t%e facilitation of fun$s s"en$ing*1
1e2words2 structural fun$s, regional $e!elo"#ent, sustaina<le
econo#ic an$ social $e!elo"#ent, regional co#"etiti!eness, Cational
e!elo"#ent >genc', ,9c%en'i Progra##e -ffices
Mog(Anosti 3oriKten<a str(3t(rni5 fondova E(rops3e (ni<e (
svr5( regionalnog ra9vo<a .rvats3e i MaIars3e
Jelena u+#o!i6, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra u"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
-si+e., +$u+#o!iW"ra!os1%r
>na Fani6, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra u"ra!ni% 9nanosti, -si+e.,
a$+anicW"ra!os1%r
oc1$r1sc1 ?s9ter R89s:s, $ocentica, ;ate$ra 9a u"ra!no "ra!o, Pcs,
ro9sas1es9terWa+.1"te1%u
&las.o# Re"u<li.e =r!ats.e u ?uro"s.u uni+u ot!ara+u se
#nogo<ro+ne #ogu6nosti .oriEten+a sre$sta!a i9 stru.turni% fon$o!a,
na#i+en+eni% "ro+e.tni# a.ti!nosti#a Eto "ri$onose u+e$naTeno#
ra9!o+u1 Ca!e$eni# a.ti!nosti#a u+e$no se "ro#iTe i u.u"na
.on.urentnost euro"s.og gos"o$arst!a u s.la$u s "ra!ili#a +a!ne
na<a!e te naTeli#a trans"arentnosti i e.ono#iTnosti1 & ra$u se
21
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
anali9ira+u ost!arene "ri"re#e 9a u"ra!l+an+e sre$st!i#a i9 euro"s.i%
stru.turni% fon$o!a te se naglaEa!a uloga us"osta!l+an+a uTin.o!itog
susta!a na$9ora na$ n+i%o!i# .oriEten+e#1 IstiTe se !a[nost
"reu9i#an+a #aZars.i% is.usta!a u cil+u .!alitetni+eg "ristu"a
"laniran+u "ro+e.ata ute#el+eno# na strateE.o# "laniran+u1 ?uro"s.a
uni+a ost!aru+e s!o+ regionalni ra9!o+ i "olitiT.e cil+e!e "o#o6u
su<!enci+a osigurani% i9 stru.turni% i .o%e9i+s.i% fon$o!a1 &
@aZars.o+ +e u s.lo"u Co!og ,9c%en'i "lana i9 $r[a!nog "roraTuna
i fon$o!a ?& osiguran i9nos o$ J000 #ili+ar$i forinti 9a regionalni
ra9!o+ u ra9$o<l+u o$ 200S1 $o 20131 go$ine1 o$+ela ta.!og !eli.og
i9nosa sre$sta!a 9a%t+e!a te#el+itu "ri"re#u i "laniran+e, osno!ano na
o"se[no# soci+alno# "artnerst!u, 9a Eto +e o$go!orna r[a!na
regionalna agenci+a1 , +e$ne strane, u ra$u se ra9#atra+u 9a$a6e
r[a!ne regionalne agenci+e Eto se o$nose na "ro!e$<u Co!og
,9c%en'i "lana, .oor$inaci+a "laniran+a o"erati!ni% "rogra#a,
"ra6en+e "ro!e$<e, +a!ni nat+eTa+i, o$a<ir "oslo!ni% su<+e.ata .o+i 6e
na ta+ naTin <iti "o$r[ani1 , $ruge strane, u ra$u se ta.oZer "re$sta!l+a
i ,9c%en'i "rogra#s.i ure$ .o+i o<a!l+a "oslo!e u !e9i s "ro!e$<o#
Co!og ,9c%en'i "lana )u.l+uTu+u6i "o"ulari9aci+u o"erati!ni%
"rogra#a fon$o!a i ola.Ea!an+e "otroEn+e sre$sta!a*1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 stru.turni fon$o!i, regionalni ra9!o+, o$r[i!i
gos"o$ars.i i $ruEt!eni ra9!o+, regionalna .on.urentnost, r[a!na
regionalna agenci+a, ,9c%en'i "rogra#s.i ure$
.orv:tors9:g ,s Mag2arors9:g le5etHs,gei a9 EF Str(3t(r:lis
Alap<aina3 fel5as9n:l:s:ra a region:lis fe<les9t,s ter,n
Jelena u+#o!i6, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, ;\9igagat:s-tu$o#:n'i
/ans9., ?s9., +$u+#o!iW"ra!os1%r
>na Fani6, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, ;\9iga9gat:si Jogi /ans9., ?s9.,
a$+anicW"ra!os1%r
r1 R89s:s ?s9ter, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, ;\9iga9gat:si Jogi /ans9.,
Pcs, ro9sas1es9terWa+.1"te1%u
>9 ?ur8"ai &ni8%o9 t\rtnQ csatla.o9:ssal =or!:tors9:gna. s9:#os
le%etQsge n'7li. a .ieg'ens_l'o9ott fe+lQ$st s9olg:l8 "ro+e.te.re
elQir:n'9ott stru.tur:lis "n9ala"o. ign'<e !telre1 &g'ana..or
e9e. a "ro+e.te. a .\9<es9er9si s9a<:l'o..al, !ala#int a9
22
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
:tl:t%at8s:gi s %at.on's:gi el!e..el \ss9%ang<an n\!eli. a9 eur8"ai
ga9$as:g :ltal:nos !ersen'."essgt1 > tanul#:n' !i9sg:l+a
#in$a9o.at a9 elQ.s9]lete.et, a#el'e. a9 ?& stru.tur:lis
"n9ala"+aina. .e9els%e9 s9].sgese., !ala#int %angs_l'o99a
anna. fontoss:g:t, %og' a "n9ala"o. fel%as9n:l:s:na. ellenQr9sre
%at.on' ren$s9ert .ell .iala.7tani1 > tanul#:n' fel%7!+a a fig'el#et a
#ag'ar ta"as9talato.<8l !al8 tanul:s +elentQsgre is, %og' a
stratgiai ter!e9s ala"+:n to!:<<fe+les9t%ess]. "ro+e.tir:n'7t:ssal
.a"csolatos s9e#llet]n.et1 @ag'arors9:g bfel9:r.89tat:s:ra a9 c+
,9c%en'i /er! .eret<en #ag'ar .\ltsg!etsi s eur8"ai uni8s
forr:s<8l J000 #illi:r$ forint :ll ren$el.e9sre 200S-2013 .\9\tt1
?nne. a %atal#as \ss9egne. a <efe.tetse .o#ol' fel.s9]lst, s9les
t:rsa$al#i "artnersgen n'ug!8 ter!e9st ign'el, #ell'el .a"csolatos
fela$ato.at @ag'arors9:gon a Ce#9eti (e+les9tsi dg'n\.sg !g9iO1
>9 tanul#:n' eg'rs9t a Ce#9eti (e+les9tsi dg'n\.sg a9 c+
,9c%en'i /er! #eg!al8sul:s:!al, a9 o"erat7! "rogra#o.
ter!e9sne. .oor$in:ci8+:!al, a #eg!al8sul:s n'o#on .\!ets!el a
":l':9ati .i7r:so..al, a t:#ogatan$8 fe+les9tse. )!:llal.o9:so.*
.i!:las9t:s:!al \ss9ef]ggQ fela$atait !i9sg:l+a1 @:srs9t
<e#utat:sra .er]lne. a s9intn a9 c+ ,9c%en'i /er!
#eg!al8s7t:s:%o9 .a"csol8$8 fela$ato.at ell:t8 )eg'e<e. #ellett2
o"erat7! "rogra#o. forr:saina. n"s9er^s7tse, illet!e a forr:so.
fel%as9n:l:s:na. elQseg7tse* - ,9c%en'i Progra#iro$:. is1
1(lcss9ava32 stru.tur:lis ala"o., region:lis fe+les9ts, fenntart%at8
ga9$as:gi s s9oci:lis fe+les9ts, region:lis !ersen'."essg, Ce#9eti
(e+les9tsi dg'n\.sg, ,9c%en'i Progra#iro$:.
T5e conditions of active and effective LGO participation in
regional development polic2
r1 >ttila P:no!ics, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of International
an$ ?uro"ean Law, Pcs, "ano!ics1attilaWa+.1"te1%u
Ra+.o -$o<aEa, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of ?cono#ic
,ciences, -si+e., ro$o<asaW"ra!os1%r
Partners%i" %as for a long ti#e <een one of t%e .e' "rinci"les of ?&
co%esion "olic'1 /%e acti!e in!ol!e#ent of all sta.e%ol$ers
23
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
t%roug%out t%e w%ole "rogra# c'cle )"re"aration, i#"le#entation,
#onitoring an$ e!aluation* is crucial for t%e successful
i#"le#entation of ?uro"ean &nion Co##on ,trategic (ra#ewor.
)C,(* fun$s, an$ it is necessar' for securing a %ig%er i#"act of t%e
use of "u<lic #one'1
/%e ac.nowle$ge#ent of "artners%i" is co##on across all @e#<er
,tates, <ut t%ere are wi$e $ifferences on t%e a""lication of t%e
"artners%i" "rinci"le1 /%e central ai# of t%is "a"er is to eM"lore t%e
role of non-go!ern#ental organi9ations )C4-s* re"resenting ci!il
societ'1 /%e anal'sis <egins wit% a <rief intro$uction to t%e conce"t of
t%e "artners%i" "rinci"le in co%esion "olic'1 /%is will <e followe$ <'
an o!er!iew of t%e $efinition of t%e ter# GC4-H in =ungarian an$
Croatian law1 C4-s often lac. t%e resources in ter#s of "ersonnel an$
infrastructure to "artici"ate acti!el' in strategic "lanning,
"rogra##ing an$ $ecision-#a.ing "rocesses1 /%e "a"er loo.s at t%e
o<stacles to ac%ie!ing acti!e in!ol!e#ent of C4-s, an$ anal'ses new
ele#ents of ?& co%esion "olic' in t%e neMt "rogra##ing "erio$
)2014-2020* t%at %a!e t%e "otential to encourage t%e $e!elo"#ent of
"artners%i"s1 C4-s can also ser!e as "otential "ro+ect a""licants for
?& fun$ing, an$ t%erefore t%e' are a<le to i#"ro!e t%e a<sor"tion
ca"acit' of C,( fun$s in t%e @e#<er ,tates1 /%e "a"er clai#s to
"ro!i$e concrete su""ort for ca"acit' <uil$ing of C4-s, an$
intro$uces an eMisting goo$ "ractice in t%e fra#e of t%e ,out%-
/rans$anu<ian -"erational Progra# <etween 2011 an$ 20131
1e2words0
Fv<eti a3tivnog i (Gin3ovitog s(d<elovan<a nevladini5 organi9aci<a
DL>OE ( politici regionalnog ra9vo<a
r1sc1 >ttila P:no!ics, !iEi "re$a!aT, -$+el 9a #eZunaro$no i euro"s.o
"ra!o, PeTu%, "ano!icsWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 Ra+.o -$o<aE, $ocent, ;ate$ra gos"o$ars.i% 9nanosti,
-si+e., ro$o<asaW"ra!os1%r
Partnerst!o +e !e6 $ugo !re#ena +e$no o$ .l+uTni% naTela .o%e9i+s.e
"oliti.e ?uro"s.e uni+e1 >.ti!no u.l+uTi!an+e s!i% $ioni.a u ci+elo#
"rogra#s.o# ci.lusu )"ri"re#a, "ro!e$<a, "ra6en+e i e!aluaci+a* +e
24
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
.l+uTno 9a us"+eEno .oriEten+e sre$sta!a i9 ?& bCo##on ,trategic
(ra#ewor.N )C,(* fon$o!a, a to +e "a. neo"%o$no $a <i se osigurao
+aTi i Eiri ut+eca+ na .oriEten+e +a!nog no!ca1 Pri%!a6an+e "artnerst!a +e
9a+e$niT.o s!i# $r[a!a#a Tlanica#a ?&, no "ri to#e "osto+e sna[ne
ra9li.e u "ri#+eni naTela "artnerst!a1 4la!ni cil+ o!oga ra$a +e istra[iti
ulogu ne!la$ini% organi9aci+a )CK-, C4-* .o+e "re$sta!l+a+u ci!ilno
$ruEt!o1 >nali9a 9a"oTin+e .rat.i# u!o$o# u .once"t "artnerst!a .ao
naTela .o%e9i+s.e "oliti.e1 Ca.on toga sli+e$i "regle$ $efinici+a i9ra9a
bne!la$ine organi9aci+eN u "ra!no# susta!u @aZars.e i =r!ats.e1
Ce!la$ini# organi9aci+a Testo ne$osta+u sre$st!a u "ogle$u oso<l+a i
infrastru.ture $a <i #ogle a.ti!no su$+elo!ati u strategi+s.o#
"laniran+u, "rogra#iran+u i o$luTi!an+u1 & ra$u se anali9ira+u "re"re.e
a.ti!ni+e# u.l+uTi!an+u ne!la$ini% organi9aci+a, .ao i no!i ele#enti u
;o%e9i+s.o+ "olitici ?& 9a sl+e$e6e "rogra#s.o ra9$o<l+e )20141 -
20201* .o+i i#a+u "otenci+al "oticati ra9!o+a "artnerst!a1 Ce!la$ine
organi9aci+e ta.oZer #ogu "oslu[iti .ao "otenci+alni "re$lagatel+i
"ro+e.ata 9a financiran+e i9 ?& fon$o!a i stoga #ogu $ati 9naTa+an
$o"rinos +aTan+u a"sor"ci+s.og .a"aciteta 9e#al+a Tlanica ?& u
o$nosu "re#a C(, fon$o!i#a1 ,!r%a ra$a +e "ru[an+e "ot"ore
i9gra$n+i .a"aciteta ne!la$ini% organi9aci+a .ao i Eiren+e .!alitetne
"osto+e6e sura$n+e u o.!iru ,out%-/rans$anu<ian -"erational
Progra##e 9a ra9$o<l+e 20111 - 20131
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0
A9 LGO!3 a3t7v ,s 5at,3on2 r,s9v,tel,ne3 felt,telei a
terMletfe<les9t,si politi3:/an
r1 P:no!ics >ttila, P%, a$+un.tus, Ce#9et.\9i- s ?ur8"a+ogi
/ans9., Pcs, "ano!ics1attilaWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 Ra+.o -$o<aEa, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, 4a9$as:gi
/u$o#:n'o. /ans9., ?s9., ro$o<asaW"ra!os1%r
> "artnersg rg8ta a9 ?& .o%9i8s "oliti.:+:na. eg'i.
.ulcsfontoss:g_ ala"el!e1 Kala#enn'i s9ere"lQ r$e.elt a.t7!
<e!on:s:na. a tel+es "rogra#ci.lus )elQ.s97ts, !gre%a+t:s,
#onitoring s rt.els* sor:n $\ntQ +elentQsge !an a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8
;\9\s ,tratgiai ;eret<e );,;* tarto98 ala"o. si.eres !gre%a+t:sa
sor:n, s s9].sg !an r: a%%o9, %og' a .\9"n9e. fel%as9n:l:s:na.
25
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
nag'o<< %at:sa <i9tos7tott leg'en1 > "artnersg elis#ert !ala#enn'i
tag:lla#<an, $e +elentQs .]l\n<sge. !anna. a "artnersg el!ne.
al.al#a9:sa tern1 Jelen tanul#:n' elsQ$leges cl+a a ci!il t:rsa$al#at
."!iselQ ne#-.or#:n'9ati s9er!e9ete. )C4--.* s9ere"ne.
!i9sg:lata1 >9 ele#9s a "artnersgi el! .once"ci8+:na. r\!i$
<e#utat:s:!al .e9$Q$i. a .o%9i8s "oliti.:<an1 ?9t .\!eti a9 bC4-O
.ife+e9s #eg%at:ro9:s:na. a9 :tte.intse a #ag'ar s a %or!:t
+og<an1 >9 C4--. g'a.ran ne# ren$el.e9ne. a9 a.t7! rs9!tel%e9
s9].sges s9e#l'i s infrastru.tur:lis forr:so..al a stratgiai
ter!e9s<en, a "rogra#o9:s<an s $\nts%o9atali el+:r:so.<an1 >
tanul#:n' #eg!i9sg:l+a a9 C4--. a.t7! <e!on:s:na. a.a$:l'ait,
!ala#int a .\!et.e9Q )2014-2020 .\9\tti* "rogra#o9:si i$Qs9a. a9on
_+ ele#eit, a#el'e. elQ#o9$7t%at+:. a "artnersg fe+lQ$st1 >9 C4--
. a9 uni8s ala"o. "otenci:lis ":l':98+a.nt is s9ere"el%etne., e9:ltal
."ese. +a!7tani a ;,;-ala"o..al .a"csolatos a<s9or"ci8s .a"acit:st
a tag:lla#o.<an1 > tanul#:n' a9 C4--. .a"acit:s-fe+les9tsne.
.on.rt t:#ogat:s:t s9orgal#a99a, s <e#utat eg' +8 "l$:t, a#el' a
l-un:nt_li Region:lis -"erat7! Progra# .eret<en, 2011 s 2013
.\9\tt !al8sul #eg1
1(lcss9ava32
Regional governance0 local governments
Transparenc2 at local and regional level in roatia and .(ngar2
>nita 5lago+e!i6, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
Constitutional an$ Politcial ,ciences, -si+e., a<lago+eW"ra!os1%r
r1 /7#ea rin8c9i, P%, $r1 %a<il1, assistant "rofessor, Constitutional
Law e"art#ent, Pcs, $rinoc9i1ti#eaWa+.1"te1%u
r1 @i.l8s ;ocsis, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of Constitutional
Law, Pcs, .ocsis1#i.losWa+.1"te1%u
/%e i#"ortance of t%e "rinci"le of trans"arenc' is unVuestiona<le1 /o
+ustif' t%is "osition it is #a'<e enoug% to sa' t%at a $e#ocratic
"rocess wit%out trans"arenc' is unt%in.a<le1 >s one of fi!e essential
"illars of t%e )?uro"ean* goo$ go!ernance toget%er wit%
"artici"ation, accounta<ilit', effecti!eness an$ co%erence, $efine$ in
t%e 2001 3%ite Pa"er on ?uro"ean 4o!ernance trans"arenc' can <e
2I
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
consi$ere$ as one of t%e fun$a#ental "rinci"les of $e#ocrac' an$ rule
of law1 /%e "rinci"le of trans"arenc' an$ ot%er "rinci"les of goo$
go!ernance a""l' to all le!els of go!ern#ent2 glo<al, ?uro"ean,
national, regional an$ local an$, t%erefore, reVuire efforts <' all
?uro"ean Institutions, "resent an$ future @e#<er ,tates, regional an$
local aut%orities, an$ ci!il societ'1 >lt%oug% t%e #eaning of
trans"arenc' $e"en$s on #an' factors, for t%e "ur"oses of t%is "a"er
we s%all li#it oursel!es on trans"arenc' as a constituent ele#ent of
local $e#ocrac'1 ;ee"ing in #in$ t%at, as a "owerful force,
trans"arenc' can %el" i#"ro!e go!ernance, strengt%en local an$
regional $e!elo"#ent, an$ fig%t corru"tion )an$ vice versa*, in t%e
first "art of t%e "a"er we focus on t%e conce"t of goo$ go!ernance
)"oint 111* an$ t%e "rinci"le of trans"arenc' )"oint 112*, an$ stress t%e
notion an$ i#"ortance of trans"arenc' at local an$ regional le!el
)"oint 113*1 3e continue wit% t%e anal'sis of t%e $ifferent as"ects of
t%e trans"arenc' "rinci"le at local an$ regional le!el in Croatia )"oint
211* an$ =ungar' )"oint 212*, inclu$ing, inter alia, t%e rig%t of access
to infor#ation, t%e trans"arenc' of t%e $ecision-#a.ing "rocesses, an$
"u<lic "artici"ation1 In conclusion )"oint 3*, we "resent t%e o<ser!e$
$ifferences an$ si#ilarities in t%e Croatian an$ =ungarian regulations
an$ "ractices1
1e2words2 trans"arenc', goo$ go!ernance, rig%t of access to
infor#ation, trans"arenc' of t%e $ecision-#a.ing "rocess, "u<lic
"artici"ation
A9 :tl:t5at8s:g elve a 5orv:t ,s a mag2ar 5el2i ,s region:lis
s9inte3en
oc1$r1sc1 >nita 5lago+e!i6, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, >l.ot#:n'+ogi /ans9.,
?s9., a<lago+eW"ra!os1%r
r1 /7#ea rin8c9i, P%, $r1 %a<il1, eg'ete#i $ocens, >l.ot#:n'+ogi
/ans9., Pcs, $rinoc9i1ti#eaWa+.1"te1%u
r1 @i.l8s ;ocsis, P%, a$+un.tus, >l.ot#:n'+ogi /ans9., Pcs,
.ocsis1#i.losWa+.1"te1%u
2S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
>9 :tl:t%at8s:g !ag' trans9"arencia el!ne. fontoss:ga
#eg.r$Q+ele9%etetlen1 ?nne. iga9ol:s:ra elg tal:n utalni arra, %og'
a $e#o.rati.us el+:r:so. el."9el%etetlene. a9 :tl:t%at8s:g el!ne.
r!n'es]lse nl.]l1 > trans9"arencia a#el' a9 )eur8"ai* goo$
go!ernance eg'i. ala"!etQ ele#e a 2001-es 3%ite Pa"er on ?uro"ean
4o!ernance :ltal #egfogal#a9ott rs9!tel, els9:#oltat%at8s:g,
%at.on's:g s .o%erencia #ellett a $e#o.r:cia s a +og:lla#
ala"!etQ el!e.nt fog%at8 fel1 >9 :tl:t%at8s:g s a +8 .or#:n'9:s
eg'< ele#ei a .or#:n'9:s #in$en s9int+n, a9a9 glo<:lis, eur8"ai,
ne#9eti, region:lis s %el'i s9inten is al.al#a9an$8 el!e.1 ?#iatt
anna. #eg!al8s7t:s:ra #in$en eur8"ai int9#n'ne., +elenlegi s
+\!Q<eli tag:lla#na., region:lis s %el'i %at8s:go.na., illet!e a ci!il
t:rsa$alo#na. is t\re.e$nie .ell1 >nna. ellenre, %og' a
trans9"arencia rtel#e9se t\<< tn'e9QtQl f]gg, e tanul#:n'
.eret<en a9t a %el'i \n.or#:n'9:s eg'i. nl.]l\9%etetlen
\ss9ete!Q+e.nt fog+u. fel1 (ig'ele##el arra, %og' a9 :tl:t%at8s:g
elQseg7ti a .or#:n'9:s fe+les9tst, a %el'i s region:lis fe+lQ$s
erQs7tst s a .orru"ci8 elleni %arcot )s !ica !ersa*, a tanul#:n' elsQ
fel<en a +8 .or#:n'9:sra )1111 "ont* s a9 :tl:t%at8s:g el!re )1121
"ont* .oncentr:lun., illet!e %angs_l'o99u. a trans9"arencia
fontoss:g:t %el'i s region:lis s9inten )1131 "ont*1 ?9t .\!etQen
ele#e99]. a9 :tl:t%at8s:g .]l\n<\9Q as"e.tusait t\<<e. .\9\tt a9
infor#:ci8%o9 !al8 %o99:frs +og:t, a $\nts%o9atali el+:r:s
:tl:t%at8s:g:t, a "artici":ci8t a %or!:t )2111 "ont* s a #ag'ar )2121
"ont* %el'i s region:lis s9inte.en1 >9 \ss9eg9Q rs9<en )31 "ont*
is#ertet+]. a %or!:t s a #ag'ar s9a<:l'o9:s<an s g'a.orlat<an a9
s9lelt eltrse.et s %asonl8s:go.at1
1(lcss9ava32 :tl:t%at8s:g, +8 .or#:n'9:s, infor#:ci8%o9 !al8
%o99:frs +oga, $\nts%o9atali el+:r:s :tl:t%at8s:ga, "artici":ci8
Transparentnost na lo3alno< i regionalno< ra9ini ( .rvats3o< i
MaIars3o<
oc1$r1sc1 >nita 5lago+e!i6, $ocentica, ;ate$ra usta!ni% i "olitiT.i%
9nanosti, -si+e., a<lago+eW"ra!os1%r
2J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
r1 %a<il1 /7#ea rin8c9i, $ocentica, ;ate$ra usta!nog "ra!a, PeTu%,
$rinoc9i1ti#eaWa+.1"te1%u
r1sc1 @i.l8s ;ocsis, !iEi "re$a!aT, ;ate$ra usta!nog "ra!a, PeTu%,
.ocsis1#i.losWa+.1"te1%u
Ka[nost naTela trans"arentnosti +e neu"itna1 a <is#o o"ra!$ali o!o
sta+aliEte, #o[$a +e $o!ol+no sa#o re6i .a.o +e $e#o.rats.i "roces
<e9 trans"arentnosti ne9a#isli!1 ;ao +e$an o$ "et stu"o!a )euro"s.e*
$o<re !la$a!ine u9 su$+elo!an+e )"artici"aci+u*, o$go!ornost,
$+elot!ornost i us.laZenost ).o%erentnost*, $efinirane u 5i+elo+ .n+i9i
o euro"s.o# !la$a!ins.o# susta!u i9 20011 trans"arentnost se
#o[e s#atrati +e$ni# o$ fun$a#entalni% naTela $e#o.raci+e i
!la$a!ine "ra!a1 CaTelo trans"arentnosti i ostala naTela $o<re
!la$a!ine "ri#+en+u+e se na s!e ra9ine !la$a!ine2 glo<alnu, euro"s.u,
nacionalnu, regionalnu i lo.alnu, te stoga 9a%ti+e!a+u na"ore s!i%
euro"s.i% instituci+a, sa$aEn+i% i <u$u6i% 9e#al+a Tlanica, regionalni%
i lo.alni% !lasti i ci!ilnog $ruEt!a1 Ia.o 9naTen+e trans"arentnosti o!isi
o #nogi# Ti#<enici#a, 9a "otre<e o!og ra$a ograniTit 6e#o se na
trans"arentnost .ao .onstituti!ni ele#ent lo.alne $e#o.raci+e1
I#a+u6i u !i$u $a, .ao !rlo #o6an Ti#<eni., trans"arentnost #o[e
una"ri+e$iti !la$a!inu, o+aTati lo.alni i regionalni ra9!o+, te $ati s!o+
o<ol <or<i "roti! .oru"ci+e )i vice versa*, u "r!o# $i+elu ra$a
fo.usira#o se na .once"t $o<re !la$a!ine )toT.a 111* i naTelo
trans"arentnosti )toT.a 112*, te naglaEa!a#o 9naTen+e i !a[nost
trans"arentnosti na lo.alno+ i regionalno+ ra9ini )toT.a 113*1
Casta!l+a#o s anali9o# ra9liTiti% as"e.ata naTela trans"arentnosti na
lo.alno+ i regionalno+ ra9ini u =r!ats.o+ )toT.a 211* i @aZars.o+
)toT.a 212*, u.l+uTu+u6i, inter alia, "ra!o na "ristu" infor#aci+a#a,
trans"arentnost "roce$ure $onoEen+a "ro"isa, su$+elo!an+e +a!nosti1 &
9a.l+uT.u )toT.a 3*, "re$sta!l+a#o uoTene ra9li.e i sliTnosti u
%r!ats.i# i #aZars.i# "ro"isi#a i "ra.si1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 trans"arentnost, $o<ra !la$a!ina, "ra!o na "ristu"
infor#aci+a#a, trans"arentnost "roce$ure $onoEen+a "ro"isa,
su$+elo!an+e +a!nosti
NBorderless4 M(nicipal ooperation in roatia and in .(ngar2
20
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
5oris 5a.ota, P%, associate "rofessor, >$#inistrati!e ,ciences
e"art#ent, -si+e., <<a.otaW"ra!osW%r
r1 >$ri:n (:<i:n, P%, $r1 %a<il1, assistant "rofessor, >$#inistrati!e
Law e"art#ent, Pcs, fa<ian1a$rianWa+.1"te1%u
5oris L+u<ano!i6, P%, associate "rofessor, >$#inistrati!e ,ciences
e"art#ent, -si+e., l+<orisW"ra!osW%r
@unici"al coo"eration is tra$itionall' an issue of national law, <ut in
recent $eca$es "artners%i"s a#ong local self-go!ern#ents, es"eciall'
in t%e fiel$ of regional $e!elo"#ent <eca#e an i#"ortant territor' of
su"ranational regulation as well1 In =ungar' t%e law#a.er, wit% $ue
attention to ?&-law, %el"s an$ encourages coo"eration a#ong
=ungarian local self-go!ern#ents an$ local self-go!ern#ents a<roa$,
for eMa#"le wit% t%e i#"le#entation of Regulation )?C* Co
$*?)O)**= of t5e E(ropean Parliament and of t5e o(ncil of &
'(l2 )**= on a E(ropean gro(ping of territorial cooperation
DEGTE# In Croatia, t%e Law on Local an$ Regional ,elf-4o!ern#ent
regulates t%e coo"eration of Croatian #unici"alities, cities, an$
counties wit% foreign units of local an$ regional self-go!ern#ent1
/%ose agree#ents are onl' su<+ect to t%e control of legalit' <'
Croatian @inistr' of >$#inistration1 /%is law also esta<lis%es so#e
foun$ations for "ossi<le coo"eration a#ong Croatian units of local
an$ regional self-go!ern#ent an$ for esta<lis%ing associations
<etween t%e#1
1e2words0 #unici"al coo"eration, local self-go!ern#ents, regional
self-go!ern#ent, regional $e!elo"#ent, grou"ing of territorial
cooperation- transfrontier Dcross!/orderE cooperation
MeI(opAins3a s(radn<a "/e9 granicaP ( .rvats3o< i MaIars3o<
Prof1$r1sc1 5oris 5a.ota, i9!anre$ni "rofesor, ;ate$ra u"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
-si+e., <<a.otaW"ra!osW%r
r1 %a<il1 >$ri:n (:<i:n, $ocent, ;ate$ra 9a u"ra!no "ra!o, PeTu%,
fa<ian1a$rianWa+.1"te1%u
Prof1$r1sc1 5oris L+u<ano!i6, i9!anre$ni "rofesor, ;ate$ra u"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
-si+e., l+<orisW"ra!osW%r
-"6ins.a +e sura$n+a tra$icionalno "itan+e nacionalnoga
30
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
9a.ono$a!st!a1 Co, u "osl+e$n+i# $esetl+e6i#a "artnerst!o lo.alni%
sa#ou"ra!a, a "ogla!ito u "ol+u regionalnoga ra9!it.a "ostalo +e
ta.oZer i !a[no "o$ruT+e na$nacionalne regulaci+e1 Aa.ono$a!ac u
@aZars.o+, s o<9iro# na ?& "ra!o, "o#a[e i "otiTe sura$n+u
i9#eZu #aZars.i% +e$inica lo.alne sa#ou"ra!e i strani% +e$inica
lo.alne sa#ou"ra!e, "ri#+erice "ro!e$<o# Regulati!e <r1
10J2`200I ?uro"s.og "arla#enta i Ki+e6a o$ 51 sr"n+a 200I1
?uro"ean grou"ing of territorial coo"eration )?4/C*1 Re"u<li.a
=r!ats.a s!o+i# Aa.on o lo.alno+ i "o$ruTno+ )regionalno+*
sa#ou"ra!i regulirala sura$n+u %r!ats.i% o"6ina, gra$o!a i
[u"ani+a sa strani# +e$inica#a lo.alne i regionalne sa#ou"ra!e1
,"ora9u#i o sura$n+i "o$lo[ni su na$9oru 9a.onitosti @inistarst!a
u"ra!e Re"u<li.e =r!ats.e1 Aa.ono# su us"osta!l+ene i osno!e 9a
#ogu6u sura$n+u %r!ats.i% +e$inica lo.alne i regionalne
sa#ou"ra!e, .ao i us"osta!l+an+e n+i%o!i% sa!e9a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 #eZuo"6ins.a sura$n+a, lo.alna sa#ou"ra!a,
regionalna sa#ou"ra!a, regionalni ra9!ita., gru"aci+a teritori+alne
sura$n+e, "re.ograniTna sura$n+a
Q.at:rtalanP Jn3orm:n29ati eg2MttmR3Jd,s .orv:tors9:g/an ,s
Mag2arors9:gon
Prof1$r1 5oris 5a.ota, P%, tan:r P, ;\9iga9gat:si Jogi /ans9.,
-si+e., <<a.otaW"ra!osW%r
r1 (:<i:n >$r:n, r1 %a<il1, eg'ete#i $ocens, ;\9iga9gat:si Jogi
/ans9., Pcs, fa<ian1a$rianWa+.1"te1%u
Prof1$r1 5oris L+u<ano!i6, P%, tan:r P,, ;\9iga9gat:si Jogi /ans9.,
-si+e., l+<orisW"ra!osW%r
>9 \n.or#:n'9ati eg']tt#^.\$s ug'an %ag'o#:n'osan a ne#9eti
+og t:rg'a, $e a9 el#_lt !ti9e$e.<en a %el'i \n.or#:n'9at o3 3J9Jtti
partners,g- 3MlJnJsen a terMletfe<les9t,s/en a s9(pranacion:lis
<ogal3ot:s fontos t:rg2:v: is v:lt# Mag2arors9:gon a <ogal3ot8-
te3intettel a9 EF!<ogra- seg7ti ,s /:tor7t<a a mag2ar ,s a 5at:ron
tSli Jn3orm:n29ato3 3J9Jtti eg2MttmR3Jd,st- p,ld:(l a9 eur8"ai
ter]leti eg']tt#^.\$si cso"ortosul:sr8l )?uro"ean 4rou"ing of
/erritorial Coo"eration, ?4/C* s98l8 10J2`200I`?; ren$elet )200I1
+_lius 51* i#"le#ent:ci8+:!al1 =or!:tors9:g<an, a %el'i s region:lis
31
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
\n.or#:n'9ato.r8l s98l8 t\r!n' s9a<:l'o99a a %or!:t tele"]lse.,
!:roso. s #eg'., illet!e a .]lf\l$i %el'i, ter]leti \n.or#:n'9ato.
.\9\tti eg']tt#^.\$st1 ?9e. a #eg:lla"o$:so. a %or!:t
;\9iga9gat:si @inis9triu# t\r!n'essgi fel]g'elete alatt :llna.1 ?9
a t\r!n' ug'ancsa. int9#n'es7t n%:n' ala"7t!:n't a %or!:t
tele"]lsi s ter]leti \n.or#:n'9ato. .\9\tt le%etsges
eg']tt#^.\$sre, illet!e t:rsul:sai. ltre%o9:s:ra1
1(lcss9ava30 /ele"]lsi eg']tt#^.\$s, %el'i \n.or#:n'9ato.,
ter]leti \n.or#:n'9ato., ter]letfe+les9ts, eur8"ai ter]leti
eg']tt#^.\$si cso"ortosul:s, %at:ron :tn'_l8 eg']tt#^.\$s
T5e finances of local and regional self!government (nits
r1 Aso#<or ?rcse', P%, assistant lecturer, e"art#ent of (inancial
Law, Pcs, ercse'19so#<orWa+.1"te1%u
?#ina Jer.o!i6, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of (inancial Law an$
(inancial ,cience, -si+e., e.on+icW"ra!os1%r
Renata Peri6, P%, full "rofessor, e"art#ent of (inancial Law an$
(inancial ,cience, -si+e., r"ericW"ra!os1%r
r1 Csa<a ,9ilo!ics, P%, $r1 %a<il1, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
(inancial Law, Pcs, s9ilo!ics1csa<aWa+.1"te1%u
/%is "a"er, using t%e aca$e#ic results an$ scientific contri<ution of
t%e "a"er $rawn u" in t%e ?&CIC-P "ro+ect, anal'9es t%e
$e!elo"#ent tren$s of t%e financing of local an$ regional self-
go!ern#ent units1 >ccor$ingl', t%e $ifferent wa's of for#ation of t%e
!arious territorial units )e1g1 #unici"al, local, an$ regional units*,
furt%er#ore t%e $elegate$ tas.s, $uties an$ "owers are scrutini9e$ in
lig%t of t%e relate$ econo#ic an$ financial #atters1 In t%is regar$, t%e
#o$ification of t%e =ungarian s'ste# is lai$ out, ta.ing into account
t%e new regulation a""lica<le for t%is area1 /%e new =ungarian s'ste#
is co#"are$ wit% t%e effecti!e Croatian one, <' rel'ing on t%e #o$els
of t%e #e#<er states of t%e ?uro"ean &nion1 /%e #easures, w%ic%
coul$ <e use$ in t%e =ungarian an$`or t%e Croatian structure fro# t%e
?uro"ean "ractice, are "ointe$ out, an$ "ro"osals are #a$e on %ow to
transfor# or a#en$ t%e current sc%e#es1 In a$$ition to t%ese, t%e
"ossi<le regional coo"eration #et%o$s regar$ing finance an$ "u<lic
re!enues are eMa#ine$, focusing on t%e regional $e!elo"#ent
32
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
ca"acities in relation to t%e +oint cross <or$er acti!ities1 /%us,
"ro"osals are $rawn u" in or$er to encourage t%e units in Vuestion to
launc% $iscussions an$ also "ro+ects1
1e2words0 regional $e!elo"#ent, "u<lic re!enue, local <u$get,
financial #anage#ent, cross <or$er fun$ing
Tinanci<e <edinica lo3alne i regionalne samo(prave
r1sc1 Aso#<or ?rcse', #laZi "re$a!aT, ;ate$ra financi+s.og "ra!a,
PeTu%, ercse'19so#<orWa+.1"te1%u
?#ina Jer.o!i6, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra financi+s.i% 9nanosti,
-si+e., e.on+icW"ra!os1%r
Prof1$r1sc1 Renata Peri6, re$o!ita "rofesorica, ;ate$ra financi+s.i%
9nanosti, -si+e., r"ericW"ra!os1%r
r1%a<il1 Csa<a ,9ilo!ics, $ocent, ;ate$ra financi+s.og "ra!a, PeTu%,
s9ilo!ics1csa<aWa+.1"te1%u
>.a$e#s.i re9ultati i 9nanst!eni $o"rinos ra$a o<+a!l+enog unutar
?&CIC-P "ro+e.ta te#el+ su nasta!.a sura$n+e na o!o# ra$u .o+i
anali9ira ra9!o+ne tren$o!e financi+a +e$inica lo.alne i regionalne
sa#ou"ra!e1 & s.la$u s ti#, ra9#otrit 6e#o ra9liTite naTine
ustro+a!an+a sa#i% +e$inica )[u"ani+a, gra$o!a i o"6ina* i 9a$at.e,
o<!e9e i o!lasti .o+e su i# $o$i+el+ene u s!+etlu trenutne e.ono#s.e i
financi+s.e situaci+e1 & to# s#islu, "re$sta!it 6e#o #o$ifi.aci+u
#aZars.og susta!a, u9i#a+u6i u o<9ir no!u "ra!nu regulati!u
"ri#+en+i!u na o!o "o$ruT+e1 &s"ore$it 6e#o no!i #aZars.i susta! s
%r!ats.i# susta!o# .o+i +e trenutno na sna9i, oslan+a+u6i se
isto!re#eno na #o$ele .o+i su u "ri#+eni u $r[a!a#a Tlanica#a ?&1
,.renut 6e#o "a[n+u i na #+ere euro"s.e "ra.se .o+e su "ri#+en+i!e i
u #aZars.o# i u %r!ats.o# susta!u u9 "ri+e$log .a.o i% Eto
uTin.o!iti+e "ri#i+eniti1 & nasta!.u 6e#o is"itati i #ogu6e #eto$e
regionalne sura$n+e .a$ su u "itan+u financi+e i +a!ni "ri%o$i,
fo.usira+u6i se na ra9!o+ regionalni% .a"aciteta u !e9i sa 9a+e$niT.i#
"re.ograniTni# a.ti!nosti#a1 ,asta!it 6e#o "ri+e$log o to#e .a.o
"ota.nuti +e$inice na $is.usi+u i 9a+e$niT.e "ro+e.te1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 regionalni ra9!o+, +a!ni "ri%o$i, "roraTun JLR,,
financi+s.o u"ra!l+an+e, "re.ograniTno financiran+e
33
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
A 5el2i ,s region:lis Jn3orm:n29ato3 ga9d:l3od:s:r8l
r1 Aso#<or ?rcse', P%, eg'ete#i tan:rseg$, Pn9]g'i Jogi
/ans9., Pcs, ercse'19so#<orWa+.1"te1%u
?#ina Jer.o!i6, #ag1iur, eg'ete#i tan:rseg$, Pn9]g'i Jogi s
Pn9]g'i /u$o#:n'i /ans9., ?s9., e.on+icW"ra!os1%r
Prof1$r1sc1 Renata Peri6, P%, eg'ete#i tan:r, Pn9]g'i Jogi s
Pn9]g'i /u$o#:n'i /ans9., ?s9., r"ericW"ra!os1%r
r1 Csa<a ,9ilo!ics, P%, $r1 %a<il1, eg'ete#i $ocens, tans9.!e9etQ,
Pn9]g'i Jogi /ans9., Pcs, s9ilo!ics1csa<aWa+.1"te1%u
> tanul#:n'<an a9 ?&CIC-P "ro+e.t .eret<en s9]letett
"u<li.:ci8n. tu$o#:n'os ere$#n'eit %as9nos7t!a !i9sg:l+u. a %el'i
s region:lis \n.or#:n'9ati s9inte. ga9$:l.o$:s:na. fe+lQ$si
ir:n'ait1 ?nne. #egfelelQen a9 \n.or#:n'9ati s9inte. )%el'i, ter]leti,
region:lis st<1* .iala.7t:s:na. .]l\n<\9Q _t+ait, to!:<<: a $eleg:lt,
illet!e :tru%:9ott fela$at- s %at:s.\r\.et ele#e99]. a ga9$as:gi,
ga9$:l.o$:si s "n9]g'i .r$s.\r\. t].r<en1 ?<<en a te.intet<en a
#ag'ar ren$s9er #8$os7t:sait #utat+u. <e, fig'ele##el a9 e ter]letre
!onat.o98 _+ s9a<:l'o9:sra1 ?nne. #egfelelQen a9 _+ #ag'ar
ren$s9ert a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8 tag:lla#ai<an al.al#a9ott #o$elle.
tanul#:n'o9:s:!al %asonl7t+u. \ss9e a %at:l'os %or!:t stru.t_r:!al1
;ie#el+]. a9o.at a #egol$:so.at, a#el'e. a9 eur8"ai g'a.orlat<8l
:t!e%etQe. a #ag'ar, illet!e a %or!:t ren$s9er<e, s +a!aslato.at
fogal#a9un. #eg arra, %og' %og'an lenne r$e#es :tala.7tani, illet!e
#8$os7tani a +elenlegi ren$s9ere.et1 ?#ellett tanul#:n'un.<an
#eg!i9sg:l+u. a finans97ro9:sra s a .\9<e!tele. <i9tos7t:s:ra
!onat.o98 le%etsges region:lis eg']tt#^.\$si #8$s9ere.et, .]l\n\s
te.intettel a %at:ro.on :tn'_l8 .\9\s te!.en'sge..el \ss9ef]ggQ
region:lis fe+les9tsi alternat7!:.ra1 ?9e. ala"+:n +a!aslato.at
fogal#a9un. #eg anna. r$e.<en, %og' \s9t\n\99]. a !i9sg:lt
\n.or#:n'9ati s9inte.et a ":r<es9$re s "ro+e.te. #eg!al8s7t:s:ra1
1(lcss9ava30 region:lis fe+les9ts, .\9<e!tele., \n.or#:n'9ati
.\ltsg!ets, ga9$:l.o$:s-ir:n'7t:s, %at:ro.on :tn'_l8 finans97ro9:s
Regional governance0 5istorical approac5
Manors in Baran<a o(nt2 in t5e $?
t5
and $@
t5
cent(r2
34
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
r1 Asu9sanna Peres, P%, senior lecturer, Pcs,
"eres19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
@iro 4ar$aE, P%, associate "rofessor, e"art#ent of Legal =istor',
-si+e., #gar$asW"ra!os1%r
Jelena RoE.ar, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of Legal =istor', -si+e.,
+ros.arW"ra!os1%r
(un$a#ental c%aracteristics of late feu$al relations in ,la!onia an$
5aran+a are t%e result of e!ents t%at occurre$ i##e$iatel' after t%e
war wit% t%e /ur.s1 >lt%oug% no<le estates eMiste$ in t%e #i$$le ages,
t%e "erennial /ur.is% rule resulte$ in t%e loss of legal <asis for t%eir
%ol$ing an$ t%e new "ossessors <eca#e t%e "ro#inent no<les fro# all
o!er t%e >ustrian ?#"ire, w%o were gi!en t%ose estates as a gift for
"artici"ating in t%e war against t%e /ur.s1 ,uc% for#s of estates were
esta<lis%e$ in 5aran+a in t%e 1Jt% centur', wit% t%e first suc% estates
gi!en to Janos an$ (rie$ric% Keterani w%o "ossesse$ ar$a an$ t%e
surroun$ings an$ t%e >rc%$u.e ?ugen of ,a!o', to w%o# ;ing
Leo"ol$ ce$e$ "ossession of 5ell'e1 In t%e nort% of 5aran+a count'
estates were #ainl' gi!en to foreigners as well as to "ro#inent
=ungarian aristocrats1 5esi$es t%e #anorial s'ste# t%e structure of t%e
local a$#inistration wit%in t%e <or$ers of t%e count' an$ t%e
esta<lis%#ent of t%e local a$#inistrati!e organs is also a !er'
i#"ortant su<+ect <elonging to t%e t%e#e of t%e article1 ?!er'$a' life
of t%e count' an$ t%e cit' of Pcs )turning into a ro'al free cit'*
s%oul$ <e intro$uce$ t%roug% t%e eMa#ination of t%e count'
asse#<l'Hs #inutes an$ ot%er i#"ortant arc%i!e $ocu#ents relate$ to
t%is su<+ect1 In t%e following article, we will also eM"lain t%e legal
regulation of #anors in 5aran+a count' an$ c%anges in owners%i"
relations t%at #anors %a$ <een eM"ose$ to $uring t%e 1Jt% an$ 10t%
centur'1
1e2words2 #anor, $onations, 5ell'e an$ ar$a #anors, 5aran+a
count', ro'al free cit' Pecs1
>elepos<ed ( Baran<i ti<e3om $?# i $@ st#
r1sc1 Asu9sanna Peres, !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra 9a "ra!nu "o!i+est,
PeTu%, "eres19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
35
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Prof1$r1sc1 @iro 4ar$aE, i9!anre$ni "rofesor, ;ate$ra Pra!no-"o!i+esni%
9nanosti, -si+e., #gar$asW"ra!os1%r
Jelena RoE.ar, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra Pra!no-"o!i+esni%
9nanosti, -si+e., +ros.arW"ra!os1%r
/e#el+na o<il+e[+a .asnofeu$alni% !ele"os+e$niT.i% o$nosa u
,la!oni+i i 5aran+i "osl+e$ica su 9<i!an+a nastali% ne"osre$no na.on
rata 9a oslo<oZen+e o$ turs.e !lasti1 Ia.o su "le#i6.i "os+e$i na o!i#
"o$ruT+i#a "osto+ali u rani+e# sre$n+e# !i+e.u, !iEego$iEn+a turs.a
!la$a!ina re9ultirala +e gu<ita.o# "ra!ni% osno!a $r[an+a <i!Ei%
"os+e$ni.a, a no!i# "os+e$nici#a "ostali su ista.nuti "le#i6i s
"o$ruT+a ci+ele >ustri+s.e care!ine .o+i#a su 9e#l+o"os+e$i $aro!ani
.ao nagra$a 9a su$+elo!an+e u ratu "roti! /ura.a1 o uo<liTen+a
ta.!og ti"a !ele"os+e$a u 5aran+i $oElo +e "oTet.o# 1J1 st1, a "r!e
!ele"os+e$e na "o$ruT+u +u[ne 5aran+e $aro!nico# su $o<ili Janos i
(rie$ric% Keterani .o+i su "os+e$o!ali ar$u i o.olicu, te na$!o+!o$a
?ugen ,a!o's.i .o#e +e %r!ats.o-ugars.i .ral+ Leo"ol$ 11 ustu"io
"os+e$ 5ell'e1 Ca s+e!erno# $i+elu <aran+s.e [u"ani+e "os+e$e su
ste.li ugla!no# stranci te ista.nuti #aZars.i aristo.rati1 Pore$
#anori+alnog susta!a, ustro+ lo.alne u"ra!e u granica#a [u"ani+e i
us"osta!a u"ra!ni% organa !lasti ta.oZer su !a[an $io istra[i!an+a1
+elo!an+e [u"ani+e i gra$a PeTu%a )st+ecan+e statusa slo<o$nog
.ral+e!s.og gra$a* "ri.at 6e#o u!i$o# u a.te [u"ani+s.e s.u"Etine te
ar%i!s.u graZu !e9anu u9 naslo! ra$a1 & nasta!.u ra$a "ri.a9at 6e#o
i "ra!no ureZen+e <aran+s.i% !lastelinsta!a te "ro#+ene u !lasniT.i#
o$nosi#a .o+i#a su "os+e$i <ili i9lo[eni ti+e.o# 1J1 i 101 stol+e6a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 !ele"os+e$, $onaci+e, !laselinst!o 5ell'e i ar$a,
[u"ani+a 5aran+a, slo<o$ni .ral+e!s.i gra$ PeTu%1
Lag2/irto3o3 Baran2a meg2,/en a $?O$@# s9:9ad/an
r1 Asu9sanna Peres, a$+un.tus, Jogt\rtneti /ans9., Pcs,
"eres19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
Prof1$r1sc1 @iro 4ar$aE, tan:r, Jogt\rtneti /ans9., ?s9.,
#gar$asW"ra!os1%r
Jelena RoE.ar, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, Jogt\rtneti /ans9., ?s9.,
+ros.arW"ra!os1%r
3I
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
> t\r\. %:<or_. i$Qs9a.:t .\!etQen le9a+lott ese#n'e. ln'egesen
%o99:+:rulta. 5aran'a s ,9la!8nia .sQi feu$:lis s9er!e9etne.
+elentQs :tala.ul:s:%o91 =a<:r a t\r\. <et\rst #egelQ9Q i$Qs9a.<an
e9e.en a ter]lete.en #ag'ar ne#esi csal:$o. ren$el.e9te.
<irto.o..al, a .sQ<<ie. sor:n el!es9tett. e9e.ne. a <irto.o.na. a
#egtart:s:%o9 s9].sges +ogi <:9isu.at s _+, \r\.\s tarto#:n'o.<eli
ne#esi csal:$o. .er]lte. letele"7tsre, a.i. a t\r\. elleni %arc<an
tan_s7tott %Qsies #agatart:su.rt .a"ta. a$o#:n'o.at1 Il' #8$on
+utotta. a$o#:n'%o9 a 1J1 s9:9a$ fol'a#:n Keter:ni J:nos s (rig'es,
a.i. #egs9ere9t. a $:r$ai ura$al#at a %o99:tarto98 <irto.o..al,
illet!e ,a!o'ai JenQ gr8f, a.i I1 Li"8t #ag'ar .ir:l't8l a$o#:n'<a
.a"ta 5ell't1 5aran'a s9a.i rs9n #ag'ar s .]lf\l$i ne#esi
csal:$o. eg'ar:nt s9ere9te. <irto.o.at a t\r\. .i^9st .\!etQ
i$Qs9a.<an1 >9 a$o#:n'ren$s9er <e#utat:sa #ellett r$e#es
fig'el#et s9entelni a #eg'ei .\9iga9gat:si _++:s9er!e9sne. is a
t\r\. .i^9st .\!etQ i$Qs9a.<an1 ?9en <el]l <e#utat:sra r$e#es a
#eg'ei .\9iga9gat:s _++:"7tse a .a#arai iga9gat:s %el'ett s Pcs
!:ros s9a<a$ .ir:l'i !:ross: e#else is1 @in$e9e. <e#utat:s:na.
ala"+:ul a !:r#eg'ei .\9g'^lsi +eg'9Q.\n'!e. s eg'< fontos
le!lt:ri forr:so. s9olg:lna.1 =asonl8.""en t:rg'al:sra .er]l a
nag'<irto.o. iga9gat:s:na. t\rtnete s a 1J`101 s9:9a$ fol'a#:n
<e.\!et.e9ett tula+$onos!:lto9:so. is1
1(lcss9ava30 nag'<irto., a$o#:n', 5ell'e s :r$a, 5aran'a #eg'e,
Pcs s9a<a$ .ir:l'i !:ros1
T5e genesis and evol(tion of local governments d(ring t5e time of
t5e d(alism
KiEn+a Lac%ner, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of Legal =istor',
-si+e., !lac%nerW"ra!os1%r
r1 Asu9sanna Peres, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of Legal
=istor', Pcs, "eresWa+.1"te1%u
Josi" Kr<oEi6, P%, full "rofessor, e"art#ent of Legal =istor',
-si+e., +!r<osicW"ra!os1%r
/%e first "art of t%e article $eals wit% t%e reorgani9ation of =ungarian
local a$#inistration after t%e >ustro-=ungarian Co#"ro#ise of 1JIS1
(irst of all t%e "rinci"les of t%e #o$ern a$#inistration are $escri<e$
3S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
suc% as t%e o<ser!ance of legalit' in t%e fiel$ of a$#inistration an$ t%e
se"aration of t%e a$#inistration fro# t%e +u$icature t%at %a$ <een
regulate$ in =ungar' <' >ct 4 of 1JI01 5esi$es t%e $escri"tion of t%e
organi9ation of local a$#inistration, t%e article ela<orates u"on t%e
count' a$#inistration, t%e towns %a!ing #unici"al rig%ts, an$ t%e
!illage-s'ste# containing t%e s#all !illages, t%e <ig !illages an$
Gs#all towns %a!ing regular councilsH1 3it%in t%e fra#es of t%is local
a$#inistrati!e s'ste# t%e $ou<le tas.s of <ot% t%e self-go!ern#ent
an$ t%e centrali9e$ an$ #o$ern "u<lic a$#inistration %a$ to <e re-
esta<lis%e$ after t%e en$ of t%e neoa<solutis#, regulate$ <' se!eral
acts of law $uring t%e last t%ir$ of t%e 10
t%
an$ <eginning of t%e 20
t%
centur'1 >fter t%e conclusion of t%e Croatian-=ungarian ,ettle#ent,
local go!ern#ents in Croatia an$ ,la!onia continue$ to function as
t%e %ig%est a$#inistrati!e-territorial units wit%in t%e count', alongsi$e
#unici"alities an$ cities1 /%e count', as a <asis of "olitical an$
territorial organi9ation an$ count' a$#inistration %as $uring t%e
Co#"ro#ise un$ergone t%ree reorgani9ations in 1JS0, 1JS4 an$ 1JJI1
=owe!er, "articular attention is $rawn to t%e territorial-a$#inistrati!e
structure esta<lis%e$ <' t%e law of 1JJI w%ic% esta<lis%e$ t%e
foun$ations of a #o$ern a$#inistrati!e structure in t%ese areas1 /%e
"osition an$ structure of Croatian cities was regulate$ <' law in 1JJ1
w%ic% was also t%e first law of t%e Croatian Parlia#ent t%at $rew u"
t%e structure an$ legal "osition of cities in t%e #o$ern "erio$1 /%is
local go!ern#ent was un$er t%e $o#inating influence of t%e >ustro-
=ungarian, "articularl' t%roug% eMecuti!e aut%orit' - 5an, "refect -
an$ #ar.e$ ten$enc' towar$s centrali9ation1
1e2words0 >ustro-=ungarian Co#"ro#ise, t%e "rinci"les of t%e
#o$ern a$#inistration, local a$#inistration, count', centrali9ation1
Gene9a i evol(ci<a lo3alni5 samo(prava ( vri<eme d(ali9ma
KiEn+a Lac%ner, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra Pra!no-"o!i+esni%
9nanosti, -si+e., !lac%nerW"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 Asu9sanna Peres, !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra 9a "ra!nu "o!i+est,
PeTu%, "eres19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
Prof1$r1sc1 Josi" Kr<oEi6, re$o!iti "rofesor, ;ate$ra Pra!no-"o!i+esni%
9nanosti, -si+e., +!r<osicW"ra!os1%r
3J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
& ra$u se ra9#atra reorgani9aci+a #aZars.e lo.alne sa#ou"ra!e
na.on >ustro-ugars.e nago$<e 1JIS1 go$ine1 Pri+e s!ega, o"isana su
naTela #o$erne u"ra!e .ao Eto su "oEti!an+e 9a.onitosti na "o$ruT+u
u"ra!e ili o$!a+an+e u"ra!e o$ su$st!a, a .o+a su u @aZars.o+
regulirana Aa.ons.i# a.to# <r1 41 i9 1JI01 Ulana. sa$r[i, osi# o"isa
organi9aci+e lo.alne sa#ou"ra!e, organi9aci+u [u"ani+a, gra$o!a .o+i
i#a+u sa#ou"ra!na "ra!a, seos.i% o"6ine .o+e se $i+ele na #ale,
!eli.e i e#ale gra$o!e .o+i i#a+u re$o!ita !i+e6ae1 & s.lo"u o!og
lo.alnog sa#ou"ra!nog susta!a $!ostru.i 9a$aci i sa#ou"ra!e te
centrali9irane i #o$erne +a!ne u"ra!e #orali su <iti "ono!no
us"osta!l+eni na.on 9a!rEet.a neoa"soluti9#a i regulirani s ne.oli.o
9a.ona ti+e.o# 9a$n+e tre6ine 101 i "oTet.o# 201 stol+e6a1 Ca.on
s.la"an+a =r!ats.o-ugars.e nago$<e, organi9aci+s.i +e lo.alna
sa#ou"ra!a u =r!ats.o+ i ,la!oni+i i $al+e fun.cionirala u o.!iru
[u"ani+a .ao na+!iEi% a$#inistrati!no-teritori+alni% +e$inica te o"6ina i
gra$o!a1 Lu"ani+e, .ao te#el+ "olitiT.o-teritori+alne organi9aci+e, i
[u"ani+s.a u"ra!a $o[i!+ele su 9a !ri+e#e tra+an+a Cago$<e tri no!e
organi9aci+e i to 1JS01, 1JS41 i 1JJI1 go$ine1 I"a., oso<itu "o9ornost
"ri!laTi teritori+alno-u"ra!no ustro+st!o ustano!l+eno 9a.ono# i9
1JJI1 go$ine .o+i# su ut!rZeni te#el+i #o$erne u"ra!ne organi9aci+e
na o!i# "o$ruT+i#a1 CeEto Eiri o<li. sa#ou"ra!l+an+a nala9i#o te. u
gra$s.i# i seos.i# o"6ina#a, .ao lo.alni# sa#ou"ra!ni# ti+eli#a i
"o#o6ni# organi#a $r[a!ne u"ra!e1 Polo[a+ i ustro+ %r!ats.i%
gra$o!a <io +e ureZen 9a.ono# i9 1JJ11 go$ine .o+i +e u+e$no <io i
"r!i 9a.on =r!ats.og sa<ora Eto +e ure$io ustro+ i "olo[a+ gra$o!a u
#o$erno# ra9$o<l+u1 -!a lo.alna sa#ou"ra!a <ila +e "o$
$o#inira+u6i# austri+s.o-#aZars.i# ut+eca+e#, oso<ito "re.o
i9!rEni% organa <ana, [u"ana te o<il+e[ena ten$enci+o# "re#a
centrali9aci+i1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 >ustro-ugars.a nago$<a, naTela #o$erne u"ra!e,
lo.alna sa#ou"ra!a, [u"ani+e, centrali9aci+a
A 5el2i Jn3orm:n29atis:g gene9ise ,s fe<lHd,se a d(ali9m(s
idHs9a3:/an
KiEn+a Lac%ner, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, Jogt\rtneti /ans9., ?s9.,
!lac%nerW"ra!os1%r
30
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
r1 Asu9sanna Peres, P%, a$+un.tus, Jogt\rtneti /ans9., Pcs,
"eresWa+.1"te1%u
Prof1$r1sc1 Josi" Kr<oEi6, P%, eg'ete#i tan:r, Jogt\rtneti /ans9.,
?s9., +!r<osicW"ra!os1%r
> tanul#:n' elsQ rs9e a #ag'ar \n.or#:n'9ati ren$s9er
_++:"7tsne. t\rtnet!el foglal.o9i., a9 1JIS-es .ieg'e9st
.\!etQen1 ?lsQ.nt ol'an #o$ern .\9iga9gat:si ala"el!e.et taglal,
#int a .\9iga9gat:s t\r!n'essge, illet!e a .\9iga9gat:s
iga9s:gs9olg:ltat:st8l !al8 el!:las9t:s:na. s9].sgessge, a#el'et
@ag'arors9:gon a9 1JI0241 tc1 r\g97tett1 > tanul#:n'<an rs9letes
<e#utat:sra .er]l a ter]leti \n.or#:n'9ati ren$s9er fel"7tse, a
t\r!n'%at8s:go., a t\r!n'%at8s:gi +og_ !:ros, illet!e a .\9sge.,
.\9\tt]. a .is- s nag'.\9sg s a ren$e9ett tan:cs_ !:ros, .]l\n\s
te.intettel #in$a9o.ra a9 \n.or#:n'9ati s :lla#iga9gat:si
teen$Q.re, #el'e.et a neoa<s9oluti9#us fels9:#ol:s:t .\!etQen, a
#o$ern iga9gat:si ren$s9er .eretein <el]l, a fent e#l7tett ter]leti
\n.or#:n'9ato. fela$at- s %at:s.\r<e tarto9ott1 @in$e9e. a 10`201
s9:9a$ for$ul8+:n al.otott +ogs9a<:l'o. ala"+:n .er]lne. fel!e9etsre1
> #ag'ar-%or!:t .ieg'e9st .\!etQen =or!:tors9:g<an a %el'i
\n.or#:n'9atis:g ala""illrt to!:<<ra is a #eg'e ."e9i, #int a
legnag'o<< .\9iga9gat:si eg'sg, illet!e a #eg'ei`t\r!n'%at8s:gi
+og_ !:roso. s eg'< !:roso., .\9sge.1 > #eg'e, #int ter]leti s
eg'<en "oliti.ai s9er!e9et s a #eg'ei iga9gat:s is %:ro# %ull:#<an
.er]lt _++:s9er!e9sre a .ieg'e9st .\!etQen, 1JS0-<en, 1JS4-<en s
1JJI-<an1 ;]l\n\s fig'el#et r$e#el a9 1JJI-<an al.otott t\r!n'
:ltali ter]leti-iga9gat:si ren$s9er, a#el' _+ ter]leti iga9gat:si
s9er!e.et %o9ott ltre1 > %or!:t !:roso. %el'9ett s s9er.e9eti ren$+t
s9a<:l'o98 1JJ11 !i t\r!n' !olt a9 elsQ ol'an, a#el' #eg%at:ro9ta a
!:roso. +ogi %el'9ett s stru.t_r:+:t a #o$ern.or<an1 > %el'i
\n.or#:n'9ati ren$s9er fel"7tst a9 os9tr:.-#ag'ar !gre%a+t8
%atalo# s anna. !gre%a+t:si s9er!e a <:n, illet!e a fQis":no.
s9ignifi.:nsan <efol':solta, #in$in.:<< a centrali9:ci8 ir:n':<a tol!a
el anna. stru.t_r:+:t1
1(lcss9ava30 -s9tr:.-#ag'ar .ieg'e9st, #o$ern .\9iga9gat:si
ala"el!e.et, \n.or#:n'9ati, #eg'e, centrali9:ci8
40
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Glo/al so(rces of local laws eUample of N<(st price4 Di(st(m
preti(mE
@ar.o Petra., P%, full "rofessor, C%air of Ro#an Law, Aagre<,
#ar.o1"etra.W"ra!o1%r
Ci.ol Li%a, P%, senior assistant, C%air of Ro#an Law, -si+e.,
ni.ol9W"ra!os1%r
J:nos Jus9tinger, P%, senior lecturer, C%air of Ro#an Law, Pcs,
+us9tinger1+anosWa+.1"te1%u
/%e "resent "a"er en$ea!ors to eM"lore t%e influence of glo<al laws
)in "articular Ro#an an$ Canon law* on t%e $e!elo"#ent of
=ungarian an$ Croatian local legal s'ste#s !ia t%e eMa#"le of t%e
legal conce"t of G+ust "riceH )iustu# "retiu#*1 In or$er to anal'9e t%e
su<+ect #ore t%oroug%l', t%e $e!elo"#ent of t%e i$ea of a +ust "rice
)iustu# "retiu#* in ancient "%iloso"%ical an$ religious teac%ings, in
"articular in ancient Ro#an law, will <e s%own, wit% s"ecial e#"%asis
on t%e notion of eMcessi!e $a#age )laesio enor#is*1 /%e researc% will,
inter alia, tr' to "ro!i$e an answer to t%e Vuestion w%et%er t%e Ro#an
legal s'ste# was a<le to %ar#oni9e t%e "rinci"le of eVualit' in
eMc%ange wit% t%e reVuire#ents of a sta<le co##ercial traffic wit% t%e
%el" of t%e conce"t of laesio enor#is1 /%e $octrines of iustu# "retiu#
in #e$ie!al Ro#an legal tra$ition an$ #e$ie!al Canon law will
<riefl' <e anal'9e$ t%ereafter1 5ase$ on t%e conclusions $rawn, t%e
central "art of t%e wor. will focus on t%e "otential influence of t%e
#e$ie!al $octrines of a +ust "rince on conte#"orar' =ungarian an$
Croatian legal sources, in "articular /ri"artitu# )1514* an$ t%e ,tatute
of Ilo. )1525*1 /%erefore, all t%e rele!ant as"ects of t%e legal #eaning
of t%e ter# iustu# "retiu# an$ ot%er eVui!alent or #atc%ing
eM"ressions )con$ignu# "retiu#, iusta aesti#atio, con$igna
aesti#atio* of t%ose two legal sources will <e eMa#ine$1 In t%e final
"art of t%e researc%, t%e influence of t%e Ro#an-canonical "rinci"le of
eVualit' in eMc%ange as a #anifestation of co##utati!e +ustice
)+ustitia co##utati!e* on conte#"orar' =ungarian an$ Croatian law
of o<ligations will <e in!estigate$1 /%e eMa#ine$ "rinci"le as a
"resent for# t%e ancient i$ea of G+ust "riceH )iustu# "retiu#* will also
<e anal'9e$ !ia t%e "articular eMa#"le of t%e legal conce"t of
41
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
eMcessi!e $a#age )laesio enor#is*1 /%e aut%ors %o"e t%at t%e
afore#entione$ researc% will "ro!i$e a contri<ution to t%e $iscussion
concerning t%e influence of glo<al legal s'ste#s on GlocalH legal
tra$itions in t%e "ast an$ t%e "resent1
1e2words0 iustu# "retiu#, Ro#an law, rece"tion, /ri"artitu#,
,tatute of Ilo., Ci!il law
Glo/alni i9vori lo3alni5 prava prim<er "pravedne ci<eneP
Di(st(m preti(mE
Prof1$r1sc1 @ar.o Petra., re$o!iti "rofesor, ;ate$ra 9a ri#s.o "ra!o,
Aagre<, #ar.o1"etra.W"ra!o1%r
r1sc1 Ci.ol Li%a, !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra ri#s.og "ra!a, -si+e.,
ni.ol9W"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 J:nos Jus9tinger, !iEi "re$a!aT, ;ate$ra 9a ri#s.o "ra!o, PeTu%,
+us9tinger1+anosWa+.1"te1%u
Cil+ o!og istra[i!an+a +e anali9irati ut+eca+ glo<alni% "ra!ni% siste#a
)"ose<ice ri#s.og i .anons.og "ra!a* na ra9!o+ lo.alni% "ra!ni%
"ore$a.a u @aZars.o+ i =r!ats.o+ na "ri#+eru instituta b"ra!e$ne
ci+eneN )iustu# "retiu#*1 ;a.o <i se Eto "o$ro<ni+e #ogla o<ra$iti
na!e$ena te#ati.a, "ret%o$no 6e se "ri.a9ati ra9!o+ i$e+e o "ra!e$no+
ci+eni )iustu# "retiu#* u antiT.i# filo9ofi+s.i# i religi+s.i# uTen+i#a
te "ose<ice u antiT.o# ri#s.o# "ra!u, s "ose<ni# os!rto# na institut
"re.o#+ernog oEte6en+a )laesio enor#is*1 Istra[i!an+e 6e - inter alia -
"o.uEati "ru[iti o$go!or na "itan+e, +e li ri#s.i "ra!ni susta! u9
"o#o6 instituta laesio enormis <io s"oso<an us.la$iti "rinci"
"ra!iTnosti sa 9a%t+e!i#a sta<ilnog trgo!aT.og "ro#eta1 Poto# 6e se
u.rat.o raETlaniti s%!a6an+a o iustum pretium u sre$n+o!+e.o!no+
ri#s.o+ "ra!no+ tra$ici+i i u sre$n+o!+e.o!no# .anons.o# "ra!u1 Ca
te#el+u s"o9na+a $o<i!eni% to# raETla#<o#, u sre$iEn+e# $i+elu ra$a
6e se nasto+ati istra[iti #o[e<itni ut+eca+ sre$n+o!+e.o!ni% s%!a6an+a o
"ra!e$no+ ci+eni na ono$o<na ugars.a i %r!ats.a "ra!na !rela, oso<ito
na 3er<Qc9'+e! /ri"artit i9 15141 go$ine te na IloT.i statut i9 15251
go$ine1 ,toga 6e se $etal+no o<ra$iti s!i rele!antni as"e.ti "ra!nog
9naTen+a i9ra9a iustu# "retiu# te ostali% isto9naTni% ili "o$u$arni%
i9ra9a )con$ignu# "retiu#, iusta aesti#atio, con$igna aesti#atio* u
o$re$<a#a ti% $!a+u "ra!ni% !rela1 & "osl+e$n+e# $i+elu istra[i!an+a,
42
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
istra[it 6e se ut+eca+ ri#s.o-.anons.og naTela +e$na.e !ri+e$nosti
Tini$a<a .ao i9ra9a .o#utati!ne "ra!e$nosti )iustitia co##utati!a* na
su!re#eno #aZars.o i %r!ats.o o<!e9no "ra!o1 Ca!e$eno naTelo .ao
$anaEn+i o<li. antiT.e i$e+e b"ra!e$ne ci+eneN )iustu# "retiu#*
ta.oZer 6e se "ose<ice anali9irati na "ri#+eru instituta "re.o#+ernog
oEte6en+a )laesio enor#is*1 >utori se na$a+u $a 6e na!e$eni#
istra[i!an+e# "ru[iti +e$an "rilog ras"ra!i o ut+eca+u glo<alni% "ra!ni%
siste#a na blo.alneO "ra!ne tra$ici+e u "roElosti i sa$aEn+osti1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 iustu# "retiu#, ri#s.o "ra!o, rece"ci+a, /ri"artitu#,
IloT.i statut, graZans.o "ra!o
A 5el2i <ogo3 glo/:lis forr:sai a9 Qiga9s:gos :rP p,ld:<a Di(st(m
preti(mE
Prof1$r1sc1 @ar.o Petra., P%, eg'ete#i tan:r, R8#ai Jogi /ans9.,
A:gr:<, #ar.o1"etra.W"ra!o1%r
r1sc1 Ci.ol Li%a, P%, a$+un.tus, R8#ai Jogi /ans9., ?s9.,
ni.ol9W"ra!os1%r
J:nos Jus9tinger, P%, a$+un.tus, R8#ai Jogi /ans9., Pcs,
+us9tinger1+anosWa+.1"te1%u
>9 rte.e9s a glo<:lis +ogo.na. ).\9ele<<rQl a r8#ai s a
.:non+ogna.* a #ag'ar s a %or!:t %el'i +ogren$s9ere. fe+lQ$sre
g'a.orolt %at:s:t a9 biga9s:gos :rO )iustu# "retiu#* int9#n'ne.
"l$:+:n .eres9t]l t\re.s9i. <e#utatni1 > t#a ala"osa<< ele#9se
r$e.<en #in$ene.elQtt a9 iga9s:gos :r )iustu# "retiu#* es9#+ne.
fe+lQ$st !:9ol+a fel a9 8.ori filo98fiai s !all:si tan7t:so.<an, fQ.nt
a9 8.ori r8#ai +og<an, .]l\n\s te.intettel a felnt_li srele# anti.
int9#n're )laesio enor#is*1 > .utat:s t\<<e. .\9\tt arra a
.r$sre "r8<:l !:las9t a$ni, %og' a r8#ai +ogren$s9er a laesio
enor#is s9a<:l':na. seg7tsg!el ."es !olt-e %ar#oni9:lni a
csereeg'enlQsg el!t a sta<il .eres.e$el#i forgalo#
.\!etel#n'ei!el1 (entie.et a iustu# "retiu# tan:na. a .\9".ori
r8#ai +ogi %ag'o#:n'<an s a .:non+og<an !al8 r\!i$ <e#utat:sa
.\!eti1 ? .\!et.e9tetse. ala"+:n a #un.a .\9"onti rs9e a9
iga9s:gos :r ttelne. a .ora<eli #ag'ar s %or!:t +ogforr:so.ra,
.\9ele<<rQl a /ri"artitu#ra )1514* s Ilo. stat_tu#:ra )1525*
g'a.orolt le%etsges %at:saira f8.us9:l1 ?nne. r$e.<en a iustu#
43
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
"retiu# fogalo# +ogi +elentse !ala#enn'i rele!:ns as"e.tus:na.,
to!:<<: e .t +ogforr:s<an s9ere"lQ #:s a9onos +elentstartalo##al
<7r8 !ag' eg'e9Q .ife+e9s )con$ignu# "retiu#, iusta aesti#atio,
con$igna aesti#atio* #ag'ar:9at:ra is sor .er]l1> tanul#:n' 9:r8
rs9e a r8#ai-.:non+ogi csereeg'enlQsgi el!, #int a .o##utat7!
iga9s:goss:g )+ustitia co##utati!e* #egn'il!:nul:s:na. %at:s:t
!i9sg:l+a a #ai #ag'ar s %or!:t .\tel#i +og<an1 >9 iga9s:gos :r
)iustu# "retiu#* 8.ori es9#+ne. #o$ern for#:+a.nt _g's9intn
ele#9i a !i9sg:lt el!et a felt^nQ rt.ar:n'talans:g )laesio enor#is*
int9#n'ne. sa+:tos "l$:+:n .eres9t]l1 > s9er9Q. re#n'ei s9erint
a fent e#l7tett .utat:s #eg:lla"7t:sai %o99:+:rulna. anna.
#eg!itat:s:%o9, %og' a glo<:lis +ogi ren$s9ere. #il'en %at:ssal
<7rna. a b%el'iO +ogi %ag'o#:n'o.ra a.:r a #_lt<an, a.:r a
+elen.or<an1
1(lcss9ava32 iustu# "retiu#, r8#ai +og, rece"ci8, /ri"artitu#, Ilo.
stat_tu#a, "olg:ri +og
Environmental protection0 legal protection moderator0
Mario >in3oviA
T5e role of lower and 5ig5er co(rts in t5e interpretation of
roatian and .(ngarian law
I!ana /uca., P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of Legal /%eor',
-si+e., ituca.W"ra!os1%r
r1 >ntal Kisegr:$', ,c, full "rofessor, e"art#ent of P%iloso"%' of
Law an$ ,tate, Pcs !isegra$'1antalWa+.1"te1%u
Courts $o not #erel' Gi#"le#entH, <ut also inter"ret an$ a""l' t%e
law, an$ t%ere<' also necessaril' $e!elo" it1 /%e Ro#an legal
"rinci"le of G"raetor ius facere non "otestH is a li!ing "rinci"le e!en
to$a', at least in a for#al sense <ase$ on t%e >ct on Legislation1
=owe!er, in s"ecific cases, w%en "assing +u$g#ent, wit% regar$ to t%e
c%oice, inter"retation an$ a""lication of a legal nor# )its in$i!i$ual
ele#ents*, t%e +u$ge also actuall' #a.es Gcase-lawH )G"raetor ius facit
inter "artesH*1 In <ot% legal s'ste#s t%e $ecisions of t%e su"re#e
courts %a!e fun$a#ental i#"ortance as t%e' "la' a $o#inant role in
44
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
ensuring t%e unifor#it' of +u$icial "ractice an$ also as law-$e!elo"ing
"rocess1 /%e su"re#e courts an$ t%e regional courts anal'9e t%e
"ractice of lower courts1 3it% regar$ to our to"ic, $ecisions of t%e
constitutional courts "la' a s"ecial role1 /%e acti!it' of t%e
constitutional courts $oes not eMten$ to t%e a""lication of law, t%is
)s"ecial* <o$' cannot resol!e concrete legal $is"utes, its "ri#ar' role
is Gnegati!e law-#a.ingH, t%e Gwee$ing outH of nor#s t%at are in
conflict wit% t%e fun$a#ental law <' annulling t%e# )referre$ to as
nor#-control*, w%ile its secon$ar' role is t%e aut%entic inter"retation
of t%e constitution1 /%e constitution as inter"rete$ <' t%e
constitutional courts is $irectl' <in$ing on t%e courts an$ t%roug%
t%e# it is also in$irectl' <in$ing on t%e "artici"ants of +u$icial
"rocee$ings1
1e2words2 f
A9 als8! ,s felsHs9intR /7r8s:go3 s9erepe a 5orv:t ,s a mag2ar <og
,rtelme9,s,/en
oc1$r1sc1 I!ana /uca., eg'ete#i $ocens, Jogel#leti /ans9., ?s9.,
ituca.W"ra!os1%r
Prof1r1 Kisegr:$' >ntal, ,c, eg'ete#i tan:r, Jog- s Dlla#<\lcseleti
/ans9., Pcs, !isegra$'1antalWa+.1"te1%u
> <7r8s:go. ne# "us9t:n b!gre%a+t+:.O a +ogi nor#:. elQ7r:sait,
%ane# rtel#e9i., al.al#a99:. s e9:ltal s9].sgs9er^en fe+les9ti. is a
+ogot1 > b"raetor ius facere non "otestO r8#ai +ogi el!e )!ag'is, %og'
a b<7r8s:g +ogi nor#:t ne# al.ot%atO* #a is lQ ala"ttel, legal:<<is a
+ogal.ot:sr8l s98l8 t\r!n' ala"+:n, for#ai rtele#<en1 > .on.rt
esetre !onat.o98an a9on<an a +ogi nor#a )anna. eg'es ele#ei*
.i!:las9t:sa, rtel#e9se, al.al#a9:sa te.intet<en, a#i.or 7tletet
al.ot, a..or !al8+:<an beset+ogotO is al.ot )b"raetor ius facere inter
"artesO*1 @in$.t +ogren$s9er<en #in$ a +ogg'a.orlat eg'sgne.,
#in$ a +ogfe+les9tsne. <i9tos7t:s:<an ala"!etQ +elentQsge !an a
legfelsQ<< <7r8s:go.na.1 ?nne. r$e.<en a legfelsQ<< <7r8s:go. s a
region:lis <7r8s:go. ele#9i. a9 als8 <7r8s:go. g'a.orlat:t1 >#i a9
al.ot#:n'<7r8s:go. te!.en'sgt illeti, a9 ne# +ogal.al#a9:s,
ug'anis e test]lete. .on.rt +og!it:.at .\9!etlen]l ne# $\nt%etne. el1
45
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
,9ere"]l elsQsor<an ba negat7! +ogal.ot:sO a9 ala"t\r!n'<e ]t.\9Q
nor#:. %at:l'on .7!]l %el'e9ssel t\rtnQ b.ig'o#l:l:saO
)nor#a.ontrol* #:so$sor<an "e$ig a9 _g'ne!e9ett autenti.us
al.ot#:n'rtel#e9s1 >9 al.ot#:n'<7r8s:go. :ltal rtel#e9ett
bal.ot#:n'o.O .\9!etlen]l .\tele9i. a <7r8s:go.at, e9en .eres9t]l
.\9!et!e b<7r8i _tO %i:n':<an ug'ancsa. .\9!etlen]l #agu.at a
fele.et is1
Floga niVi5 i viKi5 s(dova ( t(maGen<( 5rvats3og i maIars3og
prava
oc1$r1sc1 I!ana /uca., $ocentica, ;ate$ra "ra!no-teori+s.i%
9nanosti, -si+e., ituca.W"ra!os1%r
Prof1$r1sc1 >ntal Kisegr:$', re$o!iti "rofesor, ;ate$ra 9a filo9ofi+u
"ra!a i $r[a!e, PeTu%, !isegra$'1antalWa+.1"te1%u
,u$o!i, osi# Eto N"ri#+en+u+uO, ta.oZer tu#aTe "ra!o te ga ta.o
nu[no i ra9!i+a+u1 Ri#s.o "ra!no naTelo N"raetor ius facere non
"otestO +e i $anas [i!o, <are# u for#alno# s#islu ute#el+eno na
9a.ons.i# a.ti#a1 @eZuti#, u .on.retno# sluTa+u, .a$a $onosi
o$lu.u, s o<9iro# na i9<or, tu#aTen+e i "ri#+enu "ra!ne nor#e
)n+e9ini "o+e$inaTni ele#enti*, Tin+enica +e $a su$ac ta.oZer st!ara
N"ra!o su$s.e "ra.seO )N"raetor ius facit inter "artesO*1 & o<a "ra!na
susta!a o$lu.e te#el+ne !a[nosti !r%o!ni% su$o!a i#a+u $o#inantnu
ulogu u osiguran+u u+e$naTenosti su$s.e "ra.se i u ra9!o+u "ra!a1
Kr%o!ni i regionalni su$o!i anali9ira+u "ra.su ni[i% su$o!a1 ,
o<9iro# na te#u istra[i!an+a, o$lu.e usta!ni% su$o!a i#a+u oso<itu
ulogu1 +elatnost usta!ni% su$o!a se ne "rote[e na "ri#+enu "ra!a, to
)"ose<no* ti+elo ne #o[e r+eEa!ati "ose<ne "ra!ne s"oro!e, n+ego!a +e
"ri#arna uloga ona Nnegati!nog 9a.ono$a!caO, o$nosno Nu.lan+an+eO
)u.i$an+e* nor#i .o+e su u su.o<u s te#el+ni# 9a.ono# )na$9or
usta!nosti*, $o. +e n+ego!a se.un$arna uloga !+ero$osto+no tu#aTen+e
usta!a1 N&sta! .a.o ga tu#aTeO usta!ni su$o!i ne"osre$no o<!e9u+e
$ruge su$o!e i "ute# n+i% "osre$no o<!e9u+e s!e su$ioni.e su$s.i%
"ostu"a.a1
4I
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
T5e Poll(ter Pa2s D6E ompensation for cross!/order
environmental damages
Prof1 r1 L:s9l8 ;ecs.s, "rofessor, e"art#ent of Ci!il Law, Pcs,
.ecs.es1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
r1 ;olos ;o!:cs, assistant lecturer, e"art#ent of Ci!il Law, Pcs,
.o!acs1.olosWa+.1"te1%u
@irela Lu"an, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of Pri!ate
International Law, -si+e., #9u"anW"ra!os1%r
>cci$ents %a!ing en!iron#ental re"ercussions cause $a#age to t%e
en!iron#ent an$`or to in$i!i$uals1 Pollution %as no regar$s for
national <or$ers an$ it can easil' eMten$ <e'on$ t%e countr' w%ere it
originates fro#1 Regulators all aroun$ t%e worl$ %a!e a$$resse$
en!iron#ental "ollution concerns <' a$o"ting t%e "olluter "a's
"rinci"le as a core co#"onent of t%eir $o#estic en!iron#ental
lia<ilit' regi#es1 /%e "olluter "a's "rinci"le $e#an$s t%at t%e "olluter
<ear t%e <ur$en of re#e$iating t%e waste it %as generate$1 ,uc% cross-
<or$er en!iron#ental $a#ages #ost li.el' %a!e %ar#ful i#"acts on
neig%<oring states w%ereu"on t%e "olluter "a's $octrine an$ t%e
"a'#ent of co#"ensation reVuires trans<oun$ar' legal tec%niVues1
Legal fra#ewor. for settle#ent of cross-<or$er ci!il en!iron#ental
clai#s co#"rises unifie$ law )<ot% su<stanti!e an$ "ri!ate
international law originating fro# t%e ?& an$ ot%er international
sources* an$ national legal sources1 >t t%e ?uro"ean le!el,
en!iron#ental "rotection %as <eco#e an i#"ortant ?& "olic' o!er t%e
'ears an$ %as a consi$era<le i#"act on t%e acquis communautaire.
/%e ?& rules $ealing wit% t%is #atter are, in accor$ance wit% t%e
nature of t%e to"ic, "art of a$#inistrati!e as well as "ri!ate law1 /%is
"a"er inten$s to "resent t%e legal fra#ewor. of settling cross-<or$er
en!iron#ental $a#age clai#s1 /%e eMistence an$ functioning of legal
#ec%anis#s for t%e settle#ent of suc% cases contri<utes to legal
certaint' in t%e =ungar'-Croatia <or$er region1 =ere we e#"%asi9e
onl' t%e two following "oints of t%e $iscussion of t%e to"ic1 (irstl',
s%oul$ t%e clai# in cross-<or$er ci!il en!iron#ental #atters <e
<roug%t in t%e +uris$iction un$er w%ic% t%e "ollution occurre$ or in t%e
4S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
+uris$iction w%ere t%e $a#age occurre$P ,econ$l', w%ic% of t%e
co#"eting su<stanti!e rules on lia<ilit' s%oul$ <e a""lie$ to t%e caseP
1e2words2 ci!il lia<ilit', en!iron#ental $a#age, legal fra#ewor.,
"ri!ate international law, c%oice of law, +uris$iction1
OneGiKAivaG plaAa D6E o/eKteAen<e 3od pre3ograniGni5 e3oloK3i5
Kteta
Prof1$r1 L:s9l8 ;ecs.s, re$o!iti "rofesor, ;ate$ra 9a graZans.o "ra!o,
PeTu%, .ecs.es1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
r1 ;olos ;o!:cs, asistent, ;ate$ra 9a graZans.o "ra!o, PeTu%,
.o!acs1.olosWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 @irela Lu"an, $ocentica, ;ate$ra 9a #eZunaro$no "ri!atno
"ra!o, -si+e., #9u"anW"ra!os1%r
Cesre6e s e.oloE.i# "osl+e$ica#a u9ro.u+u oEte6en+a o.oliEa i ` ili
"o+e$inaca1 -neTiE6en+e ne "o9na+e nacionalne granice te se la.o
#o[e "roEiriti i9!an $r[a!e u .o+o+ +e nastalo1 Aa.ono$a!ci $il+e#
s!i+eta na 9agaZen+e o.oliEa o$go!ara+u us!a+an+e# naTela
NoneTiE6i!aT "la6aO, Eto Tini te#el+ nacionalni% re[i#a o$go!ornosti
9a Etetu na o.oliEu1 CaTelo "o .o+e#u oneTiE6i!aT "la6a i9is.u+e o$
oneTiE6i!aTa $a snosi teret ot.lan+an+a Etete .o+u +e u9ro.o!ao1 /a.!e
"re.ograniTne e.oloE.e Etete na+TeE6e 6e i#ati Etetne ut+eca+e na
sus+e$ne $r[a!e, usli+e$ Tega $o.trina NoneTiE6i!aT "la6aO, .ao i sa#o
o<eEte6en+e, 9a%ti+e!a "ri#+enu "re.ograniTni% "ra!ni% #eto$a1
Pra!ni o.!ir 9a r+eEa!an+e "re.ograniTni% graZans.o"ra!ni% 9a%t+e!a
o$nosi se na u+e$naTeno "ra!o ).a.o #ateri+alno ta.o i #eZunaro$no
"ri!atno "ra!o ?& te $rugi% #eZunaro$ni% organi9aci+a* i na
nacionalne "ra!ne i9!ore1 Ca euro"s.o+ +e ra9ini ti+e.o# go$ina
9aEtita o.oliEa "ostala !a[na "oliti.a ?& te +e ra9!i+en 9naTa+an
.or"us "ra!ne steTe!ine1 Pra!ila ?& Eto se <a!e o!i# "itan+e# su,
o!isno o nara!i "ro<le#a, $io u"ra!og ili graZans.og "ra!a1 -!a+
Tlana. na#+era!a "re$sta!iti "ra!ni o.!ir 9a r+eEa!an+e
"re.ograniTni% e.oloE.i% o$Etetni% 9a%t+e!a graZans.o"ra!ne nara!i1
Posto+an+e i fun.cioniran+e "ra!nog #e%ani9#a 9a r+eEa!an+e u
ta.!i# sluTa+e!i#a $o"rinosi "ra!no+ sigurnosti u "ograniTno+ regi+i
@aZars.a =r!ats.a1 -!$+e naglaEa!a#o sa#o $!i+e o.osnice
ras"ra!a na o!u te#u2 %o6e li na$le[an 9a r+eEa!an+e o!a.!i% 9a%t+e!a
4J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
<iti su$ $r[a!e u .o+o+ +e Eteta nastala ili ona+ u .o+e# +e nastu"ila
Etetna "osl+e$icaPY .o+a o$ su.o<l+eni% #ateri+alni% "ra!ila o
graZans.o+ o$go!ornosti 9a Etetu tre<a "ri#i+enitiP
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 graZans.o"ra!na o$go!ornost, e.oloE.a Eteta, "ra!ni
o.!ir, #eZunaro$no "ri!atno "ra!o, #+ero$a!no "ra!o, #eZunaro$na
na$le[nost
A s9enn2e9H fi9et D6E A 5at:ron :tn2Sl8 3Jrn2e9eti 3:ro3
megt,r7t,s,ne3 s9a/:l2ai
Prof1 r1 ;ecs.s L:s9l8, eg'ete#i tan:r, Polg:ri Jogi /ans9., Pcs,
.ecs.es1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
r1 ;o!:cs ;olos, tan:rseg$, Polg:ri Jogi /ans9., Pcs,
.o!acs1.olosWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 @irela Lu"an, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, Ce#9et.\9i
@ag:n+ogi /ans9., ?s9., #9u"anW"ra!os1%r
> .\rn'e9etre is %at:ssal <7r8 <alesete. .:ros7t+:. a .\rn'e9etet
s`!ag' a9 eg'ne.et is1 > .\rn'e9ets9enn'e9s a9 :lla#%at:ro.ra
te.intet nl.]l .\nn'en t_lter+e$ a s9enn'e9s %el'e s9erinti ors9:g
%at:rain1 > +ogal.ot8. !il:gs9erte a bs9enn'e9Q fi9etO el!ne., #int
a9 eg'es +ogren$s9ere. .\rn'e9eti felelQssgi s9a<:l'ai .\9"onti
ele#ne. a9 elfoga$:s:!al .7!:nna. !:las9t a$ni a
.\rn'e9ets9enn'e9ssel .a"csolatos agg:l'o.ra1 > bs9enn'e9Q fi9etO
el! ala"+:n a s9enn'e9Q !iseli a9 :ltala o.o9ott .\rn'e9eti .:r
%el're:ll7t:s:na. .\ltsgeit1 > %at:ron :tn'_l8 .\rn'e9eti .:ro. nag'
!al8s97n^sggel g'a.orolna. .:ros %at:st a s9o#s9$os :lla#o.ra is,
a#ine. .\!et.e9t<en a bs9enn'e9Q fi9etO ala"el! s a .:rtr7ts
r!n'es7tse %at:ron :tn'_l8 +ogi tec%ni.:.at is #eg.\!etel1 >
%at:ron :tn'_l8 .\rn'e9eti "ere. el$\ntsre ir:n'a$8 +ogs9a<:l'i
.eretet eg'sges7tett +ogan'ag )uni8s s #:s ne#9et.\9i an'agi s
ne#9et.\9i #ag:n+ogi +ogforr:so.*, !ala#int ne#9eti s9a<:l'o.
al.ot+:.1 >9 el#_lt %ar#inc !<en eur8"ai s9inten a
.\rn'e9et!$ele# fontos uni8s "oliti.:!: !:lt, s fig'ele#re #lt8
%at:st g'a.orolt a9 acquis communautaire-re1 > .\rn'e9et!$el#i
t:rg'_ uni8s +ogs9a<:l'o., a t#a ter#s9etre is te.intettel, a .\9+ogi
s #ag:n+ogi +ogan'ag<an eg'ar:nt #egtal:l%at8a.1 Jelen tanul#:n'
cl+a, %og' <e#utassa a %at:ron :tn'_l8 .\rn'e9eti .:ro.
40
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
#egtr7tsre ir:n'ul8 "ere. el$\ntsre !onat.o98 +ogs9a<:l'i
.eretet1 >9 il'en +elleg^ esete. el$\ntsre ir:n'a$8 +ogi
#ec%ani9#uso. lte9se s #^.\$se %o99:+:rul a #ag'ar-%or!:t
%at:r#enti trsg +og<i9tons:g:%o9 is1 > tanul#:n'<an .t, a t#:%o9
.a"csol8$8 .r$st !i9sg:lun. #eg2 a %at:ron :tn'_l8 .\rn'e9eti
.:ro.o9:ssal .a"csolatos .eresete.et a s9enn'e9s %el'e !ag' a .:r
<e.\!et.e9sne. %el'e s9erint +og%at8s:g ala"+:n .ell <en'_+taniPY
#el'i. !onat.o98 an'agi +ogi felelQssgi s9a<:l't .ell al.al#a9ni a9
]g'reP
1(lcss9ava32 "olg:ri +ogi felelQssg, .\rn'e9eti .:r, +ogs9a<:l'i
.eret, ne#9et.\9i #ag:n+og, +og!:las9t:s, +og%at8s:g
T5e proced(ral aspects of environmental protection in roatian
and .(ngarian legal s2stem
4ergel' C9o<ol', P% stu$ent, e"art#ent of Ci!il Proce$ure an$ Legal
,ociolog', Pcs, c9o<ol'1gergel'Wa+.1"te1%u
Paula Poretti, #ag1iur1, teac%ing assistant, e"art#ent of Ci!il Law, -si+e.,
"sto+ce!W"ra!os1%r
In t%e last few $eca$es en!iron#ental "rotection %as <een recogni9e$
as an i#"ortant social, "olitical an$ legal Vuestion on t%e national as
well as on t%e ?& le!el1 /%e rig%t to a$eVuate legal "rotection in t%e
fiel$ of en!iron#ental "rotection is consi$ere$ as an in$i!i$ual rig%t,
accor$ing to so#e e!en as a t%ir$ generation %u#an rig%t1 >t t%e sa#e
ti#e, en!iron#ental "rotection "oses an interest to t%e state an$ it is
consi$ere$ a "u<lic interest1 Recentl', en!iron#ental "rotection %as
<een recogni9e$ as a collecti!e interest, e!en as an interest "ertaining
to all citi9ens )actio popularis, quivis ex populo*1 /%e national
legislature is face$ wit% a c%allenge of fin$ing a <alance a#ong t%ese
interests an$ at t%e sa#e ti#e it is reVuire$ to %ar#oni9e t%e national
legislation wit% t%e ?& legislation1 ?ffecti!e "rotection of t%e
en!iron#ent reVuires t%e effecti!e reali9ation of en!iron#ental law1
/o o!erco#e t%e s%ortco#ings of national s'ste#s, it is necessar' to
$eal wit% t%e "roce$ural issues of en!iron#ental law1 In t%e first "art
of t%e "a"er t%e aut%ors eMa#ine t%e statutor' "ro!isions on
en!iron#ental "rotection at national le!el1 /%e national re"orts $eal
wit% t%e sa#e "roce$ural issues, in "articular wit% t%e eMisting
50
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
in$i!i$ual an$ collecti!e actions, an$ tr' to i$entif' t%e s%ortco#ings
of t%ese solutions1 In t%e secon$ "art of t%e "a"er t%e aut%ors co#"are
t%e national rules1 /%e ai# of t%is co#"arati!e anal'sis is to fin$
solutions to t%e i$entifie$ "ro<le#s an$ s%ortco#ings of t%e national
s'ste#s1 In t%e t%ir$ "art of t%e "a"er t%e "olicies an$ legal nor#s of
t%e ?uro"ean &nion an$ t%e +uris"ru$ence of t%e ?uro"ean Court in
t%is fiel$ is re!iewe$, along wit% an anal'sis of t%e confor#it' of t%e
national solutions wit% t%e o<+ecti!es of t%e ?&1 /%e aut%ors of t%e
"a"er, %a!ing in #in$ t%e si#ilarities of t%e national legal regulations
of Croatian an$ =ungarian legal s'ste# in t%e fiel$ of ci!il law
eMa#ine an$ anal'9e t%e eMisting "roce$ural solutions in t%e fiel$ of
en!iron#ental "rotection of <ot% t%e Croatian an$ t%e =ungarian legal
s'ste# in or$er to $etect o"en issues, $ou<ts an$ "ers"ecti!es w%ic%
t%e national legislators encounter w%ile acco#"lis%ing t%ese tas.s1
1e2words0 en!iron#ental "rotection- "u<lic interest, in$i!i$ual
actions, collecti!e actions, ?& law, co#"arati!e "roce$ural law
Proced(ralni aspe3ti 9aKtite o3oliKa ( 5rvats3om i maIars3om
pravnom s(stav(
r1 4ergel' C9o<ol', $o.torant, ;ate$ra graZans.og "ostu"o!nog
"ra!a i "ra!ne sociologi+e, PeTu%, c9o<ol'Wa+.1"te1%u
Paula Poretti, #ag1iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra graZans.o-"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
-si+e., "sto+ce!W"ra!os1%r
Posl+e$n+i% ne.oli.o $esetl+e6a 9aEtita o.oliEa "re"o9nata +e .ao
9naTa+no $ruEt!eno, "olitiT.o i "ra!no "itan+e na nacionalno+, .ao i na
ra9ini ?uro"s.e uni+e1 Pra!o na a$e.!atnu "ra!nu 9aEtitu na "o$ruT+u
9aEtite o.oliEa s#atra se in$i!i$ualni# "ra!o#, a "re#a ne.i#a
u<ra+a se i u l+u$s.a "ra!a tre6e generaci+e1 Isto!re#eno, 9aEtita
o.oliEa o$ interesa +e i 9a $r[a!u "a se stoga s#atra i +a!ni#
intereso#1 & no!i+e !ri+e#e, 9aEtita o.oliEa "re"o9nata +e i .ao
.ole.ti!ni interes, Ta. interes .o+i "o$+e$na.o "ri"a$a s!i#
graZani#a )actio popularis, quivis ex populo). Pre$ nacionalni#
9a.ono$a!ce# i9a9o! +e "ronala[en+a ra!note[e #eZu na!e$eni#
interesi#a a u+e$no i %ar#oni9aci+e nacionalnog 9a.ono$a!st!a sa
9a.ono$a!st!o# ?&1
51
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
&Tin.o!ita 9aEtita o.oliEa "ret"osta!l+a uTin.o!ito ost!aren+e "ra!a
9aEtite o.oliEa1 -t.lan+an+e ne$ostata.a unutar nacionalni% susta!a
9a%ti+e!a ra9#atran+e "roce$uralni% as"e.ata "ra!a 9aEtite o.oliEa1 &
"r!o# $i+elu ra$a autori is"itu+u 9a.ons.i o.!ir .o+i# +e regulirana
9aEtita o.oliEa na nacionalno+ ra9ini1 Po.uEa!a+u6i $ete.tirali
ne$ostat.e "osto+e6i% r+eEen+a unutar "regle$a nacionalni%
9a.ono$a!sta!a <a!e se isto!+etni# "roce$uralni# "itan+i#a, oso<ito
in$i!i$ualni# i .ole.ti!ni# tu[<a#a 9a 9aEtitu o.oliEa1 & $rugo#
$i+elu ra$a autori se <a!e us"ore$<o# nacionalni% "ro"isa na
"o$ruT+u "ra!a 9aEtite o.oliEa1 ,!r%a .o#"arati!ne anali9e +est
"ronala[en+e #ogu6i% r+eEen+a ut!rZeni% "ro<le#a i ne$ostata.a
unutar nacionalni% susta!a1 & "osl+e$n+e# $i+elu ra$a autori se os!r6u
na "oliti.u i "ro"ise na "o$ruT+u "ra!a 9aEtite o.oliEa unutar
9a.ono$a!st!a ?& te "ra.su ?uro"s.og su$a .a.o <i ut!r$ili ra9inu
us.laZenosti nacionalni% r+eEen+a s cil+e!i#a .o+e +e "osta!ila ?&1
>utori, i#a+u6i na u#u sliTnosti "ro"isa na "o$ruT+u graZans.og
"ra!a %r!ats.og i #aZars.og "ra!nog susta!a, is"itu+u i anali9ira+u
"osto+e6a "roce$uralna r+eEen+a na "o$ruT+u "ra!a 9aEtite o.oliEa
%r!ats.og i #aZars.og "ra!nog susta!a u s!r%u $ete.ci+e ot!oreni%
"itan+a, su#n+i i s%!a6an+a s .o+i#a se nacionalni 9a.ono$a!ci
suoTa!a+u nasto+e6i ost!ariti s!o+u 9a$a6u1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 9aEtita o.oliEa, +a!ni interes, in$i!i$ualne tu[<e,
.ole.ti!ne tu[<e, 9a.ono$a!st!o ?&, .o#"arati!no "roce$uralno
"ra!o
A 3Jrn2e9etv,delem polg:ri el<:r:s<ogi s9empont<ai a 5orv:t ,s a
mag2ar <ogrends9er/en
C9o<ol' 4ergel', P% %allgat8, Polg:ri ?l+:r:s+ogi s Jogs9ociol8giai
/ans9., Pcs, c9o<ol'Wa+.1"te1%u
Paula Poretti, #ag1iur, tan:rseg$, Polg:ri Jogi /ans9., ?s9.,
"sto+ce!W"ra!os1%r
>9 el#_lt !ti9e$e.<en a .\rn'e9et!$ele# .r$se t:rsa$al#i,
"oliti.ai s +ogi s9e#"ont<8l is eg'ar:nt .ie#el.e$Q +elentQsgre tett
s9ert1 >nna. #egfelelQ !$el#%e9 !al8 +og a#el' eg'ese. s9erint
eg' %ar#a$i. gener:ci8s e#<eri +og.nt fog%at8 fel eg'rs9rQl
#egilleti a9 eg'ne.et, #int a t:rsa$alo# tag+ait1 @:srs9rQl a9on<an
52
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
anna. !$el#e #int .\9\ssgi r$e. :lla#i fela$at.nt is
#eg+eleni.1 &t8<<i i$Q<en a .\rn'e9et !$el#%e9 f^9Q$Q r$e.e.,
#int .olle.t7! r$e.e. is #eg+elente., a#el'e.ne. ere$#n'e.nt a
t:rsa$alo# s9lese<< .\rne. is r$e.r!n'es7tsi +ogosults:go.at
<i9tos7totta. )actio popularis, quivis ex populo*1 > ne#9eti +ogal.ot8.
s9:#os .i%7!:ssal s9e#<es]lne. e9en a ter]leten, #int a9 elQ<<
felsorolt r$e.e.ne. a9 \ss9e%angol:sa s a ne#9eti ren$el.e9se.ne.
a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8 +og:!al !al8 %ar#oni9:l:sa1 > .\rn'e9et %at.on'
!$el#%e9 a9 e%%e9 f^9Q$Q +ogo. s .\tele9ettsge. %at.on'
r!n'es7tse is nl.]l\9%etetlen1 >nna. r$e.<en, %og' a ne#9eti
+ogren$s9ere. %i:n'oss:gait le le%essen .]9$eni, felttlen]l s9].sges
a t#a "olg:ri el+:r:s+ogi s9e#"onti!al is foglal.o9ni1 > s9er9Q. a
tanul#:n' elsQ rs9<en ne#9eti s9inten !i9sg:l+:. #eg a +ogi
.\rn'e9etet1 > ne#9eti +elentse.<en a9onos s9e#"onto.at
ele#e9ne., .]l\n\s te.intettel a9 eg'ni s a .\9\ssgi
+ogr!n'es7tsi #ec%ani9#uso.ra1 > s9er9Q. #eg.7srli. e9e.ne. a
#egol$:so.na. a %i:n'oss:gait is a9onos7tani1 > #:so$i. rs9<en a
+ogi #egol$:so. \ss9e%asonl7t:s:ra .er]l sor, a#el'ne. a9 elsQ$leges
cl+a, %og' a ne#9eti s9inten a9onos7tott %i:n'oss:go.ra
#egol$:so.at tal:l+ana.1 > tanul#:n' %ar#a$i. rs9<en a s9er9Q.
:tte.inti. a9 uni8s "oliti.:.at s +ogi ren$el.e9se.et, !ala#int a
t#:<an fellel%etQ eur8"ai <7r8s:gi 7tlete.et1 ?9e. seg7tsg!el a
ne#9eti #egol$:so.na. a9 uni8s +oggal !al8 .onfor#it:s:t is
ele#9i.1 > s9er9Q. a .\rn'e9et!$ele# el+:r:s+ogi as"e.tusai!al
.7!:nna. foglal.o9ni, a#el'%e9 a %or!:t s a #ag'ar +ogi
#egol$:so.at !i9sg:l+:. #eg anna. r$e.<en, %og' a fent e#l7tett
+ogal.ot8i .i%7!:so..al .a"csolat<an fel#er]lQ n'itott .r$se.re s
"ro<l#:.ra !:las9o.at tal:l+ana.1
1(lcss9ava32 .\rn'e9et!$ele#, .\9r$e., eg'ni +ogr!n'es7ts,
.\9r$e.^ .eresete., ?& +og, \ss9e%asonl7t8 el+:r:s+og
riminal law protection of t5e environment in .(ngar2 and
roatia in t5e conteUt of 5armoni9ation wit5 t5e reg(lation of
E(ropean Fnion
r1 L:s9l8 ;Q%al#i, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of Cri#inolog'
an$ Penal Law, Pcs, .o%al#i1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
53
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
5ar<ara =erceg, #ag1 iur, assistant lecturer, C%air of Cri#inal ,ciences,
-si+e., <ar<ara1%ercegW"ra!os1%r
Igor Kuleti6, P%, assistant "rofessor, C%air of Cri#inal ,ciences,
-si+e., igor1!uleticW"ra!os1%r
,trengt%ening cri#inal law "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent is a glo<al
tren$1 /%e ?uro"ean &nion %as lai$ $own a nor#ati!e fra#ewor. for
t%e future $e!elo"#ent of t%is area wit% t%e ai# to %ar#oni9e
legislati!e "ro!isions wit%in t%e #e#<er states1 /%e en!iron#ent an$
its )cri#inal law* "rotection is also one of t%e "ri#ar' eM"ressions of
t%e social c%aracter of t%e state t%at $eclares itself to <e $e#ocratic, as
t%is "rotection %as to <e a "art of a $e#ocratic )an$ %u#anistic*
national action "rogra#1 In a #ar.et econo#' $ue to its c%aracter
an inter!ention <' t%e state is necessar' for t%e cri#inal "rotection of
t%e en!iron#ent1 ?n!iron#ental cri#inal #easure %a!e to <e $efine$
wit% $ue regar$ to t%e nee$s an$ eM"ectations of societ'1 /%e "ur"ose
of t%is "a"er is to $eter#ine in w%at wa' =ungar' an$ Croatia %a!e
res"on$e$ to t%e c%allenges of t%e "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent !ia
cri#inal law1 /%at is es"eciall' interesting if we consi$er t%e new
Croatian Cri#inal Co$e w%ic% entere$ into force on 1
st
Januar' 20131
/%e largest "ro<le# of t%e =ungarian en!iron#ental cri#es is latenc'1
irecti!e 200J`00`?C fro# 10
t%
Co!e#<er 200J of t%e ?uro"ean
Parlia#ent an$ Council on t%e "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent t%roug%
cri#inal law is i#"ortant for outlining t%e =ungarian an$ Croatian
en!iron#ental regulation1 >ut%ors s%all anal'9e an$ co#"are
=ungarian an$ Croatian legislation, e!aluate its successfulness an$
gi!e "ro"osals for furt%er $e!elo"#ent1
1e2words0 Cri#inal law, en!iron#ent, ?uro"ean &nion, "rotection,
regulation, %ar#oni9ation
1a9nenopravna 9aKtita o3oliKa ( MaIars3o< i .rvats3o< (
3onte3st( (s3laIivan<a s reg(laci<om E(rops3e (ni<e
oc1$r1sc1 L:s9l8 ;Q%al#i, $ocent, -$+el 9a .ri#inologi+u i .a9neno
"ra!o, PeTu%, .o%al#i1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
5ar<ara =erceg, #ag1 iur, asistentica, ;ate$ra .a9neno"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
,!euTiliEte, -si+e., <ar<ara1%ercegW"ra!os1%r
54
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
oc1$r1sc1 Igor Kuleti6, $ocent, ;ate$ra .a9neno"ra!ni% 9nanosti,
-si+e., igor1!uleticW"ra!os1%r
JaTan+e .a9neno"ra!ne 9aEtite o.oliEa $anas +e glo<alni tren$1
?uro"s.a uni+e +e o$re$ila nor#ati!ni o.!ir <u$u6eg ra9!o+a o!og
"o$ruT+a s cil+e# us.laZi!an+a 9a.ons.i% o$re$<i $r[a!a Tlanica1
-.oliE i n+ego!a .a9neno"ra!na 9aEtita "ri#arni su o$ra9 soci+alnog
as"e.ta s!a.e $e#o.rats.e $r[a!e i o!a 9aEtita #ora <iti $io
%u#anistiT.og i $e#o.rats.og a.ci+s.og "rogra#a1 Pro#atrano s
as"e.ta tr[iEne e.ono#i+e, inter!enci+a $r[a!e nu[na +e ra$i 9aEtite
o.oliEa1 ;a9nena $+ela o!e sfere #ora+u <iti .onci"irana ta.o $a
9a$o!ol+a!a+u "otre<e $ruEt!a1 ,!r%a o!oga ra$a +est o$re$iti .a.o su
@aZars.a i =r!ats.a o$go!orile na i9a9o! .a9neno"ra!ne 9aEtite
o.oliEa1 -!o +e oso<ito 9ani#l+i!o a.o se u9#e u o<9ir $a +e =r!ats.a
us!o+ila no!i ;a9neni 9a.on .o+i +e stu"io na snagu 11 si+eTn+a 20131
Ca+!e6i "ro<le# #aZars.i% .a9neni% $+ela "roti! o.oliEa +e n+i%o!a
ta#na <ro+.a1 Isto #o[e#o re6i i 9a =r!ats.u1 Aa 9a.ono$a!st!a s!i%
$r[a!a Tlanica oso<ito +e !a[na $ire.ti!a 200J`00`?; o$ 101 stu$enog
200J1, o 9aEtiti o.oliEa "ute# .a9nenog "ra!a1 >utori 6e anali9irati i
us"ore$iti #aZars.o i %r!ats.o .a9neno 9a.ono$a!st!o, "roci+eniti
n+ego!u us"+eEnost i $ati "ri+e$loge <u$u6eg ra9!o+a "o$ruT+a 9aEtite
o.oliEa unutar .a9nenog "ra!a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 .a9neno "ra!o, o.oliE, ?uro"s.a uni+a, 9aEtita,
regulaci+a, us.laZi!an+e
A 3Jrn2e9et /MntetH<ogi v,delme Mag2arors9:gon ,s
.orv:tors9:g/an a9 E(r8pai Fni8s s9a/:l2o9:ssal val8
5armoni9:ci8 3onteUt(s:/an
r1 ;Q%al#i L:s9l8, P%, a$+un.tus, ;ri#inol8giai s 5]ntets-
!gre%a+t:si Jogi /ans9., Pcs, .o%al#i1las9loWa+.1"te1%u
5ar<ara =erceg, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, 5^n]g'i /u$o#:n'o. /ans9.,
?s9., <ar<ara1%ercegW"ra!os1%r
oc1$r1sc1 Igor Kuleti6, P%, $ocens, 5^n]g'i /u$o#:n'o. /ans9.,
-si+e., igor1!uleticW"ra!os1%r
> .\rn'e9et <]ntetQ+ogi !$el#ne. s9igor7t:sa eg' glo<:lis tren$1
>9 ?ur8"ai &ni8 e9en ter]let +\!Q<eni fe+lQ$st t:#ogat8 nor#at7!
55
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
.eretet fe.tetett le, #el'ne. cl+a a +ogal.ot8i int9.e$se.
%ar#oni9:ci8+a a tag:lla#o.<an1 > .\rn'e9et s anna. <]ntetQ+ogi
!$el#e eg' #ag:t $e#o.rati.usna. !all8 :lla# s9oci:lis
arculat:na. is elsQren$^ .ife+e9Q+e, %is9en a .\rn'e9et!$ele# a
$e#o.rati.us )s %u#anista* :lla#i csele.!s "rogra#+:na. rs9t
.ell ."e9nie1 Piacga9$as:g eset<en enne. +elleg<Ql fa.a$8an
felttlen]l s9].sg !an a .\rn'e9et s anna. <]ntetQ+ogi !$el#e
r$e.<en a9 :lla#i <ea!at.o9:sra1 > .\rn'e9eti <]ntetQ+ogi
int9.e$se.et a t:rsa$alo# ign'eit .ielg7t!e .ell #egter!e9ni1
Jelen tanul#:n' cl+a anna. #eg%at:ro9:sa, %og' @ag'arors9:g s
=or!:tors9:g #il'en for#:<an reag:lt a .\rn'e9et <]ntetQ+ogi
!$el#ne. .i%7!:saira1 ?9 .]l\n\sen r$e.es, %a fig'ele#<e !ess9].
a 20131 +anu:r 1-!el %at:l'<a l"ett =or!:t 5]ntetQ /\r!n'.\n'! i$e
!onat.o98 ren$el.e9seit1 > #ag'ar .\rn'e9eti <^n\9s legnag'o<<
"ro<l#:+a a l:tencia1 >9 ?ur8"ai Parla#ent s a /an:cs 200J`00`?;
ir:n'el!e )200J1 no!e#<er 101* a .\rn'e9et <]ntetQ+og :ltali
!$el#rQl ir:n'#utat8 +elleg^ a #ag'ar s %or!:t .\rn'e9eti
<]ntetQ+ogi s9a<:l'o. #egal.ot:sa.or1 > s9er9Q. ele#9i. s
\ss9e%asonl7t+:. a #ag'ar s %or!:t t\r!n'%o9:st, rt.eli.
%at.on's:g:t s +a!aslatot tes9ne. a to!:<<i fe+lQ$s ir:n':ra
!onat.o98an1
1(lcss9ava32 <]ntetQ+og, .\rn'e9et, ?ur8"ai &ni8, !$ele#,
s9a<:l'o9:s, %ar#oni9:ci8
riminal law protection of t5e environment in roatia and its
5armoni9ation wit5 E(ropean standards
Igor 5o+ani6, P%, full "rofessor, e"art#ent of t%e Cri#inal ,ciences,
-si+e., i<o+anicW"ra!os1%r
/%e "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent is nowa$a's a !er' significant "art
of e!er' #o$ern law s'ste# in t%e worl$1 ?ac% s'ste# "ro!i$es #ore
t%an one as"ect of en!iron#ental "rotection ci!il, a$#inistrati!e,
etc1 /%e cri#inal law as"ect of t%e "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent is
"ro!i$e$ for t%e #ost $angerous cases w%ic% t%reaten t%e sur!i!al not
onl' of t%e en!iron#ent <ut t%e w%ole co##unit'1 /%at is w%' it is
i#"ortant to sanction t%at .in$ of <e%a!ior t%roug% cri#inal law
5I
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
"ro!isions1 /%e ?uro"ean &nion strongl' "ro#otes en!iron#ental
"rotection1 5' a$o"ting $irecti!es, t%e ?uro"ean &nion %as set t%e
stan$ar$s for #e#<er states to a$%ere to1 /%e Re"u<lic of Croatia, as
a state t%at will acce$e to t%e &nion in Jul' 2013, was gui$e$ <' t%ese
stan$ar$s in a$o"ting t%e new Cri#inal Co$e t%at entere$ into force
on 1
st
Januar' 20131 /%e aut%or will anal'9e in t%is "a"er t%e cri#inal
law "rotection of t%e en!iron#ent in Croatian legislation to$a' an$ its
co#"liance wit% t%e stan$ar$s of t%e ?uro"ean &nion1
1e2words2 f
Specific fields of regional development and environmental
protection moderator0 Mirela B(pan
Posting of wor3ers in roatia and .(ngar2
r1 ?ri.a ;o!:cs, P%, assistant "rofessor, Institute for >ustrian an$
?uro"ean La<our an$ ,ocial ,ecurit' Law, Kienna &ni!ersit' of
?cono#ics an$ 5usiness, $r1eri.a1.o!acsWg#ail1co#
@ario Kin.o!i6, P%, associate "rofessor, e"art#ent of La<our an$
,ocial ,ecurit' Law, -si+e., #!in.o!iW"ra!os1%r
/%e initial ai# of ?uro"ean integration %as <een to re#o!e all
o<stacles to t%e free #o!e#ent of wor.ers wit%in t%e ?uro"ean &nion
in or$er to allocate wor.force o"ti#all' in t%e single #ar.et an$ t%us
increase t%e co#"etiti!eness, inclu$ing t%e &nionHs glo<al
co#"etiti!e "osition1 CeMt to t%e free #o!e#ent of wor.ers a secon$
categor' of cross-<or$er #o!e#ent of wor.ers %as <een $e!elo"e$,
w%ic% co!ers "ersons w%o are "oste$ )sent* <' t%eir e#"lo'er for a
li#ite$ "erio$ to a @e#<er ,tate ot%er t%an t%e state in w%ic% t%e'
usuall' wor.1 Posting of wor.ers ser!es #ainl' t%e free$o# to
"ro!i$e ser!ices, wit% t%e serious conseVuence t%at onl' a certain "art
of t%e la<or law regulations of t%e %ost countr' is a""lica<le to "oste$
wor.ers1 Posting of wor.ers generates crucial tensions2 first <etween
t%e wor.ersH social rig%ts an$ t%e &nionHs econo#ic "references an$
secon$ <etween t%e contra$ictor' econo#ic an$ socio-"olitical
interests of t%e sen$ing an$ %osting countries1 /%ese contra$ictor'
o<+ecti!es %a!e <een $eci$e$ at t%e le!el of t%e ?& in fa!or of t%e
5S
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
econo#ic interests, i1e1 t%e co#"etiti!eness of t%e &nion1 /%e "a"er
first %ig%lig%ts t%e general ?uro"ean fra#ewor. an$ so#e recent
c%allenges of "osting1 /%e #ain focus is on t%e legal situation an$ t%e
s"ecial a$#inistrati!e "ro!isions in cases w%en "osting occurs
<etween Croatia an$ =ungar'1 /%e "a"er "ro!i$es answers to t%e
Vuestion of w%ic% "ro!isions %a!e to <e regar$e$ <' e#"lo'ers an$
w%ic% law a""lies to wor.ers if a Croatian e#"lo'er inten$s to "ost a
wor.er to =ungar' an$ !ice !ersa, if a =ungarian wor.er is "oste$ to
Croatia1
1e2words0 Posting of wor.ers, ?&, =ungar', Croatia, social rig%ts,
econo#ic "references
Fp(Aeni radnici ( .rvats3o< i MaIars3o<
r1sc1 ?ri.a ;o!:cs, Institut 9a austri+s.o i euro"s.o ra$no "ra!o i
"ra!o soci+alne sigurnosti, ,!euTiliEte e.ono#i+e i "oslo!an+a 5eT,
$r1eri.a1.o!acsWgoogle#ail1co#
Prof1$r1sc1 @ario Kin.o!i6, i9!anre$ni "rofesor, ;ate$ra ra$no"ra!ni% i
soci+alni% 9nanosti, -si+e., #!in.o!iW"ra!os1%r
PoTetni cil+ euro"s.e integraci+e <io +e us#+eren na u.lan+an+e s!i%
"re"re.a slo<o$i .retan+a ra$ni.a na "o$ruT+u ?uo"s.e uni+e s
na#+ero# o"ti#alnog alociran+a ra$ne snage na +e$inst!eno# tr[iEtu i
"o!e6an+a .on.urentnosti, u.l+uTu+u6i i glo<alni .on.urents.i "olo[a+
&ni+e1 &s"ore$o sa slo<o$o# .retan+a ra$ni.a ra9!i+ao se i $rugi
o<li. "re.ograniTnog .retan+a ra$ni.a .o+i +e o<u%!a6ao oso<e .o+e
su na o$reZeno !ri+e#e u"u6ene )i9aslane, o$aslane* o$ s!oga
"oslo$a!ca u $rugu $r[a!u Tlanicu u o$nosu na $r[a!u u .o+o+
uo<iTa+eno ra$e1 &"u6i!an+e ra$ni.a $o#inantno +e u fun.ci+i slo<o$e
"ru[an+a usluga i s o9<il+no# "osl+e$ico# $a se na u"u6ene ra$ni.e
"ri#+en+u+e sa#o $io ra$no"ra!ne regulati!e $r[a!e $o#a6ina1
&"u6i!an+e ra$ni.a generira .l+uTne ten9i+e2 "r!o i9#eZu soci+alni%
"ra!a ra$ni.a i e.ono#s.i% "o!lastica &ni+e i, $rugo, i9#eZu
"rotur+eTni% e.ono#s.i% i socio-"olitiT.i% interesa $r[a!a u"u6i!an+a
i $r[a!a $o#a6ina1 ,"o#enuti "rotur+eTni cil+e!i na ra9ini su ?&
ri+eEeni u .orist e.ono#s.i% interesa, o$nosno .on.urents.og
"olo[a+a &ni+e1 Ra$ u "r!o# $i+elu naglaEa!a o"6i euro"s.i o.!ir i
su!re#ene i9a9o!e u "ogle$u u"u6i!an+a ra$ni.a1 ,re$iEn+i $io +e
5J
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
us#+eren na "ra!no stan+e i "ose<ne a$#inistrati!ne o$re$<e u
sluTa+e!i#a u"u6i!an+a ra$ni.a i9#eZu =r!ats.e i @aZars.e1 Ra$o#
se nasto+i $ati o$go!or na "itan+e .o+e o$re$<e tre<a+u "ri#i+eniti
"oslo$a!ci i .o+e "ra!o a"licira na ra$ni.e, u sluTa+e!i#a .a$ %r!ats.i
"oslo$a!ac na#+era!a u"utiti ra$ni.a u @aZars.u i vice versa1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 u"u6eni ra$nici, ?&, =r!ats.a, @aZars.a, soci+alna
"ra!a, e.ono#s.e "o!lastice
A m(n3av:llal83 3i3Mldet,se .orv:tors9:g/an ,s
Mag2arors9:gon
r1 ;o!:cs ?ri.a, P%, tu$o#:n'os #un.at:rs, Institut f]r
\sterreic%isc%es un$ euro"gisc%es >r<eitsrec%t un$ ,o9ialrec%t,
3irtsc%aftsuni!ersitgt 3ien, $r1eri.a1.o!acsWgoogle#ail1co#
Prof1$r1sc1 @ario Kin.o!i6, P%, tan:r, @un.a+ogi s
/:rsa$alo#<i9tos7t:si Jogi /ans9., -si+e., #!in.o!iW"ra!os1%r
>9 eur8"ai integr:ci8 eg'i. legfontosa<< cl+a a #un.a!:llal8.
?ur8"ai &ni8n <el]li s9a<a$ #o9g:sa elQtt :ll8 a.a$:l'o. le<ont:sa
s e9:ltal a #un.aerQ o"ti#:lis elos9t:sa a .\9\s "iacon anna.
r$e.<en, %og' a !ersen'."essget, .]l\n\sen "e$ig a9 &ni8
glo<:lis !ersen'%el'9ett erQs7ts.1 > #un.a!:llal8. s9a<a$ #o9g:sa
#ellett .iala.ult a %at:ron :tn'_l8 #un.a!g9s #:so$i. .ateg8ri:+a,
a#el'<e a9o. a s9e#l'e. tarto9na., a.i.et a #un.:ltat8+u. .]l$
%at:ro9ott i$Qre eg' #:si. tag:lla#<a, #int a%ol s9o.:sosan #un.:t
!ge9ne.1 > #un.a!:llal8. .i.]l$etsne. int9#n'e ala"!etQ
fes9]ltsget o.o9 eg'rs9t a #un.a!:llal8. s9oci:lis +ogai s a9 &ni8
ga9$as:gi r$e.ei, #:srs9t "e$ig a .]l$Q s foga$8 :lla# ellenttes
ga9$as:gi s s9oci:l"oliti.ai r$e.ei .\9\tt1 >9 &ni8 s9int+n e9e.et
a9 ]t.\9Q r$e.e.et a ga9$as:gi s9e#"onto., a9a9 a9 &ni8
!ersen'."essgne. +a!:ra $\nt\tt. el1 > tanul#:n' <e#utat+a a
.i.]l$ets :ltal:nos eur8"ai s9a<:l'o9:s:t s +elenlegi .i%7!:sait1 >
tanul#:n' s_l'"ont+a a9o.na. a #ag'ar s %or!:t +ogs9a<:l'o.na. a
<e#utat:sa, a#el'e.et a =or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g .\9\tti
.i.]l$ets sor:n .ell al.al#a9ni1 K:las9t a$ to!:<<: a9o.ra a
.r$se.re, %og' a #un.:ltat8na. #il'en elQ7r:so.at .ell <etartania
s a #un.a!:llal8ra #il'en +og al.al#a9an$8 a<<an a9 eset<en, %a
50
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
eg' %or!:t #un.:ltat8 @ag'arors9:gra .]l$i #un.a!:llal8+:t, illet!e
for$7t!a, a#enn'i<en a #ag'ar #un.a!:llal8t .]l$i. .i
=or!:tors9:g<a1
1(lcss9ava30 #un.a!:llal8. .i.]l$etse, ?&, @ag'arors9:g,
=or!:tors9:g, s9oci:lis +ogo., ga9$as:gi .e$!e9#n'e.
Discontent of t5e peregrines0 migrants and t5e rig5t to stri3e
r1 ?$it ;a+t:r, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of La<our Law an$
,ocial ,ecurit' Law, Pcs, .a+tar1e$itWa+.1"te1%u1
=elga R"a$ina, LL@, assistant, C%air of International Law, -si+e.,
%s"a$inaW"ra!os1%r
@igration as well as t%e rig%t to stri.e often triggers t%e attention of
researc%ers1 /%is is %ar$l' sur"rising, as <ot% of t%e# are $istincti!e
an$ contro!ersial "%eno#ena of t%e la<or #ar.et1 /%e ai# of t%is
"a"er is to ta.e t%e researc% one ste" furt%er an$ eM"lore t%e
interaction <etween la<or #igration an$ t%e rig%t to stri.e1 In t%e last
$eca$es t%e la<or #ar.ets %a!e transfor#e$1 /%e c%anges %a!e
"rofoun$ effects not onl' on #igrant wor.ers <ut also on t%ose w%o
sta' in t%eir countr' of origin1 ,tri.es <' or against #igrants is one t%e
#ost t%oug%t-"ro!o.ing issues of #o$ern la<or law, "articularl'
%a!ing in #in$ t%e currentl' $e!elo"ing co##on ?& #igration "olic'
wit% t%e #ain focus on la<or #igration an$ t%e rig%t-<ase$ a""roac%
t%e &nion is tr'ing to i#"le#ent1 /%is "a"er will focus on
international, regional an$ national legal fra#ewor. an$ case-law
regar$ing #igrant wor.ersH rig%t to stri.e, as well as rig%t to stri.e of
national wor.ers against #igrant wor.ers, wit% "articular e#"%asis on
t%e =ungarian an$ Croatian law an$ "ractice, %a!ing in #in$
=ungarian ?& #e#<ers%i" an$ "artici"ation in t%e co##on ?&
#igration "olic' as well as t%e u"co#ing accession of Croatia to t%e
&nion an$ its o<ligations to a$+ust its legislation to t%e acquis
communautaire1 Pa"er will anal'9e references an$ conseVuences of
legal pro an$ contra "ro!isions regar$ing t%e rig%t to stri.e of #igrant
wor.ers, an$ i$entif' legal a#<iguities w%ic% coul$ $isa$!antage t%e
rig%t to stri.e of !arious grou"s of #igrant wor.ers, i1e1 #igrants wit%
$ifferent ?& resi$ence status an$ #igrants engage$ in "articularl'
!ulnera<le e#"lo'#ent sectors1 @igrant wor.ersH rig%t to stri.e %as a
I0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
central role in t%e "rotection of t%e <asic la<or rig%ts of #igrant
wor.ers, w%ic% is often +eo"ar$i9e$ <ecause of t%e legal lin.age
<etween t%e rig%t to resi$ence an$ s"ecific e#"lo'#ent relations%i"1
1e2words0 stri.e, transnational in$ustrial action, #igration,
soli$arit', conflict, !ulnera<le e#"lo'#ent, ?& co##on #igration
"olic'1
Le9adovol<stvo t(Iinaca STRALAA0 migranti i pravo na Ktra<3
r1sc1 ?$it ;a+t:r, !iEa "re$a!aTica, ;ate$ra ra$nog "ra!a i "ra!a
soci+alnog osiguran+a, PeTu%, .a+tar1e$itWa+.1"te1%u*
@r1sc1 =elga R"a$ina, asistentica, ;ate$ra #eZunaro$nog "ra!a,
-si+e., %s"a$inaW"ra!os1%r
@igraci+e i "ra!o na Etra+. Testo "ri!laTe "a[n+u 9nanst!eni.a1 -!o
ni+e i9nenaZu+u6e <u$u6i $a o<+e "o+a!e i9a9i!a+u "a[n+u i
.ontro!er9e na tr[iEtu ra$a1 Cil+ o!og Tlan.a +e $o"rinos una"reZen+u
istra[i!an+a i "rouTa!an+e intera.ci+e i9#eZu ra$ni% #igraci+a i "ra!a
na Etra+.1 /r[iEta ra$a su se ti+e.o# "osl+e$n+eg $esetl+e6a
transfor#irala1 Pro#+ene su i#ale uTina. ne sa#o na ra$ni.e
#igrante, !e6 i na ra$ni.e $r[a!l+ane1 Rtra+.o!i o$ strane ili "roti!
ra$ni.a #igranata su +e$na o$ 9nanst!eno na+intrigantni+i% te#a
su!re#enog ra$nog "ra!a, "ose<ice u9i#a+u6i u o<9ir trenutni ra9!o+
9a+e$niT.og ?& #igraci+s.og 9a.ono$a!st!a .o+e se u na+!e6e#
$i+elu o$nosi na ra$ne #igraci+e i nasto+i "ri#i+eniti u "ra.si "ristu"
ute#el+en na "ra!i#a )ra$ni.a #igranta*1 Ulana. 6e o<u%!atiti
#eZunaro$ni, regionalni i nacionalni 9a.ono$a!ni o.!ir i su$s.u
"ra.su .o+a se o$nosi na "ra!o ra$ni.a #igranata na Etra+., .ao i
"ra!o na Etra+. ra$ni.a $r[a!l+ana "roti! ra$ni.a #igranata, s
"ose<ni# naglas.o# na #aZars.o i %r!ats.o 9a.ono$a!st!o i "ra.su,
a i#a+u6i na u#u #aZars.o Tlanst!o u ?& i su$+elo!an+e u
9a+e$niT.o+ ?& #igraci+s.o+ "olitici, .ao i s.oro "ri$ru[i!an+e
Re"u<li.e =r!ats.e &ni+i te n+e9ine o<!e9e us.laZi!an+a
9a.ono$a!st!a s "ra!no# steTe!ino# &ni+e1 Ulana. 6e anali9irati
reference i "osl+e$ice pro i contra "ro"isa o<9iro# na "ra!o na Etra+.
ra$ni.a #igranata i ut!r$iti 6e "ra!ne ne$oreTenosti .o+e <i #ogle
ugro9iti "ra!o na Etra+. ra9liTiti% .ategori+a ra$ni.a #igranata t+1
#igranata u ra9liTiti# ?& <ora!iEni# statusi#a i #igranata .o+i su
I1
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
9a"osleni u 9ani#an+i#a u .o+i#a su "ose<no i9lo[eni #ogu6i#
9lou"otre<a#a "ra!a1 Pra!o na Etra+. ra$ni.a #igranata i#a sre$iEn+u
ulogu u 9aEtiti te#el+ni% ra$ni% "ra!a ra$ni.a #igranata, a Testo +e
ugro[eno 9<og 9a.ons.e "o!e9anosti 9a"oslen+a .o$ o$reZenog
"oslo$a!ca i "ra!a na <ora!iEte )u sluTa+e!i#a u .o+i#a ra$ni.
#igrant ost!aru+e "ra!o na <ora!iEte te#el+e# 9a"oslen+a*1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 Ktra+., transnacionalna in$ustri+s.a a.ci+a, #igraci+e,
soli$arnost, .onfli.t, "ose<no ugro[ena 9ani#an+a, 9a+e$niT.a ?&
#igraci+s.a "oliti.a
A v:ndoro3 s,relmei0 migr:nso3 ,s a s9tr:<35o9 val8 <og
r1 ;a+t:r ?$it, P%, a$+un.tus, @un.a+ogi s /:rsa$alo#<i9tos7t:si
Jogi /ans9., Pcs, .a+tar1e$itWa+.1"te1%u
@r1sc1 =elga R"a$ina, tan:rseg$, Ce#9et.\9i Jogi /ans9., ?s9.,
%s"a$inaW"ra!os1%r
> #igr:ci8 a.:rcsa. a s9tr:+.%o9 !al8 +og g'a.ran fel.elti a .utat8.
fig'el#t1 ?9 .or:ntse# #egle"Q, l!n #in$.t int9#n'
.ara.teris9ti.us, ellent#on$:sos #eg%at:ro98+a a #un.aerQ-"iaci
."ne.1 Jelen tanul#:n' cl+a ne# .e!ese<<, #int eg' l"ssel
to!:<< #enni, #eg!i9sg:lni a s9tr:+. s a #igr:ci8 eg'#:s%o9 !al8
!is9on':t1 >9 el#_lt !ti9e$e. sor:n a #un.aerQ"iaco. +elentQsen
:tala.ulta.1 ? !:lto9:s eg'ar:nt <efol':sol+a a #igr:nso. lett, s
a9o.t is, a.i. %a9:+u.<an #ara$ta.1 > #igr:nso. :ltal, illet!e a9
ellen]. s9er!e9ett s9tr:+.o. "ro<le#ati.:+a eg'i.e a #o$ern
#un.a+og #eg!:las9olan$8 ter]leteine., fQ.nt, %a a for#:l8$8
.\9\s uni8s #igr:ci8s "oliti.:ra gon$olun., #el'ne. .\9""ont+:<an
a #un.:!al \ss9ef]ggQ #igr:ci8 s a +ogo. <i9tos7t:sa :ll1 Jelen
tanul#:n' ne#9et.\9i, region:lis !ala#int ne#9eti tteles +ogi s
eset+ogi s9inten !i9sg:l+a a s9tr:+.%o9 !al8 +ogot a #igr:nso. :ltal s
ellen s9er!e9ett a.ci8.ra eg'ar:nt .itr!e1 ;ie#elt fig'el#et s9entel a
#ag'ar s a %or!:t +ogna., te.intettel @ag'arors9:g !is9on'lat:<an
a9 ?& tags:gra s a .\9\s uni8s #igr:ci8s "oliti.:ra, =or!:tors9:g
esetn "e$ig a .\9eli csatla.o9:s:ra s a9 acquis communautaire-ne.
!al8 #egfelels .\tele9ettsgre1 > tanul#:n' ele#9i a #igr:nso.
s9tr:+.%o9 !al8 +og:t elQseg7tQ s %:tr:ltat8 s9a<:l'o9:si ele#e.et s
r:#utat a9o.ra a <i9on'talans:go.ra, #el'e. %:tr:n'osan rinti. a
I2
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
#igr:nso. eg'es cso"ort+ait )"l$:ul a9 uni8s tart89.o$:si enge$ll'el
ren$el.e9Q. st:tusa illet!e a #igr:nso.at rintQ bsr]l.en'
foglal.o9tat:sO*1 > #igr:ns #un.a!:llal8. s9tr:+.%o9 !al8 +og:na.
!$el#e .\9"onti ele#e a #igr:nso.at #egilletQ ala"!etQ
#un.a!:llal8i +ogo. <i9tos7t:s:na. )#el'e.ne. r!n'es]lst
g'a.ran !es9l'e9teti eg'es #un.:. esetn a tart89.o$:s +og:%o9 !al8
.\t\ttsg*1
1(lcss9ava30 ,9tr:+., %at:ro.on :tn'_l8 #un.a%arc, #igr:ci8,
s9oli$arit:s, .onfli.tus, bsr]l.en' foglal.o9tat:sO, a9 ?& .\9\s
#igr:ci8 "oliti.:+a
ivil law framewor3s for t5e lia/ilit2 of companies for
environmental damages and t5eir infl(ence on regional
development
r1 @:ria @:rton, +unior lecturer, e"art#ent of 5usiness an$
Co##ercial Law, Pcs, #arton1#ariaWa+.1"te1%u
u<ra!.a ;lasiTe., P%, senior assistant, e"art#ent of Ci!il Law,
-si+e., $.lasiceW"ra!os1%r
CataEa Luci6, #ag1 iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of ?cono#ic ,ciences,
-si+e., nlucicW"ra!os1%r
-ne of t%e fun$a#ental goals of regional $e!elo"#ent is efficient
en!iron#ental "rotection an$ t%e <asic instru#ent to acco#"lis% t%is
goal is a "ro"er legislati!e fra#ewor.1 /%e #ain to"ic of t%is "a"er is
t%e regulation of t%e lia<ilit' of co#"anies for en!iron#ental $a#ages
in ci!il law, wit% s"ecial e#"%asis on t%e #o$es of lia<ilit' an$ t%e
release of lia<ilit'1 > s'ste#ic o!er!iew an$ anal'sis of t%e legislati!e
fra#ewor.s regar$ing t%e lia<ilit' of co#"anies for en!iron#ental
$a#ages s%oul$ in$icate certain legal inconsistencies, inco#"ati<ilit'
<etween certain laws an$ at t%e sa#e ti#e %ig%lig%t t%e "ossi<ilit' of
%ar#oni9ation an$ a$+ust#ent of "articular legal teMts1 /%is anal'sis
also ai#s to re!eal "ossi<le effects of t%e a<o!e#entione$ ci!il law
fra#ewor.s on regional $e!elo"#ent1 /%e aut%ors #a.e reference to
t%e role of "articular institutions of regional $e!elo"#ent in t%e
efficient i#"le#entation of legal rules regulating t%e lia<ilit' of
co#"anies for en!iron#ental "rotection an$ t%e nee$ for t%eir
co##on, coor$inate$ action for t%e "ur"ose of s'ste#atic an$
I3
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
efficient i#"le#entation of laws, i1e1 t%e goals w%ic% s%oul$ <e
ac%ie!e$ <' regulation of t%ese issues in su<stanti!e law1 /%e "a"er
singles out "articularl' t%e si#ilarities an$ $ifferences <etween t%e
regulation of t%e res"ecti!e issues in t%e Croatian an$ =ungarian
s'ste# of ci!il law as well as t%e eMtent of t%e influence of t%e s'ste#
of %ar#oni9ation wit% ?& reVuire#ents on t%ese two countries
consi$ering t%e fact t%at =ungar' as a current @e#<er ,tate of t%e
?uro"ean &nion an$ Croatia as a near future @e#<er ,tate nee$e$ to
%ar#oni9e t%e legal regulation of ci!il law lia<ilit' for en!iron#ental
"rotection, %a!ing regar$ to t%e reVuire#ents of t%e "re-accession
"rocess1
1e2words2 en!iron#ental "rotection, co#"anies, lia<ilit', regional
$e!elo"#ent, institutions
GraIans3opravni o3viri odgovornosti tvrt3i 9a Ktet( ( o3oliK( i
n<i5ov (t<eca< na regionalni ra9vo<
r1 @:ria @:rton, asistent, ;ate$ra "oslo!nog i trgo!aT.og "ra!a,
Pcs, #arton1#ariaWa+.1"te1%u
r1sc1 u<ra!.a ;lasiTe., !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra graZans.o"ra!ni%
9nanosti, -si+e., $.lasiceW"ra!os1%r
CataEa Luci6, #ag1 iur1, asistent, ;ate$ra gos"o$ars.i% 9nanosti, -si+e.,
nlucicW"ra!os1%r
Je$an o$ osno!ni% cil+e!a regionalnog ra9!o+a uTin.o!ita +e 9aEtita
o.oliEa, a osno!ni instru#ent u "osti9an+u o!oga cil+a u"ra!o +e $o<ar
9a.ono$a!ni o.!ir1 -sno!na +e te#a o!oga ra$a graZans.o"ra!na
regulaci+a o$go!ornosti t!rt.i 9a Etetu u o.oliEu, s "ose<ni#
naglas.o# na naTin o$go!ornosti i oslo<oZen+e o$ o$go!ornosti1
,usta!ni# "ri.a9o# i anali9o# 9a.ons.i% o.!ira o$go!ornosti t!rt.i
9a Etetu u o.oliEu, u ra$u 6e se u.a9ati na ne.e 9a.ons.e
ne$oreTenosti, o$reZena neslagan+a #eZu "o+e$ini# 9a.oni#a i
#ogu6nosti u+e$naTa!an+a i "rilago$<i o$reZeni% 9a.ons.i% te.sto!a1
Ca!e$eno# anali9o# u ra$u 6e se isto ta.o u.a9ati na #ogu6e
ut+eca+e s"o#enuti% graZans.o"ra!ni% o.!ira na regionalni ra9!o+1
>utorice se u ra$u, ta.oZer, os!r6u na ulogu "o+e$ini% instituci+a
regionalog ra9!o+a u uTin.o!ito+ "ro!e$<i "ra!ni% "ra!ila .o+i#a se
regulira o$go!ornost t!rt.i 9a 9aEtitu u o.oliEu, "otre<u 9a+e$niT.og,
I4
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
.oor$iniranog $+elo!an+a #eZu n+i#a u cil+u susta!ne i uTin.o!ite
"ro!e$<e 9a.ona, o$nosno cil+e!a .o+i se #ateri+alno"ra!ni#
ureZen+e# o!e "ra!ne "ro<le#ati.e [ele "osti6i1 Ra$ oso<ito u.a9u+e
na sliTnosti i ra9li.e u ureZen+u "re$#etni% "itan+a u %r!ats.o# i
#aZars.o# graZans.o"ra!no# susta!u .ao i .oli.o +e na n+i% ut+ecao
susta! "rilago$<e 9a%t+e!i#a ?uro"s.e uni+e s o<9iro# na Tin+enicu
$a su i @aZars.a .ao sa$aEn+a Tlanica ?uro"s.e uni+e i =r!ats.a .ao
Tlanica u !rlo s.oro+ <u$u6nosti, "itan+a "ra!nog ureZen+a
graZans.o"ra!ne o$go!ornosti 9a 9aEtitu o.oliEa #orale "rilago$iti
9a%t+e!i#a "re$"ristu"nog "rocesa1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 9aEtita o.oliEa, t!rt.e, o$go!ornost, regionalni ra9!o+,
instituci+e
A ga9das:gi t:rsas:go3 3Jrn2e9eti 3:ro3,rt val8 felelHss,g,ne3
polg:ri <ogi 3eretei ,s e9e3 5at:sa a region:lis fe<les9t,sre
r1 @:ria @:rton, tan:rseg$, 4a9$as:gi s ;eres.e$el#i Jogi /ans9.
Pcs, #arton1#ariaWa+.1"te1%u
r1sc1 u<ra!.a ;lasiTe., P%, a$+un.tus, Polg:ri Jogi tans9., ?s9.,
$.lasiceW"ra!os1%r
CataEa Luci6, #ag1 iur1, tan:rseg$, 4a9$as:gi /u$o#:n'o. /ans9.e,
?s9., nlucicW"ra!os1%r
> region:lis fe+les9tse. eg'i. legfontosa<< cl+a a .\rn'e9et
!$el#e, #el' elrsne. ala"!etQ es9.\9e a #egfelelQ +ogs9a<:l'i
%:ttr #eglte1 ? tanul#:n' legfontosa<< fela$ata a .\rn'e9et
!$el#t cl98, ga9$as:gi t:rsas:go.ra !onat.o98 "olg:ri +ogi
s9a<:l'o. <e#utat:sa, .]l\n\s te.intettel a felelQssg s a9 a9 al8li
#entes]ls eseteire1 > ga9$as:gi t:rsas:go. .\rn'e9eti .:ro.rt !al8
"olg:ri +ogi felelQssge +ogi .ereteine. <e#utat:sa s ele#9se
s9].sg.""en felt:r <i9on'os .\!et.e9etlensge.et s
\ss9eeg'e9tet%etetlensge.et eg'es +ogs9a<:l'o. .\9\tt, ug'ana..or
elQre!et7ti eg'es .]l\n\s +ogan'ago. \ss9e%angol:s:na. le%etQsgt
is1 ?9en ele#9s cl+a to!:<<:, %og' <e#utassa a .or:<<an e#l7tett
+ogs9a<:l'i .erete. le%etsges %at:sait a region:lis fe+les9tse.
ter]letre1 > s9er9Q. .ie#eli. a9on region:lis fe+les9tse.
#eg%at:ro9ott int9#n'eine. a s9ere"t is, #el'e. %at.on'an
al.al#a9%at8a. a region:lis t:rsas:go.ra !onat.o98,
I5
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
.\rn'e9et!$ele##el .a"csolatos felelQssgi .r$se.re s
%angs_l'o99:. e9e. eg']ttes, \ss9e%angolt g'a.orl:s:t, #el'ne. cl+a
a ren$s9er9ett s %at.on' +ogal.al#a9:s )7g' "l1 e .r$se.ne. a9
an'agi +og ter]letn !al8 s9a<:l'o9:sa*1 > tanul#:n' .]l\n\s
%angs_l't fe.tet a9 eg'#:sna. #egfeleltet%etQ %or!:t s #ag'ar
s9a<:l'o. .\9\tti %asonl8s:go. s .]l\n<sge. <e#utat:s:ra,
a%og'an a +og%ar#oni9:ci8 %at:s:na. fo.aira is, te.intettel arra, %og'
@ag'arors9:g a9 ?& +elenlegi, =or!:tors9:g "e$ig a +\!Q<eli tag+a, s
e9en :lla#o.na. is .\tele9ettsg]. a .\rn'e9eti .:ro.rt !al8 "olg:ri
+ogi felelQssgi s9a<:l'o.na. a .\9el7tse1
1(lcss9ava32 .\rn'e9et!$ele#, t:rsas:go., felelQssg, region:lis
fe+les9ts, int9#n'e.
ross /order cooperation of (nderta3ings and it4s implications on
regional development
u<ra!.a >.Ea#o!i6- P5D- assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
Co##ercial Law, -si+e., $a.sa#o!W"ra!os1%r
r1 ;ir:l' Lilla, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of Ci!il Proce$ural
Law an$ Legal ,ociolog', .iral'1lillaWa+.1"te1%u
Coo"eration of un$erta.ings on regional le!el can <e t%e .e' to
successful regional $e!elo"#ent1 @ergers, acVuisitions an$ ot%er
for#s of coo"eration of un$erta.ings can %el" t%e# to i#"ro!e t%eir
#ar.et "osition an$ to <eco#e a regional )or wi$er* lea$er1 >lt%oug%
incenti!es for coo"eration #ust co#e fro# t%e un$erta.ings
t%e#sel!es, t%e successful coo"eration of un$erta.ings fro# $ifferent
countries an$ regions also $e"en$s on $ifferent factors suc% as
co#"an' law regulation, taM law, #onetar' "olic', regional "olic' etc1
/%e "ur"ose of t%is "a"er is to eM"lore legal <ut also ot%er factors
w%ic% can influence cross <or$er coo"eration <etween =ungarian an$
Croatian un$erta.ings1 ,"ecial attention will <e gi!en to legal for#s
of coo"eration in =ungarian an$ Croatian co#"an' law as well as to
regional "olic' su""orting suc% coo"eration )if an'*1 >lso, an eMa#"le
of successful regional coo"eration will <e eM"lore$ as a "ossi<le role
#o$el for future coo"eration of un$erta.ings in our region1 In
conclusion we will $efine o<stacles an$ gi!e suggestions on %ow to
use regulator' instru#ents in or$er to i#"ro!e coo"eration of
II
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
un$erta.ings on a regional le!el an$ in or$er to use regional "otentials
of Croatia an$ =ungar' as neig%<oring countries an$ to ac%ie!e a
stronger econo#ic $e!elo"#ent of our region1
1e2words2 f
Pre3ograniGna s(radn<a pod(9etni3a i impli3aci<e na regionalni
ra9vo<
oc1$r#sc# D(/rav3a A3KamoviA- $ocentica, ;ate$ra trgo!aT.og
"ra!a, -si+e., $a.sa#o!W"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 ;ir:l' Lilla, !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra graZans.og "ostu"o!nog
"ra!a i "ra!ne sociologi+e, PeTu%, .iral'1lillaWa+.1"te1%u
Pre.ograniTna sura$n+a "o$u9etni.a #o[e <iti .l+uTan Ti#<eni.
us"+eEnog regionalnog ra9!o+a1 Pri"a+an+a, s"a+an+a i $rugi o<lici
sura$n+e "o$u9etni.a i9 ne.e regi+e #ogu $o"rini+eti +aTan+u
.on.urentnosti "o$u9etni.a i "o#o6i i# $a "ostanu regionalni li$eri u
<ranEi, Ta. i Eire1 Ia.o inici+ati!a 9a sura$n+u #ora $o6i o$ sa#i%
"o$u9etni.a, n+e9ina us"+eEnost +e 9a!isna i o$ $rugi% Ti#<eni.a
"o"ut "ra!nog o.!ira 9a trgo!aT.o "oslo!an+e, "ore9ne "oliti.e,
#onetarne "oliti.e, regionalne "oliti.e it$1 Cil+ +e o!oga ra$a
$efinirati u "r!o#e re$u "ra!ne, ali i $ruge Ti#<eni.e .o+i #ogu
ut+ecati na "re.ograniTnu sura$n+u i9#eZu "o$u9etni.a1 Pose<na 6e se
"a[n+a "os!etiti "ra!no# o.!iru 9a trgo!aT.o "oslo!an+e u %r!ats.o#
i #aZars.o# "ra!u, .ao i regionalno+ "olitici .o+a #o[e $o"rini+eti
<ol+o+ ili loEi+o+ sura$n+i na lo.alno+ i regionalno+ ra9ini )a.o ta.!a
regionalna "oliti.a "osto+i*1 Po$re$no 6e se i9ni+eti "ri#+er us"+eEne
regionalne sura$n+e i9#eZu "o$u9etni.a .ao u9or 9a ne.u <u$u6u
sura$n+u "o$u9etni.a i9 naEi% regi+a1 & 9a.l+uT.u 6e se $efinirati
uoTene "re"re.e 9a us"+eEnu regionalnu sura$n+u "o$u9etni.a te
i9ni+eti "ri+e$lo9i .a.o una"ri+e$iti regulatorni o.!ir te <ol+e is.oristiti
gos"o$ars.e "otenci+ale naEe regi+e s cil+e# una"reZen+a e.ono#s.og
ra9!o+a1
1e2words2 f
>:llal3o9:so3 5at:ron :tn2Sl8 eg2MttmR3Jd,se ,s enne3 5at:sa a
region:lis ga9das:gi fe<lHd,sre
IS
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
oc1$r#sc# D(/rav3a A3KamoviA- P5D- eg2etemi docens-
1eres3edelmi ,s T:rsas:gi 'ogi tans9,3- Es9,3-
$a.sa#o!W"ra!os1%r
r1 ;ir:l' Lilla P%, a$+un.tus, Polg:ri ?l+:r:s+ogi s Jogs9ociol8giai
tans9., Pcs, .iral'1lillaWa+.1"te1%u
?g' rgi8 si.eres ga9$as:gi fe+lQ$s%e9 a !:llal.o9:so. region:lis
s9int^ eg']tt#^.\$se +elent%eti a .ulcsot1 >9 eg'es]lse.,
fel!:s:rl:so. s a !:llal.o9:so. eg'< eg']tt#^.\$si for#:i
seg7t%etne. a +o<< "iaci "o97ci8. elrs<en, a region:lis !ag' ann:l
s9lese<< !e9etQ s9ere" <i9tos7t:s:<an1 5:r a9 eg']tt#^.\$sre !al8
t\re.!sne. elsQsor<an #agu.<8l a !:llal.o9:so.<8l .ell .iin$ulniu.,
a .]l\n<\9Q ors9:go.<an s rgi8.<an #^.\$Q !:llal.o9:so.
eg']tt#^.\$sne. si.ere erQsen f]gg ol'an tn'e9Q.tQl is, #int a
t:rsas:gi +ogi s a$8+ogi .\rn'e9et, a #onet:ris "oliti.a, a region:lis
"oliti.a, st<1 ? tanul#:n' cl+a, %og' felt:r+a a9o.na. a +ogi s a9
a9on t_l#utat8 tn'e9Q.ne. a %at:sait, a#el'e. <efol':sol+:. a
#ag'ar s %or!:t !:llal.o9:so.at a %at:ro.on :tn'_l8
eg']tt#^.\$s<en1 ;]l\n\s fig'el#et for$7tun. a #ag'ar s %or!:t
t:rsas:gi +ogi s9a<:l'o9:s <e#utat:s:ra, !ala#int a9 il'en
eg']tt#^.\$st t:#ogat8 region:lis "oliti.a <e#utat:s:ra
)a#enn'i<en il'enre "l$:t tal:lun.*1 ?#ellett a si.eres region:lis
eg']tt#^.\$s eg' .on.rt "l$:+:!al is s9e#lltet+]. a rgi8n.<an
#eg!al8s7t%at8 .oo"er:ci8 le%etQsgeit1 >9 \ss9efoglal:s<an a9
a.a$:l'o. ne!es7tsre, !ala#it a9 eg']tt#^.\$st fe+les9tst
s9olg:l8 +a!aslato. #egfogal#a9:s:ra .er]l sor, a#el'e. seg7t%eti. a
s9o#s9$os =or!:tors9:got s @ag'arors9:got a rgi8s s9int^
!:llal.o9:si le%etQsgeine. +o<< .ia.n:9:s:<an, s e9 :ltal
%o99:+:rulna. a9 erQtel+ese<< ga9$as:gi n\!e.e$s%e91
1(lcss9ava32 f
oncepts and t5eories on eUec(tive rem(neration wit5 special
emp5asis on t5e recent initiatives and developments in t5e FS and
EF
A!oni#ir Jelini6, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of Co##ercial
an$ Co#"an' Law, -si+e., 9+elinicW"ra!os1%r
IJ
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
r1 >n$r:s ;ecs.s, P%, senior lecturer, e"art#ent of 5usiness an$
Co##ercial Law, Pcs, .ecs.es1an$rasWa+.1"te1%u
(ollowing an econo#ic $ownturn an$ financial crisis t%at %a$ %it #ost
of t%e states of t%e $e!elo"e$ 3estern 3orl$, t%e re#uneration of
$irectors )eMecuti!e an$ non-eMecuti!e* <eca#e one of t%e central
to"ics in a nu#<er of $iscussions w%ic% consi$er cor"orate
go!ernance regi#es an$ $ifferent #eans of control o!er <an.s an$
ot%er in!est#ent institutions1 In t%is "a"er t%e aut%ors eMa#ine w%at
t%e eMtent of t%e "rogress #a$e so far wit% regulator' treat#ent of
eMecuti!e re#uneration in t%e &, an$ ?& is1 /%e aut%orsH #ain
stan$ing "oint is t%at a""ro"riate $isclosure of $irector re#uneration,
as well assuring trans"arent "rocesses of $eter#ining suc%
re#uneration #a' "la' a crucial role in "re!enting ina""ro"riate
"olicies an$ su<seVuentl' lessen incenti!es to eMcessi!e ris. ta.ing <'
eMecuti!es geare$ at #aMi#i9ing "rofits to t%e $etri#ent of financial
sta<ilit' an$ %ealt% of co#"anies1 In t%e conteMt of recent initiati!es at
t%e ?& le!el, t%e =ungarian an$ Croatian legal fra#ewor. for
eMecuti!e re#uneration is also <eing "resente$ an$ $iscusse$1
1e2words2 eMecuti!e re#uneration, $isclosure of t%e re#uneration
"olic', <est "ractices, ?&
1oncepti i teori<e nagraIivan<a Glanova (prave s pose/nim
naglas3om na s(vremene inici<ative i 3retan<a ( SAD!( i EF
oc1$r1sc1 A!oni#ir Jelini6, $ocent, ;ate$ra trgo!aT.og "ra!a, -si+e.,
9+elinicW"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 ;ecs.s >n$r:s, !iEi "re$a!aT, ;ate$ra 9a e.ono#s.o i trgoaT.o
"ra!o, PeTu%, .an$rasWa+.1"te1%u
,li+e$o# ne"o!ol+ni% e.ono#s.i% $ogaZa+a i financi+s.e .ri9e .o+a +e
"ogo$ila !eli.i <ro+ ra9!i+eni% 9a"a$ni% 9e#al+a, nagraZi!an+e ra$a
$ire.tora )Tlano!a u"ra!e i u"ra!ni% o$<ora* "ostala +e +e$na o$
sre$iEn+i% te#a u ras"ra!a#a .o+e se tiTu #o$ela .or"orati!nog
u"ra!l+an+a te naTina .ontrole na$ <an.a#a i $rugi# in!estici+s.i#
instituci+a#a1 & o!o# ra$u autori "ro"itu+u $osege "ro#+ena nastali%
u "ogle$u nor#ati!nog ureZen+a nagraZi!an+a ra$a $ire.tora u ,>-u
I0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
i ?&1 /e9a .o+u autori 9astu"a+u i o$ .o+e "ola9e +e $a trans"arentno
nagraZi!an+e $ire.tora, .ao i osiguran+e trans"aretnosti "rocesa
o$luTi!an+a o n+i%o!i# nagra$a#a #o[e i#ati .l+uTnu ulogu u
"re!enci+i ne"ri#+ereni% naTina u"ra!l+an+a $ruEt!i#a i na ta+ naTin
$ire.tore s"ri+eTiti $a "reu9i#a+u ri9i.e .o+i #ogu naruEiti 9$ra!l+e i
financi+s.u sta<ilnost $ruEt!a1 & .on.te.stu recentni% inici+ati!a
nastali% u o.ril+u ?&, u ra$u se ta.oZer ras"ra!l+a %r!ats.i i #aZars.i
nor#ati!ni o.!ir 9a nagraZi!an+e $ire.tora1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 nagraZi!an+e Tlano!a u"ra!e, o<+a!a naTina
nagraZi!an+a, na+<ol+e "ra.se, ?&
A v:llalati ve9etH3 <avadalma9:s:ra vonat3o98 elm,lete3 ,s
3oncepci83- 3MlJnJs te3intettel a9 Eg2esMlt Wllamo3 ,s a9
E(r8pai Fni8 fe<lHd,si ir:n2aira
oc1$r1sc1 Jelinic A!oni#ir, P%, $ocens, ;eres.e$el#i Jogi /ans9.,
?s9., 9+elinicW"ra!os1%r
r1 ;ecs.s >n$r:s, P%, a$+un.tus, 4a9$as:gi s ;eres.e$el#i Jogi
/ans9., Pcs, .ecs.es1an$rasWa+.1"te1%u
C'o#on.\!et!e a ga9$as:gi recess9i8 s a "n9]g'i !:ls:g %at:sait,
a#el'e. a fe+lett n'ugati ga9$as:gi ren$s9ere.et a9 ut8<<i i$Q<en
s_l'tott:., a !:llalati !e9etQ. +a!a$al#a9:s:na. .r$se a t:rsas:go.
felelQs ir:n'7t:s s a <an.o. !ala#int "n9int9ete. ir:n'7t:si
ren$s9erre !onat.o98 el#lete. .\9"onti .r$s! !:lt1 ?<<en a
#un.:+u.<an a s9er9Q. a9t ele#9i., %og' a9 ?g'es]lt Dlla#o.<an s
a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8<an a s9a<:l'o9:s #il'en fe+lQ$si ir:n'ai
ta"as9tal%at8. a !:llalati !e9etQ. +a!a$al#a9:s:na. ter]letn1 >
s9er9Q. :ltal ."!iselt fQ :ll:s"ont s9erint a #egfelelQ +a!a$al#a9:si
ren$s9er s9les.\r^ .\99tteli .\tele9ettsgen s #agas fo._
trans9"arenci:n ala"ul anna. r$e.<en, %og' #egelQ9%etQ leg'en a
!:llalati !e9etQ. rs9rQl a t_l9ott .oc.:9at!:llal:s, #i.\9<en a
n'eresg #aMi#ali9:l:sa #aMi#ali9:l:s:ra t\re.e$ne., s e9:ltal a9 is
el.er]l%etQ leg'en, %og' a !:llalati integrit:sa s "n9]g'i sta<ilit:sa
#egren$]l+\n1 >9 eur8"ai s9a<:l'o9:s is#ertetsne. .\r<en a
tanul#:n' rinti a %or!:t s #ag'ar s9a<:l'o9:s .ereteit is1
S0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
1(lcss9ava32 !e9etQi +a!a$al#a9:s, a +a!a$al#a9:si "oliti.a
.\99ttele, a leg+o<< ]9leti g'a.orlat, ?&
E(ropean regional perspective on environment and 5(man
rig5ts
r1 >$rienne ;o#ano!ics, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
International an$ ?uro"ean Law, Pcs,
.o#ano!ics1a$rienneWa+.1"te1%u
Ci!es @a9ur-;u#ri6, P%, assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
International Law, -si+e., n#a9urW"ra!os1%r
?n!iron#ental $egra$ation is a sa$ realit' in t%e world and in Europe
as well. To tackle this problem, various international conventions
have been adopted at universal and regional level. Undoubtedl, the
creation of international legal norms represents a significant step in
fostering environment!conscious policies. "n this vein, both #roatia
and $ungar have adopted or defined national programs, pro%ects
and strategies which are in compliance with international and
regional standards. &oth countries take part in regional initiatives
such as the 'egional Environmental #entre for #entral and Eastern
Europe ('E#), established inter alia b $ungar. )s for the bilateral
level, #roatia and $ungar signed the )greement on #o!operation in
the *ield of Environmental +rotection and ,ature #onservation in
-../. With over 0... international treaties, environmental law is
considered to be the most codified area of law on a specific topic.
,evertheless, while environmental treaties ma envisage some sort of
monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, implementation of
international norms depends to a large extent on the willingness of
1tates. Thus, traditional intergovernmental methods are sometimes
not enough and should be complemented b other methods of
enforcement. This is where the vigilance of individuals has great
potential2 3victims4 of environmental pollution can submit their cases
to several human rights treat monitoring bodies, especiall to the
European #ourt of $uman 'ights, which has an ever!expanding case!
law on environmental issues. The advantage of this solution lies in the
fact that people directl affected b environmental pollution might be
S1
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
more active in vindicating their rights. ,evertheless, this approach
has the weakness of providing onl a piecemeal approach.
*urthermore, the European #ourt of $uman 'ights is restricted to
deciding whether a particular law or practice is or is not compatible
with the #onvention. )s a consequence, it cannot repeal or change
national laws or practices. Thus, national authorities en%o a certain
leewa in choosing the methods of implementation, which might not
be alwas totall in line with environmental standards.
1e2words2 en!iron#ental "rotection, %u#an rig%ts, ?uro"ean legal
stan$ar$s, Croatia, =ungar'
E(rops3i regionalni prist(p o3oliK( i l<(ds3im pravima
oc1$r1sc1 >$rienne ;o#ano!ics, $ocentica, ;ate$ra #eZunaro$nog
+a!nog i euro"s.og "ra!a, PeTu%, .o#ano!ics1a$rienneWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 Ci!es @a9ur-;u#ri6, $ocentica, ;ate$ra 9a #eZunaro$no
"ra!o, -si+e., n#a9urW"ra!os1%r
egra$aci+a o.oliEa tu[na +e st!arnost .a.o u s!i+etu, ta.o i u ?uro"i1
& nasto+an+u $a se ri+eEi o!a+ "ro<le#, us!o+ene su ra9liTite
#eZunaro$ne .on!enci+e na uni!er9alno+ i regionalno+ ra9ini1
Cesu#n+i!o +e $a $onoEen+e o!i% #eZunaro$ni% "ra!ni% "ro"isa
"re$sta!l+a 9naTa+an .ora. u +aTan+u e.oloE.i os!i+eEteni% "oliti.a1 &
to# s#islu, =r!ats.a i @aZars.a us!o+ile su ili $efinirale ni9
nacionalni% "rogra#a, "ro+e.ata i strategi+a .o+i su u suglas+u s
#eZunaro$ni# i regionalni# stan$ar$i#a1 /a.oZer, o<+e $r[a!e $a+u
s!o+ $o"rinos a.ti!nosti#a regionalni% inci+ati!a, "o"ut Regionalog
centra 9a o.oliE 9a ,re$n+u i IstoTnu ?uro"u )R?C*, Ti+i +e +e$an o$
ute#el+itel+a i @aZars.a1 ;a$a +e ri+eT o <ilateralno+ sura$n+i,
@aZars.a i =r!ats.a "ot"isale su ,"ora9u# o sura$n+i na "o$ruT+u
9aEtite o.oliEa i "riro$e 200I1 go$ine1 , !iEe o$ 1000 #eZunaro$ni%
ugo!ora, "ra!o o.oliEa s#atra se $anas na+.o$ificirani+i# $i+elo#
"ra!a na o$reZenu te#u1 "ako ugovori o 5a6titi okoli6a mogu
predvi7ati neke oblike nad5ornih i provedbenih mehani5ama, n%ihova
implementaci%a uvelike ovisi o vol%i dr8ava. "5 tog ra5loga,
tradicionalne me7udr8avne metode ponekad same po sebi nisu
dovol%ne i nu8no ih %e dopuniti drugim provedbenim mehani5mima.
S2
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
9vo %e podru:%e u ko%em uloga po%edinaca ima veliki potenci%al2
;8rtve< one:i6=en%a okoli6a mogu podni%eti svo%e slu:a%eve pred
nekoliko ti%ela nadle8nih 5a nad5or 5a6tite l%udskih prava, posebice
Europskom sudu 5a l%udska prava, ko%i bil%e8i porast sudske prakse u
podru:%u 5a6tite okoli6a. +rednost ovakovog r%e6en%a le8i u :in%enici
da l%udi ko%i su neposredno pogo7eni 5aga7en%em okoli6a
pretendira%u biti aktivni%i u obrani svo%ih prava. "pak, poton%i pristup
ima svo%e slabosti i pru8a tek d%elomi:na r%e6en%a. Tako7er, Europski
sud 5a l%udska prava ograni:en %e na odlu:ivan%e o tome %esu li
odre7eni pravni propis ili praksa sukladni >onvenci%i 5a 5a6titu
l%udskih prava i temel%nih sloboda, a to ima 5a posl%edicu da isti ne
mo8e ukinuti ili promi%eniti nacionalne propise ili praksu. ?rugim
ri%e:ima, nacionalne vlasti u8iva%u odre7enu slobodu u i5boru metoda
implementaci%e, ko%e ne mora%u uvi%ek u ci%elosti biti u skladu sa
standardima 5a6tite okoli6a.
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 9aEtita o.oliEa, l+u$s.a "ra!a, euro"s.i "ra!ni
stan$ar$i, =r!ats.a, @aZars.a
1Jrn2e9et ,s em/eri <ogo3 e(r8pai region:lis s9ems9Jg/Hl
r1 >$rienne ;o#ano!ics, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, Ce#9et.\9i- s
?ur8"a+ogi /ans9., Pcs, .o#ano!ics1a$rienneWa+.1"te1%u
oc1$r1sc1 Ci!es @a9ur-;u#ri6, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, Ce#9et.\9i
Jogi /ans9., ?s9., n#a9urW"ra!os1%r
> .\rn'e9et s9enn'e9se sa+n:latos #8$on #in$enna"os +elensg a
!il:gon s s9^.e<< rgi8n.<an, ?ur8":<an eg'ar:nt1 > "ro<l#a
#egol$:s:ra s9:#os uni!er9:lis s region:lis eg'e9#n' s9]letett1
/aga$%atatlan, %og' a9 il'en ir:n'_ ne#9et.\9i +ogal.ot:s +elentQsen
%o99:+:rul a .\rn'e9ettu$atos "oliti.:. elQ#o9$7t:s:%o91 ?..nt
=or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g is a ne#9et.\9i s region:lis
stan$ar$o.na. #egfelelQ ne#9eti "rogra#o.at, "ro+e.te.et s
stratgi:.at $olgo9ott .i, s foga$ott el1 @in$.t ors9:g rs9ese ol'an
region:lis .e9$e#n'e9se.ne., #int a ;\9"- s ;elet-?ur8"ai
Region:lis ;\rn'e9et!$el#i ;\9"ont )R?C*, a#el'ne.
ltre%o9:s:<an @ag'arors9:g is rs9t !ett1 >#i a .tol$al_
.a"csolato.at illeti, =or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g 200I-<an 7rta al: a
S3
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
.\rn'e9et- s ter#s9et!$el#i eg']tt#^.\$srQl s98l8 eg'e9#n't1
/\<< #int e9er s9er9Q$ssel a .\rn'e9et!$ele# a ne#9et.\9i +og
eg'i. legin.:<< s9a<:l'o9ott ter]lete1 5:r a .\rn'e9eti t:rg'_
s9er9Q$se. g'a.orta tartal#a9na. ellenQr9si s !gre%a+t:si
#ec%ani9#ust, a ne#9et.\9i nor#:. <etart:sa +a!ars9t a9 :lla#o.
%a+lan$8s:g:t8l f]gg1 ?..nt a %ag'o#:n'os .or#:n'.\9i #8$s9ere.
n%a ne# elegen$Qe., s a9o.at #:sfa+ta .i.n's9er7tsi
#8$s9ere..el .ell .iegs97teni1 ?9 a9 a "ont, a%ol a9 eg'es s9e#l'e.
a.ti!it:sa .]l\n\s +elentQsg^2 t\<< ol'an ne#9et.\9i e#<eri +ogi
f8ru# is lte9i., a%o!a a .\rn'e9ets9enn'e9s b:l$o9ataiO .rele##el
for$ul%atna., i$ert!e a9 ?ur8"ai ?#<eri Jogi 57r8s:got, a#el'ne.
.\rn'e9eti t:rg'_ eset+oga fol'a#atosan <Q!]l1 ? #egol$:s elQn'e,
%og' a .\rn'e9et.:ros7t:s .\9!etlen rintett+ei !al8s97n^leg nag'o<<
a.ti!it:st #utatna. +ogai. r!n'es7tse tern1 >9 eg'ni .rel#e.
el<7r:l:sa a9on<an rs9leges, t\re$e9ett ere$#n're !e9et1 ?9en.7!]l
a 57r8s:g csa. arr8l $\nt%et, %og' eg' <i9on'os +ogs9a<:l' !ag'
g'a.orlat \ss9eeg'e9tet%etQ-e a9 ?g'e9#nn'el, a!ag' se#1
;\!et.e9s."" a 57r8s:g ne# %el'e9%eti %at:l'on .7!]l, s ne#
#8$os7t%at+a a .r$ses ne#9eti +ogs9a<:l't !ag' g'a.orlatot1 >
ne#9eti %at8s:go. te%:t +elentQs #o9g:strrel ren$el.e9ne. a<<an a
te.intet<en, %og' #i."" tes9ne. eleget a9 7tlet<en foglalta.na., s
e..nt a !gre%a+t:s ne# felttlen]l felel #eg a .\rn'e9et!$el#i
stan$ar$o.na.1
1(lcss9ava32 .\rn'e9et!$ele#, e#<eri +ogo., eur8"ai +ogi nor#:.,
=or!:tors9:g, @ag'arors9:g
;nformation and ed(cation in environmental iss(es0 .ow
effective are t5e2 regionall26
L+il+ana ,i<er, @> li<1, #ag1 iur1, =ea$ of Li<rar', -si+e.,
l+si<erW"ra!os1%r
r1 ?s9ter ;arolin', =ea$ of Li<rar', ?uro+ust,
e.arolin'Weuro+ust1euro"a1eu
In t%e fiel$ of en!iron#ental "rotection, t%ere are now countless treaties,
?uro"ean laws an$ intergo!ern#ental agree#entsY #an' of t%ese %a!e <een
S4
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
in effect for se!eral $eca$es1 /%e "rotection of our natural en!iron#ent is
wit%out $ou<t a "rereVuisite of sustaina<le $e!elo"#ent1 /%e "a"er ai#s at
#a""ing, as a starting "oint, t%e international an$ ?uro"ean legal fra#ewor.
a""lica<le in t%e Croatian an$ =ungarian <or$er regions focusing on
infor#ation as"ects1 It is not <' c%ance, %owe!er, t%at t%e rule et%in.
glo<all', act locall'e is a <asic rule in en!iron#ental issues2 regional an$
local action is an i#"ortant ele#ent of en!iron#ental wor.1 > "rereVuisite
t%ereof, in turn, is access to infor#ation on en!iron#ent for all, an$
integration of t%e to"ic into e$ucation an$ training1 /%e "a"er also $eals wit%
intro$ucing t%e infor#ation an$ e$ucation a!aila<le on en!iron#ental issues
in t%e Croatian an$ =ungarian <or$er regions, go!ern#ental an$
nongo!ern#ental organisations, e$ucation an$ cultural facilities con$ucting
t%ese acti!ities, an$ s"ecific "ro+ects in t%e area1 It also Vuestions
effecti!eness of t%ese actions e1g1%ow is infor#ation t%at is trans#itte$ !ia
!arious #et%o$s recei!e$ <' t%e inten$e$ target grou"s, %ow efficient are t%e
in$i!i$ual "ro+ects1 /%e "a"er "laces s"ecial e#"%asis on $isco!ering t%e
trans<or$er ele#ent, as neit%er infor#ation, nor e$ucation s%oul$ sto" at t%e
<or$er an' #ore t%an ot%er as"ects of en!iron#ental action $o1
;e' wor$s2 infor#ation, infor#ing, e$ucation, 4reen "a"er, en!iro#ental
"rotection, sustaina<le $e!elo"#ent, cross-<ro$er coo"eration -si+e.-Pecs,
?uro"ean &nion, Croatia, =ungar'
;nformaci<e i o/ra9ovan<e o pitan<ima o3oliKa0 3oli3a <e
n<i5ova regionalna efi3asnost6
L+il+ana ,i<er, @> <i<l1, #ag1iur1, !o$itel+ica .n+i[nice Pra!nog
fa.ulteta u -si+e.u, -si+e., l+si<erW"ra!os1%r
r1 ?s9ter ;arolin', !o$itel+ica .n+i[nice, ?uro+ust,
e.arolin'Weuro+ust1euro"a1eu
Ca "o$ruT+u 9aEtite o.oliEa "osto+e <ro+ni #eZunaro$ni ugo!ori, euro"s.i
"ro"isi i #eZu!la$ini s"ora9u#iY <ro+ni su na sna9i !e6 $esetl+e6i#a1 AaEtita
"riro$nog o.oliEa +e nesu#n+i!o "re$u!+et o$r[i!og ra9!o+a1 & Tlan.u se
"o.uEa!a $ati, 9a "oTeta., #eZunaro$ni i euro"s.i 9a.ono$a!ni o.!ir .o+i
!ri+e$i u regi+i, s naglas.o# na infor#aci+s.i as"e.t1 Ci+e sluTa+no, #eZuti#,
$a +e slogan e#isli glo<alno, $+elu+ lo.alnoe te#el+no "ra!ilo 9a "itan+a
o.oliEa2 regionalno i lo.alno $+elo!an+e +e !a[an ele#ent ra$a .o+i se <a!i
o.oliEe#1 Pre$u!+et to#e +e "ristu" infor#aci+a#a o o.oliEu 9a s!e i
integriran+e te#ati.e u o<ra9o!an+e i os"oso<l+a!an+e1 Ra$ se na$al+e <a!i
S5
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
u!oZen+e# infor#aci+a i o<ra9o!an+a .o+i#a ras"ola[e#o o "itan+i#a
o.oliEa u "ograniTni# regi+a#a =r!ats.e i @aZars.e, !la$ini# i ne!la$ini#
organi9aci+a#a, o<ra9o!ni# i .ulturni# ustano!a#a .o+e se <a!e o!i#
"oslo!i#a i "ose<ni# "ro+e.ti#a u to# "o$ruT+u1
5a!i#o se i "itan+e# efi.asnosti isti%2 .a.o cil+ana s.u"ina "ri#a
infor#aci+e "renesene ra9liTiti# #eto$a#a, .oli.o su "o+e$ini in$i!i$ualni
"ro+e.ti efi.asni1 & Tita!o# ra$u +e naglasa. na ot.ri!an+u "re.ograniTnog
ele#enta <u$u6i $a se ni infor#aci+a niti o<ra9o!an+e ne <i tre<ali 9austa!iti
na granici, +e$na.o .ao ni $rugi as"e.ti $+elo!an+a na o.oliE1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi0 infor#aci+e, infor#iran+e, o<ra9o!an+e, 9elena .n+i[nica,
9aEtita o.oliEa, o$r[i!i ra9!o+, regi+a, "re.ograniTna sura$n+a -si+e. - PeTu%,
?uro"s.a uni+a, =r!ats.a, @aZars.a
1Jrn2e9etv,delmi nevel,s- 3Jrn2e9etv,delmi inform:ci8
mil2en 5at,3on2s:ggal mR3Jdi3 a t:<,3o9tat:s a r,gi83/an6
L+il+ana ,i<er, @> <i<l1, #ag1iur1, .\n'!t:r!e9etQ, ?s9.,
l+si<erW"ra!os1%r
;arolin' ?s9ter, .\n'!t:r!e9etQ, ?uro+ust,
e.arolin'Weuro+ust1euro"a1eu
> .\rn'e9et !$el#rQl #:ra s9:#talan ne#9et.\9i, eur8"ai s .or#:n'.\9i
#eg:lla"o$:s, eg'e9#n' s +ogs9a<:l' s9]letettY e9e. +elentQs rs9ne.
#^.\$se t\<< !ti9e$es #_ltra te.int !iss9a1 Ce# .tsges i##:r, %og' a
%oss9_ t:!_, fenntart%at8 fe+lQ$sne. ala"!etQ ele#e a ter#s9eti .\rn'e9et
!$el#e1 /anul#:n'un. elsQ rs9<en a rgi8n.ra !onat.o98 ne#9et.\9i- s
eur8"a+ogi .\rn'e9eti s9a<:l'o9:st te.int+]. :t, .]l\n\s te.intettel e9e.
infor#:ci8s !onat.o9:saira1 Ce# !letlen a9on<an, %og' a
.\rn'e9et!$ele#<en is ala"!etQ s9a<:l' a gon$ol.o$+ glo<:lisan, csele.e$+
lo.:lisan2 a region:lis s %el'i s9int^ csele.!s ala"!etQ ele#e a
.\rn'e9et]n.rt fol'tatott #un.:na.1 ?nne. a #un.:na. "e$ig elQfelttele a
.\rn'e9ettel .a"csolatos infor#:ci8.%o9 !al8 s9les .\r^ %o99:frs, a
t#:<an fol'tatott o.tat:s-ne!els is1 ag' tanul#:n'un. <e#utat+a a #ag'ar
s %or!:t %at:rrgi8.<an fol'tatott .\rn'e9eti infor#:ci8s s .\rn'e9eti
ne!elsi #un.:t, a9 e9t !g9Q .or#:n'9ati s ne#-.or#:n'9ati
s9er!e9ete.et, o.tat:si s .ultur:lis int9#n'e.et, a9 e t#:<an #^.\$Q
"ro+e.te.et1 ;7srletet tes9]n. e #un.a %at.on's:g:na. fel#rsre is2
anna. <e#utat:s:ra, %og' a .]l\n<\9Q uta.on .\9!et7tett infor#:ci8 #il'en
SI
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
#rt.<en +ut el a clcso"orto.%o9, #el'e. a9 eg'es "ro+e.te. %at:sai1 >
tanul#:n' sor:n !gig .ie#elt fig'el#et for$7tun. a %at:ron :t7!elQ
eg']tt#^.\$se. fel$er7tsre, %is9en a .\rn'e9et!$ele# t:+.o9tat:si
o.tat:si as"e.tusa is a glo<:lis, a9 :lla#%at:ro.at fig'ele#<e ne# !e!Q
ele#e le%et enne. a "oliti.ai ter]letne.1
1(lcss9ava30 infor#:ci8., infor#:ci8 n'_+t:s, ne!els, 9\l$ .\n'!t:r,
ter#s9et!$ele#, fenntart%at8 fe+lQ$s, rgi8, %at:ront_li eg']tt#^.\$s,
?s9. - Pcs, ?ur8"ai &ni8, =or!:tors9:g, @ag'arors9:g
ooperation /etween roatia and .(ngar2 in t5e field of
environmental protection wit5 special reference to certain
core o/ligations regarding t5e protection of /o(ndar2 rivers
5il+ana UinTura. ?rceg, #ag1iur1, assistant, e"art#ent of @ariti#e
an$ 4eneral /rans"ort Law, -si+e., <il+ana1cincura.W"ra!os1%r
r1 @elin$a ,9a""an'os, P%, senior lecturer, College N?\t!\s J89sefO,
e"art#ent of International ,tu$ies, 5a+a, #elin$aWs9a""an'os1%u
r1 Pter /il., P%, assistant "rofessor, Constitutional Law
e"art#ent, Pcs, til.1"eterWa+.1"te1%u
/%e coo"eration <etween Croatia an$ =ungar' starte$ centuries ago,
"artl' <ecause of t%e co##on <oun$ar' ri!ers, t%e anu<e an$ t%e
ra!a1 /%is coo"eration was eMten$e$ to t%e fiel$ of en!iron#ental
"rotection in t%e 20
t%
centur' w%en t%e international co##unit'
starte$ to feel t%e necessit' of "a'ing attention to t%e "rotection of t%e
en!iron#ent on t%e international le!el1 5esi$es international treaties
"rotecting t%e en!iron#ent )an$ es"eciall' water resources* in t%e
region, Croatia an$ =ungar' conclu$e$ a treat' on coo"eration
towar$s t%e "rotection fro# natural an$ ci!ili9ation catastro"%es in
100S, an$ an agree#ent on co-o"eration in t%e fiel$ of en!iron#ental
"rotection an$ nature conser!ation in 200I esta<lis%ing s"ecial rules
for t%e two countries along wit% a #iMe$ Co##ittee res"onsi<le for
guaranteeing co#"liance1 /%is "a"er inten$s to "resent t%e #ain fiel$s
of coo"eration <etween t%e two countries2 t%e #ost i#"ortant
co##on "ro+ects on en!iron#ental "rotection of <oun$ar' waters an$
so#e core o<ligations of <ot% counties1
SS
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
1e2words0 en!iron#ental "rotection, <oun$ar' ri!ers, en!iron#ental
coo"eration, co##on "ro+ects, infor#ation
S(radn<a i9meI( .rvats3e i MaIars3e ( podr(G<( 9aKtite
o3oliKa s pose/nim osvrtom na temel<ne o/ve9e 9a 9aKtit(
graniGni5 ri<e3a
5il+ana UinTura. ?rceg, $i"l1 iur1, asistentica, ;ate$ra "o#ors.og i
o"6e"ro#etnog "ra!a, -si+e. <il+ana1cincura.W"ra!os1%r
r1sc1 @elin$a ,9a""an'os, !iEa asistentica, College N?\t!\s J89sefO,
;ate$ra 9a #eZunaro$ne stu$i+e, 5a+a, #elin$aWs9a""an'os1%u
oc1$r1sc1 Pter /il., $ocent, ;ate$ra 9a usta!no "ra!o, PeTu%,
til.1"eterWa+.1"te1%u
,ura$n+a i9#eZu =r!ats.e i @aZars.e tra+e stol+e6i#a, $i+elo# i 9<og
9a+e$niT.i% graniTni% ri+e.a, una!a i ra!e1 -!a sura$n+a "roEirena
+e na "o$ruT+e 9aEtite o.oliEa u 201 stol+e6u, .a$a +e #eZunaro$na
9a+e$nica s"o9nala nu[nost "ru[an+a "a[n+e 9aEtiti o.oliEa na
#eZunaro$no# ni!ou1 -si# #eZunaro$ni% ugo!ora .o+i#a se Etiti
o.oliE u regi+i, "ose<no !o$ni resursi, =r!ats.a i @aZars.a s.lo"ile su
ugo!or o sura$n+i na "o$ruT+u 9aEtite o$ "riro$ni% i ci!ili9aci+s.i%
.atastrofa 100S1 go$ine te ,"ora9u# o sura$n+i na "o$ruT+u 9aEtite
o.oliEa i "riro$e 200I1 go$ine, .o+i# se us"osta!l+a+u "ose<na "ra!ila
9a $!i+e $r[a!e .ao i 9a+e$niT.i -$<or o$go!oran 9a sura$n+u1 Ra$
nasto+i "ri.a9ati gla!na "o$ruT+a sura$n+e i9#eZu $!i+e $r[a!e2
na+9naTa+ni+e 9a+e$niT.e "ro+e.te u 9aEtiti o.oliEa graniTni% !o$a .ao i
ne.e te#el+ne o<!e9e o<i+u $r[a!a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 9aEtita o.oliEa, graniTne ri+e.e, sura$n+a u 9aEtiti
o.oliEa, 9a+e$niT.i "ro+e.ti, infor#aci+e
Eg2MttmR3Jd,s .orv:tors9:g ,s Mag2arors9:g 3J9Jtt a
3Jrn2e9etv,delem terMlet,n- 3MlJnJs te3intettel a
5at:rfol283 v,delemre vonat3o98 n,5:n2 alapvetH
3Jtele9etts,g,re
5il+ana UinTura. ?rceg, #ag1iur1, tan:rseg$, Ce#9et.\9i /engeri s
Dltal:nos (u!ar+ogi /ans9., ?s9., <il+ana1cincura.W"ra!os1%r
,9a""an'os @elin$a, P%, a$+un.tus, ?\t!\s J89sef (Qis.ola, 5a+a,
Ce#9et.\9i /anul#:n'o. /ans9., #elin$aWs9a""an'os1%u
SJ
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
Pter /il., P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, >l.ot#:n'+ogi /ans9., Pcs,
til.1"eterWa+.1"te1%u
>9 eg']tt#^.\$s =or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g .\9\tt s9:9a$o..al
e9elQtt el.e9$Q$\tt s9:#os ter]leten, rs9<en a .\9\s %at:rfol'8., a
una s a r:!a #iatt1 ?9 a9 eg']tt#^.\$s .iter+e$t a
.\rn'e9et!$ele# ter]letre is a hh1 s9:9a$<an, a#i.or a ne#9et.\9i
.\9\ssg el.e9$ett +elentQsget tula+$on7tani s s9].sgt re9ni a
.\rn'e9et !$el#ne. ne#9et.\9i s9inten1 -l'an ne#9et.\9i
s9er9Q$se. #ellett, a#el'e. a rgi8<an !$i. a .\rn'e9etet,
.]l\n\sen "e$ig a !i9e.et, =or!:tors9:g s @ag'arors9:g to!:<<i
s9er9Q$se.et .\t\tt2 100S-<en a ter#s9eti s ci!ili9:ci8s
.atas9tr8f:. elleni !$ele#rQl, #a+$ 200I-<an a .\rn'e9et!$ele# s
ter#s9et!$ele# tern !al8 eg']tt#^.\$srQl1 >9 ut8<<i s"eci:lis
s9a<:l'o.at ltes7tett a .t ors9:g .\9\tt, to!:<<: eg' Keg'es
5i9otts:got a9 eg']tt#^.\$s <i9tos7t:s:ra1 Jelen tanul#:n' cl+a,
%og' <e#utassa a .t ors9:g .\9\tti eg']tt#^.\$s ala"!etQ
ter]leteit2 a %at:r!i9e. !$el#t cl98 legfontosa<< "ro+e.te.et s a
.t ors9:g n%:n' ala"!etQ .\tele9ettsgt e !onat.o9:s<an1
1(lcss9ava30 .\rn'e9et!$ele#, %at:rfol'8., .\rn'e9et!$el#i
eg']tt#^.\$s, .\9\s "ro+e.te., t:+.o9tat:s
Some meas(res of greening t5e econom2 in t5e EF and t5eir
reflections in regional development
r1 Asu9sanna =or!:t%, P% assistant "rofessor, e"art#ent of
International an$ ?uro"ean Law, Pcs, %or!at%19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
Jelena LegTe!i6, P%, ,enior >ssistant, e"art#ent of @et%o$olog'
an$ Infor#ation ,ciences, -si+e., legce!icW"ra!os1%r
/%e ?uro"ean Co##issionHs "ro"osal for t%e new, S
t%
?n!iron#ental
>ction Progra##e of t%e ?uro"ean &nion, title$ GLi!ing well wit%in
t%e li#its of our PlanetH )en$ of 2012*, as a follow u" to t%e &C
Rioi20 Conference, sets as its o<+ecti!e, inter alia, t%e $e!elo"#ent
of a green, resource efficient econo#', as a central "art of a strateg'
for sustaina<le $e!elo"#ent, an$ t%e full integration of en!iron#ental
reVuire#ents into ot%er ?& "olicies1 >s well as t%e ?uro"e 2020
,trateg' for s#art sustaina<le an$ inclusi!e growt%, t%e new ?>P
S0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
urges #easures to furt%er i#"ro!e t%e en!iron#ental "erfor#ance of
"ro$ucts an$ ser!ices, to increase t%e su""l' of en!iron#entall'
sustaina<le "ro$ucts an$ sti#ulate a significant s%ift in consu#er
$e#an$ for t%ese "ro$ucts1 /%e ai# of t%e ?& "olic' for sustaina<le
consu#"tion an$ "ro$uction is to $e-cou"le econo#ic growt% fro#
t%e use of resources an$ to re$uce %ar#ful en!iron#ental i#"acts of
"ro$ucts t%roug%out t%eir life-c'cle1 /%e ?& integrate$ "ro$uct "olic'
)IPP* an$ t%e ,ustaina<le Consu#"tion an$ Pro$uction an$
,ustaina<le In$ustrial Polic' >ction Plan esta<lis%e$ a new life-c'cle
a""roac% an$ a fra#ewor. of a <alance$ #iM of incenti!es for s#arter
consu#"tion an$ <etter "ro$ucts1 /%is "a"er gi!es an insig%t into t%e
o!erall fra#ewor. of t%e ?& sustaina<le "ro$uction an$ consu#"tion
"olic', its new a""roac%, goals, "rinci"les an$ tools, furt%er#ore, it
anal'9es so#e #easures for i#"ro!ing t%e en!iron#ental
"erfor#ance of goo$s an$ ser!ices1 (inall', t%e "a"er sur!e's t%e
regional $i#ensions of t%e green efforts of t%e ?&, an$ its reflections
in Croatian an$ =ungarian regional $e!elo"#ent "olicies1
1e2words2 green econo#', sustaina<le $e!elo"#ent, RI-i20,
?uro"ean ,ustaina<le e!elo"#ent ,trateg', ?uro"e 2020, new, S
t%
?& ?n!iron#ental >ction Progra##e, sustaina<le consu#"tion an$
"ro$uction, sustaina<le in$ustrial "olic', en!iron#ental integration,
econo#ic an$ legal fra#ewor., en!iron#ental #anage#ent s'ste#,
en!iron#ental la<elling, ?& =ungar' Croatia sustaina<le regional
$e!elo"#ent
;9a/rane m<ere o9elen<avan<a gospodarstva ( EF i n<i5ov
(t<eca< na regionalni ra9vo<
oc1$r1sc1 Asu9sanna =or!:t%, $ocentica, ;ate$ra #eZunaro$nog i
euro"s.og "ra!a, PeTu%, %or!at%19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
r1sc1 Jelena LegTe!i6, !iEa asistentica, ;ate$ra #eto$oloE.o-
infor#aci+s.i% 9nanosti, -si+e., legce!icW"ra!os1%r
Pri+e$log ?uro"s.e .o#isi+e 9a no!i, se$#i "o re$u a.ci+s.i "rogra#
o.oliEa ?uro"s.e uni+e "o$ na9i!o# eLi!+eti $o<ro u granica#a naEe
"lanetee ).ra+e# 20121*, .ao i nasta!a. &C Rioi20 .onferenci+e,
"osta!l+a .ao cil+, i9#eZu ostalog, ra9!o+ 9eleni%, resursi#a
J0
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
uTin.o!iti% gos"o$arsta!a, Eto Tini sre$iEn+i $io strategi+e o$r[i!og
ra9!o+a, i "ot"une integraci+e 9a%t+e!a o.oliEa u $ruge "oliti.e ?&1
;ao i ,trategi+a ?uro"a 20201 .o+a "o$ra9u#i+e!a "a#etan o$r[i! i
u.l+uTi! rast, no!i a.ci+s.i "rogra# o.oliEa C-KI >;CIJ,;I PL>C
A> A>R/I/& -;-LIR> "otiTe #+ere 9a $al+n+e "o<ol+Ean+e
e.oloE.e uTin.o!itosti "roi9!o$a i usluga, "o!e6an+e o"s.r<e e.oloE.i
o$r[i!i% "roi9!o$a te "otiTe 9naTa+an "o#a. u "otra[n+i 9a ti#
"roi9!o$i#a1 Cil+ euro"s.e "oliti.e o$r[i!e "otroEn+e i "roi9!o$n+e +e
o$!a+an+e e.ono#s.og rasta o$ .oriEten+a resursa i s#an+en+a Etetni%
ut+eca+a na o.oliE "roi9!o$a ti+e.o# n+i%o!og [i!otnog ci.lusa1
Integrirana "oliti.a "roi9!o$a u ?& )IPP*, o$r[i!a "otroEn+a i
"roi9!o$n+a, a.ci+s.i "lan o$r[i!e in$ustri+s.e "oliti.e us"osta!l+eni
su .ao no!i "ristu"i [i!otno# ci.lusu "roi9!o$a, ali i .ao o.!ir
"otican+a "a#etni+e "otroEn+e <ol+i% "roi9!o$a1 -!a+ ra$ $a+e u!i$ u
c+elo.u"ni o.!ir "oliti.e o$r[i!e "roi9!o$n+e i "otroEn+e u ?&, no!e
"ristu"e, cil+e!e, "rinci"e i alate, ali i anali9ira i9a<rane #+ere 9a
"o<ol+Ean+e e.oloE.e uTin.o!itosti "roi9!o$a i usluga1 Ca .ra+u,
Tlana. istra[u+e regionalne $i#en9i+e o9elen+a!an+a u ?&, i n+ego!e
refle.si+e u %r!ats.i# i #aZars.i# regionalni# ra9!o+ni# "oliti.a#a1
1l<(Gne ri<eGi2 9eleno gos"o$arst!o, o$r[i!i ra9!o+, RI-i20,
,trategi+a euro"s.og o$r[i!og ra9!o+a, ?uro"a 20201, no!i se$#i
a.ci+s.i "rogra# o.oliEa Sedmi a3ci<s3i plan 9a 9aKtit( o3oliKa,
o$r[i!a "otroEn+a i "roi9!o$n+a, o$r[i!a in$ustri+s.a "oliti.a,
integraci+a o.oliEa, e.ono#s.i i "ra!ni o.!ir, susta! u"ra!l+an+a
o.oliEe#, e.oloE.a o9naTa!an+a, ?& @aZars.a =r!ats.a o$r[i!i
regionalni ra9!o+
A ga9das:g 9Jlde//, t,tel,ne3 n,5:n2 es93J9e a9 EF!/an- ,s
tM3rJ9Hd,sM3 a region:lis fe<les9t,s/en
r1 =or!:t% Asu9sanna, P%, eg'ete#i $ocens, Ce#9et.\9i s ?ur8"a
Jogi /ans9., Pcs, %or!at%19su9sannaWa+.1"te1%u
r1sc1 Jelena LegTe!i6, P%, eg'ete#i a$+un.tus, @8$s9ertani s
Infor#:ci8s /u$o#:n'o. /ans9.e, ?s9., legcevicXpravos#5r
>9 ?ur8"ai 5i9otts:g +a!aslata a9 ?ur8"ai &ni8 bJ8lt <ol'g8n.
fellse nl.]lO c7#^, _+ S1 ;\rn'e9eti >.ci8"rogra#+:ra )2012
J1
Law Regions e!elo"#ent
Legal i#"lications of local an$ regional $e!elo"#ent
!ge*, a#el' rs9<en a9 ?C,A Ri8i20 .onferenci:+:ra "]lQ
$o.u#entu#, clul t^9i, t\<<e. .\9\tt, eg' 9\l$, erQforr:s-%at.on'
ga9$as:g fe+les9tst, #int a fenntart%at8 fe+lQ$s stratgia .\9"onti
ele#t, !ala#int a .\rn'e9eti .\!etel#n'e.ne. a9 ?& #:s
"oliti.:i<a t\rtnQ tel+es .\r^ integr:l:s:t1 >9 _+ >.ci8"rogra# a9
intelligens, fenntart%at8 s in.lu97! n\!e.e$st cl98 ?ur8"a 2020
stratgi:%o9 %asonl8an s]rgeti a ter#.e. s s9olg:ltat:so. .\rn'e9eti
tel+es7t#n'ne. +a!7t:s:t cl98 int9.e$se.et, a .\rn'e9eti
s9e#"ont<8l fenntart%at8 ter#.e. .7n:lat:na. n\!elst, s +elentQs
!:lto9:s \s9t\n9st e ter#.e. ir:nti fog'as9t8i .ereslet<en1 >9 ?&
fenntart%at8 fog'as9t:s s ter#els "oliti.:+:na. cl+a, %og' els9a.7tsa
a ga9$as:gi n\!e.e$st a9 erQforr:so. %as9n:lat:t8l, s %og'
cs\..entse a ter#.e. .:ros .\rn'e9eti %at:sait, egs9 let_t+u.on
.eres9t]l1 >9 ?& integr:lt ter#."oliti.:+a )IPP* s a fenntart%at8
fog'as9t:sr8l, ter#elsrQl s i"ar"oliti.:r8l s98l8 Csele.!si /er! _+
letci.lus s9e#lletet !e9etett <e, s ltre%o9ta a #egfontolt
fog'as9t:st s a +o<< ter#.e. elQ:ll7t:s:t \s9t\n9Q es9.\9\.
.ieg'ens_l'o9ott eleg'ne. .ereteit1 ? tanul#:n' <e"illant:st n'_+t a9
?& fenntart%at8 ter#els s fog'as9t:s "oliti.:+:na. :tfog8 .eretei<e,
_+ #eg.\9el7tsi #8$+:<a, cl+ai<a, ala"el!ei<e s es9.\9ei<e,
to!:<<:, ele#e9 n%:n', a ter#.e. s s9olg:ltat:so. .\rn'e9eti
tel+es7t#n't +a!7t8 int9.e$st1 Kg]l, a tanul#:n' !i9sg:l+a a9 ?&
9\l$ t\re.!seine. region:lis $i#en9i8it, s a9o. t].r\9Q$st a
%or!:t s a #ag'ar region:lis fe+les9tsi "oliti.:<an1
1(lcss9ava32 9\l$ ga9$as:g, fenntart%at8 fe+lQ$s, Ri8i20, ?ur8"ai
(enntart%at8 (e+lQ$s ,tratgia, ?ur8"a 2020, a9 ?& _+ S1 ;\rn'e9eti
>.ci8"rogra#+a, fenntart%at8 fog'as9t:s s ter#els, fenntart%at8
i"ar"oliti.a, .\rn'e9eti integr:ci8, ga9$as:gi s +ogi .eret, .\rn'e9eti
!e9etsi ren$s9er, .\rn'e9eti c7#.9s, ?& @ag'arors9:g
=or!:tors9:g fenntart%at8 region:lis fe+lQ$s
J2

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