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T'O EFt 0:::; a ,re.-g1:sle:l'~d :~a.de:n:Ja'rk of Edlllca:ti onal 'ThSfD':Ig se rvices (~TS). li"JJ:i!l. book 0.5 neither 61:i.do.,rsrerl tJiorappro:ve"dl by ET8. _

- - Copyr IghtLXi material

LTWmmar point 1 ~ Parts, oft'he sente",~e


Grammar Point 2 - ''There iso"' ys- "to Ha;ye:"

Grammar Point 4 - Introduction to P~repos:itions:



Grammar Peint 6 - Prepo.sitionsofJ'ime


Grammar Point 1 - Prt':positjons of Place & Movement


Grammar Point 8 - Vaxial1s, Pairs;


Grammar Point 9 - Adljectives

Grammar Point 10 - Comparui.ves,



Grammar P,nint 13, - Word Pans



Grammar Point 1.5 - Adieetive Clause Reductions


Grammar Point 1:6 - Eqaatives


Grammar Point 17 - The Supe:daul.ve


Grammar Point 18 - Showing: Cause and Effect with Ad~~eciives:


Om roms t Point 19 - Verb Tenses


Grammar Point 20 - Regular Verbs and Link Verbs


Grammar point 21 - V,erbak Gemnds and' ]nfi'n'jtives


Grammar point 22: - CallsaHyl'" Verbs

Grammar point 23, - The Eassize Voice

t I ')

Grammar Point 24 - More Participles as Sn,:ibj.ecm and. Oqjects


Gramraar Point 2S: - Adjective plus Infinitives


Grammar Point 26 - Modal A:n:udlirury Verbs:


LTWmmar Point 27 ~ Medals for Advjce


Grammar Point 28 - Modals for Necessity'


Grammar point 29 - p'robfu+tjon ys Choice


Grammar Point .30 - Mnd:al Reyjew


Grammar Point 3 I - Medals for Specuiati.on


Grammar Point 32 - Specmating about the Present


Grammar Point 33, - Reported Speech


Grammar Point 34 - Speculating about the Past


Grammar Point 35 - CondhIQDals,


Grammar Point 36 - Using "unless"


Grammar Point 37 - Cond[rIona] 3


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Cmmm(!r point "38 - lntmduc[lhn to Nouns 170

Grammar POInt 39 - Classification 1 - Types ofNon.ml3 171

Grammar pojnt 40 - Classjfirntion 2~ - Comfit and Non<:onnt Nmrns: '1'73

Grammar Point 41 - Articles 177

Grammar Fojnt 42: - NOlin Clanses '1'8,2

Grammar Point 43, - Noun. Clause Connector/subjects: 12,,5

Gtafiiiuar Point 44 -ArtiCle '!Review t 91

Gsammar Point 4S - Count/Nen-count Review 195

Grnmma i' point 46 - 'Review Nouo CI,CllHses J 96

Grammar point 47 - NDlm Clame: Connectors J 97

CTljJIwmar point 48 - Noun ClallSe R,edJ'!Ct~Qns 1 202

Grammar Point 49 - NanD Clause: R,edJ']ctlons 2 204

Grammar PQjjJIt 50 - IjjJfmdUdkm to Adverbs 207

Grammar Point 5 I - Adverbs and Link Verbs 210

Grammar Point 52 ~ N'egatJive and !~.almost" negative aav'er'b'S

at theibegiJ]ning of,a sentence 211

Grammar Point 53, - Adverb Clauses .2L.2

Grammar Point 54 - Adverb Clauses of Cause, Condition, and Contrast 21,6

Grammar Point 55 - Adverb Clause Reductions 218

Grammar Point .5 6 - A dW'!rb CJallse R edncl'ioD s w]tb "B ecal ISl"!'" 22. 'I

Grammar Point 57 - fA dverb Clause Rt::dru::tinD;iii with ,. A fh;i" 223

GrammaJ' PQint S8 - Co:njun.ctiom;; .227

Grammar Point 59 - Word. Part'S, £tOM, Greek 233

Grammar Point 60 - F'aired Conjunctions 235

Gramm.a.f P,oint 61 - ApiPl[ed ConjunctioDs240

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;


Grammatically speaking, a sentence is a group of words that mas a subject and predicate, More importantly; howev,er, a sentence is an expressiom of an idea, Sentences can be one word rong or one paragraph long - the on]y "roe common element is, that the listener gets '~nfOml~tion,

AU sentences in English are constructed the same way. The first rule about sentence structure is that the most important thing must go at the: beginning. There are many ways to slightly alter (he sentence structure in order to aceomplisb this, hut in general, every sentence is constructed in the form:

Subject .. Verb .. Object

The' subject is the person, place or thing tbt me sentence is about .. It is the most important ~hing ~n the sentence A ;S:l1!bje;ct is usually a, noun, pronoun, Of noun clause, The subject is usually followed by a verb,

There can he more' than one subject ina sentence, but TIBiLl.aHy there is one main subject+

... Note: The subject is not always the "doer" ofilie action. Remember, in some situations the receiver or the action maybe more important

e.g, The window was broke'll, The package lWS d.c#w!"fd"

The conference 'WaS' wdl-aaended

ihl these' cases, the end result is more important, or you, don't know who. did (he


Pattern to look for:

There can he mall)' nouns together. IDn this (Me. the LAST noun in the list is, the' su~ject ,- me ether nouns are acting as adjectives and modi:ijring that noun. This. can be important, because the final noun can be plural and me therefore the ver.b must be plural also.

e.g. The stone ;wall wacs too high to see ov:e~, Theglue bottles were empty.

Pattern to look for

There are some situations in which. the subject 1S not the first thing in [he main elsnse, but these are rare - most of the time, the subject is at the beginning of the main. clause:

e.g. .In tite haa are thn::e' umbrellas,

NO'! only does s:lte,play tJr,~'piiJno, but' sl:'( is atro an accomplished dancer. R,and!l does i£. snow in Tororu» in May.

Thew are some extra boaks in the doses.

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The Verb

The vetb in the sentence describes the subject: or describes the action of' the subiect, The Y'erib, must "agree" with the subject in number (if the subject issingular, the verb mastbe in the singular form) and. ill person (l/youlhelsh,elit etc.)

There are many forms of verb structures in Englisbend all verbs are' dassified as either Main or Auxiliary (helping), When you are [examining a sentence, it is important to understand ifuat a] parts of the verb structure are part of the verb and. they give important informaticn about the verb.

Things to remember about subject .. :verb agree:men,t::

:> The verb must always agree with the subjeu - regardless ofhow far away the robj'ect is. [rom the verb:

t;g, The bQY at th~ end of the hall In the gl(1S:S£$ II my sen ,The books, at the bottom of tllll' box.we,for wJe~

:> If an ,.j express i.o n of quantity;' (mostl some I none/ aU + of the ... ) is 'Used as the $iUbj{::ct ~' the noun. afiuthe "the" is the SUbj0Ct~ and the verb must agree with it:

eg. Some .o/tbeJic(.fJ. gone.

MCist of the JEGl!li1 am gone,

:> [f the paired conjunctions either.. or .. or neither ... nor .. " introduce the subiect, the one closer to the-verb nffects the verb:

~.g" Elth'er the sttfd~nts {)r-,tbe tfJa.Ctti:f'ii. going to be there, Either the tea;cJ:ter or the studeJ').l5, ,QE. going to be there

:> If the word "and" is part ofthe subject, the subject is, always plural and must take a plural verb; even when both of the items in the subject are ncn-count:

e.g: Then'r;;e and the,' bread ,are gntl'c.

,The game r:md the celebration {l8fini'shed.

However, whea the subject is one 'unit, even when there is an "and", it is considered singular:

e.g~ The ,WUicaronimd cheese 'WaS ,good.

CowooY$ and Indians MI.1S ,1 popular,game.

"» 'Words like someone, something, nothiag, nobody, everything, everybody and: expressions whh each. are always, considered smgular= however" if words Hke some are used as, adjectives, then. they don't affect the verb:

e.g. Somebody Id at the door. but Some. veople are waitit/?', Everybodv.is statuting ,r),uts1'de

Notki"ng:.~ left.

)- In a command, there is :00 subject - it is understood to be "you", Therefsre, the verb must always be in. the second person s~ngular form.


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Sentence analysis shorthand]

When you, aile analyzing a" sentence, you need to be able 11:0 quickJy recognize the main pants - subject, ver:O, preposition phrases, etc. Here is ,::1 useful "key" for analyzing sentences on paper:

underline the: suibject (and any adjective directly connected! to' the subject) once:

e.g, Thrtre is a bighafryspidliT on ylJUr l~g"

underline the w""I'I~' (' t~e "''jO'" i"''' verb str ucture -1' ncl ,i·,...;iiI" ""g- any "'''x.j"I ary verbs a nd

r ~, u"., ~ [.l~ ¥~ lUI . WI ~.L~-.Lu.~ .I!W;~[) iiJ!.!u .... "0:-, ' . LI3U U,. 0, 'r.: WI.,!!, - .l. ,u"O. ~I, .-ilI, JJ..I..

"not") twic-e:

e.g, Thlt people ,am waiting in line outside.

put parentheses around any preposition phrase:

.e.g. The'peop.le (at. the ,mmer) {of this street"} are (]Yom lJ country) (in ETJrope).

put brackets around any .adjective di!1!use or phrase

e.g, The m(ln {wearil\lggtasseJ} is someone {whom 1 don't know}.

put square brackets around any noun clause Of phrase e.g. {What 1 iWitmt to bmw} is {when you will arrive}.

pur angle brackets around any subordinate clause or phrase

<If;j'' - f if; -II - - 1"t - - - - - _.

e.g. ..j you aon ; tfJ:-: me>, - can 'meet!Jou on: t1me;

In each. sentence" underline the subject once and the verb twice. Mark ifthe sentence is correct (C) or incorrect (I). Then, fix any mistakes.

___ 1, Bob is coming home,

3. Theoretical mathematics are difficult.

4. I saw the sports news on 'TV last night.

___ 5. Did. he can yet?

6. There is people wairing for you. outside.

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7" ]t 1S going to rain tomorrow.

__ 8. Frank and. Yoko was studying for the test all nighr.

__ 9. The pencils y,Q'U gave' me is very nice.

Hl The 'book Om the shelf at the n-o'p of the stairs are On sale.

11, My new ,oomputer looks nice, but really it's 'DJJthiog special.

12. Yesterday I bought some new CDs.

13. Before rransisrers, radios used! to were much bigger,

16, There have been fire all o;ver upstate New York in the last few weeks,

:1.7" He, in the past four months, llila:ve taken 5 exams and written,

18. The children in the backyard has not yet ibmshed their teeth today.

19. 'there are many geography book on the shelf at the top of me stairs.

20. Stop sayIng that!

21. In the box, On the shelf at: the t,op of the stairs,

22. The test have 200 questions.

24. There is, in the Iibrary, over 800 new books.

2:5. In the family there are over 2:5 children,

26. Sft downl

27" Under the lid.

28" Pleas e hand! me the papers. ..

29, He turned. on the computerand left

30. Some people likefishing, and some don't.


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Gr:ammalf' poilnt ,2 - ''Thlere iis" vs. "Tl,o hav'e"

These structures both show ,at relationship between the speaker and. others.

2. to tafk; about one speclftc thing, farmer than an Jdea: r have 2 children

Things to r;emember about "have,"':

')- To make a question, use the auxiliary verb "do" j In the appropriate form.

Do ,YOU have any {)fI)tners ,or sisters? Do you h'iJ'!f~' any dass.'Cs. ~fore 10(' Does he have a car?

Did she havea good time?

_'» When answering with a reduced form, remember to use the auxi]iary ~'~do", NOT "have'

Yes) he did not Y es, he had' N~, Ido« ~t not NOI I h4lilm: 't

(If you answer with No, Ilmven'l', you are making the present perfect tense rather than. a simple tense)

Ha ve is also used with: » meals

e.g, I had JUJ}!:h in TokyO' and dinm:r in Cairo

I, !. 'h'''·B, , , , ' 1 di.-i' ~'h 1 ~L ~s Y61J! flUSy t ,~S ~.:emOQn so , __ un t : _a:po:~' : unc»

)r (!'IDe (for a specific purpose)

e.g. I have time .to' talk' to you now.

When do you have time to meefl

:;, aches andpains

e.g. I have' a headache.

I haiJe pain in my back.


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"'There lis" is usually used.

1. When the' subject is invisible to the listener e.g: There is anextr« set o/cluos in the trun.k

There is a big' bla.ck :!;jiider ~'j;"(1wlin.g up your hack

2, To talk about general thing

e.g: There r'iTe lots of children in my family There are man)' people in the store

3 When there is: no obvious owner e.g. There is lots ofwtiter in the canoe

There are many hybdd m,rs ,on the market these days

4. "To emphasize something to the listener e"g,. There are three mistakes in this repo,ri; There is SOmf.-'Vnt w..ait:fitg jbJ'.1o,u

Pattern. to look for:

Th- ,~",] "~,'k~.'I- me' 4jO'j1"'E:R th,- c, verb, [&,ut lite V~Tb: r't) 'b-'~ must - 'ir'- ",':tt:hit

_~e ~e;;L :SlILVJ.ect come s ~ J!. ~. e ,e~ ,. I l~ __ " m" . e~" .It ,. e _~ 1'_ ag_'e'e WL~ ~"'

~g; Them am four people There a. no rice Thm ii. some brandy

Keep in mind:

)- 'he verb must agree with-the subject;, ltegar(JJless of the tense, and/or the distance of the subject from the' verb,

e.g, There have bee.it1 many problems recently,

There is, in my opinion, ,no e:x,ClJse, for his. actions.

Look at these further examples: ill have a family

ill hav-e 2 :&!fot]]efs

There are three boys in my fa.mfly

ill have an apartment

There are three rooms Ther-e is a lot of space

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, ,2.1'1

In the foll1ow,jng sentences.underlfne thesubject once and the verb twice. Then, mark if the sentence uses du~ correct form: there is/are or have. ]fyou thinkit is correct, mark "No Change ~ NC", II you think it should be changed, mark "Change" ~ "C'alld rewrite it

__ 1. There are three cats in my house.

, __ 2. There ave five people in my famHy_

~3. In my bouse there are :3 rooms.

__ 4. There is :a nice view from my house.

__ 6, There is a big party next week at the Student Centre;

_7. The university 'bookstore has: manybocks.

~_R There :is much memory in my computer"

~9. There is a camera on my celill~pbone_

~~111 There are many off-campus activities throughoutthe year .

. __ 11. Toronto usually has nice weather in JUIlU.,e ..

13: Th. -,.- '." .' tot - f .-.' ',- - -. ::'1] , .. '.' 'n " 'C.: 'rr' d- i' n citi -.c ~I] sum .' . -r

__ ~ - " ere I ... a ~'J 0 smog. m rna~~y . ~~~:a~a!J c~~es ~ <I' ...... ~me~ ..

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Gr:ammalr' poilnt 3 - Usilng miod1al 'vQlrbs to mlake requests

When you 'make a request; ]t is important ,toO be polite - this will greatly increase the chance of the request being fnlfilled.

A very simple way of making a request' more' polire is simply to add the 'Word "please' at the beginning Or end of a sentence,

Another way isto use a modal auxiliary verb (i9i,w:.iliary means helping/assisting)" Modal auxiliaries add! emotion to. speech ,., here, we will focus on making speech more polite,

Things, ito rem:ember about moda,1 auxiliary verbs: )- Modal auxUiary verbs a]ways gtQ befme the main verb

e.g, Kau (tJidd stop

not You stop could

:> 'Modal auxiliary verbs never change fOflD, regardless of the number or person of the subject

e.g. He "noy go not He mays go

)- Modal auxiliaries are alwarys followed ill:,- the Simple FOJ1ii of the Verb (S.F.Y) e.g. She can talk

not She mn talks

E . '3

_xe:rclse .,1

Inthe following sensences, underline the subjiec~ one time and the verb MO times, Then. mark if the sentence is correct (C) Of' incorrect (I). Correct any mistakes,

~ 1. Could! you, ~ shouting!

----L- 2. He may w,aits for you there.

3, She can go there if she wants+

~~5., Would you minds ifI smoked?

7., 'Would m~ndJ you h.oldJing my dog?

8., He borrow can yOilt 'book ..

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

There are two common ways to make polite requests -liD ask permissiorr (you do something), or ask SJ favor (somebody does something).

When you ask, permissiomL~ [use:


Could -Ii- I + [simple form of the verb (S.F.V.)] Can

e+g, May I bOfTOwYOUr book?

Ct;;uld' J uS6'yoor !JOmputer? Can 1'sre your ~otiJS?

When you ask, a fa'w'or, usee 'Would

Could 4- you + [S.P.V",]


e.g. Would YQU; lend me a h.and?

Cr.:udJ you sAO-Hi me ,that paper? Can you 'Wat! rl'ght here?

Another way uf'making a very polite request is with the structure: Do you mhn.dlWould you mind?

'When you ask, permission] with ~Do you mirr.d", say;:

Do you mind

Would you mind + in + [past form]

{J.g. Do yc« mind, ifl opened !h'e window?

Would you mind if I sat .down?

When you r:equest afa,Yoli' with "Do "OU mind", sa'y[:

Do YO'U mind

Would you mind! + [Present: participle]

e.g. Would you mind moving -1 can ~r see

'Would you mind dosing the door?

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Things to keep in mi'nd abouttbese IPolite reque.sts:

};> When. you use "would 'You mind;' ,

"yes" means "it's NOT OK, please' DON'T'" "no" means "no problemj,go ahead"

e..g.. Would you mind jfJsat down?

No (io. go ahead. please sit down)

Would you mind if I opened the window? Yes (=please don't opm it)

Would you mind waiting? No (= .1 ,will 'J.'Vdit)

)- Traditionally, when using the structure j~ Would you mind if I " ... ;', the verb was in. the past form" lin modem conversational Bnglish, however, ~t is common to use the Simple Form of the V,enb {S.P.V".)

e..g" Would yiJiU mind ifIsaJ'down ,(traditJonally ci;!/rr«~) Would you. mind ijlsit down (ttwdem ciOn:ve:rsrJ'tiotial)

Would you mhld ijlsmoked? (traditio:na.!1y ('Orr/xt) Wi1uld yo~ mind ijIsmoke? (modern wnverSrltlonal)

Exercl:se, 3 •. 2

Make the following sentence more polite by adding models, Remember, there is always more than one correct way ofsayin,g the same H[m.g.

1 " Pass me the salt.

2. Talk more quietly,

3.. I'm g()~iiLg to si.n: down beside you, now .. ,

4" Give me another coke,

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

5" Stop talklng.

6 I'm going to use your phone,

7. Explain this eo me"

8. Move.

] o. You are gOhlg to let me have: the salt.

1 ],' YOI,!, will, stop smoking now,

12. Speak. up.

],3, Tum down your stereo,

15.1 want you, to' repeat yourself

16. I am going: to use Y'Olu',COmpuOC1'.

17. Hurry up and, get off the computer,

]8. Lend me $2.0() for the bus.

19, You. will let me use your pen.

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"f'elephone conversatiol'fis

MainY people ale afraid of speaking on the telephone in lEngl;i;"h ~ fi)r many reasons. One ithin.g that many people complain about is the facr that you cannot see the pers on , and. therefore cannot read. the body language, and the hines that these bring" Because you carmotsee these clues, it is very important to' be very polite On the telephone - probably more polite than in a regular cenversetion.

Ex~erei~se, 3.,3

Change these sentences into polite English using medals for politeness.

"Remember, tEu:re is always man: iliaD. one correct way to say the same thing,

1. Wadt,

2,. I want to talk to Tom.

3. You, will go see if'Yoko is home

4" You will [eke a message.

5" Say that sentence again, now.

6" I will leave a 'message"

7, You. will speak louder,

9" Start speaking slowly now.

10. I will talk to Rich.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Ma.king plans on t'he iIlelle~phone ..

One of the most common functions. of 3,. telephone conversation is, to, arrange meeting times and places. Here are' the prepositions that you will] need to make the plans

I. The foUowiingpr.,epositions Me used 'WItih time:

time ;;;; at for example: ,(I'/3:JO, at 11':(J1)

da\y h]:ate;;;; on for example: On Manday, ,on the 2 Sf!'

month ;;;; in for example: In FebmacF')'; L~ l%ctrm:bel

year ~ In. for example.; In 1996,. Itt 2.()05

n. In [Combinations

dey/month use 'on" '.' O'n: February 1.f'1

dll!.yimont.h/y.ear US(~'Of! t; +QIJ: February 14/',. 200S

day/month/year /time use .bath "on" fltid "at" '.O'ft, February 14",. 2003 at 10;>1'0

Ill. Pa.m of "the day «this always comes im'med:fate~~l after the time) 0:00 - 12:00 ~ In the mornlng

12::00 - 6:00 ~ In the' afternoon

6d)0 - 9:00 ~ lin the evenlng

9:00 - 0:00 ;:::; At n~g])t

Exerci'se 3~,4

Write complete sentences from. these prompts. Begin every sentence with "Let's meet at T •• -;; or "How about, ". i;'

10:lS am

6:45pm 9:10am. 1:00am 3:20pm 4:50pm 1:00 am. 5:10pm 1];30pm 12;50 pm 2:10pm

12:00pm 00:00 am

at noon

at midnight

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 4 ...... Inlt','odluctiio,n t:o P'repo,s,itions,

When 'We giv'e information; it is, important to make sure every idea is de~r; and everything in the sentence has a dear IDRnCtIon, For example; look at tills sentence:

tu« Toronto'

Therelationship between "1" and "E]ve:" is very dear - ""I" is the subjece, and "Iive' is, the verb, However, the relatiunship between "live" and: "Toronto" is: mot dear. Do you live in Toronto, near Toronto, North of Toronto, South of TorOITI.:to, .~ ~ the Iist goes. on, In same cases), the noun immediately after the verb can 'be the direct: object. To prevent this confusion, prepositions aile 'Used. to connect ideas"

lPrepositioiflS are ~·coi.1,ifl.ectifign w,ords - as Siii ch , tine)' must always COnnect two ideas. They connect the noun immediately following them to another idea. The noun immediately :foHDW]rlg the preposition is called the object of the: preposition. A preposirion and the object of the preposition are together called a p:u::posidO'll phrase,

Mere are me 30 most common prepositinns:

as / at I against I around I among I across / after l about by I between Ilbefore I behind J during

for / from I into / in, I indudL~g

like ! of I on ! off / over

to i towards: I through ! under i upon / with I without I within

The most common prepositioIi is !~'Of' - it: is most :ft-e,qu.ently used to describe what kind/type/brand you, are saying:

e.g, Two cups (what kind) of sugar Three' kilograms (what kind) of bed Both (what?) ofthe dogs are friendly

Every noun which isn't 3! !paft of the subjeer or objeer rnusr be attached to the: main S - V 0 - struct - - _'e ,'N;:tih a ,-te- osition If vnu are j],ot Slife about wh:i-~'''-re - - osition to

_, _._ . w_ ~"'_ "P _pc , < _ • .?c .. c . c .. Y-I [ttl.-p~-.,. _n_c

'Use, use "of" ~

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Things to keep in mind! abou,1 preposiition.s;

:>- Prepositions must be fom.;;)wed by :nOUIil:S, pronOUIIS" gerands or noun clauses:

Let'S meet ai 1,rt)Op,m. (n.oun) 1 will ,go with him. (pronoun)

1 didn' It unden;tand' at wh,qt tin:e/te wPni$ to m~:et. (noun: ,ch1!Jse)

}r Prepositions can have different meanings, depending 011 the situation .. Remember to keep in mind the context/ si.tuatron:

1 will me« ai .5:00 (preposition ofri:rfJ'e)

We will meet at the station (preposition of plocr)

:> Preposition phrases. can describe a noun or verb;

Ld. s mrJitt at .4:30 (Here, the preposition phrase is describing when we will meet, therefore it is considered an. adverb)

The sttlr't ,ut the r:utT:ia .is ,the cnCaptil( place to ,b,i{Y Cup Noodle in this l1t!ighbor..hQM. (In this case', "atthe corner" [S describing the' store, and! therefore it is considered an a.[Jjective).

? Prepositinns are connected to the noan that they follow. To separate this, put a comma:

1 ha:v;e lived in North Amenc(&, in Eastern Europe" fJJ'Ja in Asia.

:> Prepositions can heve more than one Oibject., but theobjects must be joined with. "and" or "or":

I JiiJQl1t to liw: in; Buenos Aires and Oslo'. She has worked ,at CIBC and ro.

:> If you, want to use a verb as the object ofthe preposition, the verb must be in the ,gerund. (~iIt$) form:

I am thin:king about quiltirr;g smoking. They are lufking about' meeting~

:> '1'0 explain why you did! something, it is possible: to 'Use a verb In the' infinitive form, ratherthan a preposition .. In this case, the' verb is not in the gerund form.

In this sentence: She Wfflt ta ihe SJorr: to buy (xJtldy~ the. first ~I~O" ilutmduces a ·'re·os~~-:~(Jn:r.---e - ~~) the Si-ri: ·r'h"" ·'-.-:,-nd ,'~t-II' h-,w:- .- ... i!li-,-di\J-'-~'\']]

p~ -JP ~ ~~'" ~ ~~ p~llas _ ,"", _~~_ ~ _I)~ _+ " .... S~Q.~ _, JJ, ~~I) .. ever, ~~~~"'U_. _."ce"" ;;L~

infinitive explaining the reason for the trip - to buy candy T

:> You can ha.ve many prepositioa phrases in a row, Each preposition phrase describes the thing irnmediatety before it. If you want rbe preposition to describe somethdng else; you need to put a (X)mm3, ill! f[ .. rut .of li~

Let's meet (()n the comer) (of 'Jane and Bloor Sis).

E~tybodjt cheetr:d (at the end) (oltht ine;eting).

He checked' under the &td, /1$ th'(: desk, aNd in the closet.1 but found 110' momt~.

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Exerci~se, 4.1'1

[[J~ the following excetpts Hunt telephone messages, underline' the subject once, the verb twice, and put parentheses {) around. any preposition phrases that you find,


CaD I meet, you, tomorrow (at IT:: 30)7 Our original plan was to meet at 3: 30, but at tha:~ time I have In go to. school and pick up:my kids" Ifwe can't change it 'In another time, could. we change it to anofher day? I'm sorry for doling this ~H you ali the: last minute, but the person whom ill asked to pick up the kids cancelled on me at the last minute, so [ have to go there myself,


Can I speak: to Fr-ank, please? NOJ I don'it want ''0 speakte his secretary" ill spoke to

~ ~ ~ ~ =

him yesterday; and I didn't get any answer from Frank. I need to talk to him about

the meeting: with the chairman aext week - we need to change the time and place of the meeting from tomorrow at ten ]:1]. his: office, to Wednesday at ]0 in my office" If ill can't 'talk to 1Iim, he, may 'be late" and willbeangry at you.

3 ..

Hello, my flame is Tony and I'm calling from ABC Insurance. Pm just ealling to remind you abour our spring: special on home insurance. You can save up [0 30% on home Insurance ~f you call before Mal:¥, 31 S~. Until May 3-l §i., our agents will be 'WorkillJ,g extended hours - from 7:30 in the: morning to 8::.30:in the: eveniag, ~n order to meet all of your needs, and to have time to answer all of your questions, PLease can us ~ac1{:1 ail votrr convenience Thac kvou

". _ ... _ cOL ... IL .• , ... __ 01'-,.._


Hello) I'm caMing from Dr. Kohut's office. ill'd just like to confirm your appointrcenr for tomorrow ,tllt ] 1 :00 in the morning. If you are' unable to come, we would appreciate a cal] from you as soon as possible. Otherwise, we win be waiting for you tomorrow. ThankY01!1~ and have a great day.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 5, iii P'repolsitions olf' Pllac,Q

Prepositions can be usedto connect: any ideas, for example, they can also describe place. This is: very useful when describing where' you want to meet.

Here are some common prepositions which are used. to show locarion:

U .' . n .. ·th ..-.... ..... (1'). . Th' '. . UITI .. I~· . K··· St: "!I

_ se -on W], ~~.H;;:'(;~ L"LOy _ u ompson rm!+L~ IS on . mg ','+J

comerl when the:bUtilding: 1:5, exactly on the comer

c.g. The StrathrX)rul. Hotel is on .the comer of York St and 'Weillngtofi St.

comer, when the btiJiMing is very near rhecorner, but. not: exactly on. the COmet

t.g. City Halt is at the comer tJ!Yat:k St. and Qutm St.

~et number ~ when, Y~ll!,l, aregiving the exact address of a house or apartment

e.g .. I live at 479 Jane st.reet

Pattern to look for:

"At" is a very' general location - on or around, in or around, Ifyou are not sure, it:is safer H) use "at" rather than Bon".

Use "across from" to describe two things on opposite sides ofrhe street. fI.g. Unio« Station is acroS's jhJ,tn the Royal York Hotel

Use "of" w~th directions - East/West/North/South

;e,g+ Unlon Station is '$I)'tfth of the Royal York Hotftl

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Exerci;se· 5.,;1

Usmg this map and the ,prepos~tioti's ,~itJove:, give the [oca.tions of these lroUding$:.

Q"~liI1l]h;1-'>1 ."

(t.g,. 'Where is the :Skydorne I Rogel's center? (beside) The Sty Dmrre is-Q;I.."Slde. th'(f en Tower;

~.~ Where is the eN Towed"{between)

2~ Where is the Roya] Alexandra (Alex) Theater? (on)

4.. Where is the Hockey Hall of Fame? (sourh of)

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6" Where is: the Metro 'Iuronio Convention Centre!' (east of)

7. Where is: Ro!y Thompson Hall? (across from)

8. Where is the $1. t,a wrencc Market? (Oil)

9, Where is the Eaton's Centre? (on)

10. Where-is the Skydome /Rogers Centre? «on)

]]. Where is: rhe Royal York Roten (across from)


In the :readiing section; it is very important to be able ~(l draw inf~es. This means that the information to answer the question will not be directly stated ill! tile' passage, and you will have to use the information provided to guess the correct answer,

In that tyiPe of question, prepositions can be a useful tool, because they show the' connections between, ideas.

For example, if the passage states that Th~e river runs: li[mm the South", we can infer that It runs "to the North".

Here ate 5 :sefitetlc)es, which are followed by 2: statements eaeh, Choose 'Which of the two statements is true, based. on rhe information provided: 'by prepositions.

I, RoyThompson H,ilill, is across from The Princess of Wales neatm2:.

a) The two buildings are dose to each other,

'b") Th i".·,"'~)iHil]""W- ","- rstr "L--lI,t," J'Mr'~h,.·","··"trt"-t-:m."' '. ~ ne two 11lU~~gs "ere COlltL=uc"e~ a~ :rDUg~y o..! e saJ]~e lL!~e.

2" Union Station. is: east 0] the C.N" Tower.

a) Union Station is. closer-to Lake Ontario than the: C.N" Tower.

b) Union Station gets more momlng sun, ],,, F rank is at his office.

a) He is using the internet. 'b) He may be at: h~s desk.

4. Ottawa is between Mornm:eal and! Toreuto ..

a) Toronto is closer to Ottawa than Montreal is+

b) Montrealis closer to Ottawa than to Toronto.

5,,,Th.e Royal Ontario Museum is at the corner ofAvenue Rd. and Bloor St.

a) The Royal Ontario Museum. has empty space in front (If it.

b) 'There are many streets near the Royal Ontario Museum.

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Gr:ammalf' Poi nit 6 iii P1repositions of' Time

l. [Juring/for

"During" shows that twe events happened at the same time: !.foil asleep ifgring the movie

I ~s living in San F,ti.1tcisdJ dilr1rig the big earthquake.

"Fer' describes the Iength of time.

I slept for 2 hours

J h'awn/t seen her fot· 5' days.

E.x,erc:lse 6. 'lI Choose; the better. of the two prepositions" U during" Of "foe" .

L I met her~~,~_~, ~_ ~ __ ~,~~~rny vacation,

2+ They willI bein a :meetiJ)l.,g two hours,

3, Please stay here the: afternoon.

4. She can wajt here the speech.

5" I'm sorry that] didn't answer your call, but you. caUed,~ a very

important meeting+

2,. By/until

This: is a va.,ry simple pair to understand: Ilthere is a change in oo!llditioI!!~ use ~~-by~:i.

e.g, The pac-kage is n;ot here now" It will be here at S;()Opm. The condirion will

'I· . fron t..~ i. ~Th- ,~c:. . h ..• ,0 . 1M", ,;

,C lallge -' .om not JU;;Jre to nere, Lnererore, use it, e preposmon !L'y :

Th~ package wi/1 he here by 5:00.

e.g, I an'/' nCFtjinisfUJd now. I will be finished alml1cir. The condition. wi[_ru, ch.,aJuge - fromunfinished to finished. Therefore, use the preposition "by":

r will finish by.lunch.

If'the cond[don/situation does not changed, use ~~un.ti1~'::

e.g, lam waiting now. I 'Will he 'waiting at 5,'{JO. There is no change in condition (wait -wair). Therefore, use the preposition "until":

1 will 'wait Imtil 5:00,

e.g, 1 'Work here tflaw. 1 'Will work here dwitig the summe« There is no change, {work-work}. Therefore, use the prepositionvunril":

l' will 'WQrk' here until the summer


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exer<:i$e 6.2 Choose the better of the two prepositions; "by" or "until" >

1 " If the package does not arrive 6 :o() prn, we' win nave to find

another supplier,

2. Please: make sure that nobody Ieaves the offke the afeernoon.

3.. The offer must be handed. in. tomorrow,

4.. He must wait there 6:00 ..

5" He must be ready to leave the end ,of the break,

3 'll"'hr:uo'k./·f-'\1;" . Ii" fj" ., i.I~"C~05U u.-,-roug.~ou~

1Ii'1:n1ough ~ is a preposition of movement

Please go through the office and down the n(Jll,

It is more dti{irnl't' to pass through customs if yo.u allJn'ot speak the langua,ge. 'llI'ltr,oughout - is a. preposition oftime - i~ means all the' time

He is in and out tl~roughcut the' day.

The airpost is busy thrQugl'1.QUI .the year - not on ly during the sumll"~e:r:

,4. Bdore/by

Befbre usually describers. a prepararion prior to anotner event, and is more general,

v f. U" 1. l, d " "" };'".I: /' n {.; ~ u

J ou 5110#114, cnax« epanurr. tsm« Ut:-dtm:! " (J(Jvmg:jor t te aUjJon;

You should always chit&. the price .b¢re h:anding ,cjJ,i'er your cr~dj't card.

You must .mmplete th'e ~'ntroduct()ry course' hf;fore' starting the intemu!.diat1!, COU1'S/!"

By usually describes an ending time

'please maike SUlil? mat you arrive by 5:(J(J.

v h' n . h"1. f.' n

,.I,OU "Qi--\e fOptus " tJy lNI5 eremng,

5" When you talk about a holiday, you can say "on" or "at". "0111" means "the specific day", while at' means [he g-eneral time

e.g. On Christmas > on December 251'11

At Christmas ;;;; Late December; early January

Children can only open their presents on Christmas moming,,(on the 2S~' At Christmasl there is often SI1OW. (the entire,' time around Christmas)

On New Year's (Day) =Taauary 1"1

At New Year's = December 26th to early January

It t'S difji'cutt to lW'O,ke up on New Year's. (liJl1UalY J") People try to pa!l [off debts at Nnv Years (around t.ne time)

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6. At! the beginning/ in the begmniing; At theend/Jn the end This, is: the only case when, "at'' is more specific than "in"

Use '~~At the beginntnglend'" when, you are talking about a special eli'enf, for ex.am.ple a book, movie, relarionship, etc. This is followed by the preposition phrase "of ... "

I dldn't un-demand the story at the lJegirming ,~f the /mock, but I jlgu:red it Gut (Jut half way through

Us:e "In the beginning/end." when you are iamdng about generalities

.I d~"dn"t Nlte him the/ItsI' time 1 met: hi~n, but' in the rtud" 11'!t became good buddies.

7.. In timelOn time:

"In time" means "not late", There is an appointment; or something is: beginning, and, you, arrive before that tirne,

e.g. The flight leaves at 7'30, so you need te arrive at 5:3'0 at recut it} be ion iime

for castoms ..

Becaese qlwork, mtJnyjilthe.rs canno: arrive t'n tt:me. for their c-hildrens' concerts at school.

"On time" means "at exactly the ar:ra...l'l!ged time", Therefore, ~fyou have a.n appointment to meet somebody at 7':45l, you arrive at' 7:45" not 7:44 or 7:46.

e.g, One of the rudest .things that you Ci.Ul do is to notarriw. on time 101" dinner:

It ~'s 'Horma.l to ,arrive late for a party, but nos for a dt'nfl'er pany"

Ex,ercise 6.3 Fill in the blank with. the appropriate preposition.


2. The first' words of the Bible are: ~(,====== the beginning .. '. n

3" Even though I checked the departure time' on-line, the plane did. not leave



4. Because of'the terrible weather, I just barely arrived. . time for ithe

start of the concert.

5.. Bob always had a great excuse :for'fiot attl.vl.fi,g , time. Every time!

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

8. Us~n8~ ~pl)ecpo8jtii.on!i' to put events in order. There are two common problems when discussing t~me relationships - one problem, deals with 1v/O events "in the past, and another problem deals wttth events in the ,[tlt.ll:ite.

8..1 Events. in the past

When you want to say "befare now", you, can use the wordl ~:~,~gul~, e.g, MeLrr~yed two da:,ys before now= He arriwd two' days agg,

She was ready two hours before now> She was rea:dy twokour: ago.

iDO NOT SAY ~!iHle arrived two days before," "She was, ready two hours before."

When you want to use a differemt timej you can use the p:reposition <cbefbr,e"

e.g, ] had called. two times: before yesterdav.

They went there ~wice before last year,

82 Events in the fumre

'When you Me describing events in the future, there: is a similar idea ..

To show that something will happen "after now", use the preposition "in' e.g~ I will finish: ten minutes aft!!!" now = I w£ll finish. in ten minutes

I 'WIll meet you there half an hour after now = J w£Umcet' yau .there in hal/an hour.

I will finish after ten minutes [JOES, NOT MEAN 1" will finish in ten mt'nu:tes

ill arrived here three weeks ago. After three days; I had ajob. t= ] arrived here 21 days ago~ ITS days agoJ, ill had a job),

ill will walt for two hours, After that, I wi[Ji go home {;::;:in 121 minutes; I wm leave),

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Ex,ereise 6.,4 Pil] in the blank with the appropriate 'Word: ago; in, after, orbefore. (note: you will onlY' need one of the' bl'anks ~ the other (Inc will remai)zernpty)

] . Please leave now, and I will meet you there , one: hour

3. I'm almost ready -, I will he finished 20 minutes _

4" She went tv Korea last year, and it was very :exciting because she had neverbeen

away that _

5. I'm, sorry YOU, missed: him; he called .2 minutes 5:00 _

In the following sentences, choose the better of the prepositions.

]- W'illll,' beth - - (b,jl-b""-"" Ih- ;)>t:?'Jl -t c - bees ,- -fuh-- N.- ft' ',:1~ " u you V\; -, iere y ~vug~OUI( ~. ~ III no sure -oeeause 0"", e tramc ,13:~ ex worx,

I'm, 'not sure ifrll be able to make it: (at/on) ~lm€.

2" If you want to reach the bank (iby/unt[]) 3:00" you have to leave (before/until) 2::30.

3. He isnever (in/on)t111Ile fur anything, If you, waot him to arrive (a~lin) [6:00, )'''Ou have: 1::0 tell him to arrive (at/in) 5:30.

4. LI'l! order ro finish university, people mus.t start studying (beforeld]urmg) the summer (befO:N~lby) starting school

5" AU applications must be submined on or fbefore/during) May [41:'11 in order to be considered for the fan semester,

,6. (At/lin) tine beginning of chapter I, the book is: pretty boring, but (by/until) the end of the second chapter, :in becomes: [eaUy interesriag,


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[[1 the following paragraphs, choose the better of the' two prepositions,

1_ ill know that this may be a surprise fo[, you. (at/in) the beginning of the course, but (befc "/'b' )' starnr t'll-- -- "" T "-t'" " bod to ite e - ick '" '" --b' Ih' "

'"':: I' a I" 1°' .• 1'1': - '-.' '''.' II" .. :, .-: '-,: I '1 "':'1"" ",' . I . 1-' ,--,' ," - ,.'.

e~orey 5 arnng me course, "" wan, every 0 y "wn e a quic paragrapn. _ ave

taught this wIlting course (daring/for) six, years, and. I have noticed thrut people do better if they start writing immediately. I will Nand aut paper ,- please don't start writing (bylumtil) everybody has paper,

2_ The pizza that you ordered -(atlon) 6:30pm. [has been made and it is on its way. Lt should arrive at y"Our hose (by/until) 7~OO. If it doesn't arrive at that time, -please call us and yon win get a refund .. (At/on) the New Year's holidays we are always busy, and usuall your "30 Minutes or Its Free" guarilfit ee does fiot app~y (for I during) that time +

,3_ The movie starts well, but ends pOQ,fly_ (Athrn) tn.e beg~finifig of the first scene, we see the pollee chase- a suspect (th:wugh/throughoivE) the streets, of Faris. Th[s is excit~ng, but the scene continues (fOi/d.ul~:rug) 25 minutes. They don't catch the suspect (by/until) his car runs out of gas, Unfortunately, (at/ill) the [end. of t be movie we Iind out that they were chasing the wrong: person aJj] aloag,

4,_ (Threugh/throughour) the second half of the 200m eentary there was an incredible ,am(riiji!tt of space exploration> Because of the ,oompetition between the USSR aJfid the

U'S', v", ,""1""'4. menev ws .. '" ," "'1."--':'"" (before/by) "----It howe " both sides i .ery mucn money _~aS spent on space .. ueJcce'1. gomg, no .. ever, iorn sines

needed to ensure the' safety or dIe people who went there. The astronauts and cosmonauts had to endure tra~ning (for/during) months, and even years: (before/by) the launch of the rockets,

.5. (During/For) the last few years, many nations halve fntrodaced bans on the ~-ommeit'Cia:] catching of whales, Because of this, the rmmbers have returned to levels that existed (arlin) the beginning of the 20th century, However; (at/in) the Last Dew yearsi some fleets have ~eg:U:[l whaliag again+ This has sparked fears. tbat the magoifJicent humpback whale may disappear (by/until) the end of the 221~.l century, and :many countries have st!l!Ied enforcingbans again,

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 7' ...... PrepositiionlS of Place &, Movemen't

One of the JID11st oommon 'Uses of J,lJ:eposltkms is to describe the location of an obiect, or to give directions, These' are both very simple, once the basics are understood.

1+ In vs, At

iTI:n general, in is more :specific - at means in (IT around, For example,

~cl~ sch(')()r means ln the schoo1 building, '~~Atsr;;hoor me-ans: in school; in f1he playgroand, on the jungle-gym, on the track, etc.

"In the ,c)jfi'{;eJl means inside the office. "Af ,the oJfo:t" means in the office + on the •• 1 "y"jjnt + in ~l. e-d-t - ri - + iin b - ,-: /~d!ti - 1)11 n - e -_ ,-

Qe , _ .. Q~ ~_~ ~!. (;. __ e.e_~a __ tte smosmg oc __ ~,g. -~ etc.

Also, a~'home;' can. be' a house, apartment, condominium, room-rent, etc" "Home' is an idea, father thwn. a sped]]£: place, Therefore, with home 51'ou should alwavs use "at",

- - ,yo _., _,_

2. OD! n. In, (transportation)

When you desedbe jpu'b]i.c transportarkm, use the prepo8iti{Jrt ,'~ on !~, (t,g, On th& $uln1wYI Qni the /Jus, O~ (he ptr:ili(t, ,pn the ftain, CJT{. ihe lmr:i.t, When you describe private transportation, 'Use "in"

e.g . .In tie Cat, iii theJet; in thrt (,(JjUj(!, iii the taxi, in the coach"

There are three common exceptions:

Wiith foot; motorcycle and. bicycle use "on",

3. On.vs, At

The' lieillatirtlJiiship between On and At is VeI)' similar to the relationship between In and, At - At is more' general, while On is mare specific,

look at thes-e examples:

".on mecomo" means exactly where two streets cross. "At the comer" means somewhere near or an. rhe corner,

"On the' heiJ.c'h" means really on the beach, near the waeer.

~!At .the beach" means on the beach or in the store or in the car or in the w,a;ter,


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

~l. In, On~ and! At - other uses:

Us:e '~~In'" fOf Countries Cities

Province sl States. Prison/Hospital Pari

In Canade'i" in Japa,n In Toronto, i12 Seoul

In Ont(lrio~, in MissDuri

Use "On'" fo:r Streets Avenue On Jane sr; on Main: St.

Rivers, (means near) My hGuse is an the Hu.mber Rivet'. the Beach

Use "At" fOJ Street Number

At 477 Jane St.

Exercise 7.11 Choose the best ofthe two ~I'e"positicrns in each sentence.

I. I'm sorry, Halyna isn't here now, she's somewhere (at/in) her office,

2" 1 can't find my Blackberry anywhere - I hope I didn't leave ~t-(in/on) the subway. 3 She just bought a new corrage; it's quite amazing; and right (in/on) the beach.

4, They live (at/on} Jane Stfteett (at/on) number 180~

S+ We will be 'waiting for you somewhere (at/on) the corner of Bloor and Yonge.

S. Nearl!i1earoy

N" ," ...,"] ."". """"j--j"' which ,·It" .. "]"" siti "] -"1"" iE, . som thinn: ~ iear IS: ii1) preposmon "~cC~ :~U:Jw5: ii1) P05,,!"'!O.ru C ose ro sometning:

They live near the scimolr so they don': 'need a car.

Nearby is an adjective OJ adverb, not a preposition ,-, it means near here:

Is there' a bank nearby J'

"jnO" N'O"T C'AY "" ..t.v.. '11." 1'1 ib'" ""' '" . .J' -;". flea,,"u.! uere .

6. 1n/i11Js~.de

run is used in a general sense- no specific space: llire it! Canada.

[ru:;Me is: used. in a very specific/ closed. space; Them are no mice inside fhis mom tight n.ow.

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7. Below/under

Below shows tb.a~ there is, space between the objects::

TJu! .ot'ker office i~ on the floQr ,below ours.

The JliropZ'e who l£ve below us atF- usually very ,quiet. 'UmIer shows that: there is contact between the o'bjed:'!3,:

There is s"Ometntng #nder the book

He t'tied to hid:e some.thing luuiet' the top sheet

8. Here are two lists of prepositions which are oneil,confused!.

The first is a [].£f of preposition pairs prepositions of place, and the corresponding prepositions of rnori on

Preposition of place: Preposition of motion:

In into'

out out of

on onto

e.g, He £5 Jlul(J.'ss;, (flrepositifm of place)

She walked {:,,(.Q the room, (pr,gpositicn of m()#on)

The tea is ,on the tahle. (pt"eprtS£l.i(}n. of place)

Pleas» put the iea onto the table, (Pf~(Jsl#on ofmotlon)

This is a Hst of prepositions which can [be used both as prepositions of place and. prepositions of motion:

behind over

past below

along across.

e.g. The park~'n.g lot is behind the post office. (preposition ,r:{ pla,;e) The kids tlin ,b:ehind th~ jmM. {prepo.sition of rnotiqn)

Walk ~/Ollg YQ'tJ:ge St. and you will come to the lake. (prejXJ'Sitl'on a/motion)

Theff ate trees along Bioor St. IMf'WIJen Jane and R'uft:tijimcdfl'" (ptf!pa~it:km, aj'platIJ)

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Giving] dirtect'ions

Giving directions in English is very simple because directions are simply a comhinatiou of'small sentences and! easy ideas, not one complex idea"

The most common phrase' used when you give directions is; "go" -It- preposition + object

e.g. Go dQ1Wt/ .tflf street. ,go pa:sl' the /)1211'1;" go left at the lights.

Another very common rechnique is, to use the combination. "ynu will see/you 'will come

e.g. You willcome to a park - go left.

You willcome .(0' a "T" intmer;tlqn,: - go' right;

It is also common to lerpeople know what kind of landmarks they wiiU pass on the way ,- just to make them feel more co mfortable .

e.g. You wilt pasS' th6' eN ToWt'r on .rhe right.

You w.l11 see Ii big glass buildfttg Ott the lldl' ,- keep gr;in.g.

The compass directions North. and SOUiLf.J are usually said "up" and "d QoWI1" .'

e.g,. Go up University Ave.

Go down Yon:ge Sf.

Things, tG rem:ember' about givin;g directions:

:> don't s~y "please", o:r "you". Simply "go south," "turn right,' etc",

)- don't use the preposition "to" wlrh:

right south

left: north

srralgbt east

hack west

)0- don't fo:r;g'et articles:

when you say a :specific thing, say "the"

e.g. Tum ,right ,at th,t first light.

when you are not talking about a fa:mTI.liaT' thing, Stliy "a'

e.g" You 'wi!! SV!I! a schodo» the .l'!ft

don't use articles with names

e.g. O() Honk on #te-¥oitge St.

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BuUding GI~amm(w Skills

Exercise· 7 .. 2

Look at the: folluw.ing m.a.-F'. Give directions fram various Ioearions to various Iocations .. eg The' Opera House - The Ho:a:iman

00 south on B,ay Street. You wiI] p.:!ISS Cnllege P,aI;];: OIl ]l'1':!'111: Ieft, It's CUI the [,eft.

Give directions aODl - Air Canada Centre to St. Micbael':!J' Hos-p.itaJ.", FO'Uf Season's Hate] to' Eaton's Centre; The Courryard Hotel to AGO; Marriot Hotel to Rny Thompsoe Hail


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Gr:ammalf' Poi nit 8, iii Various Pa,irs

I. 'When you are making a plan or preparation about a, holiday, you can say "for" or

e.g. We an; going away jor .oUT ,a1fni,'~ers(].J']J.

means il:hat we are celebrating try taking ,3 tri@,

We are going t1;j,voy at our ,anniversary," means we will leave that time

2. Because' &: Because of

Because of'is al preposition: -:It:lS followed. by a noun/proncen or noun clause I am here because ,qf!1I'ejoh oj}i!r.

Because is a conjunction - it is foHowed by a subject and verb 1 came here because thf,::; isa good school.

3.. Between & Amo:ng

Between indicates a. choice oftwo things

The wo& is split between the two s~crt"klrifS" Among indicates a choice of more tillan two things All fi:ve vf t!uJm split the chore$. among .themselves.

,4. Despite &. In splte of

[)esp.ite shows contrast, surprising ,s:irnation do not use with "of"

b sp~te of shows contrast, surprising situation - must be followed by HO:P" The- key point is. "of": dnlfl'it say "despite 0f'~

These two prepositions have the same meaning, but "instead" goes at the end! of'the sentence, whHe "instead of' needs an object ..

e.g:. He chose '(:(J go l,f) Europe instead of Asia for ht's vaoaso« . .H~ father wantecd him to' be' ,a, doctor instead ofa designer.

S'h.e dian' it want: to ,go to Asia. -, she' wotlMd to go to Europe'inste.(J .. d,

.Her momer did.n~!' Wtlil$ her tD be a danoer - she wante« her ,!i:.l' be a: lawyer instead.

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6. Because of' &: Prom

Both of these prepositions describe a cause If you warn to say that a thing caused. the result, it is better tc say "because of'

e.g. The chairis J.vet lreclluse of the rain.

They ,are upset because ,of the news

[f you want to ,shoW' thatan action caused! the result, it is 'better to say "from">

e,g. She is tired /rolf;/: running around ~lll day.

He £s sick,ftnm working f.mdergrnund

When you 'Want to explain the reason 'YOU did sornething, there are tV{O common ways: first, you can show a result. In this case; use the preposition "for",

e.g; ! came here j(j,r bftsiness

I came ,'htttfor ,a rrt~U

",,-)1',' ,- '" ,'-b"'h"fi't','-i!;', "f' ',L,L-t, ,'Hd-'

secona, you canuse iil! vee', ill tnc 10 WI lye rermte :5mOW wna you WLO.

e.g. .1 came here to "-lax.

She went to get ("(gars.

Ex,e..-eise 8. '1'1

Choose the better of the two prepositions.

1" The choice of company trip is (among/between) New York and. Toronto. 2. She went to the store (to buy/for buying) stamps, but hasn't. returned,

3.. I d;-on'~ want a bf,g cottage - just at nice quier place- (ro relax/for relaxing). 4., The dog is panting heavily (because ,of/from)rurm.ing so hard,

5,. (Despite of/in spite of) the' rain, the picnic was lots of fun ..

6" All three' of the lln3Ji;sts can split the prize (among/between) them"

7. Excuse me" I need an outlet (for plugghu.gIH) plug) in, my Laptop,.

8. Hisback is sore (because of/from) the new exercise.

9. 'I'hey didfi"t apply to the university in this city - they applfed, t-o the further One (instead/instead 0:0,

10. She will have to take two weeks; otI(because of/from) ~hat injury.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

8. Information

When y,ou ate des{~riNfig an iniormatioo source,. y.ou need to use the appropriate prepo siti On:


jhe news

the :n,ewspalper the media

a magazme

a report


till: Internet TV'

the radio a website the Sfl,QW

Exel'(i'i$e 8.2

Fill in the appropriate prepositions.


OM. you hear the news?

Hear ~r? ] didn't hear about [~. ]rea.d about [iE __ the newpapers. lalso sawit __ TV last night. WEiat do you think?

We~!; I'm not :sure. I don'tbelieve everything; I read __ the newspaper.

Sun';" andI don't believe everything that I read __ the Internet either" But something this big - if it's both __ , the 'net and __ the papers, it must be: at least partially true,


Really, what?

Weli, I think you'll be reading aJbout it __ the newspapers - especially __ the tabloid: newspapers soon, Once a story like this is = the media, it will stay there for a kmg time.

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[ill the following passage, put parentheses ( ) around any preposition phrase, and fix any mistakes.

Line 1

line 5

line 10

Line 15

Line 20

The giving (If gj,t)s hils become quite a problem fur manypeople especially men, Ova the last decade. illt seems that now. throughout the entire year, there is always a reason for a sale,

Christmas, Easter, Thanksgiving Day, Groundhog Day, Clean your Car. Day - evelY day is another reason for people to go to stores and spend. And the amount of money rhar is spent on advertising for these events is enough to amaze" or shock anybody.

During the 1960s, and ]970s1 there was a phrase to describe giftgiving; "It's the rhoughr that connts" .. The feeling behind! the gffi was important to the receiver - more important than the amount of dollars spent on me g[ft.

'Why the change in attirudd Are presents made by hand! - meals cooked from scratch - not of'value anymore? Are they not as good as those bought in the store? Did the end of the 1970s: and the beginning of the 19'.808 signa] the end of cr'eativ[ty and orig]nality?

When it comes to gift~givillg, ~j: is: mor-e important 1:0 try than to do, Inany country, the' feelm--8s behind the present are still the most important thing. The usefulness of gifts win never be as impnrtantes ehe reason fur theh being given, Nomauer how hard advertisers try to convince people that: they need: to spend! a Iot ofmoney on. presents, they will never really succeed in eliminating hand-made gifts.


When yoru are writing on the :rET, time management is very imporrant, You QiUJy have'.20 or 30 minutes to write an essay. Whom, you are writing, DO NOT WORRY .ABOUT MISTAKES. Everybody makes mistakes. However" YOU, MUST budget AT" LEAST 5 minutes at fhe end. of the session for editing, If you do thie, youwill very Hkely catch am ofYiJ'jJ!t' mistakes,

.A. very-common mistake is omitting prepositions. Remember to check 'that every noun which is not tbe subJect" verb, 0'1" ohject has, to have a prepositioD.


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Complete the' passage wi"fihan appropriate preposition .. Use fIle preposnions in the' box on lillIe kit

of in of

over with to with on out mIO

of in on on W from in on

in in ,at

Intemarional Manners


____ the most difficult things

cultural studies is the question ~~~~~ manners.

People a11 the world! do the :same ~hifi.gs ~ they

go WOfK, play their ktds, go vacadons and htatig

_____ their friends, However; different counrries, people do the same things ~~~~~ dlfi'e,rent


Take the: example , eating: .Canada,

having a meal the subway the way

_____ , work or a meeting ls completely

normal, Japan, however, eating the street rs considered rude,

The important question is not "Is it rude?", but rather "Is it ~he way it is done F.£ERE?'; .

The important thing to keep mind is to be respectful. :IT people see that you. try, but make mistakes, :[bey will not get upset. However, if you always try to. do :tt:hing:s the same w.a,y that you do .~~~~_ home; be ready 'Ito not have any friends,

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~ere is a series of paragraphs which are very well. wriuen, but do not have any prepositions, Fill in the :blanks with the' appropriate preposition where necessary.


According __ , a recent survey, many __ the people who live __ big cities ar€, acti\!'ially healthier than , __ peoole who live __ , thesuburbs. Th.ere ate :ma.n.y , __ reasons , __ this. T.he first one is that people who live __ cities usually walk m.ore - __ the :store:, , __ work, and {tv,en __ the subway. People __ , who live __ the suburbs; __ the other hand, walk Ids and tend __ drive __ more places Another reason ~~ the difference ~~ health is that ~~ the [bod which is available __ the city is usually more expensive than the food __ the suburbs, so people don't eat , __ much __ it. People __ the suburbs can go __ huge "ourlermalls", __ which they can buy huge hags: __ potato chips, nachos and cookies+ Because __ that; they always have a lot __ . food __ the house; so they eat roore< Thirdly, b-ecause __ the lack __ public transit __ . the subwbs; people who live there tend ~~ drive more and walk less. They sit ~~ the car all the' time - the aVl'!r,tlIg:c' drive ~ work is. 6.5 minutes - and. 'Walk less, This leads ~ more problems,


The Mouse with Chimaecas, or Howdetsky House, is a :major Art Nou.veau, building ,__ Kyiv, Ute capital __ Ukraine, illt was 'built __ the :peric}d. __ 190[ and 1902 __ noted. architect Vladislav ll1lorodetsky I who was known __ the Gaudi __ Kyiv, The huildillg derives its name __ its ornate decoranons depicting various sC€ues~. exotic animals and hunting scenes, because Horodetsky liked hunting. ]t is situated. __ No. :W! Bankova Street, __ from the President , __ Ukraine's office __ the historic Peehersk :n,er,gh~o:rhood. __ 2005, in hag been used __ a presidential residence __ official ceremonies ..


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Gr:ammalf' Poi nit 91 ...... Adjectives,

Adiectives describe nnuns - without ['-"-?!'TIL life wo .,,1Id-- be verv b,n.,.inp H' owever

= -J.1!ro ~ ~ _'!.,IIo\I...,." a. 'Y ='V~LlI ~ _ = == I~ •• l!.-.[!~!],,!I .. UJJ - - ... """"",1 ,. V~=or. _. ~~

nO'Wls, can have m,any' qnaliries. There can he many nouns in one sentence. To avoid confuscon, specific rules have developed about ,adje.ctivlf'S. The important ones, are;

P,oint,s to Ir,emelit'lber::

}:o A-mjec6ve;S. always stand befare the noun: that they describe.

Red ball H!€f! ronyo-n:

};>, Adjectives go between the article and. noun ie, articles are always. the flrst adjective

A majeslic tree

The' crowded ,a,us)" city

~ Adjectives are neve~ plural, regar-dless of the 'number (lFthe noun that they describe,

The: tall trne The' tall trees

This can be confusing when you are -describing things which, contain pieces: ifan airplane has 250 sears

,+ 2'50.r "~I " 'j~

:It :[8 it , . __ seat t not' seats) diJp,Kiiie

if a girl has had 8 birthday parties, she :is ,an r:ight year Owt yea~) aU gifl.

To remember this, keep' in, :m:i;o,d] the (key idea - what you, ate talIkin,g a4lout Look at tElis sentence: It is d' 250 seat fiitp.-lttnit. In, that sentence, there is one key ide.a.- the airplane. Therefore" use the: singular form.

However, if you want eo emphasize that the girl has ]iv,;,:d. far five years, say "She isflw.yeilrs old"), thae stresses the five individual years,

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 1[0 ii Comlpalratives

Often, you want 'Ito descrihe more 'than one thing, and show a relationship between them. You can show how they compare to one another, by using the comparative form of adjectives,

The compara tive form of adjecrives, is ,qua:te simple to maks, It is d.eter:tnifieaJ, 'by' the number of'syllables aa adjective has.

] Syllable

2$',', -'Uabl·:,

-~y~ es

beautiful ..

more beautitul

;} or more ,,-11 ble SybaJ _ es

dnesntt end in li""y"

I a, dd U~eri,'" to the base form

add "more" in front of the base form

add '~-er;' to the' baseform

add "more" in front of the base form

fQl' (,Jl:ample

fbr example:

I for example:

noisy.' noisier

I crowded+-

more crowded

expensive ....

more expensive

I modern ....

more modem

majestic •

more majestic

new'. newer

di • ..1: ....... - ut.y' . UJL!.ller

cheap. cheaper

smelly'. smellier

I complex.'

'mo-"re' - ",C~'[]j]'r; Iex

c~~ __ ~ _, '"V~C"P'~-~

impressive •

more impressive

close .. ctoser

busy + busier

useless +

more useless

There are always exceptions, Here is a list of the mast common:

Good'" Better Bad .. Worse'

More fun

Older (caOCTI. be used. fur anything)

Elder «used! for brothers or sisters only] Farther (used mostly for distance)

Further (meati.s deeper ~ used for research, "investIgatloo)

Fun ... Old. .,..

Far ...

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.J;

Things, to k,eep in mind] when 'you aFe making] c,omparison structure-s:

);>, Make sure: tbat yOU! use "d:tan'; to introduce title second thing you an, comparing

e.g. oorreer - ,Ut . .Rushmo,re,' is more crowded .than ,Mt. WashingtoN. 'WRJl:Jg - Mi Rushmore is. more crowded M't; W~ls:hil1'gton

:> Make sure you, compare things: which are tihe same:

e.g. wrmlg ~ The hotels neat M't.. Rushmore. are more expe:nsiwe' than Mt ..


,f()rm:;t' ~ TluJ hOot?ls ,n~ar MI, R'rJihmore (ire more {2xpmslve ,than those .flear,Mt. Washington

:?' It is possible to use "less' with any adjective - one, two or three sy:rnkt'b]e. In many situations, however, it might make more sense to change the word:

e.g. ies'S warm ,.,. cooler less small"'" blggw

Jess txptmSi~jie +, clitaptt Jess noisy .. quieter

Jess aani(}Yo,US .. sap'

Make sentences using the prompts wkt. comparative forms ,of adjectives, asin (he example

eg:o The [Grand Canyon:,jilr. Mt. Rushmore

The (htif:id Canyon isfotther thun Mi. Rushmo:r:t

1. Mt~ Rnshmore, far, Mt Washington

2, The Grand Canyon, hat, Yellewstone National Park,

3+ The Grand Canyon, hot, Mt, W'ashmgton

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{; -T:\..' M' , , "'iiiJ" Y '1'1 ""j" I" P k

..,." r ne _ ]!lSlS:SlPPl!.I.\.1 ver, warm, r e owstone ,~~ anona .r-ar

6, Tile Mississlppi River, dirty, Yellowstone National P.alrk

]0. Tile Mississippi River, dangerous, Mt. Washington

] ],. The Orand Canyon" wide, Mississippi Ri Vel:

12. Mt. Rushmore, h]gh, Mt. Washington

]3. Mt. Washington" high, tunnel trees, in. Yosemite

14. The Grand Canyon, far, the Mississippi River

15. Toronto, crowded, New York City.

16. Thai curry, :5pl.cy, ltimchl.

]":8' Ennlish ;:<i-iill, icult Phvsics

-- ~ L o~JI.i.7.. 0 J U,,L 0 ~ 1!r.M-.. ~ ,I~- '.,1. , .... -iJ'

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 110.2

Using the prompts, make sentences about these' tourist destinarions, as in the' example. ~.g,. Mt.. Rushmore" dose; Yello wstane;. petJcejid

,Mount Rushmore is doser than Yell(lwsWne National Park, bu.t Yellows-tufiE' is more peacefol

2.. The Grand Canyon" majestic, Mit" Washingtnn, challenging

4' Th 1- " . M~- W'" _1'.." - cl

" i ne tunne trees, impressive, v. t. v 'asmagron, - 05e

6+ Mt, Rushmore; dose, Yosemite National Park, quiet

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Exercise 10,.:3

Use your awn adjectives, 1:0 compare tilllese two things ,- say Orne good thing about each I. Cotton shirts, silk shirts"

2.. Brg ,dogs, smatl dogs

~, Seorts ",aT~', minivans

~+ "E~"- -~ III;.;:~-~.~J' ~=~~~= - ~~~bI'

4" Eating in. a restaurant, eating at home.

7. Email, hand-written letters

8. Con dominiums , houses


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 110.4,

Read the passage. Circle any adjectives you find. and. fix. any errors, Vacations ilin the' 'United States

tine 1

Line f

Line 10

Line 15

line 20

Line 25

Every year" millions of Americana decide to spend theirs summer vacations "at home" and explore some of the majestic nature' that their COi.ln1i:r7 hag ro offer. The variery of the geography of the United States

unpressrve :[s.

The east coast impressive is: because of mountains. The Appalachian Trail, which extends from Alabama ill the southern all the way to the Canadian. Border in the north, never ceases 'to awe, Mount 'Wash:inglton, named after the first president, iii the first mountain which had @) road. built all the way to the summit. Today, many visitors tv this Vermont landmark purchase the famous 'P! This Car CUm,bcdMr;JurrI Washington." ibumper sticker,

A bit farther inland is the world-famous M01JTIt Rushmore, Carved at the time' of the Depression, th~:s mountain features: the faces of four OS presidents, 'Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Roosevelt carved milo it. It is probably (he only reason 'In visH South Dakota,

A cruise down slows: the Mississippi River has ~o be the lJJ~jmate in Americana, Ev·etsifice it: WaS immortalized' by Ma;tk 1r'W'ain in "The Adventures of'Huekleberry Finn" and. "Tom Sawyer", thousands have tried! to re-construct their famouses journeys. Today, of cOUISt, it is much less dangerouser and usually ends 'with ,8, stop iin the famous New Orleans "French Quarteri;'.

The west features two amazings National Parks: Grand Canyon and Yosemite. Yo semite ooillsting the amazing "Tunnel Triees" - ,giant redwood! trees which are large enough to drive'tlLn)u,gn., Some of the trees are over 225 feets high! The Grand Canyon was. carved by the Culorado River and makes its 'Way from the Rockies to the bay of California ..

It is very easy to dismiss the entire US as one country and to forget just how muca of , a, difference there really is between Texas and New York, between Vermont and New Mexico.

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Gr,ammalr POil1lt 1'1 - Or:der of ,Adjectiives

[f you have many adjectives in onesentence, you must put them into the COI]j'(;'Ct order, or i~ 'Will sound strange:

Opinion adjectives (nice, beautiful good) go fir~t

'""""co. adieetives (old "X'i:'"l ...... sive learh ""I"~, eo ..,,'-TI"t ~~"i'~ tin' "h'''' fo llowin (J order: .u:r'!CI I, a .' ~ ...... ~, VII:=iJI .," , IU~ ~'l:""~u.~ ~,.L~~:. ~l,o- ~l[[k, ~~~~",:- ~ _,~, "W; 1) -llL.. u. . l:t ~ - IIW w

Size Age Color Country of Oiigm Ma:te:daJ



leathet soja

It is: late to haw many adjectives in one sentence describing one noun. An easy way to remember them, is the saying:

"A Httle .oM [ady had Canadian woolgloves"

The pairs "little-old" and "Canadian-woo]," must :be together - therefore, if you want W add a color, it must gu between these pairs,

Exericise 11 .. 11

Each group of sent,enc-es is followed by a box fun of adJect!ves .. Use at least two adjectives for each noun. You can use the same adjectives more than (Once.


1" The tunnel trees of Yo semite park are ~~~~~~~ and ~~~~~~~

2. Mount Washingron is not only but also _

3.. Mati1Y people don"! know about the

Shenandoah River,

4.. The and , _

height of the Girea:n- Depression.

s,. The road ro M:n:. Wiil!sbi.ngwfi is , , alta _

Mount Rushmore was carved! at the

amazing - big - cold - impressive - imposing -long - old -tall~· warm

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1" Leaming English is and _

2. English grammar is but not _

3 Living in Toronto h;; and. _

4, Camping In Canada" and _

5. In general, I think English ~8 , and _

boring - difficult ~easy - exhilarating - fun- simple -useful- wonderful


]. My dream car is and ,.

2+ My apartment is and! , _

3. My neighborhood is and ~

4, My bicycle is ~ ~ and! ~ ~

5. MyT..V. is ,and~=====

big - Canadian - hea vy -imported - ligbt - noisy - quiet -small


I. I like music that is and, _

2.. I like 'books mat are and _

3. 1 dou't Iike people that are and. _

4" I like 'T, V" SllUWS that are and ~ ~

5. I Ilke movies that are, and _

bori . . fu' 1" d fu 'I" , Id I"'

o:nng - exerting - 'lnny - au', - pet1:c~ ',' " , - mysterious - 0 " - re axmg

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 12 ...... P'artiiciiple A,dJectiiY,QS

IDt is sometimes important to describe a noun in relation to other nouns in how it aff'eCliS them or how they affect it In this situarion.werbs can easi!ly be: changed to adjectbes - they are called participle adjectives.

The' trick to understanding participle adjectives is to remember what DOES the action, and. what RECEIVlE-S it'he action, The DOlE-R of the action is described. by the pre;selTI!t participle ~~~ing";, the RECEIVER ofrhe aerion is described. by the past panieiple

l""'l ~ ~ _ = ~ ~

;:~ -edl~j ,

'Look at these examples:

"The star shines" - in if:his case, the' star is the DOER of the action, Therefore if 'We want to use the verb as an adjective, we 'Would use the present participle:

The sllining sasr.

"The sun is setting" - in this, case, the sun is tlle DOER. Therefbre, the present participle is. used.

The setting sun

"The astronaut has repaired the telescope' ~ 'Ihetelescope is the RECEIVER of the action, therefore if we want to use the verb as an adjective, we need touse the past participle:

Don jot be' confused by the passive voice:

"The stat was destroved by a cornet" - the star is the RECEIVER of the action even rhougb h]s, the subJeciE ofthesentenee, and therefore the past partlcjjp:ie is used:

The ,destroyed- star",

"The nebula was photographed iby the rocket"

becomes The pnmo,grap./u:d nebula Th« pnomgrap.hitig rocker.


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Things to remember about partlc:I'pll~e adJectives:

:> Participle adjectives are the same as regular adjectives - they must stand beflllI:e the noun they describe and they must alwa.ys be ;sln,gu]a!t

e.g. The unexplored moons

NOTihe moon. unexplvre:d

). Past participle ad!jective::; ( -ed endings) can only' be made from transiitive verbs: (verbs that take djreot objects - the difference 'between transitive and. iilli:ra.fU~tive verbs will be discussed in detailin UIiI]t 3

e,g, "discover" is a .transitive vemb ~ an astronam discovered <l.i planet + the discowretlpfanet

H~xplodej' is an intra.fi!.sitlve verb =the star is e'}icplodin,g + {jut exploded star is ","ol1K

l'r Do not includecbjects in participle adjectives, if the verb has an object. e.g. The sateHite ,is, awroacbiui .the,planet

dO' Ilol'say "the app17M(:ning the planet" sa:tellil"e

eg. The boy js eating the apple;

ad' 7iotsay ';theteatijjg the apple"' boy

note: ]1] these situations; you can change that into an adjective clause: ,."t.he satellite that is approac:i1Lng the p.lcmer

... The bay who is. eating the apple

Names of the planets

The English names: of the planers comefrom Latin and. the Roman names, W~m the exception of Sedna, all the planets are named after Roman gods. The names are:

'Mercury ,- Venus. - Earth - Mars ,- Jupiter' - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune - Pluto - Sedna

~ere is a silly rhyme, [f you remember this sentence; you can me the [LIst letter of each word to remind you of the' name of the p Ianet,

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Exerci~se, 112.11

Change' these sentences into phrases with participle adjective,s" as in the example, Describe' the bold! word,

~.g. The'moon orbits the plrTJ1cf ~' the oib#.it,g moon

2. Th.e sunis exploding

4. The st.ar shines brightly

-6" The sun sets slow ly.

7, The :fClCket is returning.

9" The ,astronauts, are retuming

EO. The satellite circlesthe planet

[]. The reeket booseee is faUing off.

:[2. The ship recovered the capsuJie.

rr3. The astronaufphotogrephed the ,ast'tl.roidi"

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 112.2

[[J~ the following passage, choose the correct participle ad!jedive. Remember + consider which noun the adjective describes, and then consider if that noun is doing or receiving the action of the verb.

!Line 1

line 5

line 10

Line 15

Line 2l.l

Scientists studying (discovering! discovered) dina saur skeletons could not come up with. asuirable explanation for the sudden change in climate which cau-sed their extinction. Astronomers, however, have proposed the (fOUow~fig!ffollowed) e:xp]a.n@!tfon.: a meteor strike, The theory is quite logical. A meteor, approximately 1 km in diameter struck the earth and caused a massive dust cloud. The (rising/risen) dust then created a ''-bb.nlGetj, in the atmosphere which prevented (appr{!ach~ngl approached) mys from the' sun from :heating the earth.


theory was not accepted by

(reviewing/:reviewedl) scientists when ]t was first proposed, Many climatologists believed dLSit some other, perhaps magnetic cause, triggered the sudden change', These scientists were- 'lllsu.allly supported by geologists,

However) newly- «d!i&oavedngJ.d!isCDvered) geological evidence supports. the Meteor Theory. Pictures from spaceof Hudson's Bay have revealed: the possible location of a possible impact. A crater appears near the sourh-eastem nJp cfrhe Bay, and a meteorite large enough to make such a crater 'Would indeed. 'be large enou.gh 'to create a dust cloud capable of causmg the: (speculating/ speculated) c'lJimat-e change.

Because of this new view, many astronomers are working on new methods of preventing this :fmm happening agam, Am (approaching/ approached) meteors are Iabeled and! monitoredby special (monitoring/ monitored) stations. Lii:icldly, (observing;! observed) astronomers predict that :f.J.Q (approaching! a pproached) meteor or comet is going to pass near enough to us to be of any worry,

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Gr:ammalf' poilnt 13, ...... Word Parts

Most English 1'ocaOO11111)" {111t least 50%) comes from 'Latin, fin order to be able to 'understand -and guess the meaning of - very many words, it is. worth learning and getting comfortable using these word] parts,

Basically, aU word parts can he classified. into three groups: Prefixes, Roots and Sufl1xe5. There are very many prefixes" roots and s;u:fflixes" so we will oruy focus DiU. the most common ones here.

Common Prefixes

Prefixes stand at the beginning of words, They do not have W be a'ttae...heo; to' l11ltin wo:rd~, and their meaning will not change,

Prefix I Mean]Dg Prefix. Meaning Prefix Meaning
aero~ I flying hypeil"~ over jJ:tsych~ mind
itfit,e- I before hypo- under Quadi,· roar
anti- I a gainst in .. into quin- {we
aut-D- I se]f in- not semi- half
bene- I good/well Inter- between s:ol- alone
bi,- I two mal- bad sub- under
co- I with meso- middle' sy-n-, together
eon- I together mono- one t.e1.e~, aEar
(;'0.0.- a gain st mis- mistakenly a.i- three'
e,.. I out nova- new tcans- through I across
equi- I equal post- after Ut1- not
extra- I from outside pre- before CommonRoots

These come from Latin. You are [probably familiar with. many of them.

Root Meani'ng I Root Meaning I Root Meaning
astro space I geo earth I sect cut
audio hear I grilphl gram, write sequ follow
cede I cede go habIt Iive :5.pe-c watch
Ch_OODQS time Ja.t/jeu rhrow stella star
corp 'body I mis/m1.t send I stmct build
cosmo :space I merph ch.a.ruge I terra earth
cred believe phon sound thenn heat
demo people I pbot [ight I v,ac empty
dict :say I port carry vert tum
dm;lduct puU/lead I rnpt break ven come
fer 'carry II sci know vis :see
fluet: [change scrlb I :Simp' write vee say/speak
• • • " ': ' •• ~-=..=. 50

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Common Suffixes

Here we win focus only on. the :su:ffixe$ which change the word [parts - noun/ ad,jective j etc".

Noun - thing



A-'W -







I -are












-0 logy


.. ment:








Irregular singular/ plural forms

'Many words in English, which have been directly translated from Latin or Greek; have kept the nat~ve forms and maintain the singular/plural forms, Here is at list of irregular strucrotes:

Si]].gula:r ending

Plural ending


cactas/ cacti; apparatus/epparatl; nucleus I ilruCre:i

-:[ (pronounced "eyC!")


stratum/strata; datum/data; bacterium/bacteria

=ja, (pruttol!llioed.",a.h.')

-ex or-ex

alga/ algae: nebula/nebulae;

matrix/matrices; index/indices; vortex! vortices

libretro/Iibrerri: virtuoso IVlrtunsi


-a (~,lI1(molll:i1()ed "ah")

criterion! criteria: automaton! automata

'i!' "this form is used omy for words which Me translated from Italian

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Exerci~se, 113.11

Write the meaning for these words

1. Interstellar

:2" Transccnrinenral

3.. Geocentric

5" Constellation

6. Cosmology

7+ Emission

8. Photosphere

9. To Trisect

10. To Conduct

] 2.. To cohabitare

13. Evocative

]4. Immorpaable


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 113.2

Try to create words which would describe these situations, as in t'fue example. eg a train that goes aCr-ni5 a continent ..;.. tmnm:mt:ifl'ent'al trtain

I. A. person who studies astronomy _

2. Something from outside the earth (ends in "estrial")

J,. Somethiag which :18 sent across space _

4.. Not believable (ends fn -fble) _

6" C!U1Y through (long distance) _

7. To pull together _

8. Carry through (long distancejI] _

9" Cut into two pieces =================

ITO, Under ground (ends in -ran) _

[1. Break out (out break) ' =

:[ 3. The tn]ng which is: sent through a long distance _

[4. Something that follows another fhlng together _

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 14 ...... ,Adjiectiv8 Clauses

ill":D1. many situations, it is necessary to describe something: in great detail - and sometimes an entire sentence is required to make sure' thatthe item you are describing is v~ry clear, In this case, am entire sentence can be added to a main clause - because ]t is describing a [lOUO, it is caned! an '~Adjective Clause" T (A clause is group of words that has a subject and verib,)

There are many types of adjective clauses, and we' will discus'S: each of them in 1hlm. The first few may appear simple, "burt it will become very complex very quickly I so it is important to review things which may already be familiar to you.

Look at this situation:

That is the buUdin.g {which I Uhf:}.

That is a building, I like it

The second sentence gtves Information about the building, The lntormarion is U[ ]ik,e thebuilding". The pronoun "it" means "the ibuilding.;'

The entire second sentence gives information about trlhe word "building."

Therefore, the entire second sentence is an adjective :for ehe word "building", However, it must 'be clearly attached to the first sentence.

Attaching a sentence to a noun is very simple - all you need fS the appzopriare connection. In this case, you nre describing a noun-thing, and: therefore your connection will be the word "which" >

"Which' represents "it' .. ~ therefore "it" is not mentioned again. The new structure is very simple:

The same can be done to describea person:

That £5 the man {wlu:tm: Lmet at a J.il'uty yesterday}.

That is the man. I met him at a party yesterday.

Because you ate describing a person, you caonot use [he pronoun "which", you must 'Use the pronoun "whom" +


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When you are describing things and people you can use the pronoun "that":

That is the house' {that I want to' buy} .. That is the person l ~hat I talked] to}.

Things, to remember' about ariieeitiiv'e, cl'auses:

)lo' They always immediarely follow the noun that they are describing

e.g. Ths building {which. is at' the ,comer}.is a hisJ!]dcal monumens

n(}t Thlj' builditfg is a historical mom~.ment {whIch is (1J the comer},

cfl(}t fflht:c:h Is at the COtnllf, the bm7ding is a historlrol J.t10,rmment

> Adjective clauses COlrD describe any noun in a sentence - the ;subJect, o~~IQct, co:mplernent, etc ..

e.g. The tEmple was bmutifol: I saw it in Ti;l:Jro .

.".. The temple ('WInch J S[2].V' in. Ti'.!ky'01' was beautiful

I will slICJ'W YO!ipictures. 1 ,took .them in Mcroao.

,+ I will show you iheplctut"'f:S {that J took in MOf:occo}.

"> Every a~jective clause must follow the same pattern: c.(mJ)of;ctox + subject + verb

:> '["he most common connector is "that" ~ it can be 'used for :bot.h people and things:

e.g. That is the building {that Fronk Lloyd CWrlglu destgnoo}.

She is the woman {.that I studied 'Ii/lith). He. is the man {that designed the hotel}. That is the hot/i.l {that he de.sign~}.

:>When 3 noun is followed by an adjective clause, it often needs [he definite article,

e.g. Shit is rI 'W{)I,;&n. Isold her the ho.use .

.. Sh« i's the lClOmal! whom !'soJd .the house

:> illra,G]tlonally, in this type of ad§ ective elau se, the connector fur people was "whom". However, in modern conversational English, this has been replaced by "who" or "that" '"

e.g. That is the marl: whom Jspokr about. (tradiNon.a:l)

That is the mati' tlrat I spoke to. (modem t'!mversaJionai)

Pattern to look for:

When you see-noun +thar, noun + which, or noun +whom, /.n, Is atype '1 adjective clause,


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Type 1 adjective clauses

When describing things, use the' connectors "which" Of '~that'", Both are equally acceptable I but in cycryday speech, "that" is more common. When you. are describing people" use the connector "who", "whom" or "that". In everyday speech! "that" is most commnn.

e.g~ There is a building next itO the school I Like the building. + There ls a bru~~d[ng [which [like} next to the school.

+ There is a hn)liilding [that I like} aext to the school.

e.g, 'The eN cT~owe,r it; a Turonro landmark. Bv,eryhodly shouldvisit that landmark. + The eN Tower is a Toronro landmark {which everybody should visit}

.. The eN Toweris a Tooon.to landmark {that every'body should visit},

Exerci'se, 114,. 't

Combine these sentences hun longer sentences, Use the second sentence as an adjective clause

1. Tbat is the church. Roman bnllders btll~~ it.

2. This is the Cathedral. [love it.

3" Clnrrches have big windows, German arehiteets built those churches,

4.. Concrete :18 a strongmarerial. Raman builders discovered. concrete.

6" The woman designed the' Bel] Centre. ill introduced herto you ..

7" This is the building, Pablo Picasso designed it.

8. That is the museum, Andrew Lloyd Wright designed! it~

9" That is the temple, The: Athenians used it as a bank.

]0. That is thf; dome, Michelangelo designed it.


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Exerci~se, 114,.2

[[J~ the following passage, put brackets { } around any adjective clauses that yOU! find.

line 1

Line 5

Line lO

line 15

line 2S

Architecture', in the modemsense of the word,s;tartoo with the construction of ancient temples wtrich were: bujlr 'by the ancient Egyptians" Although many buildings were buHt before that time, the records which people kept about them ,are very scarce and don't give us any specific inforrnaeion that we- can use to reconstruct those buildings,

After the Egyptians: came the Greeks. The temples that trlhe Greeks 'built are the oldest styliz!ed building,s, in 'Europ.e, They were built mostly as temples to the gods and goddesses that the' Greeks worshiped, and also as homes for-the well off citizens .. The temples which the Greeks built have a very distincrstyle. Actll.d]y~ most of the buildings from the time of the ancient Greeks can be classified into one of three "~O]"deIS~' according to the time that builders bu.nt ]t. The oldest order is Doric, followed by Ionic and then. :by Corinthian,

When. the Roman Empire came to dominate Eurepe, the Romans were wise enough to' learn everything that the Greeks had Iearned. Tbe Romans also made their own co ntributions I most notably the curved arch, The secret tID the arch. was the "keystone" - a stone which masons cut into a, special shape, and w~l~ch the- builders placed at the top of lihe arch, Without th18 sn:o:n,e, the entire arch. would collapse.

When. the Roman Empire fell. people w;:lIl]Jted to try something new, and a new style of architecture developed - Gothic. Tills type grew in Northern Europe, among the Goths. 'The buildings. that Goths built feature very large' windows and pointed arches. These were two innovations tnat German architects came up with to help make [heir buildings uniqae and beautiful The cathedrals that the Goths. 'built are some of the most visired 'buildings in Europe. They are also the places: that people are most likely to photograph,

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Type 2 Adjective Clauses

bl some situations, the noun that ¥{)1!,l, want 't~J describe i~ the subjectin the adjective clause" In this case, the connector is also the subject."

Look at these examples:

The second sentence wi[] 'be !Jsed as an a.dj€t'tive clause to describe gothic

, hitectu - 'H- -- ", the .--'!i"-",,-_: - -), -- ',--iI!-.: uchitectu - .,- is the - 1J."--t arcmreerure. ~- QweVeI; my e a~J"";".iJye Clause; gotmc arw!lec~o.l!l'e - lit -It! l,Ye sU!'~Je;c"_

In this case, the :subject: becomes the cO[li_nector~

... The Gotitic archifeCl'urt style {whlch or{gifmud in [Germany} is myjavorit(', (the connector "which" is also the subject)

MB!ny people don't understand modernism. Modernism uses very much concrete . .. ,Many perJp/(: don't u.nderstand ,mod'e::mism {whit-h uses very muth caJttrltte}.

This can also be used to describe people:

Archlreces were in Greece. They started using marble fOf buildings. +, The ,Clrr:.nitfXt.S -{who statted using mJi-lblefo,t buildings} werein Greeee. (the connector "who" is also the subject)

Things to remember' about tYlpe III ,adj;ective' c:lall.lses:

)- The 'lab in the adjective clausemust agree with, the noun it is describing e;,g. The ,~uilding~ {that are' over there} a~ nCiW:

(the adjective clause describes "buildings" so' the verb must be plural]

The b,uildilig {that is ,0 ver- het.e} is old.

(the adjective clause describes "building" so the verb must he singular)

Pattern to look for:

When you see noun + which/tha~/who -ir verb, it is a type 2: adjective clause

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 114,.3

Combine these simple sentences mID more complex sentences, Use the second sentence asan a~jective clause.

1" There are buildings ill Rume, "They have round! windows.

2. There are buildings in Germany. They have pointy spires,

4" There are many huge stainedglass 'Windows. Theyare symbols, of gothic architecture,

5, Buildings haveno arch. l'h~y are older than Roman buildings.

6+ It is eas,Y'to ,recogl)i;;:e Greek bu:iMin.gs: by their roo[ The roofhas lO'o arch

7. Many churches are !built: in the shape ofa cross, Those churches are in Europe.

8" Many old. windows are small. They are in Ruman buildings,

9" Many housesin Toronto are narrow aadhave h:igh ceilings, Those houses: Me ill the Victorian style.

]0, There are many buildingsin Europe. Those buildings are older than Canada,

11; There are many old churches in Europe. Those churches have subterranean passages.

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In the following passage; put brackets { } around any adjective clauses you find.

Line 1

Line 5

Line 10

Line 15


The two must common archirecrnral styles that are found in Europe are the Roman ,1l)Thd the Gothic. One that is often overlooked is, the Victorian style:.

The Victorian style of architecture was very popular during the reign of Queen Victoria, who ruled for over 70 years. During her reign, ]England was the lead "superpower" of the world .. The British were very fond: of saying "the Sun never sets on the British Empire", Unfortunately, the architectural style which developed during this tirae 'Was not very exciting,

The feature that is most often associated with Victorian architecture is the narrowness of the houses. They ree[ like people who. are standing on a crowded train, The people who designed these buildings were probably feeling exactly like that.

However, the houses that were built ,alt truEl time are also very tall, This may seem like a. way that the designers, can make up for the lack of wid.th, however the height only leads to staircases that never end. The view that you get from the top floor of Victorian homes is quite nice, however the cUmbo ~hat you must endure to arrive there almost makes it not worth while.

The -de'Signers who worked dti.rl.ng the Vkto:dan era gaveiUls one more very common feature: the row-house, 1111:; ~$ commonly known as ~·towm·bQ'Us{?:s,":in North America. These row-houses that ~ook Hke they are all jammed together allowed so many mHl.icms to move to the big cities and allowed the' industrial revolution which changed the world to happen,

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Type 3 Adjective Clauses

fit is important to remember that adjective clauses give more information about nouns! in relation [0 other !I10111lS.

When the noun. that you are describing I;; the obje-ct ef a preposition in. the adjective clause, you snouM keep' the same [ieladon, in the new sentenee.

+ 'Ph·' .. - ., t-it. (. - .. - {. l.. '.O!.. [li· 1:-

.' .lI. a.t rSn;e stree: on 'Wn teL.!'. . Vi" J,"

That is. the street. I live on that street.

"tha.t: street" is the object of'the prep oslti on "on",

Tradition.ally, the correct way to combine these sentences was:

1. move the preposition to the beginning of the adJ:ed~ve: clause

and 2. use the appropriate connector - • 'which i, for thimgs or "whom" for people

This, was because it:is considered incorrect wend a sentence with a preposition, (because

" . 'I ed bieet)

preposmons always neee ali! o-~ect,'

She is the wuman. I told you about her.

- L - L" . -

... She is tne 'KIIOman {about w;rom I.toJd you} .

Me'LS t[[j.e man. I spoke to [[jim .

... 0'" "II.. . r . 'I. . ". . . iI.~}

, ae fS tne man tlf}' -w"om -" SjiQI3;: •.

That is the building. I wrote a report about it.

... That is the build~+ng {ahout wnkh I w,rote a r.epo,,-t},,

Today, however, iii: is more common to leave the word. order- the same' as it is in the second sentence.

She is the woman .that I toldyoo abou:

He 'is the man tha.t lspo.'k!! to,

That is the building: that I wrote a report about..

Pattern t0100k for;

When you see: noun + preposition. + which/that/whom, it is a type 3, adjective clause


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Combine these seuteaces jnro complex sentences, Usethe second! sentence as an adjective clause'. Write two forms for each sentence.

1" That ]S' the city. Michelangelo was born in it.

2 Thi " 'M' f. h h '

~. rms is a street, ~"", any tamous CJJr'CU~S are on It

3, That ~s a cathedral Thereis a famous labyrinth in it,

4" Greece is a country" The Romans ill.earn,ed from [t,

5" Rome [:5 a country, The Goths learned from. it

6" Morocco is a country. The Romans imported marble from, it.

7. Spain is a country. YO'll can see many architectural stylesin ~1L


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8" Tll(!.lt: is. the hook" 1 wrote my thesis about it.

9., Thar is the tree. Sparrows livein it.

10. He is the' man. The news is about him ..

II That is the staircase, You must go 'Up it

12. She is the director. Yom need to speak to her,

13. That is the car. He will tell yom about it.

14. Thar is the church, ~ got married in it,

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Type 4 Adjective Clauses

I1f! some sirnation....5; connectors can be used to add information to the adjective clause,

Look et ~liis example:

Th« ,Middle Ages m:'~ the #rl1'e {at 'which Gorkie ardJitcxmre was ~ popular}, The connector is "at which" J' and tit describes the time.

The structures ~! at! in I ani dlJJing +- wh:ich" ca:n be replaced. 'by !~ when" .. The Middle Ages wen' the time {when Gothic archit'fCture' was 'JIery popular},

t.g. The Renaissance is .the time (at which Roman arcf#tccl:urt became pop.ular ~gmn }" .' The Rtmai'S,')aru:e is thetim« {when ,R,'nman architecture b~ame pop.ular~ab~}.

Look at this example:

Rome is the city {in whjch the' largest' cmnnic dome was built}.

In this adjeati:ve clause, the connecter is "in which"," and describes the: place, The structures "in/at/on =l= which" can be replaced by "where''

... Rome is .the dty {where the largc~t cerami« dome was built}."

e.g. Paris is thecit;y{i'n H.'hi'dt.: thejirst: university was established in Eliro.P£'~ . .... Paris is the place {where' the,first uniwrsity was rstablishe:.d in Europe},

Remember ~ "when" and "where" represent preposition phrases, so they can 'never be the subject of a sentence. The connectors "wbeze" and "when" must be followed by a sUbject.

Saudi Ambia is the ceamry where' is Mecca, is 'WI'Q""g Kua.la Lumpur £5 the city where is t'hc tall toW". is' wrong

Pattern to look for

When you see' noun +when; noun 4- where, it is a itype'4 adjective clause.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Combine these seuteaces jnro complex sentences, Usethe second! sentence as an adjective clause'. Be SUIte to use the appropriate connector.

1 E···· ·~:··t',;i..c ...... unt ... All western. rehirectu e started fror ,~;i..l~·l~n,",,' " .gyp., IS ue co un ,ry . , . ~ wes,ern arc 1 ec.ure 5; a .:eu r[om ,.uil" '!pJ.aJ..:-I:::.

2.. Greece is the country. Marble oijjj]d:ii1Lgs: !first appeared in that place.

4" Seventhousand years ago was a time" The Egyptians.built their pyramids at that time.

5. The renaissance was a time. A Roman revival iDOl{ place at that time.

6+ The Renaissance was a time. People started building Gre--ek-s~y]e buildings at that time.

7. The Victodan Er,8i, was til time. Many narrowbuddings were-built at that time.


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Type 5 Adjective Clauses

In some sirnation....5; the noun that you are describing is the owner ofsomething, and this is the relationship that you, want ~() keep in the adjective dll[u:se, This adjective clause is, a "possessive" adjective dame ..

Look at this example;

I know that man, That men's children. play hockey.

In this: situation, the' noun that you will describe is "that man". In the adjective clause, the noun "that man" ~s only a possessive adjective describing "children", You can make an adjective clause in this case also, using the connector "whose".

:1 know that man fw1wse children.:play hG~kr::Y}.

Note: The connector "whose" is 'used for both people and thiU1gS",

e.g. That is the building_ Its Windows have gold .

... That IS the building {whusf!wi1J'dO'WS htJfi!tg'old}.

Pattern to look for;

When you see the pattern noun + whose, ft is. a type ,5 adj'ective clause

Exerci:se, 114,. 7

Combine these sets of sentences - U5'e the seoond sentence as an adjective clause, 1. Roman buildings are older than Gothic buildings, Roman arches. are round.

2.. That is the man. His designs were used in the C.N_ Tower,

3. That is the woman, Her house is the biggest in the area,

4" That is the office tower, Its. penthouse: is the highest in Toronm,

5._ Thatis tn.e building, Its pemhouse is the most expensive hi Canada.

6. That is the man. His designs won the contest.

7" That is the woman. Her book is 'Used as the textbook.

8, This is the church, Its spire Is the oldest: example' of'Gothic design,


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Type 6 Adjective Clauses

AJl adjective clauses can be cLassified as one of two types - those that give extra ~nfformation, and those that give key information,

Look at this sentence

W&t:dowrs {that Ott' iVuitdl are .Ranum style.

Theadjeetive clause {that are round} is very tmportant - if tells tiS which windows. Not all windows are Roman style - which ones are' Roma» style? Round windows. We need the adjective clause to teU iUS whiC:h windows are Roman style, This type of adj ective clause is: called !I de fintn.g1 , .

wok at this sentence;

Paris, {which has many font(l~"tic buiJdi:ng:,t is nett (lu;old as Tetro:nw·.

The adjective clause {which bas many €a.I1l.tastic buildings} gives us. informacion about Paris, however it: does not tell us w:&iCh Paris. W,e 'know which Paris" because there is only one. ]f we remove the adjective dame from the sentence, we will still know exactly which. city we are discussing. This type of adjective clause is earned. "nondefining" and needs commas aJt the ]:o.,;:gin:n]ng and at the end ..

The commas around adjective clauses cam playa key role in the meaning of the sentence, Look at this example:

Tlu~ buildings {which Witte made o/W()od} hunn down.

This sentence means that some buildings were made of wood, and. only some buildings burned. down. Which ones? The ones: which were made of wood!. This ]s. a defining adjective clause.

The buUdingsl {which W~ made of tf'Cod}, 'l:rumt d;,J'P11,

!Because ilier<e are commas around the adjective clause, we can assume that it is extra. in formation. That means that the adjective clause doesn't tell us which buildings.

This means that aU the buildings were made of wood and all of the buildings burneddown,

Things t·o remember about adjective ellause pun;ctuatl,on:

,... if the adjective clause doesn~t explain WmCH one, put commas

:;.. if you are giving information about a proper noun (name) ~ always use commas

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Read the following jp'as~ag,e. Puncmete the ,a;djecu:]ve' clauses as necessary, Remember. if the adjective clause does not answer the question "which one", you need. CO~aS.,

Line 1


Line HJ

Line 15

tine 20

St Peter's Basilica which. is: in the Va;tkan is an incredible

architectural masterpiece. Many other buildings which @!fe located in Rome can also be considered breathtaking" but: Sr:. Peter's Basilica rakes the cake. Also, not many other buildings can boast design contributions by two of the most famous Italian artists, in the history of Italian art - lVfjeheliangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.

The Basilica, is said. to be' built om the grave [If Saint Peter who was the first Pope. The current Basilica was, built on the spot of an older Basilica which was built 'by the Roman Emperor Constantine. Constantme who lived from 274 to .3.37 fnrrodaced Christianity as the state religion of the R1'>Il.iaD. Empire.

The Basilica has one central haM' which is called a nave which is divided inllo three parts to fa:dHtate the movement of pilgrims who travel from all over the world to' pray there. This nave which is 200 meters long can hord 40,,000 people ..

The Basilica took over :n20 years whichis a very [on.g time- to build ..

The t)rigifial architect only Qlesigned the layout which. is in the Conn of a cross. The dome which was: designed by Michelangelo is the largestdome in the world, It is 120 metres :lliligh .. The dome is. one piece of ceramic which is held 'Up by four huge square pillars which are 20 metres high,

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Exerci~se, 14,.9 Rewrite this passage, combining sentences into adjective clauses, Remember to pay attention to :p rep ositiens, Remember - usuaI]YI there are many wa1y:s t() express t'f&tes:ame idea+

The Cathedral at Chartres

The Roman Empire greatly influenced architecture. It fell In the 41l! century, Power moved to. France and! Germany, Goths lived there.

People consider themselves blt:k'f. They live in the smafl French town ofChartres.

T"b- vb iJ]t 'lliri':- "'''' ik -: ,- :., th - 'V" in M' - ' :S"h- "','- tecu th ,-,," ~ ~ey "l!J!ll, a ;5~ dIe IV [.!O'llOUl' tne lI'g~ ~ .uuy. ,~e protects . ~ern,

The' Cathedral hasz spires, The spires are of'uneven heigililts. This is due to a fact, The fact is that they were huUt at ,different times",

The- main entrance has 3, doors. Ther-e are arches above the doors> The arches are poimted, Pointed arches: are called "lancet arches". They were in vented in Germany>

The' Cathedral has a grandiose roof. The roof is very heavy, Too hold the weight of the roof archit-ects designed! buttresses, 'rhey designed new 'Walls. The walls were' 'Very thin and had many windows.

bl the [lave ofthe church there lis a.la.1byrinth, Labyrmths ale COIl1'll10n in Gothic cltU!tcn~es ... It 'is a path. Pilgrims walk along this path before worship.

Above the door, there are 13 pictures. These pictures depict Christ the King and :r2.Apostles.

mn rhe 19605. structural engineers c-ondi.l.lct:ed a series of rests on. the Cathedral.

The tests checked the stability of the: design. According to the tests" the Cathedral should 'have coilapsed centuries ago - luck:~ly for us, it ,didnl't+ M'aybe the Virgin Mary [S protecting .it,


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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 1,5 ...... ,Adjiectiv8 Clause IRedlilctiio,ns

ill']) many :situations; when the sentence is very simple, it is. possible to remove some sections of adjective clauses > the result is called an adijective phrase, or an adjective clause reduction"

A~ fuere are many types of adjective clauses" there are alsn many types of reductions,

[n genera] do not make a reduction if the reduction will make the sentence difficult to understand

Type 1 Adjective: Clause Reductions

When the noun that you are' describing is NOT the subject of the' adjective clause, you can remove the connector "that" orl'whi.chH Of' "whom". DO NOT REMOVE ether connectors, ie, where" whose, orwhen,

e.g, The herbs {tha::t many people have h1L their garden] can be used med!icinaUy

.' The htr.tJs. {n"l.tiliy pet(Jple have in their garden:} can be :r:ts.ed' 'Wu;dtcinally

Many people don't know the nabs. (that they cook with] started: as: medicines"

+, ManY!Maplcdo1i 't. know me herbs {they oook- with} stwted as medtd;J'J.;fJ,

Galen is. the Greek scientist {whom :IIHmy consider to be the father of medicine l .

.. rJ'~(,,-- '~t"L - G"~IJ-i. ~ ".snf';""t r, -&In,-' , .• '..1'0' ~- L~ tl'.' J"!:..th',··", d'"",pd"" ·"v} - 'uw;"n I~ Hi!' _ ,- acK "CI~.r~'':'> '\ m" ... j- COnSlide. ,,0 ue , ne JU :,e" OJ .... ,K! ten:.: .

;r{" '. -J. "- {wit - - - - _.'I." - 1 h-f.~ }

.! naJ fCS tne Cli;Y n.. 'en! most mruJcma: -, t'ToW are grown: - +

cannot be reduced

Their fim wintr;y in. Canada was the time {whm Cartier a.nd his men almost died} cannot be reduced

Pattern to look for;

]f there is noun noun + verb verb, that is an adieetive clause) with the pronoun reduced,


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Exerci~se, 115.11

[[J~ the following sentences, C:n)SS out any unnecessary adjective <Clause connectors,

1. She is very proud of the plants that she grew from seed,

2. That is the store where he bought the exotic cactus.

3" People: that have smallwiudows should not plant large plants,

4" The course 'that he is taking will prepare him ['Or his: own business. 5" The medicine ~ihat they :sdli in the S~O:H': are all natural.

Exerci'se, 115 .. 2

Line 1

Line :5

Line HJ

Line 15

Line 20

In the summer of ]995, ill group of Swiss skiers carne across a frozen 'bod.y in the Italian Alps, The police that they called. ~ook the bodyto the nearest hospital for tests, The body that the climbers fOWQ was: oyer SOOO years old~ DUfWa5, very well preserved because of the cold.

The !bod.y was called "the lice' Man" by the scientists who s~lildied. ~t.

His internal organs were just aJ'S; well preserved as his: exterior, The scientists who studied him. also le~tfied that the necklace that "Ice Man" had. was achlii.Jl", a fun c' :Elj- illltS"]'OO -: . The: researchers A id r ot knn-w l:-.fJw'ever. wh."

. __ . __ .. ;' __ .. gu _ . __ \~ 01. _ __ I:'. __ n:; ~. 0 _. . . c .,' /:L, _. _.,,, ~

the "Ice Man" chose that particnlar foul-tasting mushroom to put OJ]. his necklace.

'With time, the researchers found. that "Ice Man" had an intestinal parasite which he knew about, The mushroom that the' "Ice Man" was carrying on his necklace h~d! some anti-viral properties- it was medicine for the virus th~t "Ice Man" was suffering from,

"Ice Man" is the 'o]des.t 'cmcumen«:d case of herbal medid:rJe, Records that historians found in China. are over 4500 years old, Comparable lists were found in Egypt, and! India. There [5 considerable evidence that the Native Canadians who came from As~a :brought with them the herbal t:ua:rnt:ions that the "doctors' in their home countries

+ .--'1

practrced .

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Type 2 Adjective Clause Reductions

When the connector is also the subject of the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to create a more complex reduction. There are two possible ways 1::0 make a reduction.

First, check to see ]fthe v~b in the ,adijective clause includes the auxiliary verb "to he'.

If in' does, remove the connector and the auxiliary verb,

e.g. The doao« is t"XamlYJ:wg fhe Jif1tient {~, ly,ing ott. the llJble} . .". The doctor is 'iiXaminl11::g the patient {lying ot! thll' table},

Tlu'pitmt {:,swirmlsgrr;Yj'fJf..-,tg in the comer) cat! b~ used/Ormedic#re, .,.. TJutpfam Igww.ing iff: the come« } can be usod for meciicine.

This pattern can. be used if'the adjective clause is, in the passive voice, also. If i.t is, remember that there will oe the auxiliary verb "to be" + the past participle. This is: reduced the same way:

;s,g, The.' medicine {]"lirid$ aw pri!SCdbed} can be plJr(:hased at the. ph!i1rmao~ downstairs.

"*'" ']JU! medicine {pit:scrl'btd'} can be puten.as'td at the pharm.r.u:y downstairs.

Thil' textbook {n.J1'k-h HW5 written I'" the 1f/'! century} is still being used today>

Th(J' tcxto.ook {written in thl; .1 d"' century }tS stUl betlig used todiJ¥,

Pattern to look for:

If you see .a noun followed by 8! participle, past or present, that means .it is an adjective clause reduction.


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Ifthe verb in the adi~c1liv(; clause doesn't contain the auxiliary verb "Ito be", it ma.y still, 'be possible to make a reduction. The point to consider is: win changing the tense ofth,e verb into tllIe present continuous change the meaning of the sentence?

If the change to the continuous will not Change the meaumg of the sentence, you Can. male a" reduction in the following wary:

1. Remove tIH; stioje-ct

2, ,=ib -, ;!-it.. - -- i ir - verb -t - " - r,- i " " ; -, ]j'J 4 ~. "-"~a:nge me enure _ en' structure mto a gero~~

Look at this example:

PcO'ple who,forget (-0 ,eat breakfast we mu.(1!ly hungry b:¢t"f' ih~'r lunch brenk,

If-you change the verb ~'f.orget;;; to "forgetting" it wi]] not really change the meaning of the sentence, because "1 am forgetting:" [s an unusual form, Therefore, ~t is OK to change this adjective clause to:

People jOfget#tlg it) eat brro.k/ast are ustJ/Jlfy hungry before the,fy Itmc.'h break

Howe'v"er,:if changing the verb in the adi.je-t.'tl've cl:ause into the continuous wm change the meaning, you cannot make the reduction:

Look at this example:

ThrJ ffli;lJ1; whO'si($ tf1.er.e every ,day is a doaor.

If'ycu change the verb "sits" to "is sitting". the meaning ofthe adjective clause will change, Therefore, it is :mot OK to change this adjective clause to:

The man: Slttl~ ther:e every' day is; /1. doctor.

You can make 'this type of reduction with any "nnn-contimrous vern". These are verbs such as forget, hate) and lovewhich are usually not 'used with the continuous tenses.

be (not as an auxiliary verb); believe; belong; exist; forget; hate: have (not as an auxiliary verb): hear; know; like: dislike: look lik,e: love; mean: :rnind~ need: owe: own; prefer; realize; remember: we; seem; suppose; think (belIeve); understand; want.

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Exerci~se, 115.3

Practice reducing me following adjective clauses into adjective phrases.

1. People who want to buy herbal medicine have a much wider choice today than even lO years ago .. ,

2. The human backbone is, a highly complex and delicate structure whkh [s meade up of 33 small 'bones caEled vertebrae.

3. Brain rumors are a mass of cells ~ either abnormal Or nennal ~ that gww unnecessarilyin the brain,

4" The canse of'type IT diabcresis unknown, although, thereis evidence that shows it m~ght he inherited,

S+ Emphysema is caused by gradiual damage to the structure of the lungs; which makes [~ harder ito exhale,

6"Wllilich drug is, prescribed will depend on the' individua] patient, and, their particular form of the disease which affects them.

7+ St Louis encephalitis which was named after the town where it was first classified in 193'3, is, the most common viral encephalitis hTI. the US.

8.. So far, avian intluenea has mostly infected people who, have 'been Mound. infected birds and their waste.

9" Tou:rette;s syndrome tics, which are classified into two broad categories, can be verbal or physical.

:1 o. In 2004, the number of cases off miiJillpS whl.di were recorded In England Wid Wales jumped dralID.3tically.

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11. Sta:rdng in 2005 I companies that sell vi tamins in Canada w.iU be regulated by the federal government.

12. Studfes which were jpuib]ished in. J anti":t)" of 2iOO6 show that many cough medicmes don't really work

13, The 'number of people who have :been takin.g herbal medjcine has been increasing steadily for the last few years.

14. The farms which grow herbs which 'willi],e used En medicine canget a special tax break.

]5, Companies that claim to ;gel] 100% organic pI10duC'lis are not regulated at all

16. The OW)],lf,}'S of stores that carry herbal medicines have alit-en tried the products on themsel ves,

]7. Private individuals who want to get more information about herbal medicine can find. aJ lot ofioformation on-line,

18. People who want to use herbs that they grew for medicine :should enquire with a" licensed herbalist first,

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[[1 many situations, to explain about something: completely unfamiliar, it isuseful to compare Lit to sozneehing tha.t is familiar to the listener, It: is useful to choose one characteristic. and to use that fearure to compare two ubjects.

Look at this example.

The whale sherk is, [big. The B]ue whale 18 the same size.

You can 'lise size as rne common characrerlsac between, the two. 1'0 show the it~:iati,ofish~p, you need two prepositions "as"

The' structure is very simple;

first item + verb "* as, +- characteristic +- as -l- second item

look at these examples:

Theshark Orcas

IS as dangerous as

arc as fast as

a pilt bull Grea:.tWhlte Sharks

Things to remember 'when mak,lns eqjuativ'e·s: ,., You mu Sf alwa ys compare similar thing to each other Sharks. areas dangerous as snakes


Sharks areas dangerous aJ'S: on a mountain

nOU1l preposition phrase

To swim is as fun as canoeing

• "'~~ • • ,j

u1.jlmlWe gertm.u

);0 The verb must always agree w]1i'n the stibjoc'1: - ~Tne first item YOu. are cornparmg

_Thr tl:tl'alJtic Oceal~ ,iJ. as saline as tll'e Indian Ocean

Lobsters ,o.reJ1.at as common as ,sllrimp

» Traditionally, if you, are' using pronouns, the second item (after the' second "as") must be in the subject form, not object form. In modem conversetionel English, however, both forms are acceptable:

Sh(lY'k.$ (lre net !IS' smart as he (tradltkm,(i1iy com:ti)

Sharks are not as' s.mart as' him (modem iXinrmatt'onal E'ng#m)

}- You can use the verb as [he comparison between the two items. In this case, however, you also require an adverb:

He swims as quiCkly as I


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Exerci~se, 116.11

Write sentences combining these nouns using the "as - as" structure, as in the example, e:.g. Sharks - dangerous: - cobras • sharks are as dangerous as: cobras

e.g, I swim- fast - sharks .. I can't swim as fastas sharks


] , Whale Sharks ~ :~arg:e ~ Orca whales

2. A porpoise - intelligent - a bullmastiff

3:" The Atla1UJtic Ocean - big: - the Pacific Ocean

4. Nothing ~ deep - Lake Baikal

5+ Nothing -long. - the Great Barrier Reef

6. Nobody -strctllg - a crocodile

7" Lake Erie ,- clean - Lake Ontario

8. Giant Oetopi - !bIg - a giam squid

9. An eel - Ci!3'ng:emus - a shark

]0. Nothing - Ng - the Mediterranean sea

] ],. An. electric eel - rong - a freshwater eel

12, A stingray - dangerous - the blue ring octopus

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Exerci~se, 116.2

[[J~ this exercise, make the same structure, but don't use the' verb "to be", Pay attention H) the point cf'comparisoabetween the two items.

e..g. Octopu's, swim. sh.ark. .... An .octvpu:s ca.nnot swim ,(].sjasl' as a shaTk.

1. A sperm whale, eat" a blue whale

2. A dog bite, hurt, a jellyfish bite

3. A seal, scream, a sea [ion

4". A. seal.jump, a. dolphin

5. Nothing, eat; a killer whale

6 " Nothing, swim, agreat white shark

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PaID:t II.

Rewrite these simple sentences which contain comparative structures into sentencesthat have the ~~'a~ - as" fO:rN1 (you will have to use the negative). Remember - analyze what Me-things, you are comparing, and then isolate' the po&nt of'eomparison.

The seutrnce compares the S/luM that has gf(een pashi!:lg' Ugbts and the,gia:t1.t squid:

The point of comparison is size - (i\l11!\" is $Jna]lw than th& otn;f:1"

Exerci:se, 116.3

1. The shask with ~"ffile 'big white dots is bigger than the GreatWhite shark.

2.. The sea snakes that live ,at me bottom are IDOre poisonous than (he Cobra,

3" The sea: snakes that live near-the top of the sea are less. poisonous, than the snakes that live near the boaom.

4" The porpoise rhar lives in capdvl.ty 1S more inrelligenr than the porpoise that lives in, the wild>

5" The Orcawhale that lives near British Columbia swims faster than, the Great White Shark: that live in Ansrratta,

6. Octopi aremore flexible than dolphins

7+ Taranmlas are more dangerous ;than 'W:::l!t:e.1." spiders,

8.. Electric eels are less dangerous than anacondas.

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Exerci~se, 116.4,

[[J~ the following passage, change the' comparative forms b) equative forms,

Line 1

Line 5

Line to

Line 15


In the oceans .jhere art more species of animals than on land and in the air. However, the variety of plant and acimal life in the oceans is the same as on land .

In gen:ef,al" warmer oceans have more' varieties of fish than colder oceans, The fish that live ill warmer oceans are more colourful than

the fish which live' in the cold,

There is also ,S) variation :in size - fish. that live in colder water tend to be bigger' than fish that live in warmer water.

The vegetation is quite the opposite', however, The 'ii'l':getatron in, the warmer water tends to grow muchlarger than the vegern.tion. in. the colder water of the north.

One thing that [;5 more difficult to measure is the danger of me sea.

Plants and animals: that ~ook safer :may actually be more dangerous than animals tha,t look safe", for example, the b:l.iUJer.ringed octopus of Australia looks much less dangerous than the g]ant octopus (If Canada. However" the Canadian animal is mnch less dangerous. On the other hand, the enormous Blue whale looks: more imposing [han the apparently cute Orca whale. In reaHty though, the Orca "killer" whale is the most dangerous 'predator in the waters ahne North.

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When you, want to describe the number one thiag in the world" you need, to use the "saperlative" form. This is made using ehe same formula as the comparative form, 'but the endings are different,

] Syllable

3 or more syllables

doesn:l't end in li .. y"

add! "the most" in front of the base form,

add "the -esr" to the base form

add "the -est" to ~ib.e base form

add "the most;' in fronr of the base form

f'O]' example for example

.for example:

I f-or example:

new'. the newest

dirty .. the dim test

modem" majestic ..

the most modern the' most I'l:la,ffestic


the most expensive

small. the smallest noisy" the noisiest

crowded .,

the most crowded

cile1llp+ the cheapest

smelly ,+ the smelliest

close .. the closest

ibusy • the 'busiest


the most beautitul

Good ..
!Bad! •
Fun .,
Old .'
Far • The best

Tihe worst Tille most: fun

Till ~ Old: ~f:(' . nbe 11 d ft~ anvthii - . ) ~~e .. ~" eS"Cru~ .. e ~_se"_ ~O!: anytmng

The Eldest (used for ibFothers or sisters only) Tille Farthest (used mostly for distance)

Tille Furthest (means deeper - used for research, investigation)

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Exerci~se, 11 "'1.11

Write the superlative forms for these noun/adjective pairs

e.g. lfjYJ.kato(J. - high- mountain .... Krakatoa is: the highest mmmtllt"n

1. Pacifi.c- 'big ~ ocean

2,. Blue whale - 'big ~ amman

4" Killer whale - fast - water animal

5. Stout Infantfish - smalll- fish

6" Whale shark - big - fish

7, CY'dothone - common. - fish

8. Great wh ite shark - dangerous - fish

9. Great Barrier Reef ~ long ~ marine ecosystem

10. B.ajka1- deep -Take

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!Pra.'c~ke re-writing these ;s'1;I.perlatj,v'e forms ~:s: an equative structure, YSiIDg "nothing" as the first noun, Keep in mind that there can be many vel"iJs- not just "to be",

e.g,. The Por:sche is the fostat car .' Nothing is as fo'ff1, as the Poesdt«:

] + The C+N, Tower is the tallest building in the world.

3" Australia is rb-e smallest continent.

4. Dnrian is the smelliest fruit.

$. The Anaconda is the longest snake,

7.. Niagara Fallsis the most 'beaudful walredaU.

K The hummingbird has the smallest e,ggs.

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Exerci~se, 117.3

Change [be adjectives in the following passage into the superlative form.

line 1

Line 5

Line 10

Line 15

Dangers of the deep

Creatures of all shapes and sizes inha])~t the oceans. of the world" Although people catch many species, there are those which are best left alone,

(daJIgemus) , creature m the water 'is

the Great White Shark This is (large) of

the shark family! and can grow to oyer 50 feet 0. 6metres) " (long) distance a Grear White has ever traveled is: more than 20,000 km in '9 months. Luckity, Great Whites don't like cold, so there's no chance of seeing one in Lake Ontario,

(Poisonous), fish is the stoneflsh, (large)

stonefish discovered were 12 inches (.30 centimetres). However, the dorsal spines of the stonefish cam penetrate


shoes. The second (poisonous) ~~~~_~~~~~~' creature is actually a Stjngray. This :is the smaller cousin of the huge Manta Ray - the original "Sea, Monster",

We cannot :forget: the octopi (poisonous)

___________ OCI:OptiS is the (Australian) blue ring oct'O'pus .. It has a iCleuIo~poison which is. fatal within 30 minutes.

Mt:b.ough jellyfish look imposing, there is only one: which has ever proven regularly fatal- the Boxfish,






creatures Ii1I the world. co-exist with the

(dangerous) in rhe coral reefs,

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Gr:ammalf' Poinlt 1[8 ii Showing Caus,e and Elffect with Adjectiv'e,s,

[t is possillJ]e to show how one change affects another siruatioo. Tillis is: done with the fiJUowin;g: structures:

1" the + comparati.ve +the + noun" the' + comparative 'T the + noun

e.g. The deeper .the tvo:te'lj the .thinner ,the fish.

The darke« the water. the b~"gger the ~es.

This, form can also he used wilillil

2. the + comparative + [subject+verb], the + comparative [subject+verb].

e.g. T/U! deeper you diw,f'~ the stronger thepressure is.

The smaller me sAark is, the ,s,mtdier the ,JdHgtf i~·. The :more I learn, the II!S$ I fear-..

And. this form can be used with adjective only:

3" e.g. T/u!bigger, the hf'uer.

The cheope«, the happier; Tbe more" me merrier.

Exerci'se' 118. t

Complete these "the + eompararive" pairs with possible results. Remember, there is no one correct answer,

'] 'Tch" mr ," ." .-,0] - us "ub:ii" ~~,3rt"it "li".h iil1,<;; bus " -", and subwavs,

~. ~~e ~~ore 'peop~e _.,se p _ ~C !!-!. __ ~~s~ S _.(;~ "_~ .. "sses _"~". s _ .... "_ys,

2:" The more people know about sharks"

3, The more peoele study about the environment,

4+ The more pressure people put on big corporations,

:5. The more people recycle,

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BuUding Grammar Skills

Exerci~se, 118.2

Complete the' second part of'the "the -!- comparative" strucmre with your own answer.

Line 1

Line 5

Line to

Line 15


There has been an. alarming trend. OVeI the last few decades toignore environmental side-effects, and! the warnings of environmental scientists when it comes to the world's oceans" The more developed the world!

becomes, _

Although everyone knows pollution is bad, only Greenpeace seems to 'be actually doing an:yfhimg: abeut it, Howevt:.r; many pelJ:pfe consider

Greenpeace simply SJ group' of crazy people, Because of their reputatien,

the more Greenpeace speak s,

The amount of garbage tha.t is being dumped, into the world's oceans is amazing. This is especially obvious in Australia's arnaeing Cora] Reef. Because this is such a highly-evolved ecosystem, it shows the fust negative side-effects of pollution, Even though it is: very far removed from U:!l: in Canada, we must remember that the whole planet is connected, and! the more damage we do im AusltraJ]ia,

_____________________ . Alsu, the more we

help Australia witten they have: a problem,

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

There are 3, tenses in English - Simple, Continuous and Perfect, and each one has a special meaning,

ill I" h S"< 1" d d +b" , h C" +

lllD genera l' t re ~ Imp e tenses are use to' eserine actions, t e i, ontmuous tenses

are 'Used to describe interrupted actions" and the: Perfect tenses are used to put events into order.

When talking about tenses, it is very important to remember the' time marker, There are many time markers - usually preposition phases.

Each tense can be used in each time - past, present and! future. Each h;ns:e has its own unique meaning, and each one' needs. to be considered! in relation ~'Q other tenses.

Before 'we examine the tenses, 'we need. to make one important distinction between two types of verbs. •

.AJJ verbs ]IJJ English can be classified as either malin ("'Lexica]") verbs, or helping r",aux.iUary") verbs. AUJdlliary verbs are further sub-divided into either "tense" auxiliary verbs: '~O libe, eo do, and to tha:v1e; and "modal" auxiliary verbs,

Describing Now

1" Present Continuous (also called. Progressjve)

This tense IS made wlJth the auxifiary verb "tobe" and the' present participle f' - ing" form). It is used to describe actions which are happening NOW'. The action is interrupted by this sentence).

I am tatkJ:!1!?;

Yi;lU are $.ttJ.4.lJltlg~

It can also be used ~o describe plans which ,atsolHt~Ly cannot 'be changed,

Tomonvw, Pm: wl?.eting my bt'JSS at 7:-00:, My plllnE iS1mp;ring at 6::30 tonight. .

.. Rem e mber: When you use the: any continuous tense, the: verh has 2- parts - the auxiliary and the participle, If you omit either- one s the: verb is incomplete,

I Ii:"

,_, N;A!1f] 1$ '~"g

... Rememner; There are some verbs that are: usually not used in the continuous tenses,

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2.. Simple Present

This tense is used to describe' what usually happens or hobbies. The' structure is very easy:

Subject + Simple Form ofthe Verb (S.F.V.)

I;w,alre up at Z·OO.

Canadians ,know about history.

[f there is no time marker, the present sfrmple is preferred. to the present C ontirmous .

This tense is useu to describe events that are filiJ,shed, if tbe time is not finished, The time marker is v'er.y' important with this tense,

I have dong UfO things today.

, 11:iev .hl1'W!n 'r had ,a: vaauion thfs year.

If the sentence does not contain a time marker j use the present perfect, not the simple

~ ~

past Especially with questions of the form "have you ,,,l:Jo - the- time marker 'is

'Understood to mean "in your life"

HaW? you been to Africa?

HIJ;lI't you tvU'~ned a snoke?

.. Remember: 'When you 'use the: any perfect tense. [be verb has 2: p.arts: - the auxiliary and the participle, If you omit either one, the verb is incompleee ..

Pattern eo look: for:

When YOI!:l. see the pattern Subject -+ (t'l) be} or (to have), check to make sure that there are no, participles, ~\To be" [can be followed by the present or past participle! and ~!,to have" can be followed by ehe past parlficlple., If there is a participle, it is part ofthe verb.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Pattern to look for:

When you sere' the pattern S. +- V",(I~to be" or "to have") and then. a comma, the word after the comma is NOT part of the verb, It is most likely an. adverb clause reduction,

Exerci:se, 119 .. '11

In the following sentences, underline the subject once and the verb twice .. , Correct any mistakes you find,

1. Both the Canadian, and American govemmenr has made efforts Ito assimilate native culrnre into European society +

2, There' are over :1.50 separatelangcage En Canada. and! the United States"

3. Many native tribes' oral traditions teach that their ancestors have alwruys. been in the Americas,

4. Most indigenous people in. the US refer to, themselves as "American Indian," while most indigenous people in Canada. call themselves • 'First Nations."

5. According to the census reports, there are about 2 million Netive Americans in the United. Stares and 1 million in Canada.

6.. There ate many more ~fiOlige:f:ious, people in. Central and. South. America than there are: ill Canada and the United States.

7.. First Nations peoples across Canada holds annnal Pow-Wows where they display their rich culrueal herhage and pride In their history .

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Describing the past

1.. Simple Past

When you are describing an action that 'happened at a specific time :lin the past, use the simple past tense. Remember, you need to include ,a\ time marker.

Itt 1876;. Genei'd' Custer ,tlmu;ktd the Sioux.

Before E.'u1iOpeam- came ,m' Noiftn .Ait:wric<'l, thete wen; JiO' hotses ,li~ving Jim.

2., Past Continuous

When youare describing an event (hat .a:.ia RD': finish, or that was interrupted, 'Use the: past continuous tense, The action that interrupts the past continuous is in the simple past

The' past continuous tense uses the auxiliary verb "00 be" in the past form +present participle,

tog. ,They were makiJ'li ba.:skeb when I came.

)- 'The interrupting action does not have to he in the same sentence, but it must be understood - it mustibe veri' obvious why the ,action in. the past continuous 'was not :flnished.

e.g. Canter met re:presenklti'ves Qfrne Atgonqflit! tn'he whet! he arrt"ved in Canada. People wen' 'waitingjor h~~'m on the banl::; of:he St:

La:mence River.

:> 'Many sentences can be used together in the past continuous, to describe one 'big: event,

e.g, Champlain. worried about su,rviving his first winter l11. New Franc(. '1'h~' wif4iherwa'$w:comlng wry@l"", hts mm 1-l'ere im;omln,g ~f(k and their s~pplies were running out.


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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

3" Past Perfect

The' past perfeet is used 1:'0 describe enaction that happened in the past, 'before another action En the past, It is used to. put past events in order.

~. ~. ..

As wiil:h the past continuous, the two ideas do not have to be in the same sentence,

bur it: 'must: be very clear frnm the context that there are two ideas, and. the one in the past perfect happened! first.

e.g. Last $umme-r. I J.VaS on an alrplane for the ninth time. I llila jlo.wfl to Ew:.ope" _4frica, AustraUa~ and CalifOrnia.

I was not impressed when: 1 met Bmd PJ'(t last l~k. J/JJultnel1W4fiY movie star'$ brJfore that.

The' :paSot perfect uses the auxiliary 'verb "00 have" UTI. the past form + :paSot participle

e.g, Wlen the Inuit arrived in North Amenl'a, they found: people living therepeople who, hail migrated thousands rJfyears earlier:

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Exerci~se, 119.2

[[J~ the following stories, tfiilll:in the blank with the appropriate verb form

Line 1


Line 10

Line 15

line 2S

Where d~d. the Native Americans come from?

Before the ardva] of E'wopeaitl'5 to "the new world", there (be) ________ approxfmasely 3 million inhabisants here. No wrinen

resorts (exist) about how they ,1lJ:rdved,-_ 'bout most

-p - ,- ." - "- "'-"

anthropologists mow (beLieve} that they- followed the


Roughly 30 thousand yeass ago, during 'the last ice age, a "bridge"

(exist) between Alaska and Siberia" Migrating herds


mastodon and. other large game (make} ~ ~their

way across this ibridge m search of food, Asian hunters

(fi)llow) them to 'the ~~New Continent".

immigrants did not stop, but rather (continue} their

raigrationaloug the coastsouth, It is befieved that most of those who Came to North America actually (continue) south through Mexico- and into South America. All of the Americas are believed to nave been inhabited .sooQ y,ea1fs ago,

Most of these new arrivals (conuuue)

migrant lifestyle, f-oUowing the aulmals ~'llila.t they originally followed to their new horne. Otherahuwever, settled= especiallyin the fertile plains of Mexico, Canada 8i:n.d evenruelly Argentina.

This first "wave" of immigrants was followed iby others:" Although

there is no proof; scientists (theorize) 1'hat ~lli1e illnlut


S·· (bell')

; ciennsts now.,' ,', ,,' eve:

~ ~ that this grou~' remained in the Arctic because <other

territory was ahea:d!y inhabited.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Describing the future

1.. Simple Future

This. is the easiest - and most common wa.y - todescribe events in the future.

There are two common structures:

1. Subject + win of S.F.Y, The\i':will rerum,.

She wlm :!lot wail:.

2. Subject T "be going to" T S.P.V.

I am gglng tq wok.

Y . ""

~ QU, ,ar{j gOIng to elM Ox It

Both forms are equally "SITOQg'i when describing plansfor the future.

Next week;. I wNl visit Mo~'ireal

.Next week; .1 am gpin:g to' ~isit Montreal.

iIo r"H?" 'Ui"",,,J\ ~lJfi·;"'If('''f''':M teem ",,;1< "'I·" "CWLo.i»' !'!J:' !'r!t::oIlP.~1 ~U'.J·:w.~. VH;, ~"'110 "~~l. ~ . ~-t' ,,~~ 1'!'J1'. r. ~I

Next: week; my j.u'iiourire teem is going t,y) win.

However, when there :[8 a situation that requires a reaction, the structure !~wilY~ is the only one used,

a) There!s someone ot the door" h) rll tlfISWilJf it

b) I'm g\oiJ1g' to' ,answer ,il ij 'HiI'O'/t:8,'

2, Future continuous

This tense :15 used to express what will be happening ,~lit an, exact moment in rime in [he rrlil!.ll1re.1'-his tense is used to describe one activity that will happen at the same time as ,3 second.

The' structure of this, tense is:

s:u'bj'ect + ~~wjn be)' + present pa:rtidple

e.g, At that time, he \¥lUbe arriving.

,W,e Em he serving dinner at 7:00, so please don't be late .

.... Remember; Every person takes the same form ~ will be+

3+ Future Perfect

This tense lis used to describe an action that will be finished before a time in the future, The structure is:

s:ubj. 4= "will ha ve" =1= past participle,

e~g. ,By the' end of.the' eea month, we will hawe}lnlshed this textbook . .By wend of 2006~ ETS w.ill have ,introduced the .iBT

.'Remember: Time markers are very important with this: tense; as with every other Perfect tense+

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Review of Tenses


Time Markers


subjed: + S.:F. V"

Present COi1ld:nuQUS


Subj. + Uta 'be~ + present :partidpll'l

Action happening now, plan thau cannot 'be cha!i1ged

Present Pmed

for, since

I SUbj"i., + ~~t'o haven + past fH1rticip:ie

Finished: Action, unfinished time

Sii!ID@le Past

Subj. + 'past f(lIm

Events in the past

Past Conrlnuous

Stibji,. + Uto be (past)" + present :Jlarticiple

Interrupted event in the past

whUe," during. when


Past Perfect

I~le Future' Furore Continuous

Subj. + Uto have (p.a8t)~~ + past participle

Su'bj. + "wUl" + S.F.V Subj. + >twiill be' + present partid,pll'l

Eventbefore something in the past

Events in the future Events in the future ~bat will be interrupted

1., '1.."] duri

wnen, W ~il ,e.. unng

Future Perfect

Events tnatwm happen before other future events

before I' by

There is another set of tenses - the perfect continuous, tense. However, it is, almost never used in real corwersaticn, ':bec.a:use there is no real difference between it and the perfect tense.

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BuUdl'ng Grammar SI:rlll.j;

Exerci~se, 119.3 ,- ]:0 the following story, fill in the 'blanks with the appmpriate verb Howthe ]Fly Saved the River (Qjibw,ay - Great Lakes area)


Line S

Line 10

Line 15

[jne 25

Many. many years ago when the world was new; there (be) a oo8iutiful river, Fish in great numbers (live) ________ in. this. river, and its water was so pure and sweet m..at

all the' animals carne there to drink.

[On" dav, " ",-,"r," who (h ",3) ab ',l_U,t,: this

,,~e ,",r, a mUU:H:,! W~,t_,~e"r '" ~ " "

beautiful river from ,a rnuskrat (oome) there to drink,

Untortunately, he was, so big, and he (drink) :5'0

much, 'that soon the water (begin) ~ ~ to' sink lower and

lower. All the an~mals: {be)

worried, The

heavers (worry)

destroyed, The muskrats (be) worried because they

couldn't Live without the river,

A!] the animals (try) ======== to think of a. way to

drive the moose fmm [he river, but he' (be) sa :big

that they were too afraid. to try.

At last, the :fly (say) he would try- to drive the

moose away, All the animals (laugh} " How could a

tiny fly frightoen a gian~ moose?

The filly (say) nothing, but that day, when the

moose (drink} he landed. on his leg and (bite)

~ ~ hard.

The rnoose (stamp)

________ his: foot: hard, but each

time be stamped, the ground sank and the water rushed. in to fl]1 it up. Then the fly dump:) about all over the moose, 'biting and biting until the mOosew,a:s. tn a frenzy > Moose (dash)

~ ~ madly about tb.,e banks. of me river, but he couldn't

get rid of that pesky fry" At liast the moose (flee) ~~~~~~~

from the river, and (not come) back.

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Gr:ammalf' Poi nit 2iO ...... Regull,a,f' V,arbs a,nd Link Verbs

All verbs inEnglish can be categorized as: either regular (action) verbs or link verbs (also called linkingverbs, or copulas). ..

Regular verbs describe ail action by the subject

e.g,. The Apache mw1.the tGmLlilawk in ba.ttlt, The Haida built ennnnlJfdS Totem Poles. The BlackjorJtUn.Jed in Teepees.

These verbs sa.y what the subject does".

Link verbs ghte ioformation about the subject, and do. not describe an ,action*,

e.g. She is {1. teacher.

[in. this. sentence, the verb "is" does not describe am action. from. the subject to the objectit connects the word before it, she; and the word after ]4 teacher. It creates a "link" between the subject and. complement,

e.g. The Great PI~lins m.ll huge.

The An'as'az~' ~'pe{Jcefo.l.

The most common linkingverbis the verb "ro be",

Verbs like look, smell, feel~ and! taste can be used as both regular verbs and ]inking verbs, This can cause confusion, and. therefore rhe context of the sentence becomes wry

liUpOt1aflt. e.g.


,The ,hear ~'llt the foxa:ngrily.

. ii:h' -,- e th 'e I!.. ~'l'k ed" d -"C "'b' - c c -'. 'b th b -,- H' -, ' ''fi: i m !~~IS cas '; ie v I'll) ~(,o~~e.. :. escn es an ac non :y ie near, iere, L! IS

used as, a regular verb"

The Mohawk halrifvle .looked scary.

in this case, the 'verb "looked" describes the haircut - it does not tell you what the hair did. Therefore, it is a link vefib.

This, difference is important) because regularverbs are followed by adverbs, Link verbs are followed by adjeetives,

* Do not confuse regular/Iink verib:s with transitive/intransitive 'verbs. AU link verbs are ~:nJtra;[l$~t~ye, but not all intransiiive 'verbs are l~Il~t verbs

Here is a ]isr of the most common, link verbs:

to appear' (look Likelseem); to feel; to seem; ~o sound; to become; to look; to :smell; to taste


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