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DeSimone, Werner & Harris, Human Resource Development (3e) Supporting Materials

Human Resource Development, Third Edition


DeSimone, Werner, & Harris
Chapter Outlines
Chapter Title Page
1 Introduction to human resource development 2
2 Influences on employee behavior
! "earning and H#D $
%ssessment of H#D needs 11
& Designing effective H#D programs 1
' Implementing H#D programs 1$
$ (valuating H#D programs 1)
* (mployee orientation 2!
) S+ills and technical training 2'
1, -erformance management and coaching 2*
11 (mployee counseling services !1
12 .areer management and development !
1! Management development !'
1 /rgani0ation development and change !*
1& H#D in a culturally diverse environment 1
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Chapter 1
ntroduction to Human Resource Development
! De"inition o" Human Resource Development #HRD$
% set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organi0ation to provide its members
2ith the opportunities to learn necessary s+ills to meet current and future 3ob demands4
! The Evolution O" Human Resource Development
%4 (arly apprenticeship training programs
54 (arly vocational education programs
.4 (arly factory schools
D4 (arly training programs for semis+illed and uns+illed 2or+ers
(4 6he human relations movement
74 6he establishment of the training profession
84 (mergence of human resource development
! The Relationship %et&een Human Resource 'anagement and HRD(Training
%4 -rimary H#M functions
14 Human resource planning
24 (9ual employment opportunity
!4 Staffing :recruitment and selection;
4 .ompensation and benefits
&4 (mployee :labor; relations
'4 Health, safety, and security
$4 Human resource development
54 Secondary H#M functions
.4 "ine versus staff authority
)! Human Resource Development *unctions
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%4 6raining and development :6&D;
54 /rgani0ation development
.4 .areer development
D4 Strategic management and H#D
(4 6he supervisor<s role in H#D
74 /rgani0ational structure of the H#D function
)! Roles o" an HRD Pro"essional
%4 6he H#D e=ecutive>manager
54 /ther H#D roles and outputs for H#D professionals
.4 .ertification and education for H#D professionals
)! Challenges to organi+ations and to HRD pro"essionals
%4 .hanging 2or+force demographics
54 .ompeting in a global economy
.4 (liminating the s+ills gap
D4 6he need for lifelong learning
(4 7acilitating organi0ational learning
)! , *rame&or- "or the HRD Process
%4 ?eeds assessment phase
54 Design phase
.4 Implementation phase
D4 (valuation phase
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Chapter .
n"luences on Emplo/ee %ehavior
! , 'odel o" Emplo/ee %ehavior
(mployee behavior is a function of@
%4 (=ternal influences :both in the e=ternal environment, as 2ell as in the 2or+
environment;,
54 Internal factors, such as motivation, attitudes, and +no2ledge, s+ills, and ability4
! E0ternal n"luences on Emplo/ee %ehavior
%4 7actors in the e=ternal environment@
14 (conomic conditions, technological changes, labor mar+et conditions, la2s and
regulations, labors4
24 (=amples@ do2nsi0ing, mergers and ac9uisitions4
%4 7actors in the 2or+ environment@
14 /utcomes of behavior
24 Supervision and leadership
+ey concepts include@
a4 selfAfulfilling prophecy
b4 leadership and leaderAmember e=change :"MB;
!4 6he organi0ation
a4 #e2ard structure
b4 /rgani0ational culture
c4 Cob design
4 .o2or+ers and teams
a4 norms>group dynamics
b4 team2or+
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c4 trust
d4 cohesiveness
! 'otivation
%4 Definition of motivation@ 6he psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction,
and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed4
54 ?eedAbased theories of motivation assume human needs drive behavior4
14 (=amples are Maslo2<s need hierarchy and %lderfer<s e=istence, relatedness, gro2th
theories4
24 6he need activation A need satisfaction process e=plains ho2 needs drive behavior4
.4 .ognitive theories of motivation assume conscious thoughts and thought processes drive
behavior4
14 Expectancy theory suggests individuals consider the li+elihood of performing a tas+,
the desirability of potential outcomes, and the perceived connection bet2een
performing the tas+ and the appearance of the outcome4
main concepts D e=pectancy, instrumentality, valence
14 Goal-setting theory proposes that performance goals mobili0e employee efforts, direct
attention, and increase persistence to2ards achieving a goal4
main concepts D goal specificity, goal difficulty, goal acceptance
!4 Social learning theory proposes that selfAefficacy perceptions affect individual
performance4
a4 selfAefficacy D the perceived li+elihood of successfully accomplishing a specific
tas+4
b4 selfAefficacy 3udgments lead to behavior patterns that result in success or failure4
4 Equity theory suggests individuals see+ fair treatment in 2or+place e=changes, and
2ill use a social comparison process 2hen 3udging 2hether they have received fair
treatment4
main concepts D inputs, outcomes, e9uity, ine9uity4
D4 Reinforcement theory is a noncognitive theory of motivation that see+s to e=plain
behavior and learning using only directly observable behaviors and environmental events,
not internal states li+e needs and cognitions4
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14 5ased on the la2 of effect
24 +ey concepts D positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, e=tinction, punishment
(4 % summary of motivation D the WagnerAHollenbec+ model
)! Other nternal *actors that n"luence Emplo/ee %ehavior
%4 %ttitudes
54 Eno2ledge, s+ills, and ability :ES%s;
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Chapter 12 3earning and HRD
Our ,ns&ers to the ntroductor/ 45ui+26
14 7or learning to ta+e place, the most important variable to consider is 2hether the individual learner has
sufficient ability to learn 2hat is being taught4
False Remem!er" traina!ility is a function of motivation" a!ility" an# perceptions of the $or% environment
&!ility is certainly important" !ut $ithout a sufficient level of motivation an# support from the $or%
environment" a!ility !y itself is not enough (p '()
24 In general, people learn best and remember the most 2hen they can spread out the time spent learning
ne2 material4
True! )his is the i#ea !ehin# space# practice sessions (p '*) +or most types of learning" space#
practice results in superior retention of the material to !e learne# than #oes masse# practice )hought
question, if this is true" $hy #o organi-ations so often violate this in their actual training practices. /the
same coul# !e as%e# of many of these questions0
!4 "earning something to the point of FoverlearningG is generally a 2aste of time, and should be avoided4
(Mostly) False 1f it is really important that something !e learne# $ell an# retaine#" then overlearning is
not a $aste of time 2verlearning may seem !oring" !ut if it is important to learn" then it is usually
necessary to learn !eyon# the point of !asic mastery (p '3)
4 If training has been effective, then it really doesn<t matter 2hether there is support in the 2or+
environment or not4
(Very) False. Even the !est training $ill not !ring a!out lasting change if there is not support for the
s%ills or %no$le#ge learne# in training in the $or% environment (p 4() & supportive climate is critical
for positive transfer of training (inclu#ing support from management an# co-$or%ers)
&4 6rainers should al2ays see+ to match the type of training delivery methods to the characteristics of the
individuals being trained4
True! )he $hole section of the chapter on 5in#ivi#ual #ifferences6 $oul# suggest that this type of
matching shoul# ta%e place (pp 47-(8*) )rainees learn at #ifferent rates (p 47)" have #ifferent learning
styles (p (87)" use #ifferent learning strategies (p (83)" an# have various perceptual preferences (p
(89) +or all of these reasons" there are li%ely to !e #ifferent levels of effectiveness for #ifferent training
metho#s $ith #ifferent types of trainees )his is the $hole i#ea !ehin# an attri!ute-treatment interaction
(p 49)
'4 %dult learners typically respond best to a lectureAstyle approach to training4
False )he !ul% of the research on a#ult learning (an# an#ragogy in particular) $oul# suggest that
a#ults prefer a more experiential form of training than is provi#e# !y the typical lecture :ectures ten#
to !e more one-$ay communication" an# a#ult learners are more li%ely to $ant t$o-$ay communication
that is flexi!le an# interactive &#ults also are more li%ely than younger learner to #eman# to see the
imme#iate relevance of the training materials to their $or% or lives
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DeSimone, Werner & Harris, Human Resource Development (3e) Supporting Materials
Chapter 1
3earning and HRD
! 3earning and nstruction
%4 "earning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a
result of one<s interaction 2ith the environment4
54 6he search for basic learning principles focused on understanding learning principles that
e=plain learning regardless of the content being learned4
+ey principles include contiguity, the la2 of effect, and practice4
.4 5asic learning principles have been found to be fairly limited in their ability to improve
training design and efficacy4
D4 Instructional psychology and cognitive psychology focus on discovering ho2 human
competence is ac9uired and ho2 people function, respectively4
#esearch in these fields has yielded many insights that have proved useful in improving
training design and efficacy4
! 'a0imi+ing 3earning
%4 Ideas for ma=imi0ing learning can be categori0ed into three groups@ trainee characteristics,
training design, and transfer of training4
54 6rainee characteristics
14 6rainability D an individual<s readiness to learn
is a function of motivation, ability, and perceptions of the 2or+ environment
24 -ersonality
!4 %ttitudes
.4 6raining design
14 .onditions of practice
a4 %ctive practice
b4 Massed versus spaced practice sessions
c4 Whole versus part learning
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d4 /verlearning
e4 Eno2ledge of results :feedbac+;
f4 6as+ se9uencing
24 (nhancing retention of 2hat is learned
a4 Meaningfulness of material
b4 Degree of original learning
c4 Interference
D4 6ransfer of training
14 6he e=tent to 2hich 2hat is learned is subse9uently used on the 3ob4
24 6ypes of transfer@
a4 -ositive, 0ero, negative transfer
b4 ?ear versus far transfer
!4 6ransfer is influenced by@
a4 Identical elements :physical vs4 psychological fidelity;
b4 8eneral principles
c4 Stimulus variability
d4 Support in the 2or+ environment :transfer of training climate;
! ndividual Di""erences in the 3earning Process
%4 #ate of progress :learning curves;
54 %ttributeA6reatment Interactions :%6Is; are interactions bet2een trainee characteristics
and particular training methods4
;ognitive resource allocation theory suggests cognitive ability mediates the impact
motivational efforts have on learning during different phases of the learning process4
.4 6raining adult and older 2or+ers
14 %dult learning theory D %ndragogy
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Suggests that adults differ from children in meaningful 2ays that affect ho2 adults
learn and the approaches that should be used to teach them4
24 8erontology
a4 #esearch on older adults has demonstrated that older 2or+ers can and do learn,
but may ta+e more time and ma+e more mista+es 2hile doing so4
b4 -erceptions of older adults< ability to learn should be addressed4
)! 3earning Strategies and St/les
%4 Eolb<s "earning Styles 6heory
14 % learning style represents ho2 individual choices made during the learning process
affect 2hat information is selected and ho2 it is processed4
24 Eolb identified four learning styles and suggests that learning can be ma=imi0ed by
matching training methods to an individual<s learning style, e4g4,
a4 .onvergent :thin+ing and doing;
b4 Divergent :feeling and 2atching;
c4 %ssimilation :thin+ing and 2atching;
d4 %ccommodative :feeling and doing;
54 "earning strategies are the behaviors and thoughts a learner engages in during learning4
.4 -erceptual preferences are preferred means of ac9uiring information, e4g4, via
reading>2riting, visual, aural, or +inesthetic4
)! Recent Developments in nstructional and Cognitive Ps/cholog/
%4 6he %.6H>%.6A# approach to learning procedural s+ills
54 "earning to regulate one<s o2n behavior
.4 #esearch on the ac9uisition of e=pert and e=ceptional performance
D4 6he 8agnI :or 8agnIA5riggs; 6heory of Instruction
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Chapter 7
,ssessment o" HRD 8eeds
! ntroduction to 8eeds ,ssessment
%4 ?eeds assessment is the process by 2hich an organi0ation<s H#D needs are identified and
articulated4
14 ?eeds assessment is the first step of the H#D>training process
24 Multiple purposes of needs assessment
54 %n H#D or training need is either a discrepancy bet2een current and desired performance
or conditions, or an opportunity to improve effective performance4
14 6ypes of needs include@
a4 -erformance deficiency
b4 Democratic
c4 Diagnostic
d4 %nalytic
e4 .ompliance
.4 ?eeds can be assessed at the strategic>organi0ational, tas+, and>or person levels
! Strategic(Organi+ational ,nal/sis
%4 Done to ans2er the 9uestion, FWhere in the organi0ation is H#D needed, and 2hat are
the conditions in 2hich H#D 2ill be conductedJG
54 .omponents of strategic>organi0ational needs analysis@
14 /rgani0ational goals
24 /rgani0ational resources
!4 /rgani0ational climate
4 (nvironmental constraints
.4 %dvantages of conducting a strategic>organi0ational analysis
D4 Methods of strategic>organi0ational analysis
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(4 6he connection to strategic planning>strategic management processes is critical to any
effective H#D interventions4
! Tas- ,nal/sis
%4 6as+ analysis is a systematic collection of data about a specific 3ob or group of 3obs to
determine 2hat an employee should be taught to achieve optimum performance4
54 6he tas+ analysis process
14 Develop an overall 3ob description
24 Identify the ma3or tas+:s;
a4 Describe 2hat should be done in each tas+
b4 Describe 2hat is actually done in each tas+
!4 Describe the ES%/s needed to perform the 3ob
4 Identify areas that can benefit from training or H#D
&4 -rioriti0e areas that can benefit from training or H#D
)! Person ,nal/sis
%4 -erson analysis is directed at determining the training>H#D needs of the individual
employee4
54 .omponents of person analysis include summary analysis and diagnostic analysis4
.4 -erformance appraisal in the person analysis process
14 "imitations of performance appraisal for person analysis purposes4
24 Kse of various sources to obtain person analysis information :!', degree appraisal;4
D4 Developmental needs
(4 6he employee as a source of needs assessment information4
)! Prioriti+ing HRD 8eeds
%4 -articipation in the prioriti0ation process
54 6he H#D advisory committee
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)! The HRD Process 'odel De9ate
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Chapter :
Designing E""ective HRD Programs
! ntroduction
6he design process includes at least si= activities@ setting ob3ectives, selecting the trainer or
vendor, developing a lesson plan, selecting program methods and techni9ues, preparing
materials, and scheduling the program4 %fter these activities are completed, the program or
intervention must be implemented :implementation is covered in .hapter ';4
! De"ining the O9;ectives o" the HRD Program or ntervention
%4 %n ob3ective is a description of a performance you 2ant learners to be able to e=hibit
before you consider them competent4
54 (ffective ob3ectives state@
14 (=pected performance
24 .onditions under 2hich performance 2ill be e=hibited
!4 .riteria for determining effective performance
.4 %dvantages of effective H#D>training ob3ectives
! Creating or Purchasing HRD Programs
%4 Many or all elements of H#D programs can be purchased from outside vendors
54 7actors to consider in this Fma+e vs4 buyG decision include@
14 (=pertise
24 6imeliness
!4 ?umber of trainees
4 Sub3ect matter
&4 .ost
'4 Si0e of your organi0ation<s H#D staff>function
$4 FBG factor :e=traneous conditions and intangibles;
)! Selecting the Trainer #Provided One Will %e <sed$
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%4 7actors to consider@
14 6raining competency
24 Sub3ect matter e=pertise
54 /ptions 2hen sub3ect matter e=perts lac+ training competency@
14 6eaming sub3ect matter e=perts 2ith s+illed trainers4
24 Kse a techni9ue that does not re9uire a trainer4
!4 Kse a train-the-trainer program to provide the sub3ect matter e=pert 2ith the needed
training competence4
)! Preparing a 3esson Plan
%4 % lesson plan is a guide for the actual delivery of the program4
54 % lesson plan should specify@
14 .ontent to be covered
24 Se9uencing of activities
!4 Selection or design of training media
4 Selection or development of e=periential e=ercises, or both
&4 6iming and planning of each activity
'4 Selection of the method of instruction to be used
$4 ?umber and type of evaluation items to be used
)! Selecting Training 'ethods
%4 6raining methods can be grouped into t2o categories@ onAtheA3ob and classroom methods
:specific techni9ues 2ill be discussed in more detail in .hapter ';4
54 7actors to consider 2hen selecting the most appropriate training method :or methods;@
14 -rogram ob3ectives
24 6ime and money available
!4 %vailability of other resources
4 6rainee characteristics and preferences
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)! Preparing Training 'aterials
%4 -rogram announcements
54 -rogram outlines
.4 6raining manuals and te=tboo+s
)! Scheduling the Training(HRD Program
%4 Scheduling during 2or+ hours
54 Scheduling after 2or+ hours
=! Registration and Enrollment ssues
6raining registration and trac+ing modules are available in many current Human #esource
Information Systems :H#IS;4
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Chapter >
mplementing HRD Programs
! ntroduction
%fter all of the design issues have been addressed :.hapter &;, the training program or H#D
intervention must be implemented4 6his chapter emphasi0es particular methods that can be
used to implement an H#D program, as 2ell as issues connected to program implementation4
! Training Deliver/ 'ethods
%4 6raining can be conducted onAtheA3ob or a2ay from the 3ob setting4
54 /nAtheACob 6raining :/C6; Methods
14 6a+e place at the trainee<s 2or+station4
24 6he most common method of training, especially 2hen done informally4
!4 %dvantages and disadvantages of /C64
4 %pproaches to /C6@
a4 Cob Instruction 6raining :CI6;
b4 Cob rotation
c4 .oaching and mentoring
.4 .lassroom 6raining Methods
14 /ccur a2ay from the trainee<s 2or+station4
24 7ive primary categories or types of classroom training@
a4 "ecture
b4 Discussion method
c4 %udiovisual media
14 Static media
24 Dynamic media :e4g4, audiotape, .Ds, film, videotape, videodisc;
!4 6elecommunication
d4 (=periential methods
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14 .ase studies
24 5usiness games and simulations
!4 #ole plays
4 5ehavior modeling
&4 /utdoor education
e4 SelfApaced or computerAbased training media and methods
14 .omputerAaided instruction
24 InternetA and IntranetAbased training
!4 Intelligent computerAaided instruction
! mplementing the Training(HRD Program
%4 %rranging the physical environment
54 8etting started
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Chapter ?
Evaluating HRD Programs
! The Purpose o" HRD Evaluation
%4 HRD evaluation is the systematic collection of descriptive and 3udgmental information
necessary to ma+e effective H#D decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and
modification of various instructional activities4
54 Ho2 often are H#D programs evaluatedJ
.4 -repurchase evaluation of training and H#D programs is not li+ely to be sufficient4
D4 (volution of evaluation efforts
! 'odels and *rame&or-s o" HRD Evaluation
%4 Eir+patric+<s frame2or+ argues H#D programs can be evaluated at four levels@
14 #eaction
24 "earning
!4 Cob behavior
4 #esults
54 /ther frame2or+s and models of evaluation typically add to the levels suggested by
Eir+patric+ and>or emphasi0e that evaluation should occur throughout the H#D process,
not 3ust after H#D activities have been conducted4
.4 ?e2 models of evaluation build on research and theory on learning outcomes and the
variables that influence them4
D4 .omparing evaluation frame2or+s
! Data Collection "or HRD Evaluation
%4 Data collection methods
54 7actors to consider 2hen choosing data collection methods include@
14 #eliability
24 Lalidity
!4 -racticality
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.4 6ypes of data include individual performance, system2ide performance, and economic4
D4 6he use of selfAreport data
)! Research Design ssues #see also ,ppendi0$
)! Ethical ssues Concerning Evaluation Research
%4 .onfidentiality
54 Informed consent
.4 Withholding training
D4 Kse of deception
(4 -ressure to produce positive results
)! ,ssessing the mpact o" HRD Programs in Dollar Terms
%4 Lie2ing H#D programs as investments
54 (valuation of H#D costs
.4 .omputing and using return on investment :#/I; estimates
D4 Ktility analysis
(4 8aining credibility for dollar estimates of H#D effectiveness
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,ppendi0 to Chapter ?
'ore on Research Design
! Research Design )alidit/
%4 Defined as the e=tent to 2hich one can be confident that the conclusions dra2n from the
evaluation study are true4
54 %spects of research design validity include@
14 Internal validity
24 (=ternal validity
!4 .onstruct validity
4 Statistical conclusion validity
! 8one0perimental Designs
%4 <onexperimental research #esigns are generally seen as leaving considerable doubt as to
2hether the H#D program has in fact caused a change in participants< ES%/s4
54 6hese designs include case study, relational research, and the one group pretest>posttest
design4
.4 Ho2ever, recent thin+ing suggests that these designs can be appropriate for ans2ering
some 9uestions, such as FHave trainees achieved a particular target level of +no2ledge,
s+ill or performanceJG
! E0perimental Designs
%4 Experimental #esigns are constructed to sho2 that any effects observed in the study have
resulted from the training>H#D program and not from other factors4
54 6hese designs typically use@
14 %n untrained control group
24 #andom assignment to training and control groups
.4 (=perimental designs include the pretest>posttest, 2ith control design, the posttest only,
2ith control design, and the Solomon fourAgroup design4
)! 5uasi@E0perimental Designs
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%4 =uasi-experimental #esigns are constructed to permit the researcher to control for as
many threats to internal validity as possible, but usually do not include random assignment
to groups4
54 6hese designs include the none9uivalent control group and time series designs4
)! Statistical Po&er
%4 Statistical po2er@ ensuring that a change 2ill be detected if one e=ists4
54 .ritical issue@ sample si0e4
)! Things to Consider When Selecting a Research Design2
%4 Lalidity
54 6he 9uestions you are trying to ans2er
.4 .ost>ris+ of ma+ing an incorrect decision based on fla2ed results
D4 #esources available
(4 %ttitudes>values of those involved in the evaluation effort
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Chapter A
Emplo/ee Orientation
! ntroduction
%4 Integrating ne2comers into an organi0ation has significant conse9uences D both for
employees, and for the organi0ation4
54 /rgani0ational sociali0ation is the process by 2hich this happens4
.4 62o H#D programs that can be used to facilitate sociali0ation are the realistic 3ob
previe2 and employee orientation4
! Organi+ational Sociali+ation
%4 Definition@ 6he process by 2hich an individual ac9uires the social +no2ledge and s+ills
necessary to assume an organi0ational role4
54 Sociali0ation occurs 2henever an individual crosses an organi0ational boundary, either
from the outside, or across internal boundaries :e4g4, locations, levels;4
.4 7undamental concepts of sociali0ation@
14 /rgani0ational roles
a4 role communication and its conse9uences :overload, conflict, ambiguity;
b4 role orientation :custodial vs4 innovative;
24 8roup norms
!4 (=pectations
D4 .ontent of sociali0ation D five primary categories@
14 -reliminary learning
24 "earning about the organi0ation
!4 "earning to function in the 2or+ group
4 "earning ho2 to perform the 3ob
&4 -ersonal learning
(4 /utcomes of sociali0ation
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74 Stage models of sociali0ation
(4g4, 7eldman<s model depicts three stages of sociali0ation@ anticipatory sociali0ation,
encounter, and change and ac9uisition4
84 -eople processing tactics and strategies D ho2 organi0ations influence the ad3ustment of
ne2 members4
H4 ?e2comers as proactive information see+ers
I4 What do ne2comers needJ
! The Realistic Bo9 Previe&
%4 6he realistic 3ob previe2 :#C-; is a practice that provides potential ne2comers 2ith
complete information about the 3ob and the organi0ation4
54 #C-s influence the anticipatory sociali0ation stage of organi0ational sociali0ation4
.4 #C- mechanisms@
14 Laccination against unrealistic e=pectations
24 SelfAselection
!4 .oping effect
4 -ersonal commitment to the choice to 3oin the organi0ation
D4 #C-s are intended increase 3ob satisfaction, organi0ational commitment, and decrease
voluntary turnover4
(4 Developing an #C->Ho2 #C-s are used
74 (valuating #C-s
)! Emplo/ee Orientation Programs
%4 -rograms designed to introduce ne2 employees to the 3ob, supervisor, co2or+ers, and the
organi0ation4
54 Determining orientation program content
.4 /rientation roles@
14 Supervisor
24 .o2or+ers
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!4 H#D staff
4 ?e2comer
D4 -roblems 2ith orientation programs
(4 Designing and implementing an orientation program
74 /rientation program effectiveness
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Chapter C
S-ills and Technical Training
! ntroduction
%4 S+ills and technical training programs are designed to ensure employees have the
competencies :ES%/s; to effectively perform their 3obs4
54 S+ills and technical training programs can be categori0ed into three groups@
14 5asic s+ills>literacy education
24 6echnical training
!4 Interpersonal s+ills training
! %asic Wor-place Competencies(%asic S-ills and 3iterac/ Programs
%4 .hanges in 2or+ content, technology, organi0ation, and society are creating a greater
need for organi0ations to ensure employees are literate and have basic 2or+place s+ills4
54 6ypes of literacy can include prose literacy, document literacy, and 9uantitative literacy4
.4 Designing 2or+place basic s+ills>literacy programs4
D4 7ederal support for basic s+ills training4
! Technical Training Programs
%4 %pprenticeship training
14 %re often a partnership bet2een employers, labor unions, government, and educational
institutions4
24 8ro2th of FschoolAtoA2or+G programs4
54 .omputer training
.4 6echnical s+ills>+no2ledge training
D4 Safety training
(4 Muality training
IS/ ),,,
)! nterpersonal S-ills Training
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%4 Sales training
54 .ustomer relations>service training
.4 6eam building>training
)! Role o" 3a9or <nions in S-ills and Training Programs
Coint training programs
)! Pro"essional Development and Education
%4 .ontinuing education at colleges and universities
54 .ontinuing education by professional associations
.4 .ompanyAsponsored continuing education
D4 6he H#D department<s role in continuing education
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Chapter 1D
Per"ormance 'anagement and Coaching
! The 8eed "or Coaching
%4 Managers :and others; are increasingly being called upon to function as performance
coaches for their employees4
54 Many managers and supervisors are frustrated by their attempts to manage employee
performance4
.4 .oaching is a positive approach to managing performance4
D4 6oday, coaching is often part of a broader focus on performance management, 2hich
includes goal setting, re2ards, and individual development, in addition to coaching4
! De"inition o" Coaching
%4 .oaching is a process used to encourage employees to accept responsibility for their o2n
performance, to enable them to achieve and sustain superior performance, and to treat
them as partners in 2or+ing to2ard organi0ational goals and effectiveness4
54 .oaching consists of at least t2o processes@
14 .oaching analysis
24 .oaching discussion
.4 6he role of managers and supervisors in coaching4
D4 6he H#D professional<s role in coaching4
! Coaching to mprove Poor Per"ormance
%4 -oor performance is defined as specific, agreedAupon deviations from e=pected behavior4
Deviant 2or+place behaviors are a particularly disruptive form of poor performance4
54 Issues in responding to poor performance@
14 -oor performance may have multiple causes4
24 .ausal attributions may affect the manager>supervisor<s response to poor
performance4
.4 .onducting the coaching analysis D a nineAstep process@
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14 Identify the unsatisfactory employee performance4
24 Is it 2orth your time and effort to addressJ
!4 Do subordinates +no2 that their performance is not satisfactoryJ
4 Do subordinates +no2 2hat is supposed to be doneJ
&4 %re there obstacles beyond the employee<s controlJ
'4 Does the subordinate +no2 ho2 to do 2hat is supposed to be doneJ
$4 Does a negative conse9uence follo2 effective performanceJ
*4 Does a positive conse9uence follo2 unsatisfactory performanceJ
)4 .ould the subordinate do it if he or she 2anted toJ
D4 6he coaching discussion
14 Einla2<s approach@
a4 .onfronting
b4 Ksing reactions to develop information
c4 #esolution
24 7ournies< approach@
a4 8et the employee<s agreement that a problem e=ists4
b4 Mutually discuss alternative solutions to the problem4
c4 Mutually agree on an action plan4
d4 7ollo2 up to measure results4
e4 #ecogni0e any achievement 2hen it occurs4
!4 %naly0ing and synthesi0ing the approaches
4 What if the coaching discussion failsJ
)! 'aintaining E""ective Per"ormance and Encouraging Superior Per"ormance
%4 .reate an environment that fosters high performance4
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54 /bservation, problem solving, and s+ill stretching4
.4 Lalue shaping4
)! S-ills 8ecessar/ "or E""ective Coaching
%4 .ommunication
54 Interpersonal s+ills
.4 Demonstrating commitment to and respect for the employee
)! The E""ectiveness o" Coaching
%4 6here is little direct research on the effectiveness of 2or+place coaching4
54 7indings from research into the performance appraisal intervie2 :or discussion; support
the effectiveness of the techni9ues that form the foundation of coaching@
14 (ncouraging employee participation in the discussion4
24 Supervisory support4
!4 -roviding constructive criticism4
4 Setting clear performance goals during the discussion4
&4 6raining supervisors to effectively coach their employees4
'4 Strong organi0ational support for coaching and performance management4
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Chapter 11
Emplo/ee Counseling Services
! The 8eed "or Emplo/ee Counseling Programs
%4 Helping employees overcome personal problems can be beneficial to both the individual
and the organi0ation4
54 -ressure from rising health insurance costs, labor shortages, and the need to protect the
organi0ation<s investment in its employees have promoted an increased use of various
types of employee counseling programs4
.4 (mployee counseling services typically involve@
14 % relationship bet2een a trained counselor and the employeeN
24 6houghtful and candid discussion of the employee<s personal problemsN
!4 %ppropriate referral that secures the necessary assistanceN
4 -rovision of shortAterm counseling 2hen a referral is not necessary4
D4 (mployee counseling as an H#D activity4
(4 6he relationship of employee counseling and coaching4
! ,n Overvie& o" Emplo/ee Counseling Programs
%4 .omponents of a typical program@
14 -roblem identification
24 (ducation
!4 .ounseling
4 #eferral
&4 6reatment
'4 7ollo2Aup
54 Who provides the serviceJ
.4 .haracteristics of effective employee counseling programs4
! Emplo/ee ,ssistance Programs
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%4 Employee assistance programs (E&>s) are 3obAbased programs operating 2ithin a 2or+
organi0ation for the purposes of identifying troubled employees, motivating them to
resolve their troubles, and providing access to counseling or treatment for employees 2ho
need these services4
54 (%-s commonly deal 2ith substance abuse and mental health issues4
.4 "egal issues in the K4S4 concerning mental health@
14 %mericans 2ith Disabilities %ct
24 Mental Health -arity %ct :lapsed in 2,,1;
D4 6he (%- approach is based on@
14 6he assumption that the 2or+place is the best place for employees to see+ help4
24 .onstructive confrontation should be provided by supervisors4
(4 Ho2 effective are (%-sJ
74 .riticisms of (%-s
)! Stress 'anagement nterventions
%4 Stress is a ma3or issue>problem in the 2or+place today4
54 Stress management interventions (S?1s) are any activity, program, or opportunity
initiated by an organi0ation that focuses on reducing the presence of 2or+Arelated
stressors or on assisting individuals to minimi0e the negative outcomes of being e=posed
to these stressors4
.4 SMIs are 9uite common in organi0ations4
D4 Defining stress
(4 % model of SMIs
74 6he effectiveness of SMIs
)! Emplo/ee Wellness and Health Promotion Programs
%4 Employee $ellness programs (E@>s) or health promotion programs (H>>s) are a set of
activities that promote employee behavior and company practices that ensure employee
health and fitness4
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54 H--s are 9uite common in organi0ations4
.4 H--s can focus on one or more of the follo2ing issues@
14 (=ercise and fitness interventions
24 Smo+ing cessation interventions
!4 ?utrition and 2eight control interventions
4 .ontrol of hypertension
D4 (ffectiveness of H--s
)! ssues in Emplo/ee Counseling
%4 (ffectiveness of counseling interventions
54 "egal issues
.4 Whose responsibility is employee counselingJ
D4 (thical issues in employee counseling
(4 -otential for unintended negative outcomes of employee counseling programs
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Chapter 1.
Career 'anagement and Development
! ntroduction
%4 What is the Fne2 employment relationshipJG
54 Impact of the ne2 employment relationship on career management and development4
! De"ining Career Concepts
%4 % career is the pattern of 2or+Arelated e=periences that span the course of one<s life4
54 #elationship of career to non2or+ activities4
.4 /rgani0ational career development is an ongoing process made up of t2o sets of
activities@
14 .areer planning
24 .areer management
! Stages o" 3i"e and Career Development
%4 Stage vie2s of adult development
14 (ri+son<s model
24 "evinson<s eras approach
!4 .ontribution of these models to career development
54 Models of .areer Development
14 6raditional models
24 .ontemporary vie2s of career development@
a4 protean career
b4 multiple career concepts model
!4 #econciling the traditional and contemporary career models
)! The Process o" Career 'anagement
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%4 %n individuallyAoriented career management model
54 /rgani0ationallyAoriented career management models
14 6he pluralistic approach
24 Systems vie2
!4 6eamAbased career development
)! Roles in Career 'anagement
%4 6he individual<s role
54 6he manager<s responsibility
.4 6he H#D and career development professional<s responsibility
)! Career Development Practices and ,ctivities
%4 SelfAassessment tools and activities
54 Individual counseling or career discussions
.4 Internal labor mar+et information e=changes and 3obAmatching systems
D4 /rgani0ation potential assessment processes
(4 Developmental programs :including 3ob rotation and mentoring;
)! ssues in Career Development
%4 Developing career motivation
54 6he career plateau
.4 .areer development for none=empt employees
D4 (nrichment@ .areer development 2ithout advancement
)! E""ective Career Development S/stems
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Chapter 11
'anagement Development
! ntroduction
%4 ?anagement #evelopment is an organi0ation<s conscious effort to provide its managers
and potential mangers 2ith opportunities to learn, gro2, and change, in hopes of
producing over the long term a cadre of managers 2ith the s+ills necessary to function
effectively in that organi0ation4
54 Strategies used to develop managers include management education, management
training, and onAtheA3ob e=periences4
.4 Management development activities account for a si0able portion of all funds budgeted for
training4
! Descri9ing the 'anagerEs Bo92 'anagement Roles and Competencies
%4 %pproaches to understanding the 3ob of managing@
14 .haracteristics approach
24 Identifying the roles managers are typically assigned
!4 -rocess models
a4 integrated competency model
b4 fourAdimensional model
54 Managers as persons@ % holistic vie2 of the manager<s 3ob
.4 Importance of needs assessment in determining managerial competencies
D4 6he globally competent manager
(4 What competencies 2ill future managers needJ
! 'a-ing 'anagement Development Strategic
)! 'anagement Education
%4 Management education is the ac9uisition of a broad range of conceptual +no2ledge and
s+ills in formal classroom settings in degreeAgranting institutions4
54 5achelor<s or Master<s degree programs in business administration4
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.4 (=ecutive education programs@
14 (=ecutive M454%4 programs
24 /ther approaches to e=ecutive education
)! 'anagement Training and E0periences
%4 .ompanyAdesigned courses
54 .ompany academies, Fcolleges,G and corporate universities
.4 /nAtheA3ob e=periences
)! E0amples o" ,pproaches <sed to Develop 'anagers
%4 "eadership training
14 "eader match training
24 6ransformational leadership training
!4 State of the practice programs :e4g4, leaders developing leaders, :ea#er:a!;
54 5ehavior modeling training
)! Designing 'anagement Development Programs
%4 6ie to the organi0ation<s strategic plan4
54 .onduct a thorough needs analysis4
.4 .reate specific ob3ectives4
D4 Involve and get commitment from senior management in all phases4
(4 /ffer a variety of developmental opportunities4
74 (nsure those to be developed are motivated to participate4
84 (valuate, modify, and update as needed4
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Chapter 17
Organi+ation Development and Change
! Organi+ation Development De"ined
2rgani-ation #evelopment (2D) is a process used to enhance both the effectiveness of an
organi0ation and the 2ellAbeing of its members through planned interventions4
! Organi+ation Development Theories and Concepts
%4 .hange process theory :unfree0ing, moving>change, refree0ing;
54 Implementation theory
14 Human processual intervention theory
24 6echnostructural intervention theory
!4 Sociotechnical systems designs
4 /rgani0ation transformation change
.4 "imitation of research supporting /D theories
! The Porras@Silvers 'odel o" Planned Change
%4 -roposes that change interventions affect organi0ational target variables, 2hich affect
individual organi0ation members, 2hich in turn produce organi0ational outcomes4
54 6ypes of change@ alpha, beta, gamma:%;, gamma:5;4
)! Designing an ntervention Strateg/
%4 Specific roles
14 .hange manager
24 .hange agent
!4 #oles of individuals 2ithin a system undergoing change
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54 Designing the intervention strategy@
14 Diagnose the environment
24 Develop an action plan
!4 (valuate the results of the intervention
.4 #ole of H#D professionals in the design of /D interventions
D4 #ole of labor unions in /D interventions
)! Human Processual nterventions
%4 Human processual interventions are directed at improving interpersonal, intragroup, and
intergroup relations4
54 (=amples of human processual interventions
14 Survey feedbac+
24 6eam building
.4 (ffectiveness of human processual interventions
)! Technostructural nterventions
%4 )echnostructural interventions aim to@
14 Improve 2or+ content, 2or+ methods, and the relationship among 2or+ers4
24 "o2er costs by replacing inefficient materials, methods, e9uipment, 2or+flo2 designs,
and unnecessary labor 2ith more efficient technology4
54 (=amples of technostructural interventions@
14 Cob enlargement
24 Cob enrichment
!4 %lternative 2or+ schedules :compressed 2or+2ee+, fle=time;
.4 (ffectiveness of technostructural interventions
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)! Sociotechnical S/stems nterventions
%4 Sociotechnical systems interventions,
14 %re directed at the fit bet2een the technological configuration and the social structure
of 2or+ units4
24 #esult in rearranging the relationships among roles, tas+s, and>or se9uences of
activities to produce selfAmaintaining, semiautonomous groups4
54 (=amples of sociotechnical systems interventions@
14 Muality circles
24 6otal Muality Management :6MM;
!4 SelfAmanaging teams
.4 (ffectiveness of sociotechnical systems interventions
)! Organi+ational Trans"ormation nterventions
%4 2rgani-ational transformation interventions focus on articulating a ne2 vision for the
organi0ation 2ith the purpose of redefining the organi0ation<s culture, mission, and
strategy4
54 (=amples of organi0ational transformation interventions@
14 .ultural interventions
24 Strategic change :e4g4, merger, ac9uisition;
!4 5ecoming a learning organi0ation
4 High performance 2or+ systems
.4 (ffectiveness of organi0ational transformation interventions
=! Whither Organi+ation DevelopmentF
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Chapter 1:
HRD in a Culturall/ Diverse Environment
! Wor-"orce Diversit/ and Organi+ational Culture
! Increased attention to 2or+force diversity
14 8reatest attention paid to racial and gender diversity4
24 /ther forms of diversity increasingly being considered4
54 2rgani-ational culture is a set of shared values, beliefs, norms, artifacts, and patterns of
behavior that are used as a frame of reference for the 2ay one loo+s at, attempts to
understand, and 2or+s 2ithin any organi0ation4
! 3a9or 'ar-et Changes and Discrimination
%4 Demographic changes have been occurring in the composition of the 2or+force4
54 62o main forms of discrimination@
14 %ccess discrimination
24 6reatment discrimination
a4 %gainst 2omen
b4 %gainst minority group members
%4 (9ual employment opportunity
54 6he glass ceiling
.4 Impact of recent immigration patterns
! ,dapting to Demographic Changes
%4 %ffirmative action programs
14 Intended to increase the representation of members of underrepresented groups in the
2or+place4
24 (lements of an affirmative action program4
!4 Issues and effectiveness
54 Laluing differences and diversity training
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14 %imed at ma+ing organi0ation members a2are of their attitudes to2ard others and
increasing their understanding and acceptance of others4
24 (ffectiveness of valuing differences diversity training programs4
.4 Managing diversity programs
14 Defined as a comprehensive managerial process for developing an organi0ational
culture that enables all organi0ation members to contribute fully to the organi0ation4
24 (ffectiveness of managing diversity programs4
)! Cross@Cultural Education and Training Programs
)! Human Resource Development Programs "or Culturall/ Diverse Emplo/ees
%4 Sociali0ation and orientation
54 .areer development
.4 Mentoring 2omen and minorities
D4 Se=ual and racial harassment training
)! Other HR' Programs and Processes
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