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SPE 168168SPE-168168-MS

SPE 168168SPE-168168-MS Optimizing Sandstone Matrix Stimulation in HT Well ‘X’ (A Case Study) S.S. Hassan, A.

Optimizing Sandstone Matrix Stimulation in HT Well ‘X’ (A Case Study)

S.S. Hassan, A. Nadeem, OMV (Pakistan) GmbH; U.B. Bregar, OMV A.G.

Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26–28 February 2014.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Pakistan's demand for natural gas is quickly
must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Pakistan's demand for natural gas is quickly

Abstract Pakistan's demand for natural gas is quickly outstripping supply and the crisis is a symptom of a much larger problem destined to cause consumers even greater pain in the future. In this picture every MMscf of gas is not only important for the country but also important for OMV, which is fueling Pakistan for more than 20 years. OMV is trying hard to meet the demand by restraining the decline in currently producing fields and to develop unconventional resources. In one of OMV operated fields, after watering out 3 wells, well ‘X’ was the only one available to feed 13 MMscf gas per day to processing plant to keep it alive. To increase the recovery from reservoir, well ‘X’ was put on wellhead compression in March 2012 subsequently rapid decline rate (1.09 MMscf/month) was observed; finally production drop to 7.8 MMscfd which was alarming to shut down the complete plant below 6 MMscfd.

The production modeling using commercial package depicted the skin of +16 in well ‘X’ which was not supported by available hard data. The interpretation of last buildup data was not strengthening the idea of near wellbore damage, further the reservoir pressure used was dubious as it was taken ~1 year ago. Two cores were available in well ‘X’; unfortunately none was from sandstone producing interval. As an analogy two core plugs from nearby well were sent for XRD analysis & core flow test was performed with specially designed organic clay acid for high temperature reservoirs (OCA-HT). Based on encouraging core flow test outcomes, an optimum job volume was engineered considering the critical zones radius (up to 1 ft), in fear for fine migration & water producing zone. Matrix stimulation job was executed in October 2012 which resulted in increment of ~7 MMscfd extending the plant life beyond 1 year.

This paper describes the complete case study of optimizing the matrix stimulation in high temperature sandstones. Furthermore it will show how results achieved so far are promising which added a reasonable value to the producing asset and saved huge revenue loss to the company.

Introduction According to recent Paksitan government statistics the country is facing 2 Bcf gas shortage per day, in order to cope with this situation the government is encouraging foreign investment for searching oil & gas. OMV started exploration activities in the Middle Indus basin (Thar dersert of Pakistan) in 1991 and developed several gas fields; currently it is among the largest international gas producers in Pakistan, delivering ~300 MMscfd sales gas which is more than 10% of Pakisan’s total gas supply.

In one of OMV (Pakistan) operated gas plants having capacity ~70 MMscfd sale gas was being fed 13 MMscfd from well ‘X’ whereas all other wells in that field had water out. The well ‘X’ was drilled to 3574.2 mTVD SS to target early cretaceous Lower Goru ‘B-Sand’ in February 2008. During DST the well was tested at 25.2 MMscfd gas, 53.3 STB/d condensate & 90.7 bbls/d water with 1020 psi FWHP at 80/64” choke size; afterwards the well was killed & suspended. In March 2009, the well was completed with tappered completion (5- ½ ” tubing to 1842 m & 4- ½ ” tubing to 3445 m) as shown in Figure-1. The well was tie in with the plant and 1 st gas started in August, 2009.

During annual BHP survey 2011, the well ‘X’ was tested at 12 MMscfd with a FWHP of 1526 psi @ 51% choke size; the

reservoir pressure & true darcy skin

2012 a wellhead compressor (WHC) was installed which resulted in an increment of ~3 MMscfd; subsequently rapid decline

was interpreted to be 2433 psi @ datum (3310 mSS) and +1.0 respectively. In March

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rate (1.09 MMscf/month) was observed & production drop to 7.8 MMscfd with a FWHP of ~400 psi which was alarming to shut down the complete plant below 6 MMscfd. The chlorides measurement was in the range of 200 ppm though the production performance plot showed abnormal decline trend; as WGR & CGR values were almost constant whereas gas rate & FWHP was declining (Figure-2), dictacting one reason which might be the increase in skin. This production scenario was modelled using nodal analysis which depicted the skin of +16 but it was not supported by available hard data (last skin = +1 during BHP-2011).

After getting encouraging results of core flow test with organic clay acid for high temperature (OCA-HT) on plugs from offset wells a preliminary stimulation job was designed; before executing the matix stimulation job, a short PBU was conducted which confirmed the modeled skin value. Finally an optimum job volume was engineered which resulted in increment of ~7 MMscfd extending the plant life beyond 1 year.

Core Mineralogoy Two cores were available from well ‘X’ unfortunately none was in the reservoir section as they were in shaly part (one core was taken above the reservoir interval and second was taken below the reservoir interval). Similarly no XRD analysis and ditch cuttings from reservoir section were available. As an analogy the well ‘A’ was considered the closet offset well with pretty much same lithology as that of the well ‘X’ also having core in the reservoir section stored in OMV Vienna HO and its transfer process from Vienna to contractor lab might delay the stimulation. The other offset well ‘B’ was also having the reservoir properties closer to well ‘X’; its core plugs were selected for core flow test (Figure-3).

Well ‘X’ core XRD analysis indicated a high percentage of quartz along with lesser amounts of feldspar (potassium feldspar & plagioclase) & carbonate (calcite, ankerite & siderite). Clays were also present in huge percentage (average ~25%); the major types included illite and chlorite. Illite is pore lining clay whereas chlorite is highly sensitive clay and their percentage varies along well depth. At 3453m depth, illite was major clay mineral (~90% of total clay content) whereas chlorite was abundant (~75% of total clay content) at 3481m (Figure-4 & 5).

By comparing XRD results of off set well ‘B’ (Figure-6 & 7) with that of well ‘X’, it was seen that well ‘B’ mainly consisted of quartz (Approx~80%) along with lesser amounts of potassium feldspar, plagioclase and siderite. Clays were also present mainly consisting of chlorite; though illite was present yet in lesser amount; both reservoirs had similar mineralogy but their quantities varied.

Main Treatment Recipe (OCA-HT) It has been recognized for several years that mud acid (12% HCI with 3% HF) systems are effective only in removing silicate damage within 1 ft of the wellbore radius; fines & clays beyond this radius remain present and potentially mobile upon production. The major obstacle to deep penetration of conventional mud acids is their rapid reaction rate at formation temperatures with clays & grain cementing material while HF will spend on clays within minutes; therefore to achieve net removal of material beyond 1 ft would require excessive treatment volumes which would have the undesirable effects. These observations fueled the desire for a slower-acting sandstone acid that can remove damaging fines before they can migrate and plug.

As the well ‘X’ was producing with higher drawdown (>1000 psi) & so migration of fines was evident after bigger stimulation job; it was decided to go for clay acid. A major advantage of clay acid is its ability to inhibit migration of fines present in sandstones. Depending on the fines attacked, partial dissolution takes place (Al and Si) and boron is included in the lattice of the crystal; a new surface with different properties is formed as a result of this topochemical reaction. The by-products (borosilicates) appear as a coating on the initial surfaces. The borosilicates will not plug the pores as it coats the minerals and welds them together to the sand grains.

Considering the high clay contents & higher reservoir temperature, a fluid system with oragainc acid as a chelant was used which was effectively a blend of organic and fluoroboric acid (organic clay acid).

Pre Acid Pre-Flush Sodium and potassium fluosilicate and fluoaluminate ions are formed by the reaction of fluosilicates and fluoaluminates with Na + or K + ; these are quite insoluble, voluminous & form a gelatinous precipitation. As formation water in the reservoir contains these cations so to displace them away from wellbore, ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was opted as a pre-acid pre-flush.

Acid Pre-Flush As carbonate (calcite, ankerite & siderite) were present in core minerals (XRD analysis) so calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) was one of the most damaging precipitates that could be formed. It precipitates when Ca +2 and F - comes together. Calcium fluoride may originate from dissolution of CaCO 3 from rock (as in case of Well ‘X’) or formation water with high calcium content.

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! + 2 !"#$%& ! + ! + !

CaF 2 formation was avoided by pumping an aqueous acetic acid as pre-flush. The main advantage of using aqueous acetic acid with HCl was to inhibit its use at high temperatures for extended exposure times; in addition it slows down rate of reaction with carbonates & effectively controls the precipitation of ferric ions.

Over-Flush The role of overflush was to displace the main acid flush away from the wellbore to avoid precipitation of reaction products from spent acid. NH 4 Cl with a surfactant was used as an over-flush & to leave the formation water-wet; in addition last 20 bbls of over-flush was nitrified fluid taking into account low reservoir pressure to facilitate flowback.

Core Flow Test Three cores plugs (plug # 20, 31 & 41) from well ‘B’ were sent to contactor lab with the intended to quantify the effectiveness of the OCA-HT to stimulate the damage zone (Figure-8 & Table-1). The core flow experiment was performed on core plug # 31 from well ‘B’ due to its matching reservoir permeability with well ‘X’ by following steps:

1. Recorded the core plug dimensions.

2. Vacuum saturated core in 8% NH 4 Cl brine.

3. Loaded the core into the core flow apparatus and appied the overburden (2000 psi).

4. Heated the cell to operating temperature.

5. Measured initial permeability to 8% NH 4 Cl brine at 5.0 ml/min in production direction.

6. Injected 20 pore volume of pre-acid pre-flush at 5.0 ml/min in injection direction.

7. Injected 20 pore volume of acid pre-flush at 5.0 ml/min in injection direction.

8. Injected 25 pore volume of mian organic clay acid at 5.0 ml/min in injection.

9. Injected 20 pore volume of over-flush at 5.0 ml/min in injection direction.

10. Measureed final permeability to 8% NH 4 Cl brine at 5.0 ml/min in production direction.

11. Removed the core from the core holder after completing the test.

12. The final retained permeability 4000 md was much higher than the initially measured permeability of 700 md

(Figure-9).

Job Design As per encouraging outcomes of core flow test, an acid stimulation job was designed using V-lab & StimCAD simulations considering different formation damage radius (1.0 – 3.5 ft) to remove the true darcy skin with OCA-HT (Figure-10, 11 & 12); the difference in job volumes was more than three times in 3.5 ft case, furthermore it was not economically justified to pump huge volumes under this declining stage (P r = 1690 psi ) of well where OPEX needs to be on lower side as well. Based on the simulation results, the final design (Table-2) was proposed with following considerations:

1. 80 gallon/ft main treatment was considered in removing 1 ft damage radius.

2. Perforation interval (3476.0 – 3483.0 mLD = 7 m) will not be treated.

Job Execution The acid stimulation job was performed using coiled tubing as per following procedures:

1. RIH coiled CT & performed perforations wash with 20 bbls of 10% acetic acid solution; the treatment was nitrified at 500 Scf/min keeping the well flowing to flare pit.

2. Pumped 8% NH 4 Cl brine till neutralization (230 bbls).

3. Pumped pre-acid pre-flush (70 bbls of 8% NH 4 Cl) while reciprocating CT across the perforations (3465-3473m only).

4. Switched to acid pre-flush (70 bbls of 10% acetic acid) and squeezed into the perforations.

5. Pumped main treatment (50 bbls of OCA-HT) and squeezed into the perforations.

6. Switched to over-flush (70 bbls of 8% NH 4 Cl) to displace the treatment away from the critical matrix; nitrified the last 20 bbls by pumping nitrogen at 400 Scf/min taking into account low reservoir pressure.

7. Opened the well and performed nitrogen kick off.

8. POOH CT and observed the well at flare pit.

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Conclusion The optimized acid stimulation resulted in an increment of ~7 MMscfd extending the plant life beyond 1 year adding a reasonable value to the producing asset and saved huge revenue loss to the company. Furthermore post acid stimulation production profile shows stable well behavior (with average decline rate ~0.46 MMscfd) which is in line with natural depletion (Figure-13 & Table-3).

References

1. F.Yang, and H.A. Nasr-El-Din, Texas A&M University, and B.Al-Harbi. Acidizing Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids. SPE 15725; the paper presented on SPE International Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Doha, Qatar 14-16 May, 2012.

2. S.A. Ali, C.W. Pardo Chevron Energy Technology Co, Z.Xiao, F.E. Tuedor, A.Boucher, S.A. Al-Harthy, B. Lecerf and G. Salamat Schlumberger. Effective Stimulation of High-Temperature Sandstone Formations in East Venezuela With a New Sandstone- Acidizing System. SPE 98318; the paper presented at 2006 SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, LA, 15 – 17 February 2006.

3. Kenneth R. Kunze, Chris M. Shaughnessy Exxon Production Research Co. Acidizing Sandstone Formations with Fluoboric Acid. SPE 9387.

4. Oscar J. Jaramillo and Ricardo Romo, Petrobras; Alexis Ortega, Art Mine and Manuel Lastre, Schlumberge; Organic clay acid system sustains post-treatment production increases. Pages 101 – 106, World Oil July 2010.

Tables

 

Well ‘B’ Core Plugs Data for Core Flow Test

 
 

Plug Details

   

Horizontal

 
       

Permeability

(md)

 

Porosity

Grain Density

Number

Depth

Length

Diameter

(%)

(gm/cc)

(m)

(mm)

(mm)

 

20

3140.75

47.03

23.70

 

566.88

 

28.60

2.63

31

3144.09

43.50

24.71

 

300.79

 

29.64

2.69

41

3147.47

47.16

24.70

 

61.80

 

26.31

2.78

 

Table-1: Well ‘B’ Core Plugs Data for Core Flow Test

 
 

Well ‘X’ Acid Stimulation Design

 

Sr. No.

Fluid

Pumping Rate

Nitrogenn Rate

Volume

Comments

 

(bbls/min)

(Scf/min)

(bbls)

1

8% NH 4 Cl Brine

 

1.0

-

230

Choke Open

2

Pre-Acid Pre-Flush (NH 4 Cl+Surfactant)

 

1.0

-

70

Choke Closed

3

Acid Pre-Flush

 

1.0

-

70

Choke Closed

4

OCA-HT

 

1.0

-

50

Choke Closed

5

Over Flush

 

1.0

-

50

Choke Closed

6

Over Flush

 

0.7

400

20

Choke Closed

 

Nitrogen Kick Off

 

Table-2: Well ‘X’ Acid Stimulation Design

Well ‘X’ Pre & Post Stimulation Production Comparison

 
 

Gas Rate

FWHP

Choke

CGR

WGR

Comments

(MMscfd)

(psi)

(%)

(bbls/MMscf)

(bbls/MMscf)

Pre-Stimulation (October 15, 2012)

5.97

314

100

4.9

13.4

With WHC

Post-Stimulation (October 20, 2012)

9.58

942

100

4.2

15.2

Without WHC

Post-Stimulation (November 04, 2012)

11.80

811

100

5.5

12.4

With WHC

(July 28, 2013)

7.52

404

100

3.3

26.1

With WHC

Table-3: Well ‘X’ Pre & Post Stimulation Production Comparison

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Figures

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Figure-1: Well ‘X’ Final Profile

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Figure-2: Well ‘X’ Pre-Stimulation Production Profile

Well ‘A’ Well ‘B’ Well ‘X’
Well ‘A’
Well ‘B’
Well ‘X’

Figure-3: Well Corelations (Well X, A & B)

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Figure-4: Well ‘X’ Petrographic Composition and Texture

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Figure-5: Well ‘X’ XRD Summary

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. 8 SPE 168168 Figure-6: Well ‘B’ Petrographic Composition and Texture The image cannot be displayed. Your

Figure-6: Well ‘B’ Petrographic Composition and Texture

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. and then insert it again. Figure-6: Well ‘B’ Petrographic Composition and Texture Figure-7: Well ‘B’ XRD

Figure-7: Well ‘B’ XRD Summary

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. SPE 168168 9 Figure-8: Core Plugs from Well ‘B’ for Core Flow Test The image cannot

Figure-8: Core Plugs from Well ‘B’ for Core Flow Test

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Figure-8: Core Plugs from Well ‘B’ for Core Flow Test Figure-9: Core Flow Test Resutls Performed

Figure-9: Core Flow Test Resutls Performed on Well ‘B’ Core Plug # 31

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The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location. 10 SPE 168168 Figure-10: V-Lab Simulation (Skin = 16, Damage Radius = 3.5 ft, Treatment Volume

Figure-10: V-Lab Simulation (Skin = 16, Damage Radius = 3.5 ft, Treatment Volume = 80 gal/ft)

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. = 16, Damage Radius = 3.5 ft, Treatment Volume = 80 gal/ft) Figure-11: V-Lab Simulation (Skin

Figure-11: V-Lab Simulation (Skin = 16, Damage Radius = 1.0 ft, Treatment Volume = 80 gal/ft)

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The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location. Un-Treated Perforations

Un-Treated Perforations
Un-Treated
Perforations

Figure-12: StimCADE Radial Penetration Plot (Pre-Acid Pre-Flush = 70 bbls, Acid Pre-Flush = 70 bbls, Main Treatment Fluid = 50 bbls, Over-Flush = 70 bbls)

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. bbls, Main Treatment Fluid = 50 bbls, Over-Flush = 70 bbls) Figure-13: Well ‘X’ Pre &

Figure-13: Well ‘X’ Pre & Post Stimulation Production Profile (Zoomed)